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Sample records for wineland nature london

  1. The 2012 Nobel Prize in physics and David Wineland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, Um; Kihwan, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to David Wineland, together with Serge Haroche. David Wineland received the prize for ground-breaking experimental methods that enabled the measurement and manipulation of individual quantum systems, especially systems with trapped ions. He improved a trapped ion system and opened a new quantum world leading to quantum computation. He also realized optical atomic ion clocks with unprecedented precision through his experimental research. This article briefly reviews the history of trapped ion systems, the development of trapped-ion based quantum computation, and the development of the atomic ion clock, which are closely related to Wineland's achievements. (authors)

  2. Fritz London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  3. Sherborn's foraminiferal studies and their influence on the collections at the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C Giles

    2016-01-01

    Sherborn's work on the Foraminifera clearly provided the initial spark to compile the major indexes for which he is famous. Contact and help from famous early micropalaeontologists such as T. Rupert Jones and Fortescue William Millett led Sherborn to produce his Bibliography of Foraminifera and subsequently a two-part Index of Foraminiferal Genera and Species. Edward Heron-Allen, whose mentor was Millett, was subsequently inspired by the bibliography to attempt to acquire every publication listed. This remarkable collection of literature was donated to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1926 along with the foraminiferal collections Heron-Allen had mainly purchased from early micropalaeontologists. This donation forms the backbone of the current NHM micropalaeontological collections. The NHM collections contain a relatively small amount of foraminiferal material published by Sherborn from the London Clay, Kimmeridge Clay and Speeton Clay. Another smaller collection reflects his longer-term interest in the British Chalk following regular fieldwork with A. W. Rowe. Other collections relating to Sherborn's early published work, particularly with T. R. Jones, are not present in the collections but these collections may have been sold or deposited elsewhere by his co-workers.

  4. 'Drinking with respect': Drinking constructions of men who live in a Cape Winelands farm community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; Casper, Rozanne

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to provide a community-specific understanding of a subgroup of South African men who exhibit particularly high rates of hazardous alcohol consumption. Adopting a social constructionist framework, we interviewed 13 Cape Winelands men who lived on farms to explore their drinking constructions. We present three themes that shed light on problematic drinking in this group: (1) the notion of weekend binge-drinking as 'respectable' drinking, (2) drinking as shared activity that fulfils various psycho-social needs and (3) a sense of powerlessness to affect their own or their children's alcohol consumption. These findings are viewed against a specific socio-historical backdrop.

  5. London, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  6. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbinato, D.

    1994-01-01

    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  7. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris

  8. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen

    2007-01-01

    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  9. Kommunisme i London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Nielsen, Kasper Porsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Begrebet ”kommunisme” var på dagsordenen, da over 800 mennesker mødtes i Birkbeck University College i London, den 13.-15. marts, 2009. En perlerække af talere var inviteret: Alain Badiou, Michael Hardt, Bruno Bosteels, Peter Hallward, Allesandro Russo, Alberto Toscano, Toni Negri, Terry Eagleton......, Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Gianni Vattimo og Judith Balso. Her følger en rapport fra begivenheden....

  10. Emergency procedures in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance and police) that would be involved in dealing with an accident to a nuclear fuel flask in transport through London, with special reference to procedures used by the Metropolitan Police; geographical area covered by Metropolitan Police; initiation of action; decision whether to evacuate the area of the accident; examples of action taken to deal with non-radiation accidents (in absence of any example of relevant radiation accident); specific instructions, or advice, to police relating to the movement of irradiated fuel; training exercises. (U.K.)

  11. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  12. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  13. The Making of London Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Den følgende tekst består af to dele. Begge dele omhandler workshoppen The Making of London Narratives, der var et undervisningsforløb for 52 studerende fra Arkitektskolen Aarhus og School of Architecture and the Visual Arts University of East London. I den første del perspektiveres workshoppens...

  14. London International Youth Science Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  15. Further observations on London fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, R E; Lawther, P J

    1957-01-01

    The degree of illness in a group of people with bonchitis or emphysema residing in London during the winter of 1955--56 was monitored by personal diary methods. Concentration of smoke was related to degree of illness, with rapid response at onset and slow recovery. Wet fogs were no worse than dry ones.

  16. London´s erotic masterpiece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerchlango, Jørg

    2004-01-01

    Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork......Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork...

  17. Classification guide: Paralympic Games London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The London 2012 Paralympic Games Classification Guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Paralympic Sport Federations (IPSFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  18. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  19. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    microg/m3) and of PM with an aerodynamic diameter content of ambient PM10 and PM2.5. The resulting baseline PM data set was the first to describe, in detail, the oxidative potential and metal content of the PM10 and PM2.5 of a major city's airshed. PM in London has considerable oxidative potential; clear differences in this measure were found from site to site, with evidence that the oxidative potential of both PM10 and PM2.5 at roadside monitoring sites was higher than at urban background locations. In the PM10 samples this increased oxidative activity appeared to be associated with increased concentrations of copper (Cu), barium (Ba), and bathophenanthroline disulfonate-mobilized iron (BPS Fe) in the roadside samples. In the PM2.5 samples, no simple association could be seen, suggesting that other unmeasured components were driving the increased oxidative potential in this fraction of the roadside samples. These data suggest that two components were contributing to the oxidative potential of roadside PM, namely Cu and BPS Fe in the coarse fraction of PM (PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm to 10 microm; PM(2.5-10)) and an unidentified redox catalyst in PM2.5. The data derived for this baseline study confirmed key observations from a more limited spatial mapping exercise published in our earlier HEI report on the introduction of the London's Congestion Charging Scheme (CCS) in 2003 (Kelly et al. 2011a,b). In addition, the data set in the current report provided robust baseline information on the oxidative potential and metal content of PM found in the London airshed in the period before implementation of the LEZ; the finding that a proportion of the oxidative potential appears in the PM coarse mode and is apparently related to brake wear raises important issues regarding the nature of traffic management schemes. The final goal of this baseline study was to establish the feasibility, in ethical and operational terms, of using the U.K.'s electronic primary

  20. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  1. Embodied Protest in Occupy London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Reinecke, Juliane

    In this paper we discuss the relation of embodied protest and public space in Occupy London. We draw on Agamben’s notion of the homo sacer – the excluded included life embodied by the figure of the homeless, refugee and so forth – to analyze how in protest camps embodied protest relates...... with the general public and media. Particularly, tensions became manifest as the homines sacri of the homeless people joined the camp. We discuss the implications of Agamben’s biopolitical insights for the relation of resistance, public space and community building in protest movements....... sacri – “bare life” challenging sovereign power. Yet, we also show how protesters struggled to navigate tensions between representing such “bare life” of the homo sacer and the biopolitical body. This lead not only to various difficulties in building protest community but also in the interactions...

  2. Origins and properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy W; Bothamley, Graham H; Drobniewski, Francis; Gillespie, Stephen H; McHugh, Timothy D; Pitman, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Using similarities of IS6110 banding patterns, isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a population-based study in London were assigned to 12 large groups termed 'superfamilies' (sfams). Analysis of patient data showed a marked geographical association in the distribution of these sfams. In particular, isolates from patients born in Europe were from different sfams than those born elsewhere, indicating that there had been relatively little transmission of tuberculosis in London from immigrant communities into the endogenous population. Multivariate analysis showed that certain sfams were significantly associated with pulmonary rather than extrapulmonary disease, or with sputum smear negativity, independently of country of birth or ethnicity, suggesting that the properties of the infecting organism play a role in the nature of the disease process.

  3. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  4. Case studies of transport for London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project was motivated by the election of Ken Livingston as Mayor of London in : 2000. Mayor Livingston campaigned on a platform of improving transportation service through : such innovative means as congestion pricing. Mayor Livingston relied on...

  5. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London-Olympic Park cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-10-28

    The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a 'natural experiment', provided by the building and rapid occupation of East Village. Findings from the study will be generalisable to

  6. CITY OF LONDON: THE SECRETS OF STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Belyaev

    2010-01-01

    Reasons why the City, oldest London global financial centre, keeps to hold up leading positions in the financial world, are thoroughly discussed. Initially, this phenomenon was explained by dominating position England held as world industrial power. However, the City has not lost its leadership over last decades when England economics suffered bad times. This is explained by traditions, by the history as well as by specific position London holds as place where «business is made» as well as by...

  7. The theatrical portrait in eighteenth century London

    OpenAIRE

    West, Shearer

    1986-01-01

    A theatrical portrait is an image of an actor or actors in character. This genre was widespread in eighteenth century London and was practised by a large number of painters and engravers of all levels of ability. The sources of the genre lay in a number of diverse styles of art, including the court portraits of Lely and Kneller and the fetes galantes of Watteau and Mercier. Three types of media for theatrical portraits were particularly prevalent in London, between c.1745...

  8. Towards a sociological analysis of London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, I focus on a number of productive scholarly avenues to which sociological analysis of London 2012 might want to attend. Understanding major sporting events - and thus the Olympic Games - as inextricably entangled with the media-industrial complex, I suggest London 2012 as a commodity spectacle that will emphasize gleaming aesthetics, a (sporting) city and nation collapsed into (simple) tourist images, and the presentation of a particular expression of self within the logi...

  9. Enhancing Resilience of London by Learning from Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience was introduced at the beginning of the 70s to indicate the capability of natural systems to absorb perturbations, preserving their structure and keeping the system functioning. The paper considers London as an example to a resilient city by focusing on some remarkable disasters in the history of London, such as the Great Fire of 1666, the air raids during the World War 2, 18 December 1987 Kings Cross Fire, terrorist attack to tube network on the 7th of July 2005, 1928 flooding and 1953 storm surge. The paper starts by giving short descriptions of these disasters and continues by discussing the lessons learned. In this paper, the concept of resilience has been studied in three phases: prepare for, respond to and recover from a disaster. Besides, actions that have to be taken according to these three phases are going to be explored in detail. In conclusion, the notable effects of the mentioned disasters on the structural and non-structural tools for disaster prevention have been revealed by considering resilience of London.

  10. The London polonium poisoning: Events and medical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 was an unprecedented event. Po-210 is a highly toxic radioactive heavy metal with a physical half-life of 138 days. Dispersal of the material by the perpetrators and the victim resulted in widespread contamination that led to a trail across London and abroad. This resulted in a massive operation for health protection staff and the police service. The surreptitious nature of this act almost escaped detection. The fact that the nature of the poison was not known for a number of weeks after admission to hospital indicates the difficulty in detecting alpha radiation. In this article, the sequence of events, the nature and uses of this radioactive element and the medical consequences of ingestion are outlined. The illicit use of radioactive materials raises important health and security issues. Medical and scientific staff in nuclear medicine and hospital emergency departments should be aware of these issues. (author)

  11. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  12. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauke, M.K.

    1983-05-01

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  13. Staging the orient in Aladdin: London - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    En sammenligning af John O'Keefes / Charles Farleys sceniske opsætning af Aladdin-eventyret fra Tusind og én nats eventyr i London (1813) med Adam Oehlenschlägers Aladdin-lystspil i København (1805). Artiklen diskuterer de to versioner af eventyrstykket som fortolkning og respons på to forskellige...

  14. Reading Samuel Selvon's The Lonely Londoners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    is represented when he says to Moses in confidence: 'Don't worry, I will get fix up as .... of the immigrants in London, these are the things they strive .... cultures could be done, a task one can argue he sets out to do and reconcile in his novel.

  15. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. T...

  16. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  17. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.

  18. Management of response to the polonium-210 incident in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, John; Bailey, Michael; Tattersall, Phil; Morrey, Mary; McColl, Neil; Prosser, Lesley; Maguire, Helen; Fraser, Graham; Gross, Roger

    2008-01-01

    On the 23 November 2006, Alexander Litvinenko died in London allegedly from poisoning by 210 Po, an alpha particle emitter. The spread of radioactive contamination, arising from the poisoning and the events leading up to it, involved many locations in London. The potential for intakes of 210 Po arising from the contamination posed a public health risk and generated significant public concern. The scale of the event required a multi-agency response, including top level UK Government emergency response management arrangements. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) had a leading role in co-ordinating and managing the public health response. This paper reviews the management of the incident response and the issues involved. The fatal poisoning of Mr Litvinenko with 210 Po, and the associated public health hazard from the spread of contamination to many locations across London, was an unprecedented event. Fortunately, no one else is known to have suffered any acute effects. Results from the programme of individual monitoring showed that whilst more than 100 people had measurable intakes of 210 Po, only 17 had assessed doses in excess of 6 mSv. The highest dose of about 100 mSv gives rise to an increased risk of fatal cancer of about 0.5%, compared with the natural incidence of about 25%. The incident required a co-ordinated and sustained multi-agency emergency response. The Health Protection Agency, as the lead on public health matters played a significant role in this. Whilst inevitably some lessons have been identified, the response is considered to have been very effective and to have benefited from the wide spectrum of experience and expertise developed through normal work, together with the effort put into emergency preparedness and the various emergency response. (author)

  19. Launch of the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeppli, Gabriel; Pankhurst, Quentin

    2006-12-01

    Is nanomedicine an area with the promise that its proponents claim? Professors Gabriel Aeppli and Quentin Pankhurst explore the issues in light of the new London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN)--a joint enterprise between Imperial College and University College London--opened on November 7, 2006. The center is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to bridge the physical, engineering and biomedical sciences. In this interview, Professor Gabriel Aeppli, LCN co-Director, and Deputy Director Professor Quentin Pankhurst discuss the advent and future role of the LCN with Nanomedicine's Morag Robertson. Professor Aeppli was formerly with NEC, Bell Laboratories and MIT and has more than 15 years' experience in the computer and telecommunications industry. Professor Pankhurst is a physicist with more than 20 years' experience of working with magnetic materials and nanoparticles, who now works closely with clinicians and medics on innovative healthcare applications. He also recently formed the new start-up company Endomagnetics Inc.

  20. Kingsnorth-London dc transmission link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-11

    The hvdc transmission link between one of the 500 MW generators at Kingsnorth Power Station and two receiving stations in London will use a three-wire dc cable system rated to carry 1200 A at +- 266 kV. This 51-mile system will be the first dc link in the world to be used as an integral part of a complex interconnected ac network.

  1. Political opposition in patriarchal East London

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban administration. Patriarchalism, as a system, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuan...

  2. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  3. London limit for lattice model of superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktitorov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenological approach to the strong-bond superconductor, which is based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation in the London limit, is considered. The effect of the crystalline lattice discreteness on the superconductors electromagnetic properties is studied. The classic problems on the critical current and magnetic field penetration are studied within the frames of the lattice model for thin superconducting films. The dependence of the superconducting current on the thin film order parameter is obtained. The critical current dependence on the degree of deviation from the continual approximation is calculated [ru

  4. London-type congestion tax with revenue-recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Kidokoro

    2005-01-01

    Road pricing in London attracts a great deal of interest. A challenging aspect of the London scheme is that congestion tax revenue is used to upgrade public transit networks. Although Parry and Bento (2001) show that the total social surplus would increase if congestion tax revenues are used to cut labor taxes, political difficulties exist in implementing revenue-recycling between congestion taxes and labor taxes. Given such political difficulties, the London scheme seems to be very attractiv...

  5. London SPAN version 4 parameter file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised trading system. Powernext SA collaborates with the clearing organization LCH.Clearnet SA to secure and facilitate the transactions. The French Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk (SPAN) is a system used by LCH.Clearnet to calculate the initial margins from and for its clearing members. SPAN is a computerized system which calculates the impact of several possible variations of rates and volatility on by-product portfolios. The initial margin call is equal to the maximum probable loss calculated by the system. This document contains details of the format of the London SPAN version 4 parameter file. This file contains all the parameters and risk arrays required to calculate SPAN margins. London SPAN Version 4 is an upgrade from Version 3, which is also known as LME SPAN. This document contains the full revised file specification, highlighting the changes from Version 3 to Version 4

  6. The epidemiology of injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn; Blauwet, Cheri A; Pit-Grosheide, Pia; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Patino Marques, Norma Angelica; Martinez-Ferrer, J Oriol; Jordaan, Esmè; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics and incidence of injuries at the Summer Paralympic Games have not previously been reported. A better understanding of injuries improves the medical care of athletes and informs future injury prevention strategies. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterise the incidence and nature of injuries during the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury information was obtained from two databases. One database was populated from medical encounter forms completed by providers at the time of assessment in one of the medical stations operated by the Organising Committee. The second database was populated daily with information provided by team medical personnel who completed a comprehensive, web-based injury survey. The overall injury incidence rate was 12.7 injuries/1000 athlete-days. Injury rates were similar in male and female athletes. The precompetition injury rates in women were higher than those in the competition period. Higher injury rates were found in older athletes and certain sports such as football 5-a-side (22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days). Overall, 51.5% of injuries were new onset acute traumatic injuries. The most commonly injured region (percentage of all injuries) was the shoulder (17.7%), followed by the wrist/hand (11.4%), elbow (8.8%) and knee (7.9%). This is the largest and most comprehensive epidemiological report examining injuries in Paralympic athletes. Injury rates differ according to age and sport. Upper limb injuries are common. The knowledge gained from this study will inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies in Paralympic sport. The Epidemiology of Injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  7. The Great London Smog of 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    : The Great London Smog of December 1952 lasted five days and killed up to 12,000 people. The smog developed primarily because of extensive burning of high-sulfur coal. The health effects were both immediate and long lasting, with a recent study revealing an increased likelihood of childhood asthma development in those exposed to the Great Smog while in utero or during their first year of life. Subsequent pollution legislation-including the U.S. Clean Air Act and its amendments-have demonstrably reduced air pollution and positively impacted health outcomes. With poor air quality events like the Great Smog continuing to occur today, nurses need to be aware of the impact such environmental disasters can have on human health.

  8. Bronchitis: sickness absence in London Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, C J; Raffle, P A.B.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of records of bronchitis morbidity of 4 days or more among 60,000 male London Transport employees for the years 1952 to 1956 is discussed. Bronchitis morbidity accounted for about 10% of the absences, similar to that for the country as a whole. Annual inception rate increased with age after age 45; average length of spell increased with age over the whole age range. Absence from bronchitis broadly correlated with foggy periods (Dec, 52; Jan, 56), more so with city workers. Higher rates exist in north sectors where pollution is higher (south wind), and there is more industry and a higher population density. Lower rates exist among country workers. 20 to 25% of bronchitis morbidity can be ascribed to air pollution when country and city workers are compared.

  9. Leading increasingly linguistically diverse London schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mehmedbegović

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging with bilingual parents, students and teachers with little awareness of the benefits of bilingualism has initiated a search for factors resulting in the low value attached to certain types of bilingualism. Working on the hypothesis that prevalent practice is influenced more by attitudes to bilingualism rather than relevant research and pedagogical theory, this research focuses on attitudes. This small-scale qualitative study conducted with a group of London headteachers provides an insight into the attitudes to bilingualism and how they impact on policy and practice in schools with significant proportions of multilingual learners. It also raises the question if schools which claim to support multilingual students in realising their full potential can achieve that without including home languages as an integral part of learning.

  10. Constructing and Contesting City of London Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Andrew; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature on the City of London has tended to focus on its ‘structural power’, while neglecting political and narrative agency. This paper acts as a corrective by presenting evidence to show that since the financial crash of 2008 the political terrain the City operates on has become more...... contested, crowded and noisier. The contribution develops a middle course between a positive assessment of the role of civil society in relation to global finance, and a more pessimistic reading. We demonstrate how macro-narratives and public story-telling both construct and contest City and financial...... sector power. In a new pattern since the financial crash, NGOs have moved from campaigns of limited duration and narrow focus, to a more sustained presence on macro-structural issues. Adopting a supply–demand framework for assessing governance and regulatory change, we look at the emergence of TheCity...

  11. Sorption of radionuclides on London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1989-02-01

    Techniques for studying the sorption of radionuclides on London clay have been investigated. This work involved the use of through-diffusion, in-diffusion, high-pressure convection and batch methods to study the sorption of iodide, strontium, caesium and americium. Through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods were found to be most useful for investigating weakly and moderately sorbing nuclides and give realistic values for sorptivity. The batch technique remains the most practical method of obtaining large quantities of data within a relatively short timescale but gives very high sorptivity values. It is however very useful for intercomparisons of nuclides or geological media. The in-diffusion method requires further refinement for use with strongly sorbing nuclides. Good agreement between through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods was obtained for the sorptivity of strontium, whilst trends observed for caesium by through-diffusion were confirmed by batch measurements. (author)

  12. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  13. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  14. Art in wartime: The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M P; Park, R H R

    2011-06-01

    John Lavery's The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914 records a memorable event in the First World War. This painting and the archives of the Royal London Hospital provide a fascinating insight into the nursing and medical care of these early war casualties.

  15. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  16. Turner's prize[London transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrington, M.

    2000-10-26

    The article describes Ken Livingstone's plans for solving London's traffic problems: Derek Turner will be 'in charge of the capital's streets' but Livingstone will chair the board meetings. The radical new scheme will apply to both the Greater London Authority, its transport branch Transport for London (TfL) and 33 London Boroughs. Within TfL there is a core division called 'street management services' which has five area teams for day-to-day street management including road maintenance and street lighting. Other departments are communications, support services, traffic technology services, service development and performance, a London bus department and a department concentrating on congestion charging. There are plans to support pedestrians and cyclists but 'bus travel is really what it is all about'.

  17. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  18. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  19. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  20. Collider – the LHC in London

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders

    2013-01-01

    In November the London Science Museum will open a major new exhibition about the LHC. The project marks an ambitious new approach for the museum who will work with an eclectic design team that includes a video artist and a playwright. Both Olivier Award winners, they are more renowned for their work on stage and screen than inside museums.   Image courtesy of Science Museum / Nissen Richards Studio. The Science Museum team came to Geneva expecting to be blown away by the extraordinary physics and engineering at CERN and they weren’t disappointed. But what impressed them most was the people who made it all happen. Physicists of all kinds, restaurant staff, engineers, administrators, those working in transport and logistics, all had in common a passion for CERN and an enthusiasm for communicating their work. “What really struck us was how every single person mentioned the spirit of international collaboration and the importance of curiosity,” Alison Boyle told the ...

  1. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia

    PPARC, UK

    2006-01-01

    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  2. A Probabilistic Analysis of Surface Water Flood Risk in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Katie; Hall, Jim; Glenis, Vassilis; Kilsby, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall, often characterized by short duration and high-intensity events, is known as "surface water flooding." Analyzing surface water flood risk is complex as it requires understanding of biophysical and human factors, such as the localized scale and nature of heavy precipitation events, characteristics of the urban area affected (including detailed topography and drainage networks), and the spatial distribution of economic and social vulnerability. Climate change is recognized as having the potential to enhance the intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events. This study develops a methodology to link high spatial resolution probabilistic projections of hourly precipitation with detailed surface water flood depth maps and characterization of urban vulnerability to estimate surface water flood risk. It incorporates probabilistic information on the range of uncertainties in future precipitation in a changing climate. The method is applied to a case study of Greater London and highlights that both the frequency and spatial extent of surface water flood events are set to increase under future climate change. The expected annual damage from surface water flooding is estimated to be to be £171 million, £343 million, and £390 million/year under the baseline, 2030 high, and 2050 high climate change scenarios, respectively. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Idealism to Realism- Representing London in Black British Writing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... self denigration, exploitation and discrimination meted on them by the British as well as their feeling of alienation, cultural dislocation and their struggle for self ... adaptation through which these immigrants will make the best out of London ...

  4. A Little Known Utraquist Gradual in the British Library London

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 250-278 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * British library * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-11

    Jul 11, 2016 ... Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels. Andy Heyes ... strategy now looks to target middle-market consumers with reasonable ...... celebrities and high profiles from politics to corporate…whom are well ...

  6. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  7. Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Carlos; Larry Neal

    2011-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, Amsterdam and London developed distinctive innovations in finance through both banks and markets that facilitated the growth of trade in each city. In the eighteenth century, a symbiotic relation developed that led to bank-oriented finance in Amsterdam cooperating with market-oriented finance in London. The relationship that emerged allowed each to rise to unprecedented dominance in Europe, while the respective financial innovations in each city provided the means ...

  8. Eating fuet in London: From Autoethnography to Transnational Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rubio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available My own experience as a young Spanish migrant in London drove me to consider the importance that Spanish food has for emigrants and to consider its role within the community. This article presents food as a metaphor of the youth migration process to London during the economic crisis, and is based on three elements: how they construct their identity, their transition to adulthood and their condition as transmigrants.

  9. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  10. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  11. Spectator Consumer Behaviors at the 2012 London Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Ekmekci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Paralympics are the world’s second largest sporting event after the Olympics and continue to grow in popularity, there is little available research regarding spectators of sport competitions for disabled athletes. The purpose of this study was to profile spectators’ consumer behaviors in order to understand what factors explain spectators’ spending, length of stay, and attendance at the London Paralympic Games. Data was collected in a six-day period from a sample of 504 people present in London at three Paralympic sport facilities during the 2012 Paralympic Games. The results of the regression analyses revealed that nationality, attended contests, group size, having a connection with a Paralympic athlete, length of stay, gender and London Olympics’ spectators were significant determinants of Paralympics spectators’ spending in London. The data also indicated that spending, being from England (or not, gender, and being a friend/relative of a Paralympic athlete significantly affected spectators’ length of stay in London. Additionally, spectators’ attendance at the London Paralympic contests was predicted by spending, the size of the travel group, Beijing Paralympics’ spectators and age.

  12. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  13. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m 3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air

  14. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce

  15. Non-London electrodynamics in a multiband London model: Anisotropy-induced nonlocalities and multiple magnetic field penetration lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaev, Mihail; Winyard, Thomas; Babaev, Egor

    2018-05-01

    The London model describes strongly type-2 superconductors as massive vector field theories, where the magnetic field decays exponentially at the length scale of the London penetration length. This also holds for isotropic multiband extensions, where the presence of multiple bands merely renormalizes the London penetration length. We show that, by contrast, the magnetic properties of anisotropic multiband London models are not this simple, and the anisotropy leads to the interband phase differences becoming coupled to the magnetic field. This results in the magnetic field in such systems having N +1 penetration lengths, where N is the number of field components or bands. That is, in a given direction, the magnetic field decay is described by N +1 modes with different amplitudes and different decay length scales. For certain anisotropies we obtain magnetic modes with complex masses. That means that magnetic field decay is not described by a monotonic exponential increment set by a real penetration length but instead is oscillating. Some of the penetration lengths are shown to diverge away from the superconducting phase transition when the mass of the phase-difference mode vanishes. Finally the anisotropy-driven hybridization of the London mode with the Leggett modes can provide an effectively nonlocal magnetic response in the nominally local London model. Focusing on the two-component model, we discuss the magnetic field inversion that results from the effective nonlocality, both near the surface of the superconductor and around vortices. In the regime where the magnetic field decay becomes nonmonotonic, the multiband London superconductor is shown to form weakly-bound states of vortices.

  16. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  17. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  18. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  19. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  20. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belling Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1 To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2 To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3 To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10, lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13 representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8 and non-London network professionals (n = 2. Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed

  1. On the dynamic London-van der Waals interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.

    2003-08-01

    We present a theory of atomic reflection by evanescent waves in the quantized electromagnetic field vacuum that yields an analytical expression for the radiation pressure resulting from the combined effect of the evanescent field and spontaneous emission. The dynamic London-van der Waals potential between atoms and a dielectric wall is introduced as the effective interaction between the induced oscillating atomic dipole and its dipole image. Dissipative effects due to the imaginary part of the London-van der Waals potential are predicted. (author)

  2. Austerity Urbanism and Olympic Counter-legacies: Gendering, Defending and Expanding the Urban Commons in East London

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Tom; Hardy, Kate; Watt, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on an occupation led by single mothers to contest the destruction of social housing in post-Olympics East London. In the process, it argues for a more gendered theorisation of the urban commons. Drawing on auto-ethnography, participant observation and qualitative interviews, the article argues three central points: First, that the occupation demonstrates the gendered nature of the urban commons and the leadership of women in defending them from enclosure; second that the...

  3. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  4. The social impact of dizziness in London and Siena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Shetye, Anu; Silove, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    Although dizziness is a common presenting symptom in general and hospital practice, its social cost is not known. We assessed the social and work life impact of dizziness on patients in two contrasting European cities, Siena and London. First, we developed the 'Social life & Work Impact of Dizziness questionnaire' (SWID), which was validated by administering it to 43 patients with dizziness and 45 normal controls and by correlating the results with the EQ-5D (Europe quality of life) questionnaire. The SWID and EQ-5D scores were worse in patients than controls (p work as a result of the dizziness. Over 50% of patients felt that their efficiency at work had dropped considerably. The mean number of days off work attributed to the dizziness in the previous 6 months was 7.15 days. Social life was disrupted in 57% of all 400 patients. Factor analysis identified that detrimental effects on work, travel, social and family life combine to create a single factor accounting for much of the overall impact of their dizziness. Significant differences in some measures of handicap between London and Siena emerged, with London patients often faring worse. Reasons for these location differences include, as expected, a higher proportion of neurological patients in London than in Siena. However, factors related to city demographics and social cohesion may also modulate the impact on quality of life and working practice. Regardless of inter-city differences, these findings highlight the high social and economic impact of dizziness.

  5. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  6. A Community Approach to Youth Work in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Derek M.

    Instituted as part of "Avenues Unlimited" (The Tower Hamlets Youth Project), a community development approach to youth services was attempted in the cosmopolitan inner city slum district of Spitalfields, East London. Efforts began in 1966 with a clean up campaign, a neighborhood club for parents and youth, and other activities by the…

  7. Case Study: North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky, opened in Fall 1992, students and teachers entered a new facility and a new era of commitment to excellence for all students. In Spring 1993, North Laurel joined the Southern Regional Education Board's High Schools That Work initiative. The new school replaced the general track and raised graduation…

  8. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  9. Wealth, health and frailty in industrial-era London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N; Hughes-Morey, Gail; Bekvalac, Jelena; Karsten, Jordan

    2016-05-01

    Socioeconomic status is a powerful predictor of mortality in living populations, as status affects exposure or access to a variety of factors that impact health and survival, such as diet, healthcare, infectious disease and pollution. This study examines the effect of socioeconomic status on mortality and survival in London during a period spanning the early 18th through mid-19th centuries. During this period, London experienced rapid industrialization and heightened class distinctions. This study examines whether low-socioeconomic status was associated with reduced survival at a time when the distinctions between social strata were peaking. The samples for this study are drawn from three skeletal assemblages in London that represent lower and higher social strata. The upper socioeconomic status sample (n = 394) is from Chelsea Old Church and St Bride's Fleet Street (crypt assemblage). The low socioeconomic status sample (n = 474) is from St. Bride's Lower Churchyard (also known as St Bride's Farringdon Street). The effect of status on mortality and survival is assessed using hazard analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis. The results reveal elevated mortality and reduced survival for lower socioeconomic status children, but no strong effect of status on adult mortality or survival. These results might indicate strong selective mortality operating during childhood or the effects of migration in the industrial-era population of London.

  10. Iain Sinclair: Noise, Neoliberalism and the Matter of London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.

    2015-01-01

    For much of the 20th century the modernist city was articulated in terms of narratives of progress and development. Today the neoliberal city confronts us with all the cultural 'noise' of disorder and excess meaning. As this book demonstrates, for more than 40 years London-based writer, film-maker

  11. JACK LONDON ETNÓLOGO AMATEUR DEL PUGILISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  12. London tõukas New Yorgi troonilt / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma finantskeskuste indeksi järgi on London tõuganud New Yorgi teisele kohale, neile järgnevad Hongkong, Singapur ja Zürich. Vt. samas: IPOd on USAs kokku kuivanud. Tabel: Londoni börsile tuli mullu rohkem firmasid

  13. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox - Boulton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573),

  14. Skin Colour Awareness and Preference in London Nursery School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishley, Jenny

    1971-01-01

    Study focuses on children aged 3 to 5 years from 3 London areas. Contrary to expectation, awareness of differences in skin color was not a simple function of age and contact with colored children and adults; no clear evidence of prejudiced thinking was found in the subjects studied. (RJ)

  15. Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration : KYTC—Roundabout Installation Project in London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This document serves as the final report on the construction and opening of the Roundabout Project in London, Kentucky (Kentucky Item Number 11904.1). This project (hereafter referred to as the London Roundabout) was constructed on the authority o...

  16. Royal london hospital set P28 plans 30th anniversary reunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Fran

    2013-04-03

    Members of Set P28 at the Royal London Hospital who began their training in February 1980 are planning a reunion on July 27 in London. The venue will be announced later. Email fran-joy@hotmail.com for details.

  17. The district nursing and community matron services workforce: A scoping review in South London for the South London Nursing Network

    OpenAIRE

    Drennan, Vari

    2014-01-01

    This report presents both an overview of the issues influencing district nursing and community matron \\ud workforces and also a scoping of key issues in respect of workforce development in district nursing and\\ud community matron services in South London

  18. Dark London: Dimensions and characteristics of dark tourism supply in the UK capital

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Raymond; Iankova, Katia

    2016-01-01

    This paper will investigate the characteristics of the supply of dark tourism in London, UK through an examination of the identified main dark sites in London, UK. Our methodology is based on web analysis of the presence of marketed and non-marketed dark tourist sites in London, their web visitation, the level of their commercialisation and the characteristics which place them in the various scales as categorised in current literature, notably Stone (2006). We identified that London offers a ...

  19. The Royal Entries of Henry VI in a London Civic Manuscript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourassa, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    London Metropolitan Archives, MS Letter Book K, contains descriptions of Henry VI’s royal entries into both Paris (1431) and London (1432). Their placement one after the other in a London Letter Book was likely the work of the city’s common clerk, John Carpenter, who was the author of the descrip...

  20. The civilizing process in London's Old Bailey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenstein, Sara; Hitchcock, Tim; DeDeo, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The jury trial is a critical point where the state and its citizens come together to define the limits of acceptable behavior. Here we present a large-scale quantitative analysis of trial transcripts from the Old Bailey that reveal a major transition in the nature of this defining moment. By coarse-graining the spoken word testimony into synonym sets and dividing the trials based on indictment, we demonstrate the emergence of semantically distinct violent and nonviolent trial genres. We show that although in the late 18th century the semantic content of trials for violent offenses is functionally indistinguishable from that for nonviolent ones, a long-term, secular trend drives the system toward increasingly clear distinctions between violent and nonviolent acts. We separate this process into the shifting patterns that drive it, determine the relative effects of bureaucratic change and broader cultural shifts, and identify the synonym sets most responsible for the eventual genre distinguishability. This work provides a new window onto the cultural and institutional changes that accompany the monopolization of violence by the state, described in qualitative historical analysis as the civilizing process.

  1. Radiation poisoning with Po-210 in London: The medical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The death of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 has elevated the prospect of a deliberate radiation poisoning from a theoretical possibility to a reality. This was an unprecedented event in the UK. Poison that was certainly not the work of an amateur assassin was found, and it is possible that there have been previous killings of this nature outside the UK. Po-210 is a highly toxic radioactive heavy metal with a half-life of 138 days that decays, giving off 5.3MeV alpha particles having a range of 40-50mm in tissue. The poison was probably administered in a small volume of liquid or as a solid powder added to food or drink. Dispersal of the material resulted in widespread contamination that was detected across London and on British Airways' flights to the east. Following the event, the main task of the UK Health Protection Agency was of contamination monitoring and reassurance of the general public. With many researchers now investigating the use of targeted alpha therapy, this incident has highlighted the possible effects from the uptake of alpha emitters into the sensitive normal tissues. On reaching the bloodstream, Po- 210 is rapidly deposited in major organs and tissues including the liver, kidneys and bone marrow. The intense alpha radiation within these tissues would result in massive destruction of cells, leading to a rapid decline in health. It has been concluded that ingestion of 1-3 GBq or greater of Po-210 is likely to result in death within a few weeks, assuming there is 10% absorption to blood. Anyone receiving such doses would show symptoms of acute radiation sickness syndrome, with death resulting from multiple organ failure. Remedial medical treatment strategies would be unsuccessful within a few hours of ingestion, once significant amounts of Po-210 had entered the blood stream and deposited in tissues. The surreptitious nature of this act almost escaped detection. The fact that the nature of the poison was not known until the

  2. "Mothering through Islam": Narratives of Religious Identity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.

  3. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London—Olympic Park cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Participants Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Findings to date Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. Future plans The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a ‘natural experiment’, provided by the building and rapid occupation of East

  4. Requirements of the London Convention for dumping radioactive waste at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, H.C.

    1982-10-01

    This report outlines the requirements of the London Convention for dumping radioactive waste at sea and considers their scientific basis more fully. It is intended primarily as an appraisal and aid to understanding of the two documents IAEA 210 and IAEA 211, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and relating to the oceanographic and radiobiological basis of their definitions of high level waste and recommendations relating to its dumping at sea, which were required for London Convention purposes. The adequacy and conservation in these recommendations are considered, and the report also compares the predictions of the model on which the recommendations are based with some limited but relevant observations on radiation doses resulting from natural causes (radium in the sea), and from fallout from nuclear bomb tests. It is concluded that if dumping is carried out within the limits and according to the recommendations required by the IAEA, then it is extremely unlikely that this could lead to significant human hazard, either now or in the future. Some of the reasons for this conclusion are summarised in the final chapter

  5. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community.

  6. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare Family Archive of Walter de la Mare's Printed Oeuvre at Senate House Library, University of London, as an example of a modern author collections in an institutiona...

  7. A London shop window for PPARC industry partnership successes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neale, R

    2002-01-01

    The UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council recently held a seminar in London to reveal the results of the impressive work they are doing in fostering partnerships between science and industry. They have many different types of funded programmes, the purpose of all of them is to encourage industry and entrepreneurs to both benefit from and service the requirements of particle physics science and technology (1 page).

  8. The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, University of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, E H

    1995-01-01

    The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, London has arisen from need and from opportunity. The need is due to the relative neglect nationally and internationally of the most common serious brain disorder with important physical, psychological, and social complications. The relative neglect is reflected in services, research, charitable donations, public profile, and stigma and in a serious lack of professional education. The opportunity arose because of the existence in several medical institutions at Denmark Hill, London, of a group of medical and related colleagues with a special interest covering almost every aspect of this multidisciplinary disorder who agreed to combine their expertise in this initiative. The idea was born and developed in 1991-1992 and was supported by all the parent institutions: The Maudsley and King's College Hospitals, St. Piers Lingfield, The Institute of Psychiatry, King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry, and the School of Life, Basic Medical and Health Sciences, all under the umbrella of King's College, University of London. Further stimulus and help came from a group of dedicated supporters in private and public life. There are three strands to this initiative: (a) a charity, The Fund for Epilepsy; (b) the clinical Centre for Epilepsy, which was formally opened at the Maudsley Hospital in July 1994; and (c) the academic Institute of Epileptology for research and teaching, which was launched on November 15, 1994.

  9. Determining the suitability of materials for disposal at sea under the London Convention 1972: A radiological assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) prohibits the disposal at sea of radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter. However natural radionuclides are present in all materials, including natural and inert materials, which can also contain artificial radionuclides from anthropogenic sources such as fallout due to past atmospheric nuclear testing. Therefore, the Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 recognized the need to develop definitions and guidelines so that candidate materials (those wastes or other matter not otherwise prohibited from disposal at sea in accordance with Annex I to the Convention) containing less than de minimis levels of specific activity, can be regarded as 'non-radioactive' and may be disposed of at sea subject to the other provisions of the Convention. At the Nineteenth Consultative Meeting in 1997, Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 agreed to request the IAEA to develop further the concept of de minimis levels and, in particular, to 'provide guidance for making judgements on whether materials planned to be dumped could be exempted from radiological control or whether a specific assessment was needed' (LC 19/10, paragraph 6.31). This paragraph continues: 'The IAEA would then further be requested to provide guidance to national authorities responsible for conducting specific assessments.' The IAEA presented its advice on de minimis in IAEA-TECDOC-1068, entitled Application of Radiological Exclusion and Exemption Principles to Sea Disposal, to the Twenty-first Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 in October 1999. The Contracting Parties accepted these principles and criteria and interpreted them further in the Guidelines for the Application of the De Minimis Concept Under the London Convention 1972 (the Guidelines). At that time, the Contracting Parties asked the IAEA to prepare additional guidance

  10. 'A place for men to come and do their thing': constructing masculinities in betting shops in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    During fieldwork conducted with workers and customers in betting shops in London research participants consistently conceptualized betting shops as masculine spaces in contrast to the femininity of other places including home and the bingo hall. According to this argument, betting on horses and dogs was 'men's business' and betting shops were 'men's worlds'. Two explanations were offered to account for this situation. The first suggested that betting was traditionally a pastime enjoyed by men rather than women. The second was that betting is intrinsically more appealing to men because it is based on calculation and measurement, and women prefer more intuitive, simpler challenges. I use interviews with older people to describe how the legalisation of betting in cash in 1961 changed the geography of betting. I then draw upon interviews with regular customers in order to show how knowledge about betting is shared within rather than between genders. Finally, I use my experience of training and working as a cashier to describe how the particular hegemonic masculinity found in betting shops in London is maintained through myriad everyday practices which reward certain kinds of gendered performances while at the same time suppressing alternatives. The article shows how particular spaces may become gendered as an unanticipated consequence of legislation and how contingent gendered associations are both naturalized and, at the same time, subjected to intense attention. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  11. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  12. Conference Scene: Summary report from EAACI: London 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, Matthias; Bufe, Albrecht

    2010-09-01

    Immunotherapy is, to date, the only effective curative method for the treatment of allergic disorders. Great efforts have been made to improve the efficacy, safety and patient compliance with this method. The growing understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying immunotherapy has led to new approaches for immunotherapy involving the routes of administration and the kinds of molecules used. In addition, new vaccines are being created that combine the advantageous immunological charasteristics of different substances, such as virus-like particles linked to allergens. Many new results from ongoing research into these topics were presented at the 29th congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in London.

  13. Mothering through Islam: narratives of religious identity in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Louise; Vacchelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgrounds in London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations of Islamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particular the paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of and give meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest that the women use Islam in four key ways: (i) as a framework for teaching their children right and wrong, (ii) as a...

  14. Testing Efficiency of the London Metal Exchange: New Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehwan Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the market efficiency of the six base metals traded on the LME (London Metal Exchange using daily data from January 2000 to June 2016. The hypothesis that futures prices 3M (3-month are unbiased predictors of spot prices (cash in the LME is rejected based on the false premise that the financialization of commodities has been growing. For the robustness check, monthly data is analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS and GARCH (1,1 models. We reject the null hypothesis for all metals except for zinc.

  15. Regeneralized London free energy for high-Tc vortex lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shahzamanian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The London free-energy is regeneralized by the Ginsburg-Landau free-energy density in the presence of both d and s order parameters. We have shown that the strength of the s-d coupling, makes an important rule to determine the form of the lattice vortex. Appearance of the ratios of the coherence length to penetration depth in the higher order corrections of the free-energy density will truncate these corrections for even large values of .

  16. Contrasting VOC Composition in London, UK and Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, R.; Hopkins, J. R.; Shaw, M.; Squires, F. A.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Hamilton, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing fraction of the world's population now living in megacities, urban air quality in those locations has the potential to be one of the largest controllable factors for public health. Both London and Beijing are classified as megacities, with the latter almost twice as densely populated. The key drivers and trajectory of air pollution are unique to each location; London has substantially reduced PM10 concentrations over the past two decades but continues to have high urban NO2. Beijing has had well-reported high levels of PM, is now in a phase of gradual decline, and has proportionately low NO2. Both locations however, continue to emit a mix of gas phase pollutants with the potential to form photochemical ozone. Whilst the abundance of NOx in each city is relatively straightforward to quantify, the VOC mixtures that are present differ between these two cities and this has consequential impacts on the downwind ozone formation potential. This work reports a comprehensive assessment of VOC speciation, reactivity and abundance in the two cities using a common set of inter-comparable measurement approaches. Hourly observations of VOCs over the range C2 - C13+ were made using two gas chromatography (GC) instruments; a PLOT column based GC for the most volatile fraction (C2-C7) and a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) for VOCs with more than 7 carbons. London has atmospheric VOC concentrations that in mass and reactivity terms are dominated by longer chain VOCs from diesel fuel. The VOC mixture in ambient Beijing air is dominated by short chain VOCs, a mix of both alkenes from incomplete combustion sources and alkanes and aromatics from petrochemical sources. The substantial difference in the fleet proportions of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles between the two cities is clearly reflected in ambient VOCs. In summertime, isoprene was a notable contributor to VOC reactivity in both cities despite both being highly urbanised locations. The absolute

  17. Sex Trafficking and State Intervention: Conflicts and Contradictions during the 2012 London Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Jelbert, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the British human trafficking prevention policies adopted for the 2012 London Olympics using mixed methods including participation-observation, qualitative interviews, theoretical analysis and policy evaluation. I was invited to observe the Human Trafficking Network and London 2012, the Mayor of London’s official response to the claim that human trafficking would increase at the London Olympics. My presence enabled me to witness first-hand the key policy debates su...

  18. Carbon Capture and Storage and the London Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects will be required by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to contribute fully to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. For CCS to reach its emissions reduction potential, the 2009 IEA publication Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage recommends that international legal obstacles associated with global CCS deployment be removed by 2012 -- including the prohibition on transboundary CO2 transfer under the London Protocol. The London Protocol was amended by contracting parties in 2009 to allow for cross-border transportation of CO2 for sub-seabed storage, but the amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of contracting parties to enter into force. It is unlikely that this will occur in the near term; this working paper therefore outlines options that may be available to contracting parties under international law to address the barrier to deployment presented by Article 6, pending formal entry into force of the 2009 amendment.

  19. The Competition between London Companies Regarding Their Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a high level of competition between companies and the final result is often measured by their financial performance. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the financial performance of a sample of companies from London. Statistical analysis is performed of 293 companies randomly selected from the population of firms resident in London, the economic indicators being registered for 2014. The main results indicated that most of the variation in financial performance is explained by the book-to-market ratio and cash-to-assets ratio. On the other hand, financial performance is also explained by cash flow and leverage. Most of the firms that were placed in the same group had a successful financial performance in 2014. Few companies located in the other cluster encountered some difficulties regarding cash flow and sales. This situation could be explained by the difficulties of facing the economic crisis. Thus the financial performance evaluation is useful in improving a firm’s financial indicators in order to achieve a higher profit. The diagnosis will help managers in taking the most suitable decisions to solve the financial problems by selecting the best strategies.

  20. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base

  1. Change in Urban Albedo in London: A Multi-scale Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, T.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization-induced change in land use has considerable implications for climate, air quality, resources and ecosystems. Urban-induced warming is one of the most well-known impacts. This directly and indirectly can extend beyond the city. One way to reduce the size of this is to modify the surface atmosphere exchanges through changing the urban albedo. As increased rugosity caused by the morphology of a city results in lower albedo with constant material characteristics, the impacts of changing the albedo has impacts across a range of scales. Here a multi-scale assessment of the potential effects of the increase in albedo in London is presented. This includes modeling at the global and meso-scale informed by local and micro-scale measurements. In this study the first order calculations are conducted for the impact of changing the albedo (e.g. a 0.01 increase) on the radiative exchange. For example, when incoming solar radiation and cloud cover are considered, based on data retrieved from NASA (http://power.larc.nasa.gov/) for ~1600 km2 area of London, would produce a mean decrease in the instantaneous solar radiative forcing on the same surface of 0.40 W m-2. The nature of the surface is critical in terms of considering the impact of changes in albedo. For example, in the Central Activity Zone in London pavement and building can vary from 10 to 100% of the plan area. From observations the albedo is seen to change dramatically with changes in building materials. For example, glass surfaces which are being used increasingly in the central business district results in dramatic changes in albedo. Using the documented albedo variations determined across different scales the impacts are considered. For example, the effect of the increase in urban albedo is translated into the corresponding amount of avoided emission of carbon dioxide that produces the same effect on climate. At local scale, the effect that the increase in urban albedo can potentially have on local

  2. Rickets in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: some new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail

    2009-05-01

    In 1889, when Dr John Bland-Sutton, a prominent surgeon in London, England, was consulted concerning fatal rickets in more than 20 successive litters of lion cubs at the London Zoo, he evaluated the role of diet relative to the development of rickets. He prescribed goat meat and bones and cod-liver oil to be added to the lean horse-meat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets reversed, the cubs survived, and litters were reared successfully. In classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats 3 decades later, the crucial role of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D in both prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Later studies led to the identification of the structural features of vitamin D. Although the Bland-Sutton interventional diet obviously provides calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamin D from cod-liver oil, other benefits of this diet were not initially recognized. Chewing bones promotes tooth and gum health and removes bacteria-laden tartar. Cod-liver oil also contains vitamin A, which is essential for the prevention of infection and for epithelial cell health. Taurine-conjugated bile salts are also necessary for the intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including A and D. Moreover, unlike dogs and rats, all feline species are unable to synthesize taurine yet can only conjugate bile acids with taurine. This sulfur-containing beta-amino acid must be provided in the carnivorous diet of a large cat. Taurine-conjugated bile salts were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver. The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," namely, fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by the addition of minerals and vitamin D. However, gum health and the presence of taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamin A and D, the latter promoting the cure of rickets.

  3. Offshore wind power fundaments. Practical experience from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk; Offshore Windkraft Fundamente. Praxiserfahrung aus den Projekten London Array und DanTysk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Moritz [Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Ingenieurwasserbau

    2012-11-01

    Based on a collection of diagrams and images the authors of the contribution under consideration report on practical experiences resulting from the project London Array and Dan Tysk with respect to the foundations of offshore wind turbines.

  4. Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E; Davies, G J; Costarelli, V; Dettmar, P W

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum. The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, 4-7-day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively. Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy (P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance (P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.

  5. The Design of a Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure for London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parissis, O.; Bauen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a least cost hydrogen infrastructure is key to the introduction of hydrogen fuel in road transport. This paper presents a generic framework for modelling the development of a renewable hydrogen infrastructure that can be applied to different cases and geographical regions. The model was designed by means of mixed integer linear programming and developed in MATLAB. It was applied to the case of London aiming to examine the possibilities of developing a renewable hydrogen infrastructure within a 50 years time horizon. The results presented here are preliminary results from a study looking at the least cost solutions to supplying hydrogen produced exclusively from renewable energy resources to large urban centres. (authors)

  6. International Symposium for Thyroid Eye Disease (June 2016, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Y. Sviridenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In June 2016, an International Symposium dedicated to the cutting edge research and achievements in Thyroid Eye Disease (TED diagnosis and treatment was held in London. The symposium was organized by the International Thyroid Eye Disease (ITEDs. It was attended EUGOGO, North American Neuro-Ophthalmological Society (NANOS and Orbit Society members. The symposium was attended by leading experts in the field of ophthalmology, orbital surgery and endocrinology: Rebecca S. Bahn, Maarten Mourits, Claudio Marcocci, George Kahaly, Mario Salvi, Antony Weetman, Anja Eckstein, Daniel Rootman, Geoffrey Rose, Robert Goldberg and Susanne Pitz, as well as doctors, specializing in the field of endocrinology, ophthalmology, radiology and other specialties. The symposium program was focused on the discussion of TED pathogenesis, classification and new therapeutic and surgical approaches. TED problems discussed by more than 300 professionals (65% ophthalmologists, 18% ophthalmic surgeons and 17% endocrinologists. North America was represented by 50 delegates. Representation of other continents was not less impressive.

  7. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-05-01

    For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Engendering City Politics and Educational Thought: Elite Women and the London Labour Party, 1914-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article uses biographical approaches to recover the contribution of hitherto neglected figures in the history of education and the political history of the Left in London. Place and location are important since it is important to grasp the uniqueness of the London County Council within the framework of English local government and of the…

  9. 77 FR 54495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... London Harbor, New London, CT. The proposed RNA would establish speed and wake restrictions as well as... comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self.... 0170.1. This proposal would establish speed and wake restrictions as well as allow the Coast Guard to...

  10. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  11. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion.

  12. Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research: report on a symposium at King's College London, London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Shanta J; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, Peter; Bone, Adrian J; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; Maffucci, Tania; Marriott, Claire E; McClenaghan, Neville; Morgan, Noel G; Reers, Christina; Russell, Mark A; Turner, Mark D; Willoughby, Emma; Younis, Mustafa Y G; Zhi, Z L; Jones, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research.

  13. The 'other' London effect: the diversification of London's suburban grammar schools and the rise of hyper-selective elite state schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsu, Sol

    2018-03-30

    This paper examines the rise of a new elite of 'super-state' schools in London, revealing a growing divide within the state sector which problematizes claims that the capital is a 'hotspot' for social mobility (Social Mobility Commission ). Although recent research has revealed a 'London effect' in which students in the capital on Free School Meals outperform their peers in other regions (Greaves, Macmillan and Sibieta ), inequalities between London's schools in access to elite universities have been overlooked. Drawing on a case study of a suburban London grammar school, 'King Henry's School', I show how ethnic-minority suburbanization has combined with an institutional strategy to compete with elite private schools. Strategies of selection have been mobilized alongside elements of elite 'gentlemanly' educational culture in order to reposition the school within the hierarchy of London's schools. The result is a hyper-selective school which provides a conduit to elite universities for upwardly mobile British-Asian students. I show that this strategy has strong parallels with the school's attempts in the early twentieth century to compete with London's fee-paying 'public' schools. The continuing symbolic value of 'traditional' forms of elite educational culture to a school seeking to reposition itself within the field reflects deep structural patterns of inequality in English education. To understand how apparent improvements in social mobility can sit alongside deepening inequalities between state schools, there is a need for a historical sociological approach that takes account of long-term processes of institutional change (Savage ; Inglis ). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  14. The seroprevalence of human papillomavirus by immune status and by ethnicity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwood Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of cutaneous HPV is unclear and in particular, seroprevalence among individuals with different levels of immune function and ethnicity is unknown. As part of a study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and HPV among organ transplant recipients (OTR from London, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for 34 HPV types (detected using Luminex technology among 409 OTR patients without skin cancer (243 Caucasians and 166 non-Caucasians, 367 individuals with end stage renal failure on dialysis (222 Caucasians and 145 non-Caucasians and 152 immunocompetent (IC individuals without skin cancer (102 Caucasians and 50 non-Caucasians to compare the HPV seroprevalence in patients with differing immune status and ethnicity. In total, seroprevalence data from 928 individuals, all from London, was available. Results Overall, no difference between HPV seroprevalence by immune status was observed (P = 0.3 among Caucasian or among non-Caucasian individuals, with seroprevalence varying from 87% to 94% across different immune status and ethnic groups. Those individuals seropositive to multiple types of one genus were more likely to be seroreactive to multiple types of another genus, independent of immune status or ethnicity. Lower seroprevalence for gammaHPV 4, and to a lesser extent gammaHPV 48, were observed among OTR compared to IC and dialysis patients. Higher seroprevalence against antibodies to betaHPV 93 were detected more frequently in non-Caucasians than Caucasians whereas muHPV 1 and, to a lesser extent, gammaHPV 4 were found more frequently among Caucasians - these findings were independent of immune status. Within non-Caucasian subgroups, the seroprevalence of 8 HPV (alpha-mucosal HPV16 and 13, alpha-cutaneous HPV7 and 2, betaHPV8, 17, 23 and 38 was significantly (P Conclusion We did not observe major disturbance in antibody response between immunocompetent, dialysis and OTR individuals, but

  15. Man and SuperNature. Lecture 12, September 27, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2015-01-01

    "Man and SuperNature" is a lyrical chapter in the 1946 London course following the emergence of Cosmic Education in Kodaikanal, India. Montessori contrasts the adaptation required of animals for their survival to conscious human adaptation. Animals exist and adapt to nature, but man can alter nature and change the environment.…

  16. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  17. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Black

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. METHODS: We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. FINDINGS: We identified five key themes: (1 Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2 Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3 Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4 Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5 Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. INTERPRETATION: Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  18. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  19. Healthcare Planning for the Olympics in London: A Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. Methods We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. Findings We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Interpretation Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential. PMID:24647613

  20. Greeks, British Greek Cypriots and Londoners: a comparison of morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, V G; Bebbington, P E

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a comparison of the rates of psychiatric disorder from three general population surveys in which the PSE-ID-CATEGO system was used for case-definition. These surveys were of an English sample in Camberwell, London, and of two Greek samples, the first in Athens, the second of Greek Cypriot immigrants living in Camberwell. The results show that the rates of psychiatric disorders in both Greek samples were somewhat higher than those of the Camberwell population, the differences being accounted for by higher rates of anxiety disorders, especially in women. Comparisons in terms of syndrome profiles showed that Greeks reported more symptoms of generalized anxiety than their English counterparts who, in their turn, reported higher rates of obsessive symptoms, and symptoms of social anxiety. The higher rates in the Greek samples were possibly due to an increased frequency of non-specific neurotic symptoms like worrying and tension. The results of other European community surveys with the PSE suggest that there might be a genuine and general North-South difference in the expression of psychological distress. Cultural differences in terms of personality traits and culturally sanctioned child rearing practices might account for the findings.

  1. Occupy London und die besetzte Friern Barnet Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Diesing

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Gegenstand des Beitrages ist die besetzte Friern Barnet Library in Nord-London. Dieser steht für eine ‚Politik des Politischen‘, die sich gegen die Privatisierungsmaßnahmen der regierenden liberal-konservativen Koalition richtet. In diesem Kampf um die Bibliothek wurden Aussagen der programmatischen Vision der Regierung von einer Allianz aus Aktivist_innen und Bürger_innen polemisch gegen die Politik gewendet, deren Umsetzung diese Vision ideologisch legitimieren sollte. Es werden zunächst die Rahmenbedingungen der Besetzung beschrieben, danach wird detailliert auf das Geschehen im Herbst 2012 und Winter 2012/13 eingegangen. Es wird erklärt, warum die Auseinandersetzung um die Bibliothek für das Verständnis gegenwärtiger sozialer Kämpfe in der ‚postpolitischen Stadt‘ hilfreich ist. Zum Begriff der Postpolitik bzw. der Postdemokratie haben sowohl Colin Crouch als auch Jacques Rancière Theorien vorgelegt. Der Aufsatz wird den theoretischen Schwerpunkt auf Rancière legen, Crouchs Überlegungen jedoch ebenfalls mit einbeziehen.

  2. Familism and Social Inclusion: Hispanics in New London, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amparo Cruz-Saco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the financial support and inclusiveness within Hispanic families in New London, Connecticut, and the causes of their social exclusion in the larger society. We designed and administered a survey of 114 items that was answered by 148 participants representing 1.3% of the non-Puerto Rican Hispanic population. Using factor analysis, we reduced a large number of items in two familism scores to four latent factors: "Financial Support for Family", "Obligation to Family", "Plan to Return", and "Filial Responsibility". We found that financial support for family and obligation to family are strongly endorsed by participants. Approximately one-half would return back to their home countries where they believe to be happier. One-fifth rejects this option. Three-quarters of participants remit money to family, parents in particular, who reside in countries of origin. In contrast to other studies, remitting money is not affected by any given personal characteristic such as gender, income or level of education. Similarly, participants remit irrespective of their degree of self-reported familism measured by scores on the latent factors. A large incidence of poverty among this population, lack of English proficiency, low skills, immigration status, and a lack of voice and political representation inhibit their social inclusion.

  3. Surface water flood risk and management strategies for London: An Agent-Based Model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Katie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is recognised as one of the most common and costliest natural disasters in England. Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall is known as ‘surface water flooding’, considered to be the most likely cause of flood events and one of the greatest short-term climate risks for London. In this paper we present results from a novel Agent-Based Model designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options, different agents, and the role of flood insurance and the flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The model illustrates how investment in adaptation options could reduce London’s surface water flood risk, today and in the future. However, benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, it offers no additional benefits in terms of overall risk reduction, and will face increasing pressure due to rising surface water flood risk in the future. The modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for reviewing the proposed Flood Re scheme, as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes, and broader multi-sectoral partnerships, to incentivise flood risk management in the UK and internationally.

  4. Coping with a Self-Induced Shock: The Heterarchic Organization of the London Olympic Games 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Grabher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the assumption of a structural analogy between mega-events and large-scale disasters. Both imply forceful interruptions of everyday routines, and both involve imperatives for imminent action. Similar to the immovable deadline of an opening ceremony, a looming natural disaster triggers a complex set of precautions and preparations to cope with the inescapable forthcoming shock. In the case of mega-events, of course, this shock is self-induced. In fact, cities fiercely compete to host mega-events. In the face of the daunting challenges of hosting a mega-event—the immovable timeframe, the rigorous standards set by regulatory bodies, and the exceptional public visibility—the authorities and organizations in charge traditionally have resorted to strategies of a strict adaptation to the conditions imposed on them. Aligning all available resources and capabilities to match the foreseeable demands, however, undermines the adaptability to cope with unpredictable perturbations. This paper seeks to explore the strategies and practices to attain adaptability during the preparation, staging and implementation of legacy plans of a mega-event with an evidentially noteworthy record: the London Olympic Games 2012. The paper seeks to demonstrate that the project ecology in charge managed to enhance adaptability by implementing three key features of heterarchy: ambiguity, redundancy and loose coupling. By leveraging the principles of heterarchy, the project ecology was able to draw lessons from previous mega-events and both to anticipate and respond to unforeseen challenges.

  5. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  6. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  7. Marketing modest fashion or fashioning modesty? HijUp Unveiled at London Fashion Week

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Indonesians came, they saw and we learned more about their spicy blend of fashion and fun, in the streets of London. Here’s a slice of what’s going on in the emerging global Modest Fashion scene.

  8. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  9. Asthma Length of Stay in Hospitals in London 2001?2006: Demographic, Diagnostic and Temporal Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative...

  10. Sex-related dietary changes of Portuguese university students after migration to London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, S.; Vilela, S.; Padrão, P.; Caraher, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in eating habits and food choice motives of Portuguese university students after migration to London, according to sex.\\ud \\ud Methods: Fifty-five Portuguese university students (52.7% female) from 12 randomly selected London universities underwent a face-to-face interview. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire comprising questions on socio-demographic characteristics, the frequency of consumption of selected food and beverage items, and the m...

  11. Looking for ‘Home’? New Zealand Soldiers Visiting London during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Anna

    2016-01-01

    For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...

  12. London 2012 Paralympic swimming: passive drag and the classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yim-Taek; Burkett, Brendan; Osborough, Conor; Formosa, Danielle; Payton, Carl

    2013-09-01

    The key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic Games is the use of classification systems within Paralympic sports to provide a fair competition for athletes with a range of physical disabilities. In 2009, the International Paralympic Committee mandated the development of new, evidence-based classification systems. This study aims to assess objectively the swimming classification system by determining the relationship between passive drag and level of swimming-specific impairment, as defined by the current swimming class. Data were collected on participants at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. The passive drag force of 113 swimmers (classes 3-14) was measured using an electro-mechanical towing device and load cell. Swimmers were towed on the surface of a swimming pool at 1.5 m/s while holding their most streamlined position. Passive drag ranged from 24.9 to 82.8 N; the normalised drag (drag/mass) ranged from 0.45 to 1.86 N/kg. Significant negative associations were found between drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.41, p < 0.01) and normalised drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.60, p < 0.01). The mean difference in drag between adjacent classes was inconsistent, ranging from 0 N (6 vs 7) to 11.9 N (5 vs 6). Reciprocal Ponderal Index (a measure of slenderness) correlated moderately with normalised drag (r(P) = -0.40, p < 0.01). Although swimmers with the lowest swimming class experienced the highest passive drag and vice versa, the inconsistent difference in mean passive drag between adjacent classes indicates that the current classification system does not always differentiate clearly between swimming groups.

  13. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.

  14. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  15. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556

  16. Connected or informed?: Local Twitter networking in a London neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bingham-Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper asks whether geographically localised, or ‘hyperlocal’, uses of Twitter succeed in creating peer-to-peer neighbourhood networks or simply act as broadcast media at a reduced scale. Literature drawn from the smart cities discourse and from a UK research project into hyperlocal media, respectively, take on these two opposing interpretations. Evidence gathered in the case study presented here is consistent with the latter, and on this basis we criticise the notion that hyperlocal social media can be seen as a community in itself. We demonstrate this by creating a network map of Twitter followers of a popular hyperlocal blog in Brockley, southeast London. We describe various attributes of this network including its average degree and clustering coefficient to suggest that a small and highly connected cluster of visible local entities such as businesses form a clique at the centre of this network, with individual residents following these but not one another. We then plot the locations of these entities and demonstrate that sub-communities in the network are formed due to close geographical proximity between smaller sets of businesses. These observations are illustrated with qualitative evidence from interviews with users who suggest instead that rather than being connected to one another they benefit from what has been described as ‘neighbourhood storytelling’. Despite the limitations of working with Twitter data, we propose that this multi-modal approach offers a valuable way to investigate the experience of using social media as a communication tool in urban neighbourhoods.

  17. Motivation to study dental professions in one London Dental Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsi, A; Asimakopoulou, K; Donaldson, N; Gallagher, J

    2014-02-01

    While past research has explored dental students' motivation to study, there is limited understanding in the reasons behind career choice for hygienists/therapists and dental nurses. The aim of this study was to investigate simultaneously the views of students of dentistry, hygiene/therapy and dental nursing in King's College London and explore similarities or differences in career choice. All first-year students were invited to the questionnaire survey, exploring motivation to study using a 23-item instrument. Data were analysed using SPSS v18; statistical analysis included one-way analyses of variance and factor analysis. The overall response rate to the study was 75% (n = 209). Ten out of 23 factors were considered important by more than 80% of respondents, with 'job security' (93.8%), 'desire to work with people' (88%) and 'degree leading to recognised job' (87.5%) being top three. Analysis suggested that 52% of the total variation in motivating influences was explained by four factors: 'features of the job' (26%), 'education/skills' (11%), 'public service' (8%) and 'careers-advising' (7%); at group level 'features of the job' were significantly more important for the direct entrants to dentistry (P = 0.001). The findings suggest that across groups students were motivated to study by common influences reflecting altruistic, but also pragmatic and realistic motives, while 'features of the job' were more important for the direct entrants to dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.; Bell, J.N.B.; James, P.W.; Chimonides, P.J.; Rumsey, F.J.; Tremper, A.; Purvis, O.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality. - Transport-related pollutants and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution and abundance in London today

  19. A cross-sectional study of knife injuries at a London major trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, J R; Sutherland, E; Glucksman, E; Tunnicliff, M; Keep, J W

    2014-01-01

    No national recording systems for knife injuries exist in the UK. Understanding the true size and nature of the problem of knife injuries is the first stage in reducing the burden of this injury. The aim of this study was to survey every knife injury seen in a single inner city emergency department (ED) over a one-year period. A cross-sectional observational study was performed of all patients attending with a knife injury to the ED of a London major trauma centre in 2011. Demographic characteristics, patterns of injury, morbidity and mortality data were collected. A total of 938 knife injuries were identified from 127,191 attendances (0.77% of all visits) with a case fatality rate of 0.53%. A quarter (24%) of the major trauma team's caseload was for knife injuries. Overall, 44% of injuries were selfreported as assaults, 49% as accidents and 8% as deliberate self-harm. The highest age specific incident rate occurred in the 16-24 year age category (263/100,000). Multiple injuries were seen in 19% of cases, of which only 81% were recorded as assaults. The mean length of stay for those admitted to hospital was 3.04 days. Intrathoracic injury was seen in 26% of cases of chest trauma and 24% of abdominal injuries had a second additional chest injury. Violent intentional injuries are a significant contributory factor to the workload of the major trauma team at this centre. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of these injuries seen in the ED.

  20. Injuries and allegations of oral rape: A retrospective review of patients presenting to a London sexual assault referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew-Graves, Emmeline; Morgan, Louise

    2015-08-01

    A retrospective review was carried out of patients seen at the Haven sexual assault referral centre in South East London between January 2009 and September 2010 to determine the frequency and nature of oral injuries found in people reporting oral rape. Ninety five eligible patients were identified and relevant information was extracted from standardised Haven forms completed during forensic medical examination. The main outcome measures were prevalence, type and location of oral injury. Eighteen (19%) were found to have sustained an oral injury. The most common injury was abrasions, followed by bruising and petechiae. The lips were the most common site of injury followed by the soft palate and the inside of the cheeks. It was concluded that injuries in the mouth were not common after an allegation of oral rape. Injuries were minor and did not require treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Rhythm and Time in Music Epitomize the Temporal Dynamics of Human Communicative Behavior: The Broad Implications of London's Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Keller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Three key issues about rhythm and timing in music are drawn to the attention of linguists in a paper by London (2012. In this commentary, I argue that these issues are relevant not only to linguists, but also to those in any field dealing with the temporal dynamics of human communicative behavior. Thus, the distinction between endogenously and exogenously driven mechanisms of perceptual organization, the active nature of perception, and the presence of multiple time scales are topics that also concern experimental psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists. London’s argument that these three issues play a crucial role in the perception of rhythm and timing implies that they should be considered collectively when attempting to understand diverse communicative acts.

  2. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-11-10

    To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked 'aid in stop smoking' as the most important (56%), with 'cheaper alternative' (43%) and 'social/recreational use' (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as 'e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic' were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community pharmacists look forward to regulations so to conduct their duties in a

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy childbearing in the West Coast / Winelands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Maart

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Many of the known risk factors associated with low birth weight (LB W infants, such as socio-economic status, ethnicity, genetic makeup, and obstetric history, are not within a woman’s immediate control. However, there are many things that a woman can do to improve her chances of having a normal healthy child. Lifestyle behaviours, such as cigarette smoking, nutrition and the use of alcohol, play an important role in determining the growth of the foetus. There is a high rate of low birth weight infants bom to women living and working on the farms in the Western Cape. Very little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the women living and working on the farms that may be influencing their pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices of reproductive age women related to lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, smoking and nutrition, and the perceptions of these factors by health care workers, in Stellenbosch and Vredendal areas (small towns in the Western Cape.

  4. Safety and security in acute admission psychiatric wards in Ireland and London: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Seamus; Bowers, Len

    2009-05-01

    The comparative element of this study is to describe safety and security measures in psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London; to describe differences and similarities in terms of safety and security patterns in the Republic of Ireland and London; and to make recommendations on safety and security to mental health services management and psychiatric nurses. Violence is a serious problem in psychiatric services and staff experience significant psychological reactions to being assaulted. Health and Safety Authorities in the UK and Ireland have expressed concern about violence and assault in healthcare, however, there remains a lack of clarity on matters of procedure and policy pertaining to safety and security in psychiatric hospitals. A descriptive survey research design was employed. Questionnaires were circulated to all acute wards in London and in Ireland and the resulting data compared. A total of 124 psychiatric wards from London and 43 wards from Ireland were included in this study and response rates of 70% (London) and 86% (Ireland) were obtained. Differences and similarities in safety and security practices were identified between London and Ireland, with Irish wards having generally higher and more intensive levels of security. There is a lack of coherent policy and procedure in safety and security measures across psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London. Given the trends in European Union (EU) regulation, there is a strong argument for the publication of acceptable minimum guidelines for safety and security in mental health services across the EU. There must be a concerted effort to ensure that all policy and procedure in safety and security is founded on evidence and best practice. Mental health managers must establish a review of work safety and security procedures and practices. Risk assessment and environmental audits of all mental health clinical environments should be mandatory.

  5. “This fabulous flotsam”: Michael Moorcock’s Urban Anthropology in “London under London”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houswitschka Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Moorcock is often described as “one of the most prolific and varied writers working in Britain” (Malcolm 146. His success as a writer and editor of science fiction and fantasy literature is well established, but he is also the author of two novels about London, Mother London (1988 and King of the City (2000. Hardly known, Mother London by Michael Moorcock, offers itself to a variety of approaches that have been widely discussed in the context of studies on English literature during the Thatcher years, post-modernism, and psycho-geography. The novel resonates with the author’s own childhood in war-time London without being autobiographical. It tells the story of three Londoners who were traumatised during the Blitz. The following article focuses on the mysteries of subterranean London that represents the hidden and unconscious identities of its inhabitants in the post-war period.

  6. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  7. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent

  8. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  9. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  10. Prevalence of allergy and upper respiratory tract symptoms in runners of the London marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson-Ansley, Paula; Howatson, Glyn; Tallent, Jamie; Mitcheson, Kelly; Walshe, Ian; Toms, Chris; DU Toit, George; Smith, Matt; Ansley, Les

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of self-reported upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms in athletes has been traditionally associated with opportunistic infection during the temporal suppression of immune function after prolonged exercise. There is little evidence for this, and a competing noninfectious hypothesis has been proposed, whereby the exercise-induced immune system modulations favor the development of atopy and allergic disease, which manifests as URT symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the association between allergy and URT symptoms in runners after an endurance running event. Two hundred eight runners from the 2010 London Marathon completed the validated Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUA) and had serum analyzed for total and specific immunoglobulin E response to common inhalant allergens. Participants who completed the marathon and nonrunning controls who lived in the same household were asked to complete a diary on URT symptoms. Forty percent of runners had allergy as defined by both a positive AQUA and elevated specific immunoglobulin E. Forty-seven percent of runners experienced URT symptoms after the marathon. A positive AQUA was a significant predictor of postmarathon URT symptoms in runners. Only 19% of nonrunning controls reported symptoms. The prevalence of allergy in recreational marathon runners was similar to that in elite athletes and higher than that in the general population. There was a strong association between a positive AQUA and URT symptoms. The low proportion of households in which both runners and nonrunners were symptomatic suggests that the nature of symptoms may be allergic or inflammatory based rather than infectious. Allergy is a treatable condition, and its potential effect on performance and health may be avoided by accurate clinical diagnosis and management. Both athletes' and coaches' awareness of the potential implications of poorly managed allergy needs to be raised.

  11. Elaborating Naturalized Critical Realism: Response to Ruth Groff, Dave Elder-Vass, Daniel Little and Petri Ylikoski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidesoja Tuukka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reply to the discussions of Ruth Groff, Dave Elder-Vass, Daniel Little, and Petri Ylikoski of Tuukka Kaidesoja (2013: Naturalizing Critical Realist Social Ontology (London: Routledge.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Helfter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on more than 3 years of measurements of fluxes of methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 taken by eddy-covariance in central London, UK. Mean annual emissions of CO2 in the period 2012–2014 (39.1 ± 2.4 ktons km−2 yr−1 and CO (89 ± 16 tons km−2 yr−1 were consistent (within 1 and 5 % respectively with values from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, but measured CH4 emissions (72 ± 3 tons km−2 yr−1 were over two-fold larger than the inventory value. Seasonal variability was large for CO with a winter to summer reduction of 69 %, and monthly fluxes were strongly anti-correlated with mean air temperature. The winter increment in CO emissions was attributed mainly to vehicle cold starts and reduced fuel combustion efficiency. CO2 fluxes were 33 % higher in winter than in summer and anti-correlated with mean air temperature, albeit to a lesser extent than for CO. This was attributed to an increased demand for natural gas for heating during the winter. CH4 fluxes exhibited moderate seasonality (21 % larger in winter, and a spatially variable linear anti-correlation with air temperature. Differences in resident population within the flux footprint explained up to 90 % of the spatial variability of the annual CO2 fluxes and up to 99 % for CH4. Furthermore, we suggest that biogenic sources of CH4, such as wastewater, which is unaccounted for by the atmospheric emissions inventories, make a substantial contribution to the overall budget and that commuting dynamics in and out of central business districts could explain some of the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 and CH4 emissions. To our knowledge, this study is unique given the length of the data sets presented, especially for CO and CH4 fluxes. This study offers an independent assessment of "bottom-up" emissions inventories and demonstrates that the urban sources of CO and CO2 are well characterized in

  13. Droughts and Dragons: Geography, Rainfall, and Eighteenth-Century London's Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Carry

    By the end of the eighteenth century the majority of households in London received a piped water supply. This article examines the geographical, technological, and environmental challenges that London's private water companies faced as they created and expanded the large technological networks necessary to provide the growing city's water supply. It identifies geography and drought as the main drivers of innovation in London's water supply neworks, and argues that the main impediment to expansion for the majority of the water companies was overcoming the differences in elevation between their intake points and customer bases, with major improvements often made as a result of water shortages. The timing and the success or failure of a company's technological improvements proved pivotal in the subsequent development of the water market.

  14. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  15. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina

    2011-12-01

    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development.

  16. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration." excerpt

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Torry, Bren; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-12-08

    To investigate traditional health care practices and changes in medicinal plant use among the growing Colombian community in London. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 Colombians living in London and botanical identification of 46 plant species actively used as herbal remedies. Subsequently, research data were compared with literature on ethnobotany and traditional herbal medicine in the home country, using a framework on cross-cultural adaptation, adjusted for the purpose of this study. Similarities and discrepancies between data and literature are interpreted as potential indicators of continuity and loss (or deculturation) of traditional remedies, respectively. Remedies used in London that are not corroborated by the literature suggest possible newly acquired uses. Cross-cultural adaptation related to health care practices is a multifaceted process. Persistence, loss and incorporation of remedies into the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia after migration are influenced by practical adaptation strategies as well as by symbolic-cultural motives of ethnic identity.

  18. Determining the Suitability of Materials for Disposal at Sea under the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996: A Radiological Assessment Procedure. 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides guidance on performing specific assessments of candidate materials for dumping at sea, to determine whether the materials are de minimis in the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 (the London Convention 1972) and the related Protocol 1996 (the London Protocol 1996). It presents a detailed radiological procedure to assess doses to workers and members of the public and doses to marine flora and fauna related to the dumping of materials at sea. The procedures in this publication follow the requirements to protect the environment in the IAEA Safety Standards and in the recommendations by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. It is expected to be used by national regulatory authorities responsible for authorizing disposal at sea of candidate materials as well as by those companies and individuals applying to obtain permission to dispose these materials at sea

  19. HIV in East London: ethnicity, gender and risk. Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukutu Cecilia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While men who have sex with men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV infection in the UK, the number of new diagnoses among heterosexuals has risen steadily over the last five years. In the UK, three-quarters of heterosexual men and women diagnosed with HIV in 2004 probably acquired their infection in Africa. This changing epidemiological pattern is particularly pronounced in East London because of its ethnically diverse population. Design and methods The objective of the study was to examine the social, economic and behavioural characteristics of patients with HIV infection currently receiving treatment and care in hospitals in East London. The research focused on ethnicity, gender, sexuality, education, employment, housing, HIV treatment, stigma, discrimination, religion, migration and sexual risk behaviour. People diagnosed with HIV infection attending outpatient treatment clinics at St Bartholomew's, the Royal London, Whipp's Cross, Homerton, Newham and Barking hospitals (all in East London over a 4–6 month period were invited to participate in the study in 2004–2005. Those who agreed to participate completed a confidential, self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire. During the study period, 2680 patients with HIV attended the outpatient clinics in the six participating hospitals, of whom 2299 were eligible for the study and 1687 completed a questionnaire. The response rate was 73% of eligible patients and 63% of all patients attending the clinics during the survey period. Discussion A clinic-based study has allowed us to survey nearly 1700 patients with HIV from diverse backgrounds receiving treatment and care in East London. The data collected in this study will provide valuable information for the planning and delivery of appropriate clinical care, social support and health promotion for people living with HIV not only in East London but in other parts of the capital as well as elsewhere in the UK.

  20. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  1. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  2. Lab. experiments of mass transfer in the London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Gilling, D.; Jefferies, N.L.; Lineham, T.R.; Lever, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous phase mass transfer through the rocks surrounding a radioactive waste repository will take place by diffusion and convection. This paper presents a comprehensive set of measurements of the mass transfer characteristics for a single, naturally occurring, clay. These data are compared with the results predicted by mathematical models of mass transport in porous media, in order to build confidence in these models

  3. The B Ed Physics Degree at London University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R. O.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the development of a syllabus and a study guide necessary for adequate preparation of high school physics teachers. Indicates that the unified nature of physical science will predominate over separate physics or chemistry courses on the school level in the future. (CC)

  4. Multiconfigurational self-consistent field calculations of nuclear shieldings using London atomic orbitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Helgaker, Trygve; Kobayashi, Rika

    1994-01-01

    to corresponding individual gauges for localized orbitals (IGLO) results. The London results show better basis set convergence than IGLO, especially for heavier atoms. It is shown that the choice of active space is crucial for determination of accurate nuclear shielding constants.......Nuclear shielding calculations are presented for multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions using London atomic orbitals (gauge invariant atomic orbitals). Calculations of nuclear shieldings for eight molecules (H2O, H2S, CH4, N2, CO, HF, F2, and SO2) are presented and compared...

  5. The Sindhi Hindus of London − Language Maintenance or Language Shift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic situation of the Sindhi language in London is examined with a view to determining whether the community is maintaining the use of its ethnic language. The Sindhi Hindus of London are a language community, which have never been researched. The language choice of the community in different domains and for a range of language functions is discussed. Both external and internal factors of language shift have weakened the linguistic and communicative competence of Sindhi speakers in the language contact situation of the United Kingdom.

  6. In vitro transfer of multiple resistance observed in vivo during a Salmonella london epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, J; Marjai, E

    1980-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1978, waves of Salmonella london infections conveyed by raw meat and meat products were observed. The strains isolated during the epidemic were first susceptible then developed multiple antibiotic resistance. The identical antibiotic resistance patterns of the strain and their more frequent occurrence in hospital environments indicated plasmid-mediated resistance. R-plasmid transfer, minimum inhibition concentration and resistance elimination were studied in representative strains. The resistant S. london strain and transconjugants of Escherichia coli rendered resistant were compared. The results proved that multiple resistance was plasmid-mediated.

  7. Space, Emotions and the Everyday: The Affective Ecology of 1980s London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    This article explores the relationship between emotions, space and politics in 1980s London, using the Greater London Council, childcare, and racial harassment as particular foci. It brings together political history, the history of emotions, and geography to offer a new way of thinking about political culture, as well as contributing to the history of the 1980s. It is based upon archival sources. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF LONDON AS THE WORLD’S FINANCIAL CENTER IN THE CONDITIONS OF BREXIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Sydorova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the role of London as the global financial center in the modern international financial system under the conditions of Britain's withdrawal from the European Union. Methodology. During the study, the comparative method, methods of statistics and economic-mathematical modeling were used. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study is the fundamental provisions of international economic relations, the study of economists in the field of international monetary and financial relations. Information basis is analytical reports of international financial centers and statistical databases of international organizations. Results. Nowadays, London has all the necessary factors for success: open economy, developed financial infrastructure, stability of taxation system, geographical location, long-term government support, transparent policy, investor diversity and multi-culture. It is revealed that a growing variety of financial instruments is a characteristic feature of London as a modern global financial center. As a result, London is gradually winning the battle for the title of the world's leading financial center. The Government of the United Kingdom constantly develops growth strategies of the City of London, creates favorable conditions for the work of international companies, and attracts highly qualified specialists from other countries in the field of finance and law. The competent policy of the state and the wide range of services provided for the successful transactions on stock exchanges and commodity markets help London to maintain undisputed leadership in the global financial market and minimize losses associated with Brexit. At the same time, the decision of the UK to withdraw from the EU had a negative impact on the stability of the country's banking system, it had provoked a decline in the country's credit ratings, a drop in the pound sterling against the dollar and the euro. Another problem

  9. The Condensate Saga: From London's proposal to a convincing experimental answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Condensate Sata, which began with Fritz London's intriguing proposal of 1938, is summarized with particular emphasis on the study of Sears, Svensson, Martel and Woods of 1982 which gave the first convincing experimental evidence for a macroscopic occupation of the zero-momentum state in superfluid /sup 4/He

  10. London Debates 2009. What role do museums play in the globalisation of culture ?

    OpenAIRE

    School of Advanced Study

    2010-01-01

    This report underlines the central role museums play in the globalisation of culture, and sets out action points to guide academic research, museum practice and policy-making. A report presenting the most important results of the London Debates, led at the School of Advanced Study in May 2009.

  11. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  12. An assessment of heavy metal pollution in the East London and Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese and lead) was investigated in seawater and in sediment samples from the East London and Port Elizabeth harbours. Both are ports of major importance to the area. The aim was to assess the impact of potential pollution sources, mainly from the ...

  13. Bilingual Behaviour, Attitudes, Identity and Vitality: Some Data from Japanese Speakers in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ivan; Sachdev, Itesh

    2009-01-01

    Although the Japanese community in London is relatively small, its composition is stable and reflects several aspects of Japan's relationship with the international community. Yet there appears to have been no systematic research exploring patterns of bilingual behaviour in relation to social psychological processes amongst Japanese nationals in…

  14. Death, memory and collecting: creating the conditions for ancestralisation in South London households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parrott, F.; Byrne, S.; Clarke, A.; Harrison, R.; Torrence, R.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents case studies of the collections that played a part in peoples’ understanding and experience of death and bereavement, from an ethnographic study of households, loss and material culture in South London. The focus on death, memory and collecting serves to highlight the way

  15. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  16. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-16

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.  Created: 8/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2016.

  17. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-18

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.

  18. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  19. Drama to Inspire: A London Drama Guide to Excellent Practice in Drama for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventon, John, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Drama to Inspire" is a timely selection of practice based accounts produced by fifteen workshop leaders and friends of the long established association for teachers of drama, London Drama. Many of the authors are internationally renowned for their work. Each piece affirms the immense potential for dynamic learning that is at the heart…

  20. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  1. Augener & Co., London - neznámý Dvořákův nakladatel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějčková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2012), s. 247-266 ISSN 0018-7003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/1020 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Dvořák * publishers * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. Investing in Diversity in London Schools: Leadership Preparation for Black and Global Majority Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri; Campbell-Stephens, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the historical roots, describes the philosophy and curriculum, and analyzes the approach to leadership in Investing in Diversity, a 1-year Black-led leadership development course in the London schools. An exploratory qualitative case study approach was used to collect historical and empirical data about the program over a…

  3. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  4. Provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology services in the London Strategic Health Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illing, R.O., E-mail: rowland@doctors.org.u [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Ingham Clark, C.L.; Allum, C. [Whittington Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Aim: To review the provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology (IR) services in the London Strategic Health Authority (SHA). Materials and methods: All 29 acute hospitals in the London SHA were contacted between November 2008 and January 2009. A questionnaire based on the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines assessed the provision of out-of-hours IR services. An 'ad-hoc' service was defined as on-call provision where not all the radiologists could perform intervention: If IR was required out of hours, an interventionalist came in when off-duty or the patient was transferred. Results: Seventeen out of the 29 (59%) hospitals provided ad-hoc out-of-hours services, eight (28%) provided a 24-hour rota, and four (14%) provide no out-of-hours cover. No ad-hoc service had formal transfer arrangements to a centre providing a 24 h service. Only two hospitals providing a 24 h service had six radiologists on the rota. Conclusion: Strategic planning for out-of-hours IR across London is recommended. This is likely to be welcomed by the hospitals involved, allowing informal arrangements to be formalized, and collaboration to provide comprehensive regional networks, provided appropriate funding is made available. A national audit is recommended; it is unlikely these findings are unique to London.

  5. Provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology services in the London Strategic Health Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illing, R.O.; Ingham Clark, C.L.; Allum, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review the provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology (IR) services in the London Strategic Health Authority (SHA). Materials and methods: All 29 acute hospitals in the London SHA were contacted between November 2008 and January 2009. A questionnaire based on the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines assessed the provision of out-of-hours IR services. An 'ad-hoc' service was defined as on-call provision where not all the radiologists could perform intervention: If IR was required out of hours, an interventionalist came in when off-duty or the patient was transferred. Results: Seventeen out of the 29 (59%) hospitals provided ad-hoc out-of-hours services, eight (28%) provided a 24-hour rota, and four (14%) provide no out-of-hours cover. No ad-hoc service had formal transfer arrangements to a centre providing a 24 h service. Only two hospitals providing a 24 h service had six radiologists on the rota. Conclusion: Strategic planning for out-of-hours IR across London is recommended. This is likely to be welcomed by the hospitals involved, allowing informal arrangements to be formalized, and collaboration to provide comprehensive regional networks, provided appropriate funding is made available. A national audit is recommended; it is unlikely these findings are unique to London.

  6. 77 FR 32898 - Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... 1625-AA00; AA87 Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT AGENCY... 20, 2012 the Coast Guard published a notice of proposed rulemaking entitled Safety & Security Zones... Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1, which collectively authorize the Coast Guard to define safety and...

  7. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  8. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  9. London 2012 and beyond: concluding reflections on peacemaking, sport and the Olympic movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games have reinvigorated the debate on Olympic legacies for peace and development. Addressing this debate and building on the articles in this collection, this epilogue argues that the theoretical-conceptual understanding of peace and peacemaking remains poorly

  10. Post-Event Volunteering Legacy: Did the London 2012 Games Induce a Sustainable Volunteer Engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Koutrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.

  11. The Aspirations and Realities of Prison Education for Under-25s in the London Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynne; Hurry, Jane; Simonot, Margaret; Wilson, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study, undertaken in 2012, was to describe provision available for under- 25s in prisons and to gain insight into the particularities of prison education. Six custodial establishments serving the London area were visited (prisons or Young Offender Institutions) and available statistical data were collected from a larger sample.…

  12. Peer Mentoring Experiences of Psychology Students at the London Metropolitan University Writing Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Savita; Harrington, Kathy; O'Neill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    "It really helps knowing that you are going to have someone around to help you..." This short article reports on research taking place into peer writing tutorials at London Metropolitan University and examines in particular, the experiences of psychology students who have taken part in the scheme. Some of the implications of this…

  13. The London Geography Alliance: Re-Connecting the School Subject with the University Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Alex; Hawley, Duncan; Willy, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    The London Geography Alliance was established to provide a network of subject-based support to primary and secondary schools, by linking teachers and university lecturers. Workshops and fieldwork were conducted over a 17-month period to address different aspects of the geography curriculum. The effects of the project were evaluated using…

  14. Social Media as Contact Zones : Young Londoners Remapping the Metropolis through Digital Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, K.H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343295334

    2015-01-01

    Social media use among urban, young Londoners of diverse cultural backgrounds constitutes a contemporary, postcolonial contact zone in Europe. By taking digital practices as an entry point to consider intercultural encounters in the postcolonial metropolis, I bring new media studies into a much

  15. Mind the gap: financial London and the regional class pay gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The hidden barriers, or 'gender pay gap', preventing women from earning equivalent incomes to men is well documented. Yet recent research has uncovered that, in Britain, there is also a comparable class-origin pay gap in higher professional and managerial occupations. So far this analysis has only been conducted at the national level and it is not known whether there are regional differences within the UK. This paper uses pooled data from the 2014 and 2015 Labour Force Survey (N = 7,534) to stage a more spatially sensitive analysis that examines regional variation in the class pay gap. We find that this 'class ceiling' is not evenly spatially distributed. Instead it is particularly marked in Central London, where those in high-status occupations who are from working-class backgrounds earn, on average, £10,660 less per year than those whose parents were in higher professional and managerial employment. Finally, we inspect the Capital further to reveal that the class pay gap is largest within Central London's banking and finance sector. Challenging policy conceptions of London as the 'engine room' of social mobility, these findings suggest that class disadvantage within high-status occupations is particularly acute in the Capital. The findings also underline the value of investigating regional differences in social mobility, and demonstrate how such analysis can unravel important and previously unrecognized spatial dimensions of class inequality. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  16. THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE MAGNETIZABILITY OF SOME SMALL FLUORINE-CONTAINING MOLECULES USING LONDON ATOMIC ORBITALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, K.; Helgaker, T.; Jørgensen, Poul

    1994-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the magnetizability of a series of small molecules. The use of London atomic orbitals ensures gauge invariance and a fast basis set convergence. Good agreement is obtained with experimental magnetizabilities, both isotropic and anisotropic. The calculations...

  17. The sins of the fathers--Africans with HIV infection in London; lessons for others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, J S

    2002-12-01

    Many European countries have taken in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this are discussed and the particular problems experienced by HIV-infected Africans in London, and the approach to their care at St Thomas' Hospital, is delineated.

  18. Language Shift and Vitality Perceptions amongst London's Second-Generation Bangladeshis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2013-01-01

    With more than 64,500 members, the Bangladeshi community in London is one of the largest in the UK. Originating from a wave of immigration during the 1970s, a considerable part of the community now consists of a second, UK-born generation. This explorative study seeks to address, first, the extent of the intergenerational language shift from…

  19. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, M.; Bleidorn, W.; Lamb, M.E.; Gosling, S.D.; Rentfrow, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations

  20. Fra Bartolomeo della Porta detto Fra Bartolomeo, Adorazione del Bambino, National Gallery, London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Chris

    2014-01-01

    En artikel om et maleri af Fra Bartolomeo i National Gallery i London udlånt til en udstilling i Museo Tosio Martinengo I Brescia i forbindelse med opdagelsen af et fuldstændigt overensstemmende maleri i dette museums magasiner. Hypotesen var at Bresciabilledet var et værkstedsarbejde lavet på ba...

  1. A review of specialist palliative care provision and access across London - mapping the capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah; Murtagh, Fliss E M; Tookman, Adrian; Gage, Andrew; Sykes, Nigel; McGinn, Maureen; Kathoria, Meeta; Wilderspin, Hilary; Chart, Liz

    2017-05-01

    Palliative care provision varies by diagnosis, geography, and setting. The Minimum Data-set provides high-level data on provision, but comprehensive comparative information about specialist palliative care (SPC) provision is lacking. The London Cancer Alliance - now RM Partners' Accountable Cancer Network - palliative care group (West/South London) and PallE8 (North/East London), with Marie Curie, sought to address this gap. The aim was to provide comparative data on SPC provision across London to support commissioners and providers to assess provision, identify gaps, and reduce inequity. A data-collection template was developed through expert consensus. Demographic, diagnostic, and service data was collected, plus models of care, staffing levels, and use of clinical outcome/experience measures. Results were collated by organisation and CCG. Cleaned data was provided back to each organisation for verification before final analyses. All 50 adult SPC providers in London participated, representing hospitals, hospices and community services. •Patients in all 32 CCGs have access to hospice beds, with 322 beds from 15 providers (4 NHS) for a population of 9,323,570 (with 47,583 deaths annually).•SPC in London sees more non-cancer patients than is reported nationally; 79% of hospital advisory, 74% of community, and 88% of hospice in-patient services have higher proportions of non-cancer patients.•Considerable variation in out-of-hours availability of both hospital SPC and community SPC services across London; only 9 of 30 hospital and 17 of 26 community services provide seven-day visiting.•Wide variation in the models of community-based SPC; proportions of community patients attending day services vary from 1 in 4, to 1 in 17, just 13 CCGs have H@H-type provision, with few Rapid Response or Care Coordination services. This detailed survey demonstrates important gaps in availability and provision of SPC services. Recommendations are made for commissioners and

  2. Listening to those on the frontline: service users' experiences of London tuberculosis services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudioni M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Markella Boudioni, Susan McLaren, Ruth Belling, Leslie WoodsInstitute for Leadership and Service Improvement, Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, UKAim: To explore tuberculosis (TB service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision.Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London's TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously.Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users' permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically.Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services' aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals' attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified.Conclusion: This

  3. The role of the IAEA in the London Convention 1972 on Dumping of Wastes at Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telleria, Diego; Berkovsky, Volodymyr; Jova Sed, Luis; Louvat, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was adopted after an Inter-Governmental Conference, held in London in 1972, following the principles for environmental protection enunciated in the Report of the United Nations Conference on Human Environment, held the same year in Stockholm. The IAEA has been involved since the early days of the London Convention when the Contracting Parties designated the IAEA as the competent international authority in matters related to sea disposal of radioactive waste, providing technical advice and services. The IAEA developed, for the Convention, the definition of 'radioactive wastes or radioactive matters unsuitable for dumping at sea' (e.g., high level radioactive waste) and recommended the technical basis applicable by the national authorities to issue special permits for those radioactive materials which could be dumped (mainly low and intermediate level radioactive waste, properly conditioned and 'de minimis' quantities). However, in 1985, based more on political reasons than on the existing radiation protection principles and policies, the Contracting Parties to the London Convention introduced a 'voluntary moratorium' on the disposal of low level radioactive wastes at sea, and later in 1993, a total ban of radioactive waste disposal at sea. The IAEA continues to support the objectives of the London Convention by providing scientific advice. Since 1989, at the request of the Contracting Parties, the IAEA has developed and maintained global databases on radioactive waste disposed of at sea in the past and on accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. The purpose of these databases is to serve as the basis for radiological impact assessment on the marine environment. The last revised reports on the above mentioned inventories were published in 1999 and in 2001 respectively. The databases are currently in the process of being updated. The paper presents

  4. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  5. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  6. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Kathryn

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Inventory of Radioactive Material Resulting from Historical Dumping, Accidents and Losses at Sea. For the Purposes of the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    The IAEA was requested by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) and the 1996 Protocol (London Protocol) to develop and maintain an inventory of radioactive material entering directly into the ocean from all human made origins. The intent in producing such an inventory is to establish a record of past waste dumping and of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material, based on official reports, for use as an information base for the assessment of the impact of radionuclide sources in the marine environment, when deemed necessary. To respond to the request of the London Convention and Protocol, the IAEA has undertaken the development of the inventory to include radioactive waste resulting from dumping at sea, and accidents and losses which occurred at sea and involved radioactive material. The first IAEA report on this subject, Inventory of Radioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment: Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste (IAEA-TECDOC-588), was published in 1991. The report was subsequently revised to include information provided by the Russian Federation regarding waste dumping operations conducted by the former Soviet Union in the Arctic and North-west Pacific Seas and some additional information provided by Sweden and the United Kingdom. The revised report, Inventory of Radioactive Waste Disposals at Sea (IAEA-TECDOC-1105), was published in 1999. A report on the information available at the IAEA on such incidents was published in 2001 as Inventory of Accidents and Losses at Sea Involving Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1242). The present publication updates and combines IAEA-TECDOCs 1105 and 1242. It describes the contents of the inventory on waste dumping, accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. In order to prepare the publication, the IAEA, in cooperation with the International Maritime Organization (IMO), conducted a

  8. Dentists with enhanced skills (Special Interest) in Endodontics: gatekeepers views in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotane, Swapnil G; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Kendall, Nick; Robertson, Claire; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2015-09-21

    Dentists with a special interest hold enhanced skills enabling them to treat cases of intermediate complexity. The aim of this study was to explore primary dental care practitioners' views of dentists with a special interest (DwSIs) in Endodontics in London, with reference to an educational and service initiative established by (the former) London Deanery in conjunction with the NHS. A cross-sectional postal survey of primary care dentists working across different models of care within London was conducted, with a target to achieve views of at least 5 % of London's dentists. The questionnaire instrument was informed by qualitative research and the dental literature and piloted prior to distribution; data were analysed using SPSS v19 and STATA v12.0. Six per cent of London's primary care dentists (n = 243) responded to the survey; 53 % were male. Just over one third (37 %; n = 90) were aware of the DwSI service being provided. Most practitioners reported that having access to a DwSI in Endodontics would support the care of their patients (89 %; n = 215), would carry out more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care if adequately reimbursed (93 %; n = 220), and had more time (76 %; n = 180). Female respondents appeared to be less confident in doing endodontic treatment (p = 0.001). More recently qualified respondents reported greater need for training/support for performing more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.001), were more dissatisfied with access to endodontic service in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.007) and more interested to train as a DwSI in endodontics (p = 0.001) compared with respondents having a greater number of years of clinical experience since qualification. The findings lend support to the concept of developing dentists with enhanced skills as well as ensuring additional funding, time and support to facilitate more routine endodontics through the NHS primary care to meet

  9. Robyn Longhurst: Maternities. Gender, Bodies and Space. London: Routledge 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Strüver

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Band Maternities ergänzt die humangeographischen Auseinandersetzungen mit den Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Körpern und Räumen durch die Betrachtung des Aspekts der Mutterschaft. Die Aufsatzsammlung schließt theoretisch-konzeptionell wie methodisch an die „feminist poststructuralist theory that holds on firmly to materiality“ an. Entsprechend ist das Erkenntnisinteresse der einzelnen Beiträge auf die Schnittstelle von Materialität und Diskursivität gerichtet sowie auf die Durchkreuzung weiterer mit dem Thema Mutterschaft verbundener Dualismen (z.B. die Entgegensetzung von privaten Haus- und institutionalisierten Hospitalgeburten. Die Stärken des Buches liegen in der De-Naturalisierung von Mütterlichkeit und den vermeintlich dazugehörigen Körperlichkeiten; leider wird dies nur andeutungsweise um die Frage nach der Konstitution von Räumlichkeit(en erweitert.The volume Maternities adds to the debate in human geography on the correlation between bodies and spaces through the examination of aspects of motherhood. The collection of essays sees itself as an addition – in theory, concept, and method – to the “feminist poststructuralist theory that holds on firmly to materiality.” In keeping with this, the individual essays focus on the intersection between materiality and discursiveness as well as between those dualisms connected to the topic of motherhood (for example, the opposition between private home births and institutionalized hospital births. The strengths of the book lie in the de-naturalization of motherliness and the corporeality that supposedly belongs to it; unfortunately, the application of the question to the constitution of spaces is only hinted at.

  10. Impact of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the Public Health Laboratory London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K; Sinclair, C; McEwan, R; Fleet, K; Balasegaram, S; Manuel, R

    2014-07-01

    Planning for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at the Public Health Laboratory London was based on the requirement to meet potential increased demand with scalable capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services during the Games period. Retrospective cross-sectional time-series data analysis was used to assess the number of gastrointestinal specimens received in the laboratory and the number of positive results. There was no increase in the number of gastrointestinal specimens received during the Games period, thus the Games had no impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the laboratory. There was a decrease in the number of public health specimens received for culture [incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-0.86, P = 0.02] and a decrease in the number of culture positive community specimens (odds ratio = 0.59, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.85, P = 0.005), suggesting a decrease in gastrointestinal illness during the Games period. As previous planning assumptions were not based on actual specimen activity, the results of this study may modify the extent of additional planning for microbiological services required for mass gatherings. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  12. The Frontier Speaks Back: Two Australian Artists Working in Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Margaret Speck

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian artists living and working in Paris and London in the Belle Époque and modern eras had a deep engagement with cosmopolitanism in cities that were at the frontiers of international modernism. They experienced the liberation of putting aside issues of nation, and of working in large, alienating but culturally challenging multi-nation environs in the pre and post war years. This paper will explore how two women artists, Hilda Rix in Paris, a hub of internationalism; and Nora Heysen in London, a city ill-described in the Empire language of ‘home’ for Australians, connected with and articulated cosmopolitan culture. Expatriatism facilitated an offshore variant of Australian modernism.

  13. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  14. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian, E-mail: liuwjbdf@gmail.com [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same “direct relativistic mapping” between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  15. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content...... analyzed. The results show that consultants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges before the Olympics (e.g. negotiating your role) and Challenges during the Olympics (e.g. dealing with the media......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  16. Singularity of the London penetration depth at quantum critical points in superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Swingle, Brian; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-10-11

    We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with Z2 fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2 [K. Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)].

  17. From Sanctuaries to Prefigurative Social Change: Creating Health-Enabling Spaces in East London Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine A. Guerlain

    2016-05-01

    for effective community mobilization. AIDS Care, 22(Suppl. 2, 1569-1579; and a discussion of how creating these spaces is an act of prefigurative social change. Our findings suggest that in East London, participation in community gardens is not based on a common political intention or self-conscious motive to prefigure a new society, but instead on the shared practice of gardening. This results in unintended benefits that often address participants’ personal adversities in ways that contribute to the material, relational and symbolic deprivation of their daily lives – opening up new possibilities for being, seeing and doing. In this sense, community gardens in East London offer an alternative to traditional notions of prefigurative social action that are predicated on strategic intention. We argue for an understanding of prefiguration that better accounts for what participants themselves would like to achieve in their own lives, rather than in relation to externally imposed notions of what counts as political change.

  18. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  19. Improving mental health knowledge of the Charedi Orthodox Jewish Community in North London: A partnership project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Aradhana; Gardener, Chelsea; Dove, Jonathan; Eiger, Yocheved; Loewenthal, Kate

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a successful community-based partnership project between statutory and third-sector services targeting the strictly Orthodox Jewish community (OJC). The City and Hackney Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Access Service (East London NHS Foundation Trust (ELFT)) collaborated with Bikur Cholim, a local third-sector organisation based in the heart of a north London Charedi OJC, to develop a brief culturally tailored psychoeducational group intervention focusing on mental health promotion and prevention. In total, 34 carers in the Charedi OJC were provided with general information on mental health, the availability of support services and self-care. Overall improvements in well-being, increased intentions to access services, particularly talking therapies, and qualitative feedback indicated that the group was very well received. The project endorses the value of culturally relevant psychoeducation, enabling suggestions for culturally appropriate service development.

  20. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  1. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Atkinson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Location Native Advisory Boards vacillated between opposition to the white patriarchal order and compliance with it. Towards the late 1950s, the political climate became ever more polarized. The paper draws on archival sources from East London to show that patriarchalism, as a moral system, was sufficiently robust to accommodate a variety of viewpoints, within the white and black communities. But as violent resistance took its toll during the 1950s, more coercive forms of paternalism came increasingly to the fore.

  2. Stinking Foreshore to Tree Lined Avenue: Investigating the Riverine Lives Impacted by the Construction of the Thames Embankments in Victorian London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Louise Steyne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Victorian London saw dramatic physical changes along the river Thames. Large enclosed Docks and Thames Embankments were constructed as the city struggled to cope with its ballooning population and prospering shipping industry. Whilst the Thames Embankments have been hailed as engineering triumphs, the fate of those whose livelihood relied on access to the river in central London (such as wharf workers, barge, ferry and lighter men, and others is unknown. In order to investigate the impact of the Embankment, a methodology has been developed which enables characterisation of a large swathe of urban riverside throughout the mid- to late 19th century, whilst also ensuring that the stories of individuals and communities are not lost. The approach combines and adapts established methodologies, such as Historic Landscape/Seascape Characterisation and Maritime Cultural Landscapes, to understand the nature and changes in the urban riverside landscape. This methodology forms the background for detailed research on smaller sites, such as a single street, housing block, or industrial site, in order to create ‘Ethnographies of Place’. These small-scale ‘Ethnographies’ have the potential to tell stories about how the social and economic circumstances of individuals and communities changed as a result of the landscape changes associated with the Embankment construction. This paper presents the initial work to establish the methodology and preliminary conclusions based on key sources.

  3. Evidence of skeletal treponematosis from the medieval burial ground of St. Mary Spital, London, and implications for the origins of the disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Don; Powers, Natasha; Connell, Brian; Redfern, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Treponematosis is a syndrome of chronic infectious diseases. There has been much debate on its origins and spread, particularly with regard to venereal syphilis, an unsightly and debilitating disease in preantibiotic populations. The osteological analysis of 5,387 individuals excavated by Museum of London Archaeology from the medieval burial ground of St. Mary Spital in London (dated c 1120-1539) provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the nature and prevalence of disease over a period of time. Twenty-five individuals were found with suspected treponematosis, originating from all but the earliest period of the burial ground. Descriptions of affected individuals from each period, together with supporting images, are provided. In this work, particular emphasis was given to the distribution of lesions on the skeleton and the variation in patterns by sex and over time. Little change was observed in the distribution of bony change between individuals dated to pre- and post-Columbian periods. However, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of the disease in the final period (c 1400-1539) may reflect documentary reports of a European epidemic from the late 15th century. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clostridium perfringens in London, July 2009: two weddings and an outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, J.; Zenner, D.; Anderson, S. R.; Grant, K.; Kumar, D.

    2010-01-01

    : Food poisoning outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin occur occasionally in Europe but have become less common in recent years. This paper presents the microbiological and epidemiological results of a large C. perfringens outbreak occurring simultaneously at two weddings that used the same caterer. The outbreak involved several London locations and required coordination across multiple agencies. A case-control study (n=134) was carried out to analyse possible associations b...

  5. Colour magnetic currents and the dual London equation in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, P.; Faber, M.; Zach, M.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a method for the determination of magnetic currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the Gauss law and the dual London equation in a gauge-invariant formulation. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic Monopoles and the Dual London Equation in SU(3) Lattice Gauge Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Peter; Faber, Manfried; Zach, Martin

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method for the determination of magnetic monopole currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the Gauss law and the dual London equation in a gauge invariant formulation.

  7. Drawing from Fancy: The Intersection of Art and Design in Mid-Eighteenth-Century London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puetz, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to bring the world of mid-eighteenth-century British design into fruitful conversation with contemporary art theory and practice. Taking the neighbourhood and milieu of the St Martin's Lane area in London as a starting point, I investigate connections between British "rococo" design and William Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty in terms of shared formal values and contemporary implications of "modernity". I argue for a mutual indebtedness rather than "art" directing "design".

  8. Eating and drinking habits of young London-based Irish men: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Aidan; Ciclitira, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London about their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using combined thematic and discourse analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for not adopting healthy eating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking. Views about the status of different foods also affected their eating habits: they considered red mea...

  9. Dealing with risk: Underwriting sovereign bond issues in London 1870-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Anders L.

    2014-01-01

    Using the records of several leading 19th century issuing houses, this paper analyses the transformation of underwriting practices in London's primary sovereign bond market from 1870 to 1914. It shows how underwriting risk developed from being a liability, which market intermediaries sought to avoid, to becoming a valuable financial commodity. The impetus for this development was increased competition in the loan business from the 1880s onwards, which weakened the negotiating position of issu...

  10. Southbank Skateboarding, London and Urban Culture: the Undercroft, Hungerford Bridge and House of Vans

    OpenAIRE

    Borden, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two years, skateboarding space in London has been subject to considerable controversy, debate and development. This chapter looks at 3 different spaces at or near London’s Southbank Centre to explore the connection between skateboarding and wider societal conditions in this city: the ‘Undercroft’ at the Southbank Centre itself; the proposed ‘Hungerford Bridge’ skate space; the nearby ‘House of Vans’ venue. Overall, the chapter shows how skateboarding is now becoming an ever more...

  11. An Interview with Masoud Yazdani, editor of London-based Intellect Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sean Scanlan conducted an email interview with Masoud Yazdani, the editor of Intellect Books, an independent academic publisher in the fields of creative practice and popular culture, whose aim is to publish scholarly books and journals that provide a vital space for widening critical debate in new and emerging subjects. An Interview with Masoud Yazdani, editor of London-based Intellect Books by Sean Scanlan.

  12. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine, Daniel; Hillson, Simon

    2004-01-01

    In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died dur...

  13. A Typical Model Audit Approach: Spreadsheet Audit Methodologies in the City of London

    OpenAIRE

    Croll, Grenville J.

    2007-01-01

    Spreadsheet audit and review procedures are an essential part of almost all City of London financial transactions. Structured processes are used to discover errors in large financial spreadsheets underpinning major transactions of all types. Serious errors are routinely found and are fed back to model development teams generally under conditions of extreme time urgency. Corrected models form the essence of the completed transaction and firms undertaking model audit and review expose themselve...

  14. Transnational Migration, Integration, and Identity:\\ud A Study of Kurdish Diaspora in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ata, Ayar

    2017-01-01

    To understand the Kurdish diaspora in London requires answering two interrelated questions of Kurdish forced migration history and Kurdish cultural identity. Thus, this study firstly examines the history of Kurdish forced migration and displacement, exploring a common historical argument which positions the Kurds as powerless victims of the First World War (WW1). To this end it looks critically at the post-WW1 era and the development of the modern nation state in the Middle East, namely Turke...

  15. Enforcing planning regulations in areas of high immigration: a case study of London

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Neil

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between immigration and compliance with planning regulations using data from interviews and a focus group with senior planning enforcement officers in London. The data reveal distinctive issues that arise for immigrants’ compliance with planning regulations; specific types of residential, commercial and cultural breach that occur with immigration; and operational issues that arise when investigating and resolving planning breaches involving immigrant communit...

  16. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    D Atkinson

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Loc...

  17. The establishment of histology in the curriculum of the London medical schools:1826-1886.

    OpenAIRE

    Bracegirdle, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis sets out the way in which histology became established in the curriculum of the London medical schools between 1826 and 1886. The text provides a very large number of references to original material, some of it previously unreported. Histology had its origins in continental Europe in the early years of the nineteenth century, in the work of Bichat. The introductory chapter examines how this was translated both as to language and as to practical experience into En...

  18. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis among immigrants of Somalian ethnic origin in London: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, N; Shemko, M; Abbas, A

    2004-03-01

    The objectives were to study knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding tuberculosis (TB) among Somalian subjects in inner London. We administered structured, fixed response KAP questionnaires to 23 patients (culture proved TB), and two groups of controls: 25 contacts (family members) and 27 lay controls (general Somali immigrant population). Responses were summed on a five-point scale. Most were aware of the infectious nature of TB but uncertain of other risk factors. Many were uncertain about coping with the disease and its effect on lifestyle. Belief in biomedicine for TB was unequivocal with men having a significantly higher belief score than women (p = 0.02); the need to comply with TB medication was unambiguously understood. Somalians interviewed were educated, multilingual, and aware of important health issues. Uncertainties in core TB knowledge need to be addressed with direct educational input, especially in women and recent entrants into the country. Volunteers from the established Somalian community could play a valuable part as links in the community to fight TB.

  20. Model Making and Anti-Competitive Practices in the Late Eighteenth-Century London Sculpture Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craske, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of anti-competitive practices, and the associated discontents, that rose to the fore in the London sculpture trade in the late eighteenth century (1770-1799. It charts the business strategies and technical procedures of the most economically successful practitioners, whose workshops had some of the characteristics of manufactories, and whose critics accused them of conducting a "monopoly" trade. Small-scale practitioners lost out in the competition for great public contracts on account of their design processes and their inability to represent any manifestation of "establishment". A combination of three factors increased the gap between a handful of powerful "manufacturers" and the rest of the trade: the foundation of the Royal Academy, shifts in the ways designs were evaluated, and a growing number of very lucrative contracts for public sculpture. I conclude that such were the discontents within the London trade that by the 1790s, there was a marked tendency for practitioners who were not manufacturers to be attracted to democratic political movements, to the Wilkite call for liberty and the rise of civic radicalism in the merchant population of London.

  1. Prise en compte des ``courants de London'' dans la modélisation des supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossavit, Alain

    1997-10-01

    A model is given, in variational form, in which volumic “Bean currents”, ruled by Bean's law, and surface “London currents” coexist. This macroscopic model generalizes Bean's one, by appending to the critical density j_c a second parameter, with the dimension of a length, similar to London's depth λ. The one-dimensional version of the model is investigated, in order to link this parameter with the standard observable H-M characteristics On propose un modèle, sous forme variationnelle, associant des “courants de Bean” volumiques, décrits par la loi de Bean, et des “courants de London”, surfaciques. Ce modèle macroscopique généralise celui de Bean, caractérisé par le courant critique j_c, et fait intervenir un second paramètre, homogène à une longueur, analogue au λ de London. La version unidimensionnelle du modèle est étudiée en détail de manière à relier ce paramètre à l'observation des caractéristiques H-M usuelles.

  2. Asthma length of stay in hospitals in London 2001-2006: demographic, diagnostic and temporal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneous N Soyiri

    Full Text Available Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st January 2001 and 31(st December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001 to 10,554 (2006, but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001. Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.

  3. Asthma length of stay in hospitals in London 2001-2006: demographic, diagnostic and temporal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s) of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001) to 10,554 (2006), but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001). Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.

  4. Impact of Air Temperature on London Ambulance Call-Out Incidents and Response Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliyyah A. Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambulance services are in operation around the world and yet, until recently, ambulance data has only been used for operational purposes rather than for assessing public health. Ambulance call-out data offers new and valuable (near real-time information that can be used to assess the impact of environmental conditions, such as temperature, upon human health. A detailed analysis of London ambulance data at a selection of dates between 2003 and 2015 is presented and compared to London temperature data. In London, the speed of ambulance response begins to suffer when the mean daily air temperature drops below 2 °C or rises above 20 °C. This is explained largely by the increased number of calls past these threshold temperatures. The baseline relationships established in this work will inform the prediction of likely changes in ambulance demand (and illness types that may be caused by seasonal temperature changes and the increased frequency and intensity of extreme/severe weather events, exacerbated by climate change, in the future.

  5. Evaluating the use of an urban consolidation centre and electric vehicles in central London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Browne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the role that can be played by urban consolidation centres (UCCs in reducing freight traffic and its environmental impacts in towns and cities. It is based on the before and after evaluation of a trial led by a major stationery and office supplies company in which urban freight deliveries in central London made from a depot in the suburbs using diesel vehicles were replaced with the use of an urban micro-consolidation centre located in the delivery area together with the use of electrically-assisted cargo tricycles and electric vans. The results show that the total distance travelled and the CO2eq emissions per parcel delivered fell by 20% and 54% respectively as a result of this delivery system. However, the evaluation has also indicated that the distance travelled per parcel rose substantially in the City of London delivery area as a result of the electric vehicles having far smaller load limits in both weight and volume compared with diesel vans. But, at the same time, the trial system was able to virtually eliminate CO2eq emissions per parcel delivered in the City of London. The trial proved successful from the company's perspective in transport, environmental and financial terms. The company therefore decided to continue the operation beyond the end of the trial with it being officially launched during 2010.

  6. ‘To the great public’: The Architectural Image in the Early Illustrated London News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hultzsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 'Illustrated London News', launched in May 1842 as the first illustrated newspaper and quickly copied across Europe, North America and beyond, was full of architectural images. New buildings, ancient ruins, construction sites, royal visits, wars, theatre performances, exotic expeditions, historical essays and innumerable other subjects gave occasion to feature the built, whether for its own sake or as background setting. Images and texts were produced and consumed with an urge and at a speed never seen before. The building, through the illustrated press, left the static confines of the book and the framed print and became peopled by the purposeful bourgeoisie. Through a close analysis of a range of articles on the new Royal Exchange, the refurbished London Colosseum as well as the Queen’s Scotland tour, this essay explores the role of the architectural image in the illustrated press by focusing on its relationship to the accompanying text. Untangling the mechanics of representation and perception, it identifies modes of intellectual, affective, and kinetic vision through which architecture was represented to the remote reading public. By externalising and stabilising vision, the 'Illustrated London News' thus created a virtual public sphere in which the dramatic technological and material changes occurring in the period could be absorbed and normalized.

  7. Time-dependent London approach: Dissipation due to out-of-core normal excitations by moving vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    The dissipative currents due to normal excitations are included in the London description. The resulting time-dependent London equations are solved for a moving vortex and a moving vortex lattice. It is shown that the field distribution of a moving vortex loses its cylindrical symmetry. It experiences contraction that is stronger in the direction of the motion than in the direction normal to the velocity v . The London contribution of normal currents to dissipation is small relative to the Bardeen-Stephen core dissipation at small velocities, but it approaches the latter at high velocities, where this contribution is no longer proportional to v2. To minimize the London contribution to dissipation, the vortex lattice is oriented so as to have one of the unit cell vectors along the velocity. This effect is seen in experiments and predicted within the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  8. Measurements of free radicals in a megacity during the Clean Air for London Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Dwayne; Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Clancy, Noel; Lee, James; Kleffman, Jorg; Laufs, Sebastian; Bandy, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Free radicals control the photo-oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3, multifunctional species and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals and OH reactivity recorded at North Kensington, Central London, during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of the Clear Air for London (Clearflo) project in the summer and winter of 2012. OH and HO2 were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy at low pressure (the FAGE technique), and RO2 was measured using the recently developed ROXLIF technique, which utilises an external flow-reactor interfaced to FAGE, and which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals. Through control of reagent gases we are further able to provide a separate measurement of those RO2 species which are known to give an interference for HO2 measurements (namely alkene, aromatic and large-chain alkane derived RO2). OH reactivity was measured using laser-flash photolysis combined with FAGE. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the winter IOP, with mixing ratios of [OH] ~ 0.04 pptv, [HO2] ~ 0.4 pptv, and [RO2] ~ 1.6 pptv at noon, all displaying a negative correlation with NO. The photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O vapour was only a minor contribution to radical production in winter, with photolysis of HONO a major radical source. The summer IOP coincided with the London Olympic Games, with a number of pollution events, with ozone peaking at 100 ppbv (exceeding EU air quality directives) and elevated radical concentrations (peak [OH] ~ 0.14 pptv, [HO2] ~ 4 pptv, [RO2] ~ 6.4 pptv) being observed. The net rate of ozone production was calculated from radical observations and agreed well with measured ozone production, suggesting that advection/dilution by continental air-masses was not playing a significant role in determining ozone

  9. London Calling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Lisbeth Rieshøj

    2008-01-01

    The above contribution appears in Down The Block: An Anthology of City Life; available at http://www.lulu.com/content/4462396. In this anthology, new authors and bloggers react to life in cities throughout the world. With a foreword by Mary Beard, Cambridge University Professor and Times Literary...

  10. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  11. A comparison of outcome for stroke patients in Barbados and South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeton, Nigel C; Corbin, David O C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Fraser, Henry S; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the poststroke outcome in Caribbean populations. We investigated differences in the activities of daily living, level of social activities, living circumstances and survival for stroke patients in Barbados and London. Data were collected from the South London Stroke Register and the Barbados Register of Strokes for patients with a first-ever stroke registered between January 2001 and December 2004. The ability to perform activities of daily living was measured by the Barthel Index and level of social activities by the Frenchay Activities Index. Living circumstances were categorised into private household vs. institutional care. Death and dependency, activities of daily living and social activities were assessed at three-months, one- and two-years using logistic regression, adjusted for differences in demographic, socioeconomic and stroke severity characteristics. At three-months, a high level of social activities was more likely for the Barbados Register of Strokes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.29); there were no differences in activities of daily living; and Barbados Register of Strokes patients were less likely to be in institutional care (relative risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.79). Following adjustment, Barbados Register of Strokes patients had a higher risk of mortality at three-months (relative risk ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.30), one-year (relative risk ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.09) and two-years (relative risk ratio 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.07). This difference was due to early poststroke deaths; for patients alive at four-weeks poststroke, survival thereafter was similar in both settings. In Barbados, there was evidence for a healthy survivor effect, and short-term social activity was greater than that in the South London Stroke Register. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2010 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Impact of the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games on physical activity of rheumatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müther, Michael; Williamson, Marie; Williamson, Lyn

    2014-10-01

    Lack of physical activity in the general population is one of the biggest health challenges we face. For rheumatology patients, and other patients with chronic disease, exercise is an essential part of disease management. However, very few patients exercise effectively.One of the aspirations of the London 2012 Olympic/Paralympic Games was to catalyze people into long-term physical activity. We surveyed our rheumatology patients at 3 high-profile times in the year after the Olympics. Two hundred fifty-three patients were enrolled within the study; the largest diagnosis subgroup being rheumatoid arthritis (36%). Ninety-five percent of our patients regard exercise as beneficial; 36% still think it does harm. Most common barriers to exercise were pain (53%), tiredness (44%), and lack of time (36%). Forty-five percent exercise daily, mostly just walking. Twnety-seven patients (16%) were motivated by the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games toward physical activity. They were mostly motivated by athletics' individual stories (67%), taking part in a big sports festival (11%) and demonstration of top sporting levels (4%). Eighteen patients in total (7%) increased their amount of exercise in response to the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. There was no difference between patient diagnostic groups. Only a small minority of patients increased their amount of exercise in response to the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The message about the importance of physical exercise to health needs to be clear, unambiguous, and consistent, because a significant number of patients still think that physical activity does harm. Big sporting events such as the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games can be used as an opportunity to remind patients that physical activity does good and is not harmful. Athletes' individual stories could be used in future as part of a strategy to encourage exercise for all patients.

  13. Assessing support for supervised injection services among community stakeholders in London, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardwell, Geoff; Scheim, Ayden; Mitra, Sanjana; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Few qualitative studies have examined support for supervised injection services (SIS), and these have been restricted to large cities. This study aimed to assess support for SIS among a diverse representation of community stakeholders in London, a mid-sized city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. This qualitative study was undertaken as part of the Ontario Integrated Supervised Injection Services Feasibility Study. We used purposive sampling methods to recruit a diversity of key informants (n=20) from five sectors: healthcare; social services; government and municipal services; police and emergency services; and the business and community sector. Interview data, collected via one-to-one semi structured interviews, were coded and analyzed using thematic analyses through NVivo 10 software. Interview participants unanimously supported the implementation of SIS in London. However, participant support for SIS was met with some implementation-related preferences and/or conditions. These included centralization or decentralization of SIS; accessibility of SIS for people who inject drugs; proximity of SIS to interview participants; and other services and strategies offered alongside SIS. The results of this study challenge the assumptions that smaller cities like London may be unlikely to support SIS. Community stakeholders were supportive of the implementation of SIS with some preferences or conditions. Interview participants had differing perspectives, but ultimately supported similar end goals of accessibility and reducing community harms associated with injection drug use. Future research and SIS programming should consider these factors when determining optimal service delivery in ways that increase support from a diversity of community stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Haunting Presence of the Feminine: Virginia Woolf in the Streets of London

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Pantuchowicz

    2017-01-01

    Beginning with the theme of the location of haunting in Gothic interiors and the confusion of life and death and the “sub-central” positioning of the feminine as the hidden source of fearfulness, the paper analyzes Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting: A London Adventure” as an example of a narrative written from the position of the haunting in which the figure of fearful feminine is transformed into a “hauntess” participating in the public world on equal rights with others. Woolf’s text, though...

  15. An EPR methodology for measuring the London penetration depth for the ceramic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvin, B.; Mahl, T. A.; Dalal, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    The use is discussed of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a quick and easily accessible method for measuring the London penetration depth, lambda for the high T(sub c) superconductors. The method utilizes the broadening of the EPR signal, due to the emergence of the magnetic flux lattice, of a free radical adsorbed on the surface of the sample. The second moment, of the EPR signal below T(sub c) is fitted to the Brandt equation for a simple triangular lattice. The precision of this method compares quite favorably with those of the more standard methods such as micro sup(+)SR, Neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility.

  16. CHAT 2013: Experience, University College London, 8–10 November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Philip Sterling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For ten years now CHAT (Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory has set out to challenge assumptions around the archaeology of the recent past with a series of thought provoking thematic conferences. This year, the 11th  annual CHAT Conference was held at University College London and jointly organised by the Institute of Archaeology and Atkins,1  with a broad focus on the topic of ‘experience.’ Over three days, established academics, early career researchers and practicing heritage professionals from across the world offered up their take on this sometimes nebulous theme. The results were - in turn - captivating, frustrating, enlightening and provocative, but never boring.

  17. Estimation of the gender pay gap in London and the UK - an econometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Margarethe Theseira; Leticia Veruete-McKay

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the gender pay gap in London and the UK based on Labour Force Survey data 2002/03. Our approach decomposes the mean average wages of men and women into two parts (a) Differences in individual and job characteristics between men and women (such as age, number of children, qualification, ethnicity, region of residence, working in the public or private sector, working part-time or full-time, industry, occupation and size of company) (b) Unequal treatment and/or unexplained factors. S...

  18. Your name is not good enough: introducing the ORCID researcher identifier at Imperial College London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Reimer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ORCID researcher identifier ensures that research outputs can always reliably be traced back to their authors. ORCID also makes it possible to automate the sharing of research information, thereby increasing data quality, reducing duplication of effort for academics and saving institutions money. In 2014, Imperial College London created ORCID identifiers (iDs for academic and research staff. This article discusses the implementation project in the context of the role of ORCID in the global scholarly communications system. It shows how ORCID can be used to automate reporting, help with research data publication and support open access (OA.

  19. Magnetic monopoles and the dual London equation in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, P.; Faber, M.; Zach, M.

    1996-01-01

    The dual superconductor model of confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories is studied in a gauge invariant formulation. We propose a method for the determination of magnetic monopole currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the dual London equation in a gauge invariant formulation. (orig.)

  20. The “School Foodshed”: schools and fast-food outlets in a London borough

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.; Lloyd, S.; Madelin, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the location of fast-food outlets around secondary schools and the influence of fast-food availability on the food choices of school children in an inner-London borough. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A number of methods including: mapping of outlets relative to schools; sampling food; gathering data on secondary school food policies; observing food behaviour in fast food outlets and focus groups with young people. Findings were fed bac...

  1. Sustainable cities: A research by McKinsey and Siemens on sustainable development in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denig, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The research Sustainable Urban Infrastructure conducted by McKinsey and Company and Siemens assesses technological levers of varying effectiveness, and with different cost implications, which can all contribute to greater environmental sustainability in cities, drawing in particular on the example of London. It's the first comprehensive research focusing on technological and economic implications of a city's infrastructure management in the fields of energy, buildings and transportation. The encouraging message is that many of the levers to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in urban agglomerations not only help protect the environment, but also pay back from an economic point of view.

  2. Diaspora and peer support working: benefits of and challenges for the Butabika–East London Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Dave; Aligawesa, Mariam; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Hall, Cerdic; Kyaligonza, David; Mpango, Richard; Mulimira, Moses; Boardman, Jed

    2015-01-01

    The International Health Partnership (‘the Link’) between the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Butabika Hospital in Uganda was set up in 2005. It has facilitated staff exchanges and set up many workstreams (e.g. in child and adolescent psychiatry, nursing and psychology) and projects (e.g. a peer support worker project and a violence reduction programme). The Link has been collaborative and mutually beneficial. The authors describe benefits and challenges at individual and organisational levels. Notably, the Link has achieved a commitment to service user involvement and an increasingly central involvement of the Ugandan diaspora working in mental health in the UK. PMID:29093835

  3. Diaspora and peer support working: benefits of and challenges for the Butabika-East London Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Dave; Aligawesa, Mariam; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Hall, Cerdic; Kyaligonza, David; Mpango, Richard; Mulimira, Moses; Boardman, Jed

    2015-02-01

    The International Health Partnership ('the Link') between the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Butabika Hospital in Uganda was set up in 2005. It has facilitated staff exchanges and set up many workstreams (e.g. in child and adolescent psychiatry, nursing and psychology) and projects (e.g. a peer support worker project and a violence reduction programme). The Link has been collaborative and mutually beneficial. The authors describe benefits and challenges at individual and organisational levels. Notably, the Link has achieved a commitment to service user involvement and an increasingly central involvement of the Ugandan diaspora working in mental health in the UK.

  4. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.

  5. Social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games: a lecturers' and students' perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantaki, Maria; Faculty of Business at Akdeniz University; School of Sport, Leisure and Travel at Buckinghamshire New University

    2009-01-01

    Hosting the Olympic Games is often viewed as a means of raising a nation’s sporting profile as well as a tool for economic development, social regeneration and cultural integration. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of lecturers and students in higher education on the social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games. A purposive sample of one hundred respondents (lecturers, n=30; students, n=70) was used. 73.5 per cent of respondents were male and 32.5 per ce...

  6. The trypanosomatid evolution workshop London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Jamie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The trypanosome evolution workshop, a joint meeting of the University of Exeter and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, focused on topics relating to trypanosomatid and vector evolution. The meeting, sponsored by The Wellcome Trust, The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Disease of World Health Organization and the British Section of the Society of Protozoologists, brought together an international group of experts who presented papers on a wide range of topics including parasite and vector phylogenies, molecular methodology and relevant biogeographical data.

  7. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antoine

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died during the Black Death.

  8. Acheronta movebo. Resilencia y revolución en The Mexican (1911 de Jack London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González de la Fuente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo maneja uno de los relatos pugilísticos de Jack London, The Mexican (1911, para explorar el mundo del boxeo como lugar público de conflictos sociales e ideológicos identificados y significados en la proteica figura del boxeador. Así pues, el ring es susceptible de devenir y analizarse como un espacio de práctica política, de antagonismo y debate que, en su reglada exposición de violencias carnales y simbólicas, condensa una particular síntesis efectiva de corporalidades y discursos.

  9. Delivering a Paper (and other works) at #LowTechLabLondon2016

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Micheal

    2016-01-01

    Performance 'Delivering a Paper' and screened/presented/exhibited other works such as 'How to Buy Nothing' related to author's interventionist art practice at this three-day event.\\ud \\ud #LowTechLabLondon2016 is a project developed by Raúl Marroquín and coordinated by Daniela Medina Poch for the Educational Program of the Saatchi Gallery that will take place on January 15th, 16th and 17th of 2016.\\ud \\ud “‘LowTech means technology that is cheap or free.”\\ud James Wallback, LowTech Manifest f...

  10. Parent reported sleep problems in preschool children with sickle cell anemia and controls in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Michelle; de Haan, Michelle; Kirkham, Fenella J; Telfer, Paul T

    2017-06-01

    Snoring and poor sleep may affect cognition, particularly in young children with chronic conditions. Parents of London preschoolers with sickle cell anemia (SCA; n = 22), matched controls (n = 24), and unselected typically developing (n = 142) preschoolers completed sleep questionnaires. Preschoolers with SCA had significantly more sleep problems when compared to matched controls and the larger population. Snoring occurred at least one to two nights a week for 79% of the SCA group. This is compared with 25% of matched controls and 33% of larger population. Randomized controlled trials to improve sleep in young children with SCA already at-risk for cognitive dysfunction should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Annotated type catalogue of the Megaspiridae, Orthalicidae, and Simpulopsidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described for 65 taxa of the Orthalicoidea, classified within the families Megaspiridae (14, Orthalicidae (30, and Simpulopsidae (20; one taxon is considered a nomen inquirendum. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Helix brephoides d’Orbigny, 1835; Simpulopsis cumingi Pfeiffer, 1861; Bulimulus (Protoglyptus dejectus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus iris Pfeiffer, 1853. The type status of Bulimus salteri Sowerby III, 1890, and Strophocheilus (Eurytus subirroratus da Costa, 1898 is now changed to lectotype according Art. 74.6 ICZN. The taxa Bulimus loxostomus Pfeiffer, 1853, Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855, Bulimus meobambensis Pfeiffer, 1855, and Orthalicus powissianus var. niveus Preston 1909 are now figured for the first time. The following taxa are now considered junior subjective synonyms: Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Helix (Cochlogena citrinovitrea Moricand, 1836; Vermiculatus Breure, 1978 = Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882. New combinations are: Kuschelenia (Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aequatoria (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aquila (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia badia (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia caliginosa (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia coagulata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901; Clathrorthalicus magnificus (Pfeiffer, 1848; Simpulopsis (Eudioptus marmartensis (Pfeiffer, 1855; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia nucina (Reeve, 1850; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia peaki (Breure, 1978; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Clathrorthalicus phoebus (Pfeiffer, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia polymorpha (d’Orbigny, 1835; Scholvienia porphyria (Pfeiffer, 1847; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia purpurata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia quechuarum Crawford, 1939; Quechua salteri (Sowerby III, 1890; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia subfasciata Pfeiffer, 1853; Clathrorthalicus victor (Pfeiffer, 1854. In an addedum a lectotype is being designated for Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus var. pallidus Preston, 1909. An index is included to all taxa mentioned in this paper and the preceding ones in this series (Breure and Ablett 2011, 2012, 2014.

  12. Comparison and assessment of the participation of Polish swimmers at the Olympic and Paralympic Games in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Seidel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to assess and analyze the results of the Polish national team swimmers (Olympic and Paralympic at the XIV Summer Games 2012 in London (UK . Material : Score Polish swimmers start in London was carried out on the basis of medals won, participation in the finals. London also comparing the results with respect to the personal life record. The studies used the method of improving the outcome of the relative percentages - RPG% (relative performance gain %. It is based on the equation of RPG% = start time - end time / start time x 100. Material was to analyze and develop the results obtained by the Polish swimmers at the XIV Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012 in London. Results : the basic criterion for evaluating the training and participation of Polish swimmers at the games in London was the number of medals won. By this criterion, the Poles showed a rather weak result. Healthy athletes do not receive medals. Thus, they confirmed their poor showing four years ago. Athletes with disabilities unable to get on the podium three times. In relation to the previous games (they won 10 medals the result was rather weak. Conclusions : in terms of participation in the Olympic finals and improve individual life records, the results were slightly better swimmers with disabilities.

  13. London-born black Caribbean children are at increased risk of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H C; Pembroke, A C; Forsdyke, H; Boodoo, G; Hay, R J; Burney, P G

    1995-02-01

    Previous reports suggest that atopic dermatitis is more common in black Caribbean children born in the United Kingdom than in white children. It is unclear whether these differences are caused by selection bias or variations in the use of the word "eczema" in the groups studied. Our objective was to explore ethnic group differences in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in London schoolchildren. A cross-sectional prevalence survey of 693 junior school children in three schools was performed. Atopic dermatitis was defined in three ways: (1) by a dermatologist, (2) by visible flexural dermatitis as recorded by an independent observer, and (3) by a history of flexural dermatitis according to the child's parents. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis according to examination by a dermatologist was 16.3% in black Caribbean children and 8.7% in white children. This increased risk was present for different methods of defining of a atopic dermatitis and persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. London-born black Caribbean children appear to be at an increased risk of having atopic dermatitis.

  14. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.; Cave, M.R.; Wragg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible Pb and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed for the Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea urban areas in order to assess the potential for developing a national urban bioaccessible Pb dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating the bioaccessibility of Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that the relationship between total Pb and bioaccessible Pb is broadly the same in the four urban areas. The median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38% in Northampton to 68% in London and Swansea. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. - Highlights: ► Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in UK urban topsoils. ► Bootstrap resampling confirms relationship similar in four urban areas. ► Median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38 to 68%. ► Results can be used for initial risk assessment in UK urban areas. - Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in topsoils from four urban areas in the UK.

  15. The Haunting Presence of the Feminine: Virginia Woolf in the Streets of London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pantuchowicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the theme of the location of haunting in Gothic interiors and the confusion of life and death and the “sub-central” positioning of the feminine as the hidden source of fearfulness, the paper analyzes Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting: A London Adventure” as an example of a narrative written from the position of the haunting in which the figure of fearful feminine is transformed into a “hauntess” participating in the public world on equal rights with others. Woolf’s text, though seemingly positing the protagonist in the position of flâneuse, in fact implicitly criticizes flâneuring as a masculine kind of looking and participating in the public space. Taking place away from home, Woolf’s strolling in the streets of London carnivalizes (in the Bakhtinian sense the activity by way of a joyful blurring of the split between the home and the market. Transgressing what Kathryn Simpson calls “the male privilege of the flâneur” (2010, p. 47 and rendering the transgression as haunting, Woolf evades participation in the masculine world of traffic and exchange by way of bringing the space of the Gothic confinement, and also of entombment, to the public.

  16. Forecasting asthma-related hospital admissions in London using negative binomial models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Health forecasting can improve health service provision and individual patient outcomes. Environmental factors are known to impact chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, but little is known about the extent to which these factors can be used for forecasting. Using weather, air quality and hospital asthma admissions, in London (2005-2006), two related negative binomial models were developed and compared with a naive seasonal model. In the first approach, predictive forecasting models were fitted with 7-day averages of each potential predictor, and then a subsequent multivariable model is constructed. In the second strategy, an exhaustive search of the best fitting models between possible combinations of lags (0-14 days) of all the environmental effects on asthma admission was conducted. Three models were considered: a base model (seasonal effects), contrasted with a 7-day average model and a selected lags model (weather and air quality effects). Season is the best predictor of asthma admissions. The 7-day average and seasonal models were trivial to implement. The selected lags model was computationally intensive, but of no real value over much more easily implemented models. Seasonal factors can predict daily hospital asthma admissions in London, and there is a little evidence that additional weather and air quality information would add to forecast accuracy.

  17. Martin Van Butchell (1735-1814): the eccentric, "kook" dentist of old London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    1999-11-01

    This article is a thumbnail sketch of the life and times of Martin Van Butchell (1735-1814), an eccentric, "kook" advertising dentist of Old London. Van Butchell earned these descriptive labels by displaying an unorthodox lifestyle, an outrageous personal appearance and outlandish, extreme and socially unacceptable personal and professional behaviors. While the general populace seemed to be fascinated by his strange ways, dentists and physicians were generally alienated by them. Nevertheless, he was considered a good dentist for his time, and he was extremely popular with his patients. Martin practiced dentistry for 23 years, and he practiced medicine as well, specializing in the treatment of ruptures and anal fistulas. Van Butchell interacted greatly with both John and William Hunter, who became two of the most famous and talented physicians, surgeons, anatomists and biologists of all time. When his first wife, Mary died, Martin arranged for her body to be embalmed and publicly displayed in his dental office for advertising purposes. Her preserved body was shown at the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons (London), until it was destroyed by a German fire bomb in May, 1941. Mary's remains were on public display for a total of 166 years.

  18. Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, P A; Gray, S; Gilmore, A B; Daykin, N

    2006-06-01

    To examine knowledge, attitudes and experiences of London casino workers regarding exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace. Postal survey of 1568 London casino workers in 25 casinos who were members of the TGWU or GMB Trade Unions. Of the workers, 559 responded to the survey (36% response), 22% of whom were current smokers. Of the respondents, 71% report being nearly always exposed to heavy levels of SHS at work, and most (65%) want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. The majority (78%) are bothered by SHS at work, while 91% have wanted to move away from where they are working because of it. Fifty-seven per cent believe their health has suffered as a result of SHS. Of the workers who smoke at work, 59% believe that they would try to quit smoking if no one was allowed to smoke in the casino. The majority of responders are bothered by SHS, and many are concerned about the health impacts. Most want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. Despite difficulties in generalizing from this limited sample, these findings add weight to the argument that the legislation on smoking in public places in England should encompass all workplaces, without exemption.

  19. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Imaging services at the Paralympic Games London 2012: analysis of demand and distribution of workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethapudi, Sarath; Campbell, Robert S D; Budgett, Richard; Willick, Stuart E; Van de Vliet, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Very little data have been published on medical imaging services at disability games. 7.9 million euros (£6.6 million, US$11 million) were invested in setting up radiology facilities within purpose built polyclinics at the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games. This paper details imaging services at the 2012 Paralympic Games. Data analysis on imaging at 2012 Olympics has been published in a separate paper. To analyse the workload on the polyclinics' radiology services, provided for the Paralympic athletes during the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Data were prospectively collected during the period of the Paralympic games from the Picture Archive Communications System (PACS) and the Radiological Information System (RIS). Data were correlated with the medical encounter database (ATOS). 655 imaging episodes were recorded, which comprised 38.8% (n=254) MRI, 33% (n=216) plain radiographs, 24% (n=157) ultrasound scans and 4.2% (n=28) CT scans. Investigations on the Paralympic athletes accounted for 65.2% of workload, with the remainder divided between Paralympic family and workforce. MRI was the most used imaging resource and CT was the least used imaging modality at the Paralympic village polyclinic. Analysis of demographic data provides a useful index for planning radiology infrastructure and manpower at future international competitions for athletes with a disability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Establishing an emergency department syndromic surveillance system to support the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Hughes, Thomas C; Locker, Thomas E; Shannon, Tony; Heyworth, John; Wapling, Andy; Catchpole, Mike; Ibbotson, Sue; McCloskey, Brian; Smith, Gillian E

    2012-12-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is a mass gathering event that will present a major public health challenge. The Health Protection Agency, in collaboration with the College of Emergency Medicine, has established the Emergency Department Sentinel Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) to support the public health surveillance requirements of the Games. This feasibility study assesses the usefulness of EDSSS in monitoring indicators of disease in the community. Daily counts of anonymised attendance data from six emergency departments across England were analysed by patient demographics (age, gender, partial postcode), triage coding and diagnosis codes. Generic and specific syndromic indicators were developed using aggregations of diagnosis codes recorded during each attendance. Over 339,000 attendances were recorded (26 July 2010 to 25 July 2011). The highest attendances recorded on weekdays between 10:00 and 11:00 and on weekends between 12:00 and 13:00. The mean daily attendance per emergency department was 257 (range 38-435). Syndromic indicators were developed including: respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiac, acute respiratory infection, gastroenteritis and myocardial ischaemia. Respiratory and acute respiratory infection indicators peaked during December 2010, concomitant with national influenza activity, as monitored through other influenza surveillance systems. The EDSSS has been established to provide an enhanced surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympics. Further validation of the data will be required; however, the results from this initial descriptive study demonstrate the potential for identifying unusual and/or severe outbreaks of infectious disease, or other incidents with public health impact, within the community.

  2. Tales of Two Cities: Architecture, Print and Early Guidebooks to Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McKellar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This pioneering paper is the first to consider the contribution of a new type of urban literature to perceptions and portrayals of the city in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. It focuses on London and Parisian guidebooks, a genre that has been little studied to date, particularly those of: Germaine Brice, Description nouvelle de ce qui’il ya de plus remarquable dans la Ville de Paris (1684; F. Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693; and Edward Hatton, A New View of London (1708. The article is the first to establish the significance of language primers as source for tourist guidebooks and the prevalence of lexicographers among those producing them. It examines the modern type of non-antiquarian urban guidebook as part of the new urban consumer culture. It also explores the genre’s contribution to a novel form in the writing and understanding of the city in the period focussed on the contemporary and the experiential, rather than the traditional orientation towards the historical and the monumental.

  3. Fluxes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds above central London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations and fluxes of eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured during October 2006 from a high telecom tower above central London, as part of the CityFlux contribution to the REPARTEE I campaign. A continuous flow disjunct eddy covariance technique with analysis by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used. Daily averaged VOC mixing ratios were within the range 1–19 ppb for the oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone and 0.2–1.3 ppb for the aromatics (benzene, toluene and C2-benzenes. Typical VOC fluxes were in the range 0.1–1.0 mg m−2 h−1. There was a non-linear relationship between VOC fluxes and traffic density for most of the measured compounds. Traffic activity was estimated to account for approximately 70% of the aromatic compound fluxes, whereas non-traffic related sources were found to be more important for methanol and isoprene fluxes. The measured fluxes were comparable to the estimates of the UK national atmospheric emission inventory for the aromatic VOCs and CO. In contrast, fluxes of the oxygenated compounds were about three times larger than inventory estimates. For isoprene and acetonitrile this difference was many times larger. At temperatures over 25° C it is estimated that more than half the isoprene observed in central London is of biogenic origin.

  4. Police service in Victorian and Edwardian London: a somwhat atypical case of a hazardous occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpayer-Makov, H

    1995-01-01

    British society in the nineteenth century showed a growing concern with public-health issues and with occupational hazards. Police service, which is at the centre of this paper, was not viewed by many as a hazardous occupation. Using the London Metropolitan Police as a case study, the paper suggests that working conditions in the Victorian and Edwardian police had detrimental effects on the health of officers. It is true that medical statistics of the time showed that police officers in London had a lower death rate than the average working man, but this comparison should not obscure the fact that policemen entered the force much healthier than when they retired and that this gap was not merely age-related. The paper sets out to answer the following questions: What were the prevalent injuries and illnesses in the Metropolitan Police? What was the work experience of the police officer and what impact did it have on his state of health? In addition to accounting for the deteriorating health of police officers, the paper provides the views of contemporary observers on the subject.

  5. EUFEMED London Conference 2017: Exploratory Medicines Development: Innovation and Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Van Bortel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first formal conference of the EUropean Federation for Exploratory MEdicines Development (EUFEMED held in London was the result of a collaborative effort of its founding associations: the Association for Applied Human Pharmacology (AGAH; Germany, the Association for Human Pharmacology in the Pharmaceutical Industry (AHPPI; UK, the Belgian Association of Phase-I Units (BAPU; Belgium, and Club Phase-I (France. The conference focused on innovation and risk management in early clinical drug development. Among other innovations, immunotherapy in oncology and inflammatory diseases were discussed as well as the importance of adaptive trial designs in early clinical drug development. Consideration was given to assessing and mitigating risk in early clinical drug development, and included a preconference workshop. Different measures to minimize risks in healthy volunteers and patients in first-in-human trials were discussed in addition to the importance of non-clinical data, the need for reliable biomarkers, improved communication on adverse events (AEs and well-trained study sites with ready access to intensive care units and clinical specialists. The need for a European-wide system for prevention of over-volunteering was also discussed. The conference provided opportunity to discuss these developments and concerns and the changing regulatory environment with stakeholders from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies including the European Medicines Agency (EMA. Presentations given by invited speakers are published on http://www.eufemed.eu/london-conference-2017/.

  6. EUFEMED London Conference 2017: Exploratory Medicines Development: Innovation and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bortel, Luc; Sourgens, Hildegard; Breithaupt-Grögler, Kerstin; Caplain, Henri; Donazzolo, Yves; Klingmann, Ingrid; Hammond, Michael; Hardman, Timothy C; Stringer, Steffan; de Hoon, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The first formal conference of the EUropean Federation for Exploratory MEdicines Development (EUFEMED) held in London was the result of a collaborative effort of its founding associations: the Association for Applied Human Pharmacology (AGAH; Germany), the Association for Human Pharmacology in the Pharmaceutical Industry (AHPPI; UK), the Belgian Association of Phase-I Units (BAPU; Belgium), and Club Phase-I (France). The conference focused on innovation and risk management in early clinical drug development. Among other innovations, immunotherapy in oncology and inflammatory diseases were discussed as well as the importance of adaptive trial designs in early clinical drug development. Consideration was given to assessing and mitigating risk in early clinical drug development, and included a preconference workshop. Different measures to minimize risks in healthy volunteers and patients in first-in-human trials were discussed in addition to the importance of non-clinical data, the need for reliable biomarkers, improved communication on adverse events (AEs) and well-trained study sites with ready access to intensive care units and clinical specialists. The need for a European-wide system for prevention of over-volunteering was also discussed. The conference provided opportunity to discuss these developments and concerns and the changing regulatory environment with stakeholders from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies including the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Presentations given by invited speakers are published on http://www.eufemed.eu/london-conference-2017/.

  7. The role of female entrepreneurial networks and small business development: a pilot study based on Sri Lankan migrant entrepreneurs of tourism industry in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.K.N.S.Surangi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years much has been written about the rapid spread of various types of firm networking, the area of female entrepreneurs’ networks and small business entrepreneurship is still a challenging research field. This study aims to explore the role of female entrepreneurs’ networks and examine the importance influences for female entrepreneurs’ networking behaviour. Pilot studies are mostly under-reported in the qualitative research literature and this article specifically focuses on the pilot study findings.Having established that a qualitative methodology is most suitable for this study, the in-depth narrative interviews and observation are deemed a particularly suitable research tools. For this study, the pilot work was conducted in London prior to the main stage of data gathering in Sri Lanka. Five Sri Lankan migrant women entrepreneurs in London were purposively approached and interviewed.Findings show that the female entrepreneurs’ networking experience provides a valuable insight for developing their own small businesses. More specifically, majority of the female entrepreneurs emphasized the purpose- driven nature of their contacts and they organized their networks around the family and social domains rather than professional ties. Further, influences: competing family responsibilities and business matters (being a good mum, gender, trust and running home based business, are important and they affect networking behaviour of female entrepreneurs. This study adds to the extant literature through its two-dimensional focus on entrepreneurial networking .The structural dimension which investigates who are parts of the entrepreneurial networks; the relational side which explores the contributions each tie brings to the entrepreneurial venture. Further, it brings new evidence to bear by examine the importance influences for women networking behaviour by showing how the phenomenon of entrepreneurship is context specific and the

  8. A Migrant Culture on Display: The French Migrant and French Gastronomy in London (19th – 21st centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, D.

    2016-01-01

    The large contemporary French migrant population – estimated by the French Consulate at around 300,000–400,000 in the UK, the majority living in London and the South-East – remains ‘absent’ from studies on migration, and, in a study of migrant food history in Britain, is considered not to have left traces as a migrant community. Over the centuries, the presence of various French communities in London has varied significantly as far as numbers are concerned, but what does not change is their s...

  9. Emissions of CO2 from road freight transport in London: Trends and policies for long run reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanni, Alberto M.; Bristow, Abigail L.

    2010-01-01

    Freight transport has been receiving increasing attention in both literature and practice following the growing recognition of its importance in urban transport planning. This paper analyses historical and projected road freight CO 2 emissions in the city of London and explores the potential mitigation effect of a set of freight transport policies and logistics solutions. Findings indicate a range of policies with potential to reduce emissions in the period up to 2050. However, this reduction would appear to only be capable of partly counterbalancing the projected increase in freight traffic. More profound behavioural measures therefore appear to be necessary for London's CO 2 emissions reduction targets to be met.

  10. Mapping the ‘End Austerity Now’ protest day in Central London using a 3D Twitter density grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mapping and spatial analysis of social media data can show the dynamics of activities in urban space, such as protest events. This work focuses on the spatial relationship between the density of geo-tagged tweets and a large anti-government protest in London on 20 June 2015. The tweets are aggregated to hexagonal grid cells to visualize activity density in different Central London areas. The results of the mapping illustrate very high densities at the beginning and endpoints of the protest (the Bank of England and Parliament Square. Additionally, there are high tweet densities in the West End and Bank than in other neighbouring areas.

  11. The impact of the congestion charging scheme on air quality in London. Part 1. Emissions modeling and analysis of air pollution measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Anderson, H Ross; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Derwent, Dick; Green, David; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-04-01

    this study. However, despite their investigative nature, each technique provided useful information supporting the main analyses. The first method used ethane as a dispersion indicator to remove the inherent variability in air pollutant concentrations caused by changes in meteorology and atmospheric dispersion. The technique had the potential to ascertain more accurately the likely impacts of the CCS on London's air quality. Although this novel method appeared promising over short time periods, a number of concerns arose about whether the spatial and temporal variability of ethane over longer time periods would be representative of meteorologic conditions alone. The major strength of CUSUM, the second method, is that it can be used to identify the approximate timing of changes that may have been caused by the CCS. This ability is weakened, however, by the effects of serial correlation (the correlation of data among measurements in successive time intervals) within air pollution data that is caused by seasonality and long-term meteorologic trends. The secure interpretation of CUSUM requires that the technique be adapted to take proper account of the underlying correlation between measurements without the use of smoothing functions that would obscure a stepped change in concentrations. Although CUSUM was not able to provide a quantitative estimation of changes in pollution levels arising from the introduction of the CCS, the strong signals that were identified were considered in the context of other results from the study. The third method, bivariate polar plots, proved useful. The plots revealed important characteristics of the data from the only roadside monitoring site within the CCZ and highlighted the importance of considering prevailing weather conditions when positioning a roadside monitor. The technique would benefit from further development, however, in transforming the qualitative assessment of change into a quantitative assessment and including an estimate of

  12. Socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in exposure to air and noise pollution in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonne, Cathryn; Milà, Carles; Fecht, Daniela; Alvarez, Mar; Gulliver, John; Smith, James; Beevers, Sean; Ross Anderson, H; Kelly, Frank

    2018-06-01

    Transport-related air and noise pollution, exposures linked to adverse health outcomes, varies within cities potentially resulting in exposure inequalities. Relatively little is known regarding inequalities in personal exposure to air pollution or transport-related noise. Our objectives were to quantify socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in London in 1) air pollution exposure at residence compared to personal exposure; and 2) transport-related noise at residence from different sources. We used individual-level data from the London Travel Demand Survey (n = 45,079) between 2006 and 2010. We modeled residential (CMAQ-urban) and personal (London Hybrid Exposure Model) particulate matter pollution using quantile and logistic regression. We observed inverse patterns in inequalities in air pollution when estimated at residence versus personal exposure with respect to household income (categorical, 8 groups). Compared to the lowest income group (£75,000) had lower residential NO 2 (-1.3 (95% CI -2.1, -0.6) μg/m 3 in the 95th exposure quantile) but higher personal NO 2 exposure (1.9 (95% CI 1.6, 2.3) μg/m 3 in the 95th quantile), which was driven largely by transport mode and duration. Inequalities in residential exposure to NO 2 with respect to area-level deprivation were larger at lower exposure quantiles (e.g. estimate for NO 2 5.1 (95% CI 4.6, 5.5) at quantile 0.15 versus 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 2.6) at quantile 0.95), reflecting low-deprivation, high residential NO 2 areas in the city centre. Air pollution exposure at residence consistently overestimated personal exposure; this overestimation varied with age, household income, and area-level income deprivation. Inequalities in road traffic noise were generally small. In logistic regression models, the odds of living within a 50 dB contour of aircraft noise were highest in individuals with the highest household income, white ethnicity, and with the lowest area-level income deprivation. Odds of living within a 50

  13. Chemical composition and sources of organic aerosols over London from the ClearfLo 2012 campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finessi, Emanuela; Holmes, Rachel; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Harrison, Roy; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Air quality in urban areas represents a major public health issue with around one third of the European population concentrated in cities and numbers expected to increase at global scale, particularly in developing countries. Particulate matter (PM) represents a primary threat for human health as numerous studies have confirmed the association between increased levels of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with the exposure to PM. Despite considerable efforts made in improving air quality and progressively stricter emissions regulations, the PM concentrations have not changed much over the past decades for reasons that remain unclear, and highlight that studies on PM source apportionment are required for the formulation of effective policy. We investigated the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) collected during two intensive field campaigns held in winter and summer 2012 in the frame of the project Clean air for London (http://www.clearflo.ac.uk/). PM samples were collected both at a city background site (North Kensington) and at a rural site 50 km southeast of London (Detling) with 8 to 24 hours sampling schedule and analysed using off-line methods. Thermal-optical analysis was used to quantify OC-EC components while a suite of soft ionization mass spectrometric techniques was deployed for detailed chemical characterization. Liquid chromatography mass Spectrometry (LC-MSn) was mostly used for the simultaneous detection and quantification of various tracers for both primary and secondary OA sources. Well-established markers for wood burning primary OA like levoglucosan and azelaic acid were quantified together with various classes of nitroaromatics including methyl-nitrocatechols that are potential tracers for wood burning secondary OA. In addition, oxidation products of biogenic VOCs such as isoprene and monoterpenes were also quantified for both seasons and sites. A non-negligible contribution from biogenic SOA to urban OA was found in summertime

  14. SRP scientific meeting: recent legislation - achievements and future challenges, London, 9 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallani, Barbara

    2001-12-01

    Full text: The SRP Regulations, Legislation and Standards topic group organised a one-day meeting on 'Recent Legislation - Achievements and Future Challenges' to address the considerable change in the UK radiological protection legislation in recent years. The aim of the meeting was to examine, from the point of view of both the regulators and the users, three of the new regulations: Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99), Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposures) Regulations 2000 (IRMER) and Radiation (Emergency Preparedness and Public Information) Regulations 2001 (REPPIR). The meeting was held in the prestigious lecture theatre of the Royal Institution in London and the 140 delegates had the opportunity, during the day, to visit the Faraday Museum hosted in the building, as well as the stands of the exhibitors. The meeting was divided into a morning session mainly on IRR99 and two afternoon sessions on IRMER and REPPIR, respectively. John Gill (HSE), chairman of the morning session, gave an update on the activities of the SRP Regulations, Legislation and Standards topic group and welcomed all SRP members to participate in the group's work, before introducing the first speaker. Gregg Butler (University of Manchester and Westlakes Research Institute) opened the morning session with a talk on risk, regulation and level playing fields. Gregg expressed his concerns about the implementation of a 'progressive and substantial reduction of discharges' and the possibility of losing a sensible holistic approach to radiological safety issues. He commented on the difficulty of getting a balance between detriment and economic benefit, all historically based on evaluation of doses, when new requirements on radioactive discharges require consideration of activities. He also invited the community to concentrate on 'real problems', like the necessity of making waste more passive, instead of investing money and resources for political reasons

  15. Nineteenth-Century Racism: The Anthropologist Who First Defined the Negro's Place in Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents excerpts from an 1863 address by British anthropologist James Hunt to the Anthropological Society of London. Hunt's paper, "The Negro's Place in Nature," has been called the most important document in an era that laid the foundation for scientific racism. In it, Hunt suggested that physical characteristics of the Negro race were related…

  16. Report of the twenty-first session, London, 18-22 February 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) held its twenty-first session at the Headquarters of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), London, from 18 to 22 February 1991. Marine pollution is primarily linked to coastal development. The most serious problems are those associated with inadequately controlled coastal development and intensive human settlement of the coastal zone. GESAMP emphasizes the importance of the following problems and issues: State of the marine environment; comprehensive framework for the assessment and regulation of waste disposal in the marine environment; information on preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; review of potentially harmful substances: 1. Carcinogenic substances. 2. Mutagenic substances. 3. Teratogenic substances. 4. Organochlorine compounds. 5. Oil, and other hydrocarbons including used lubricating oils, oil spill dispersants and chemicals used in offshore oil exploration and exploitation; environmental impacts of coastal aquaculture; global change and the air/sea exchange of chemicals; future work programme

  17. Using complexity theory to analyse the organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, Susan; Ferlie, Ewan

    2013-09-01

    We employ complexity theory to analyse the English National Health Service (NHS)'s organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London. Tennison (2002) suggests that complexity theory could fruitfully explore a healthcare system's response to this complex and emergent phenomenon: we explore this claim here. We also bring in established New Public Management principles to enhance our empirical analysis, which is based on data collected between late 2009 and mid-2011. We find that the operation of complexity theory based features, especially self-organisation, are significantly impacted by the macro context of a New Public Management-based regime which values control, measurement and risk management more than innovation, flexibility and lateral system building. We finally explore limitations and suggest perspectives for further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. London penetration depth and thermal fluctuations in the sulphur hydride 203 K superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talantsev, E.F.; Crump, W.P. [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Storey, J.G.; Tallon, J.L. [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2017-03-15

    Recently, compressed H{sub 2}S has been shown to become superconducting at 203 K under a pressure of 155 GPa. One might expect fluctuations to dominate at such temperatures. Using the magnetisation critical current, we determine the ground-state London penetration depth, λ{sub 0} = 189 nm, and the superconducting energy gap, Δ{sub 0} = 27.8 meV, and find these parameters are similar to those of cuprate superconductors. We also determine the fluctuation temperature scale, T{sub fluc} = 1470 K, which shows that, unlike the cuprates, T{sub c} of the hydride is not limited by fluctuations. This is due to its three dimensionality and suggests the search for better superconductors should refocus on three-dimensional systems where the inevitable thermal fluctuations are less likely to reduce the observed T{sub c}. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902-1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S; Mooney, Graham

    2014-04-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902-1914) and universal suffrage (1921-1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending.

  20. Spotlight on Athletes With a Disability: Malaysian Newspaper Coverage of the 2012 London Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Khoo, Selina; Razman, Rizal

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed newspaper coverage of the 2012 London Paralympic Games by 8 Malaysian newspapers. Articles and photographs from 4 English-language and 4 Malay-language newspapers were examined from August 28 (1 day before the Games) to September 10, 2012 (1 day after the Games closing). Tables, graphs, letters, fact boxes, and lists of events were excluded from analysis. A total of 132 articles and 131 photographs were analyzed. Content analysis of the newspaper articles revealed that most (62.8%) of the articles contained positive reference to the athletes with a disability. There were equal numbers (39.1%) of action and static shots of athletes. More articles and photographs of Malaysian (58%) than non-Malaysian (42%) athletes with a disability were identified. Only 14.9% of the articles and photographs were related to female athletes with a disability.

  1. Der Lärm des Politischen. Die Londoner riots 2011 und ihre politischen Subjekte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dzudzek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available August 2011 − London’s burning. Vier Tage lang kommt es zunächst in verschiedenen Stadtteilen Londons und später auch in anderen britischen Städten zu den größten Aufständen und Plünderungen der Nachkriegsgeschichte. Konservative Medien und Politik sind sich schnell einig: Der Abschaum, der sich für die Verwüstungen und Plünderungen verantwortlich zeigt, gehört mit aller Härte aus den Straßen gefegt. Die Aufständischen stellen keine politischen Forderungen. Entgegen hegemonialer Deutungen, die den riots eine politische Dimension absprechen, fragt der Artikel, inwiefern sich hier eine neue Qualität des Politischen und politischer Subjektivität zeigt, die wir mit den vertrauten repräsentationspolitischen Deutungsmustern nicht verstehen können.

  2. Ali, Cunich: Halley's Churches: Halley and the London Queen Anne Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jason R.; Cunich, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Edmond Halley's enormous contribution to science has received much attention. New research adds an intriguing chapter to his story and concerns his hitherto unexplored association with the baroque architectural visionary Nicholas Hawksmoor, and some important Temple-inspired churches that were built in London in the early 1700s. We argue that Christchurch Spitalfields and St Anne's Limehouse, which were both started in the summer of 1714, were aligned exactly eastwards using ``corrected'' magnetic-compass bearings and that Halley influenced or aided Hawksmoor. By this time the men had probably known each other for 30 years and had recently worked together on the Clarendon Building in Oxford. Despite there being more than 1500 years of Chinese and about 500 years of Western compass technology at the time, these probably represent the first constructions planned using a modern-day ``scientific'' technique. The research also throws light on Halley's contended religious position.

  3. Cookery, diet and district nursing in late nineteenth-century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yuriko

    2009-03-01

    While health education in late nineteenth-century Britain could be beneficial for every household, it was particularly so where district nurses understood family circumstances and adapted knowledge to individual needs. During this period sick room cookery training and lectures on hygiene and dietetics became standard for nurses--especially following the reforms of Matron Eva Lückes at the London Hospital. Because understanding about health was not widespread in society, due to the living conditions and poverty of so many patients, and because doctors had few opportunities to convey such knowledge, the active support of nurses in the community proved to be essential for translating professional knowledge into words commonly understood. By demonstrating cooking and other health-related skills in the homes of the poor, nurses played an important part in improving the nation's health.

  4. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hader, W J; Elliot, M; Ebers, G C

    1988-04-01

    A case-controlled epidemiologic study of multiple sclerosis (MS) was carried out in London, Ontario, and its surrounding Middlesex County for the period 1974-1983. The prevalence rates for clinically definite/probable MS on January 1, 1984 were 94/100,000 for the city and 91/100,000 for the county. The estimated annual incidence rate for the decade 1974-83 was 3.4/100,000. The female-to-male sex ratio was 2.5:1. A familial history of MS was recorded in 14.4% of close relatives and a total of 17% when distant relatives are included. The MS group is predominantly of British (70%) and European (23%) origin. The urban-rural residence pattern analysis indicates no significant regional influence on the risk of developing MS.

  5. Austere kindness or mindless austerity: the efects of gift-giving to beggars in east London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lenhard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current austerity policies in the United Kingdom are creating a precarious situation for many people on the margins of society. Employing micro-level ethnographic analysis, this article addresses how government decisions affect people living on the street. Observations of how local policies demonize gift-giving to street people led me to revisit arguments about the positive and negative effects of gifts. Four months of fieldwork amongst people who beg in the City of London confirmed the Maussian ambiguity of gift exchange. The material benefit of monetary gifts is often accompanied by shared time and conversation; gifts to beggars can go beyond materiality and are hence able to create bonds of sociability.

  6. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... and inductively content analyzed. Trustworthiness was reached through credibility activities (i.e., member checking and peer debriefing). The participants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges Before...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...

  7. The 2nd Annual Clinical Scientist Trainee Symposium, August 22, 2017, London, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Charles; Blom, Jessica N; Lewis, James F

    2018-03-27

    Clinician scientists play a critical role in bridging research and clinical practice. Unfortunately, the neglect of research training in medical schools has created clinicians who are unable to translate evidence from literature to practice. Furthermore, the erosion of research training in medical education has resulted in clinicians who lack the skills required for successful scientific investigation. To counteract this, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry has made an effort to engage trainees, at all levels, in the research process. The 2nd Annual Clinician Scientist Trainee Symposium was held in London, Ontario, Canada on August 22, 2017. Organized each year since 2016 by the Schulich Research Office, the symposium features research being conducted by trainees in Schulich's Clinical Research Training Program. The focus this year was on the current state of clinician-scientist training in Canada and visions for the path ahead.

  8. Imaging of plantar fascia and Achilles injuries undertaken at the London 2012 Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, David A; Carne, Andrew; Bethapudi, Sarath; Engebretsen, Lars; Budgett, Richard; O'Connor, Philip

    2013-12-01

    Plantar fascia and distal Achilles injuries are common in elite athletes. Acute athletic injuries of the plantar fascia include acute plantar fasciopathy and partial or complete tears. Underlying most acute injuries is a background of underlying chronic plantar fasciopathy. Injuries may affect the central or less commonly lateral portions of the fascia and acute tears are generally proximal. Athletic Achilles injuries may occur at the mid tendon or the distal insertion, and there may be an underlying chronic tendinopathy. Acute or chronic paratendinopathy may occur as a separate entity or combined with Achilles injury. In this article, the spectrum of athletic injuries of the plantar fascia and Achilles is described, illustrated by imaging findings from the London 2012 Olympic games.

  9. Acquiring a cognitive skill with a new repeating version of the Tower of London task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Owen, Adrian M; Doyon, Julien

    2004-12-01

    A computerized version of the Tower of London task was used to investigate cognitive skill learning. Thirty-six healthy volunteers were assigned to either a random condition (nonrecurring problems), or to a sequence condition in which, unbeknownst to the subjects, a repeating sequence of three problems was presented. Indices of execution, planning, and total time, as well as number of moves performed, were used to measure behavioural change. Subjects' performance improved in both conditions across blocks of practice. A distinct learning effect related to the repeating sequence was also observed. This suggests that a specific skill that reflects procedural learning of the strategies, rules, and procedures pertaining to repeating problems can develop over and above a more general skill at solving cognitive planning problems with practice.

  10. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  11. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  12. MINDING THEIR OWN BUSINESS: MARRIED WOMEN AND CREDIT IN EARLY EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY LONDON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Taking a micro-historical approach, this paper explores the business activities of Elizabeth Carter and Elizabeth Hatchett, two married women who operated together as pawnbrokers in London in the early decades of the eighteenth century. Based on a protracted inheritance dispute through which their extensive dealings come to light, the discussion assesses married women's lending and investment strategies in a burgeoning metropolitan economy; the networks through which women lenders operated; and the extent to which wives could sidestep the legal conventions of 'coverture' which restricted their ownership of moveable property. It is argued that the moneylending and asset management activities of women like Carter and Hatchett were an important part of married women's work that did not simply consolidate neighbourhood ties but that placed them at the heart of the early modern economy.

  13. Hydrogen for buses in London: A scenario analysis of changes over time in refuelling infrastructure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayegan, S.; Pearson, P.J.G.; Hart, D.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure is one of the major obstacles to the introduction of the hydrogen vehicles to the road transport market. To help overcome this hurdle a likely transitional solution is to introduce hydrogen for niche applications such as buses or other types of fleet vehicles for which fuel demand is predictable and localised. This paper analyses the costs of different hydrogen production-delivery pathways, via a case study of buses in London. Scenario analysis over time (2007-2025) is used to investigate potential changes to the cost of hydrogen as a result of technology development, growing demand for hydrogen and changes in energy prices (gas and electricity). It is found that factors related to hydrogen demand have the greatest effect on the unit cost of hydrogen, while for the whole of the analysis period, on-site SMR (steam methane reforming) remains the least-cost production-delivery pathway. (author)

  14. “Will you fuck off please”. The use of please by London teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijmer Karin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates how the politeness marker please is used by young people to distinguish themselves from adults and create an identity of their own. The analysis of please is based on the Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language (COLT. The distribution and uses of please in COLT are compared with similar data from the British component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-GB. We can recognize several functions of the “impolite” please in the COLT Corpus. To begin with, it is used strategically to establish or confirm harmonious relationships between the speakers (rapport-strengthening impoliteness. Secondly, “mock impoliteness” may be understood in a positive way because it is amusing or entertaining. In young people’s circles entertainment skills are for example highly valued (entertainment impoliteness. Finally, impoliteness is used creatively in interaction by the participants who use repetition, reformulation and escalation to construct ritualized sequences of apparent insults (creative impoliteness.

  15. Infectious disease surveillance for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, E; Heinsbroek, E; Watson, C; Catchpole, M

    2012-08-02

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games will be one of the largest mass gathering events in British history. In order to minimise potential infectious disease threats related to the event, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has set up a suite of robust and multisource surveillance systems. These include enhancements of already established systems (notification of infectious diseases, local and regional reporting,laboratory surveillance, mortality surveillance, international surveillance, and syndromic surveillance in primary care), as well as new systems created for the Games (syndromic surveillance in emergency departments and out-of-hours/unscheduled care,undiagnosed serious infectious illness surveillance).Enhanced existing and newly established surveillance systems will continue after the Games or will be ready for future reactivation should the need arise. In addition to the direct improvements to surveillance, the strengthening of relationships with national and international stakeholders will constitute a major post-Games legacy for the HPA.

  16. Children's cognition and aircraft noise exposure at home--the West London Schools Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T; Stansfeld, S; Haines, M; Head, J

    2004-01-01

    The association of aircraft noise exposure with cognitive performance was examined by means of a cross-sectional field survey. Two hundred thirty six children attending 10 primary schools around Heathrow Airport in west London were tested on reading comprehension, immediate/delayed recall and sustained attention. In order to obtain the information about their background, a questionnaire was delivered to the parents and 163 answers were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess performance on the cognitive tests in relation to aircraft noise exposure at home and possible individual and school level confounding factors. A significant dose-response relationship was found between aircraft noise exposure at home and performance on memory tests of immediate/delayed recall. However there was no strong association with the other cognitive outcomes. These results suggest that aircraft noise exposure at home may affect children's memory.

  17. Veiling the Mechanical Eye: Antoine Claudet and the Spectacle of Photography in Victorian London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Monteiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The rise of commercial portrait photography in the mid-nineteenth century placed the bourgeois body squarely within technological processes of visual representation. Photography's chemical and optical operations required the subject's physical presence before the camera's mechanical eye, reciprocally exposing the apparatus to the subject's fixed gaze and provoking an unprecedented confrontation of vision, body and technology. Setting the client within photography's technical processes, however, could endanger efforts to promote photographic portraiture as a product of artistic endeavour. In response to this in photography's first decade, London studio owner Antoine Claudet enshrouded the apparatus in a competing visual rhetoric evoking luxury and the sublime. Examining contemporary accounts of Claudet's studios and neighbouring attractions of entertainment and consumption uncovers the overlapping references to enlightenment, beauty and pleasure that surrounded photography's early machinery. While this alternative discourse may have softened the stare of the mechanical eye, it nevertheless contributed to technology's increasing hold on the body and mind.

  18. Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century London

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century LondonPar Heather ShoreThe Boydell press, Woodridge, 2002, 193 p. Cet ouvrage d’une historienne universitaire, dont la première édition date de 1999, se propose d’étudier l’émergence de la catégorie des « délinquants juvéniles » au cours de la première moitié du XIXème siècle. L’auteur compare les représentations de ces mineurs véhiculées par les autorités publiques, les réformateurs et dans l’opinion publique avec les réalités de leur vi...

  19. Tower of London test performance in children with poor arithmetic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M Darryn; Haley, Pat; Edwards, Jay; Butler, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) has been used to assess executive functions in both children and adults with documented brain dysfunction. Like many other measures of executive function, it has not been widely used in the assessment of learning disabilities in children. However, if performance on the TOL discriminated among groups of children with different academic strengths and weaknesses, then it may be useful in identifying learning disability subtypes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance on the TOL would differ among 3 groups of children: those with arithmetic difficulties, those with reading difficulties, and those with no academic difficulties. The group with arithmetic difficulties exhibited significantly greater impairment on the TOL than either the group with reading difficulties or the group with no difficulties. The latter 2 groups performed similarly. The clinical utility of the TOL, as well as the relation between arithmetic deficits and executive functions, are discussed.

  20. How boys become dogs: stigmatization and marginalization of uninitiated xhosa males in East London, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Netswera, Fulufhelo G; Toth, Ferenc; Bottoman, Brian; Tenge, Stembele

    2010-07-01

    Male circumcision is practiced in South Africa among the Xhosa people as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. The manhood status achieved after the ritual accords men power and authority in the community over women and uncircumcised men. Therefore, uninitiated men experience great pressures to get circumcised. We describe the experience of newly initiated Xhosa men in East London, South Africa. Interpretive phenomenology was used as the inquiry of choice. Data were collected through focus group discussions in which 14 men participated. The theme of marginalization of uninitiated Xhosa males emerged with two categories: (a) rejection, and (b) lack of respect. The participants revealed that uninitiated men are rejected by the community, their own families, friends, and women. We frame the discussion around the concept of stigma. Acknowledging that uninitiated males are stigmatized can help mitigate stigma, and in turn, the incidence of medical complications from botched circumcisions.

  1. London and beyond: Taking a closer look at urban energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James; Schulz, Niels B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the field of urban energy policy, a neglected yet important topic. Cities account for approximately two-thirds of global primary energy consumption creating significant benefits and costs. As a result there has been growing interest in the contribution of cities to global energy policy issues such as climate change but a number of significant questions remain: e.g. how do energy policy processes differ between national and urban scales, and how can cities contribute most effectively to global policy goals? We present the results of interviews with key stakeholders in London to illustrate some unique features of the urban energy policy cycle. We then take a wider view, proposing a research agenda with three key goals: describing the global variety of urban energy consumption and policy; understanding the resulting diversity in responsibility, vulnerability and capacity; and developing shared procedures and solutions. Tackling these questions is vital if cities are to contribute fully to current energy policy efforts.

  2. Tuberculosis in inner London: evidence for an increase in young adults and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkham, T. M.; Drury, A.; Pearson, A. D.; Dybowski, R.; Atkinson, H.

    1995-01-01

    We report a marked increase in the rate of notifications of tuberculosis in young adults in the London Borough of Lambeth. Analysis of notifications made to the Proper Officer over a 10-year period showed that the age specific notification rate in the cohort aged 20-44 years increased from 30/100,000 in 1983 to 51/100,000 in 1992. Analysis of St. Thomas' Hospital laboratory records of patients seen between 1984 and 1991 from whom Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated showed an increase in the number of patients of African origin from five in the first half of the study period (1984-7) to 25 in the second half (1988-91): 21 of these 25 had immigrated into England within 4 years of their illness. This finding is being further investigated in a prospective study of ethnicity, travel history and date of immigration of Lambeth residents notified with tuberculosis. PMID:7641826

  3. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Waruguru Mburu

    Full Text Available Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  4. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Lucy Waruguru; Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  5. Killer smog of London, 50 years on: particle properties and oxidative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andy; BéruBé, Kelly; Jones, Tim; Maynard, Robert; Richards, Roy

    2004-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected on glass fibre filters in London before (1955) and after (1958-1974) the Clean Air Act was examined for physicochemical characteristics and oxidative capacity. High-resolution microscopy identified most of the material as soot with smelter spheres, fly ash (FA), sodium chloride and calcium sulphate particles. Image analysis (IA) was used to show that most of the soot aggregates were less than 1 microm in size and contained chains of individual particles of 10-50 nm. Speed mapping of large agglomerates of the historic particles confirmed that the samples were enriched with soot probably derived from a sulphur-rich coal called nutty slack which was used extensively at this time. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine elemental composition. Meaningful quantitation of certain elements (Mg, Al and Zn) proved impossible because they were in high quantities in the glass fibre filters. However, high quantities of Fe>Pb>Cu>Mn>V>As were detected which may explain in part the bioreactivity of the samples. Using a simple in vitro test of oxidative capacity (plasmid assay), one historic particulate sample (1958) showed three times the activity of a modern-day diesel exhaust particle (DEP) sample but ten times less activity than a modern-day urban ambient particle collection. Such studies are continuing to link particle physicochemical properties and bioreactivity with a wider range of the samples collected between 1955 and 74 and how such historic samples compare with present-day London ambient particles.

  6. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R

    2014-09-15

    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategy to reduce E. coli bacteraemia based on cohort data from a London teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Desmond; Melzer, Mark

    2018-04-01

    In 2017, National Health Service Improvement set a 10% reduction target for Escherichia coli bacteraemia by 2018, followed by a 50% reduction in healthcare-associated Gram-negative bacteraemias by 2022. We analysed consecutive cases of E. coli bacteraemia and devised a strategy to achieve these targets. From December 2012 to November 2013, demographic, clinical and microbiological data were prospectively collected on all patients with bacteraemia at the Royal London Hospital in East London, UK. There were 594 significant bacteraemic episodes and 207 (34.8%) were E. coli . Twenty-four (11.6%) of the E. coli isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers, 22 (10.6%) gentamicin resistant and 2 (1.0%) amikacin resistant. The three most common sites of infection were pyelonephritis 105 (56.7%), catheter-associated urinary tract infection 22 (10.6%), and other medical devices and procedures that cause bacteraemia 32 (15.5%). In the pyelonephritis group, trimethoprim resistance in urinary isolates was 16/47 (34.0%) compared with 3/47 (6.4%) for nitrofurantoin. Twelve months postbacteraemia, recurrent bacteraemia rates were 10/105 (9.5%). There were 44 medical device-associated E. coli bacteraemias, and 22 (50%) were urinary catheter associated. There were 10 patients with E. coli bacteraemia caused by procedures, seven genitourinary or biliary tract instrumentation and three postgastrointestinal surgery. E. coli bacteraemias related to urosepsis could have been prevented by better empirical treatment and targeted prophylaxis. Urinary catheter quality improvement programmes should contribute to a further reduction. For patients undergoing high-risk urinary or biliary tract procedures or device manipulation, we advocate single-dose amikacin prophylaxis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Ethnic Disparities in Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Adults in London, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, R; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Gallagher, J E; Bernabé, E

    2017-06-01

    To explore ethnic disparities in oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) among adults, and the role that socioeconomic factors play in that association. Data from 705 adults from a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London (England) were analysed for this study. Ethnicity was self-assigned based on the 2001 UK Census categories. OHQoL was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which provides information on the prevalence, extent and intensity of oral impacts on quality of life in the previous 12 months. Ethnic disparities were assessed in logistic regression models for prevalence of oral impacts and negative binomial regression models for extent and intensity of oral impacts. The prevalence of oral impacts was 12.7% (95% CI: 10.2-15.1) and the mean OHIP-14 extent and severity scores were 0.27 (95% CI: 0.20-0.34) and 4.19 (95% CI: 3.74-4.64), respectively. Black adults showed greater and Asian adults lower prevalence, extent and severity of oral impacts than White adults. However, significant differences were only found for the extent of oral impacts; Black adults reporting more and Asian adults fewer OHIP-14 items affected than their White counterparts. After adjustments for socioeconomic factors, Asian adults had significantly fewer OHIP-14 items affected than White adults (rate ratio: 0.28; 95%CI: 0.08-0.94). This study found disparities in OHQoL between the three main ethnic groups in South East London. Asian adults had better and Black adults had similar OHQoL than White adults after accounting for demographic and social factors. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  9. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Anthony C; Fenton, Norman

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor's perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events.

  10. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Constantinou

    Full Text Available In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor's perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events.

  11. Management of hepatitis B in pregnant women and infants: a multicentre audit from four London hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Gauri; Irish, Dianne; Basarab, Marina; Mahungu, Tabitha; Fox-Lewis, Andrew; Thorne, Claire; Jacobs, Michael; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Rosenberg, William M C; Suri, Deepak; Millar, Andrew D; Nastouli, Eleni

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can transmit the infection to their infants, screening of patients and appropriate interventions reduce vertical transmission. This audit was conducted to assess adherence to the national guidelines for management of HBV infection in pregnancy. A retrospective audit was conducted on pregnant women diagnosed with hepatitis B on screening in antenatal clinics, across four hospitals in London over 2 years (2009-2010). Data was collected from antenatal records and discharge summaries using a standard audit form. The outcomes measured included HBV serological markers, HBV DNA, detection of other blood borne viruses and referral to hepatology services, administration of active and passive prophylaxis to infants at birth. Descriptive statistics are presented. Proportions were compared using the χ2 test and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for prevalence estimates. Analyses were conducted using STATA 12. HBsAg was detected in 1.05% (n = 401, 95% CI 0.95-1.16) of women attending an antenatal appointment, 12% (n = 48) of the women were at a high risk of vertical transmission (HBe Ag positive or antiHBe and HBeAg negative or HBV DNA >106 IU/ml). Only 62% (n = 248) women were referred to hepatology or specialist clinics and 29% (n = 13) of women of high infectivity were on antiviral agents. Testing for hepatitis C and delta virus was suboptimal. 75% (n = 36) of the infants at a high risk of acquisition of HBV received both active and passive prophylaxis. In certain sectors of London, implementation of the pathway for management of women with hepatitis B and their infants is suboptimal. National guidelines should be followed and improved intersectorial sharing of information is needed to reduce the risk of women of high infectivity being lost to follow up.

  12. Chinese Identity in London-An Analysis from the Aspects of Cultural Heritage and Cultural Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ning

    2014-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to find out and understand the strength and inspira-tion behind the identity of Chinese in London , and how it has been maintained from the aspects of cul-tural heritage and cultural memory . “Individuals have always been capable of i-dentifying with different social groups and spatial scales” ( Ashworth et al.2007, 4); and further-more, as Sewell puts it , “culture exists only in and through practices” ( 1999 in Ashworth et al . 2007, 7).Therefore, the main methodology for researching Chinese identity in London will be through interviews and questionnaires , looking for answers by asking questions about the circum-stances of Chinese daily lives; at the same time , the ways of their maintenance will be explored fur-ther . The questionnaires were divided into mainly two groups of respondents:Chinese and non-Chi-nese, and they were done in Chinatown and in my volunteer group doing the placement at the Museum of London Docklands . The purpose of question-naires was to unearth general ideas about Chinese identity. The interviews were based on semi -struc-tured questions .The questions were based on the use of an “interview guide” ( Bernard 2006, 212 ) , which directed the conversation towards their daily lives , connections with China , living habits, social surroundings such as friends , and interests . Meanwhile , during the interviewing process, the respondents were also encouraged to feel free to talk more about other things that they would like to say . Through these interviews , a general description of Chinese lives in London could be drawn . When talking to interviewees about China-town, we find that it is a place connected with dai-ly life;whereas for non-Chinese , it is considered more as tourist or leisure site full of lanterns and an enormous variety of restaurants ( Masters et al . 2008, 67) .A lot of Chinese get jobs there in or-der to survive .Chinese go to Chinatown to buy food and commodities that are not

  13. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor’s perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events. PMID:28654698

  14. Sports injuries and illnesses during the London Summer Olympic Games 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A

    2013-05-01

    The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the

  15. Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, James B; Jones, Peter B; Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy W

    2014-01-01

    Although urban birth, upbringing, and living are associated with increased risk of nonaffective psychotic disorders, few studies have used appropriate multilevel techniques accounting for spatial dependency in risk to investigate social, economic, or physical determinants of psychosis incidence. We adopted Bayesian hierarchical modeling to investigate the sociospatial distribution of psychosis risk in East London for DSM-IV nonaffective and affective psychotic disorders, ascertained over a 2-year period in the East London first-episode psychosis study. We included individual and environmental data on 427 subjects experiencing first-episode psychosis to estimate the incidence of disorder across 56 neighborhoods, having standardized for age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A Bayesian model that included spatially structured neighborhood-level random effects identified substantial unexplained variation in nonaffective psychosis risk after controlling for individual-level factors. This variation was independently associated with greater levels of neighborhood income inequality (SD increase in inequality: Bayesian relative risks [RR]: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), absolute deprivation (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08-1.51) and population density (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.41). Neighborhood ethnic composition effects were associated with incidence of nonaffective psychosis for people of black Caribbean and black African origin. No variation in the spatial distribution of the affective psychoses was identified, consistent with the possibility of differing etiological origins of affective and nonaffective psychoses. Our data suggest that both absolute and relative measures of neighborhood social composition are associated with the incidence of nonaffective psychosis. We suggest these associations are consistent with a role for social stressors in psychosis risk, particularly when people live in more unequal communities.

  16. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Football at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Cushman, Daniel; Blauwet, Cheri A; Emery, Carolyn; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Willick, Stuart E

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of injury in Paralympic football has received little attention. A study of all sports at the London 2012 Paralympic Games identified football 5-a-side as the sport with the highest injury rate, meriting further detailed analysis, which may facilitate the development of strategies to prevent injuries. To examine the injury rates and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of injuries to football 5-a-side and football 7-a-side athletes. London 2012 Paralympic Games. Participants included 70 football 5-a-side athletes and 96 football 7-a-side athletes. Athletes from all but one country chose to participate in this study. The Paralympic Injury and Illness Surveillance System was used to track injuries during the Games, with data entered by medical staff. Injury incidence rate (IR) and injury incidence proportion (IP). The overall IR for football 5-a-side was 22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.1-33.8) with an IP of 31.4 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 20.9-43.6). In 5-a-side competition, 62.5% of injuries were associated with foul play. The overall IR for football 7-a-side was 10.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% CI, 5.4-15.5), with an IP of 14.6 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 7.5-21.6). The most commonly injured body region in both sports was the lower extremity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine IR and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Future studies are needed to determine mechanisms of injury and independent risk factors for injury, thus informing prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reframing sociologies of ethnicity and migration in encounters with Chinese London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    In this paper I argue that the intersecting sociologies of ethnicity and migration work from a series of interconnected blind spots hindering effective analysis of the current UK situation. Both operate analytically within the limitations of an 'immigrant problem' framework; are overinvested in state agendas; privilege a nation state analysis; are narrowly focused on distributions of migrant bodies, and on receiving, at the expense of sending, contexts. Exploring these limitations with data derived from a modest small-scale qualitative study of young Chinese migrants in London, I argue for a reframing along four dimensions. Firstly, in an era of elite migration, sociology could reach beyond its immigrant problem framework and open up to a broader range of UK migrant ethnicities and circumstances. Secondly, a stronger focus on cities as the scale on which lives are lived, and through which diverse streams of translocal activity are routed, would open new avenues of sociological exploration. Thirdly, including translocal activities connected with distributions of ethnic migrant bodies, such as capital transfers, would broaden its focus, taking migration and ethnicity more centrally into the analysis of globalization as one of its constituting practices. Finally, paying attention to sending, as well as arrival cities, reveals migrants' thinking and shapes the ways in which they live, as my data shows. The Chinese are both one of the UK's neglected minorities, and one of its fastest growing populations. They are a good example of new UK migrants and they bring globalization's realignment with the rising significance of China to the UK. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  18. The use of AEDs by police officers in the City of London. Automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P; Nolan, J; Hill, E; Dawson, J; Whimster, F; Skinner, D

    2001-08-01

    The Guidelines 2000 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend shock delivery to victims in ventricular fibrillation within 5 min of call receipt by the Emergency Medical Services. In an effort to achieve this goal, in some parts of the United States, police officers have been trained to use automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We undertook a 3-year pilot evaluation of the use of AEDs by City of London police (CPOL) officers. Over a period of 3 years, 147 CPOL officers were trained in the use of an AED. Four AEDs were placed on rapid response vehicles covering the City of London. An overall call-response interval target was set at 8 min. The CPOL attended 1103 (90%) of the total of 1232 calls to which they were summoned. The mean interval between the first call received and arrival of the CPOL on scene was 8.9+/-4.0 min. The CPOL applied AEDs to 25 victims, 13 of whom were initially in ventricular fibrillation; at least one shock was delivered to all 13. The interval between call reception and delivery of the first shock was 5.5+/-2.5 min. The mean interval between switching on the AED and delivery of the first shock was 24+/-12 s. Two (15%) of these victims survived to hospital discharge. This study has confirmed the feasibility of training police officers in the UK to use AEDs as first responders. The call received to arrival on scene interval should be reduced by improvements in communication between LAS and CPOL.

  19. Londonfahrten mit Hauptschuelern--ein Erfahrungsbericht (Trips to London with Junior High School Students--Experience Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepp, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Discusses trips to London with junior high school students: planning, choice of goals, costs, pocket money, board and lodging, language preparation, programming. Gives a detailed account of a trip which was particularly geared to the students' circumstances. The possibility of partnership with English schools is discussed. (Text is in German.)…

  20. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  1. Bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in the public transport system and in public areas of a hospital in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; French, G L

    2009-12-01

    To investigate bacterial contamination on hand-touch surfaces in the public transport system and in public areas of a hospital in central London. Dipslides were used to sample 118 hand-touch surfaces in buses, trains, stations, hotels and public areas of a hospital in central London. Total aerobic counts were determined, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were identified and characterized. Bacteria were cultured from 112 (95%) of sites at a median concentration of 12 CFU cm(-2). Methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) was cultured from nine (8%) of sites; no sites grew methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA). Hand-touch sites in London are frequently contaminated with bacteria and can harbour MSSA, but none of the sites tested were contaminated with MRSA. Hand-touch sites can become contaminated with staphylococci and may be fomites for the transmission of bacteria between humans. Such sites could provide a reservoir for community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) in high prevalence areas but were not present in London, a geographical area with a low incidence of CA-MRSA.

  2. How Do Visitors Relate to Biodiversity Conservation? An Analysis of London Zoo's "BUGS" Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmin-Pui, Lauriane Suyin; Perkins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using a case study of London Zoo's BUGS (Biodiversity Underpinning Global Survival) exhibit, this article assesses the role of experiential learning in raising biodiversity knowledge, concern and potential pro-conservation actions. Using Personal Meaning Mindmapping, a novel method in visitor research, the study examines how adult visitors relate…

  3. Stakeholder Positioning and Cultural Diversity in the Creative Sector: A Case Study of the London Modern Architecture Scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, H.L.; Kamp, A.; Erbe, N.; Normore, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the antecedents of stakeholder positioning in the creative sector, a sector well known for its diversity in organizational cultures. Drawing from empirical data collected at the heart of London's modern architecture scene we analyze the interactive process of commissioned

  4. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  5. Gender, Education and Social Change: A Study of Feminist Politics and Practice in London, 1870-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article explores feminist interventions in urban school politics. First, it argues that the female contribution was an essential component to politics and policy making in the 120-year period that London had a single education authority. Second, it suggests that these women politicians were advocates of a cultural praxis that involved…

  6. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  7. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  8. Administering "Operation Pied Piper"--How the London County Council Prepared for the Evacuation of Its Schoolchildren 1938-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Niko

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, two days before declaring war on Germany, the British government evacuated over half a million children from London to supposedly safer areas in the country. Schoolchildren went there with their teachers and infants with their mothers. Immediately after the event (and ever since) the impact of the evacuation on the children--the…

  9. Share Price Reactions to Sporty Performances of Soccer Clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange and the AIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Vanbrabant, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates whether or not the share prices of soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange and the Alternative Investment Market are influenced by the soccer teams' weekly sporty performances. Event studies corrected for thin trading and with Baysian updating reveal that at the

  10. Conflict in the Colonies: The London Times Coverage of Watergate from the Break-in to the Pardon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, James Glen

    1979-01-01

    From the breakin through the pardon of President Nixon, the London "Times" maintained thorough coverage of the Watergate scandal--a difficult task, considering the complexities of the American judicial and political systems. A special Watergate section was added to the other sections of the "Times," and even the British…

  11. Outsourcing the State's Responsibilities? Third Sector Organizations Supporting Migrant Families' Participation in Schools in Catalonia and London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Alejandro; D'Angelo, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Based on two case studies of Third Sector Organizations (TSOs) working with schools and parents in Catalonia and London, this paper aims to discuss some of the implications of "participative" programmes aimed at involving those migrant families seen by schools as "hard to reach". First, we describe how an ambiguous notion of…

  12. Two Years on: Koha 3.0 in Use at the CAMLIS Library, Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissels, Gerhard; Chandler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the further development of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) and the involvement of external software consultants at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the…

  13. Teaching Exchange Rate Risk Using London's Gherkin Building: How Investors Were in (and out of) a Pickle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam T.; Sackley, William H.; Watson, Ethan D.

    2017-01-01

    In this teaching note, the authors use an iconic London building, the Gherkin, as a motivation to understand exchange rates, cross exchange rates, and unhedged exchange rate risk. The famous tower was constructed in the early 2000s by Swiss Re, an insurance company, and then sold to investors as part of a sale-leaseback deal in early 2007.…

  14. Meeting Patient and Professional Needs: Views of Stakeholders on a Training Initiative for DwSIs in Endodontics in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Newton, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    A pilot scheme was established across London to train NHS primary dental care practitioners to provide endodontic treatment of moderate difficulty. It was co-led by the former London Deanery (Health Education England: North West London) and local NHS commissioners. This research aimed to explore key stakeholders' perceptions about the purpose of the initiative, its advantages, disadvantages and future implications. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders (commissioners and providers of the educational initiative; commissioners and providers of care, including trainees, principal dentists and specialists) involved in establishing, running and participating in the initiative and wider endodontic service provision in London. Interviews were based on a topic guide informed by the literature, and a workshop involving the London trainees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using framework methodology. The project was perceived as supporting four key areas: addressing services, improving quality/outcomes, delivering education and enhancing professional status. There was evidence that dentists were harnessing health policy in facilitating 'reprofessionalisation' of dentistry with the creation of dentists with enhanced skills (DwSIs). Learning outcomes from the pilot were related to the accreditation of the participants, service tariffs, reimbursement for endodontic treatment on the NHS, and the need for continuity within and between services across the dental system. Uncertainty about funding and the changes within the NHS were among the concerns expressed regarding the future of the initiative. The findings of this research suggest that extending the skills of primary care practitioners may contribute to the reprofessionalisation of dentistry, which has much to contribute to patient care and the development of an integrated and accessible dental care system of quality, with improved outcomes for patients. The implications for

  15. London atmospheric Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide: 12 year record, fluxes, and diurnal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoisellé, M.; Fisher, R. E.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lowry, D.; Fowler, C. M. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been measured at the Royal Holloway site, 30km WSW of London, for 12 years. This site receives air that has passed over London when there are easterly winds and cleaner, background air when the wind comes from the SW. H2 and CO mixing ratios are measured continuously at 30 minute intervals on a Trace Analytical Reduction Gas Detector coupled to a HP5890 GC since September 1996, and on a Peak Performer I (or PP1) since July 2007 at 5 minute intervals. Both instruments use 2 1/8" packed columns in series: a Unibeads 1S and a Molecular Sieve 5A. The PP1 detector (Reduced Compound Photometer) is an updated version of the old RGD2, and both use zero air as the carrier gas. CO is calibrated twice a month against NOAA-CMDL standards (mixing ratios range: 186 to 300 ppb). H2 was uncalibrated until 2006, but is now calibrated monthly against internal standards (range 530 to 750 ppb) measured at MPI-Jena as part of the Eurohydros project. A linearity correction is applied to each instrument, based on the standard measurements. A secondary standard is measured before each sample on the GC-RGD and another one is measured 4 to 6 times in a row twice a day on the PP1. A target gas is measured daily on both instruments since September 2008. The secondary standards and the target gas are dry ambient air in 70L stainless steel tanks filled to a pressure of 8 bars. Comparison of results from the two instruments suggests that for the most part the data are in good agreement, but an interlaboratory round robin comparison exercise for the Eurohydros project showed that the RGD is not linear at low values of CO. This is particularly noticeable for CO levels below 150 ppb. The long-term record of CO at Royal Holloway shows a significant decline since the start of the record: the annual mean CO mixing ratio in 2008 was three times lower than in 1997. Flux calculations, by ratio against 222Rn, CH4 and CO2, suggest CO emissions

  16. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent and an urban site (North Kensington, London. The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  17. Estimating attendance for breast cancer screening in ethnic groups in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Henrik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. Methods We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. Results The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42] and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13] and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]. Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]; while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35] and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15] were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Conclusions Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with

  18. Estimating attendance for breast cancer screening in ethnic groups in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Christine; Jack, Ruth H; Dixon, Steve; Møller, Henrik; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2010-03-25

    Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA) based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42]) and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13]) and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]). Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]); while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35]) and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15]) were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with large Black populations, suggesting the need to improve

  19. Determinants of black carbon, particle mass and number concentrations in London transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ioar; Kumar, Prashant; Hagen-Zanker, Alex; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst T.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the determinants of personal exposure concentrations of commuters' to black carbon (BC), ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC), and particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) in different travel modes. We quantified the contribution of key factors that explain the variation of the previous pollutants in four commuting routes in London, each covered by four transport modes (car, bus, walk and underground). Models were performed for each pollutant, separately to assess the effect of meteorology (wind speed) or ambient concentrations (with either high spatial or temporal resolution). Concentration variations were mainly explained by wind speed or ambient concentrations and to a lesser extent by route and period of the day. In multivariate models with wind speed, the wind speed was the common significant predictor for all the pollutants in the above-ground modes (i.e., car, bus, walk); and the only predictor variable for the PM fractions. Wind speed had the strongest effect on PM during the bus trips, with an increase in 1 m s-1 leading to a decrease in 2.25, 2.90 and 4.98 μg m-3 of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in car trips were better explained by ambient concentrations with high temporal resolution although from a single monitoring station. On the other hand, ambient concentrations with high spatial coverage but lower temporal resolution predicted better the concentrations in bus trips, due to bus routes passing through streets with a high variability of traffic intensity. In the underground models, wind speed was not significant and line and type of windows on the train explained 42% of the variation of PNC and 90% of all PM fractions. Trains in the district line with openable windows had an increase in concentrations of 1 684 cm-3 for PNC and 40.69 μg m-3 for PM2.5 compared with trains that had non-openable windows. The results from this work can be used to target efforts to reduce personal exposures of

  20. Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni: his early education among Florence, Rome and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guidoboni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work – part of a phd thesis in co-supervision between the " Sapienza " University of Rome and the University of Paris 1 “Panthéon- Sorbonne” - has the objective of investigating the lesser-known aspects of the life of architect Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, especially the period of his training in Florence and Rome, and the years when he lived in England before his arrival in Paris in 1724. At the same time he was painter, architect and decorator and his name was famous thanks to a large number of sets made for the Opéra and to the design of the façade of the church of Saint- Sulpice in Paris. During his life, Servandoni had the opportunity to travel throughout Europe, where he worked for the major courts of that time, from Paris to London, from Lisbon to Brussels, Vienna, Dresden and Stuttgart. The archival research allowed to make the major breakthroughs, such as the discovery of  the Servandoni stay in Rome between 1719 and 1720, in the Prince Vaini's palace, a man “entiérement attaché à la France” and related to the environment of the Capranica and d'Alibert theaters. This find let us to make some assumptions about his life and his contacts in the papal city. And yet, the study highlighted the strong relationship that he had with the english cultural environment during  his early stay in Rome, that convinced him to take the trip to London. Thanks to this research, Servandoni's complete work - so vaguely interpreted as an anticipation of the “goût à la grecque” and the revival of classicism of the late eighteenth century - is reinterpreted as the result of his training in Italy and England. It is indebted, in fact, that as well the classicism that characterized the Florentine architecture of that period as his close contact with the English Palladian circle and with the Wren, Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor works, exercised a great influence on him.

  1. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  2. Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Aseel; Daley, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; McLeod, Felicity; Rafiezadeh, Saba; Prime, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. 'Black Other' teenagers ('Black British', 'Mixed White-Black Caribbean' and 'Mixed White-Black African') were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) were planned with the majority (64%) intending terminations of pregnancy. Most teenagers did not use consistent contraception. Two-thirds of patients had attended genitourinary medicine services in the past and sexually transmitted infection prevalence at presentation was high. Effectively targeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of teenage genitourinary medicine clinic attendees may have a significant impact on reducing sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy and terminations of pregnancy in this group. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Clostridium perfringens in London, July 2009: two weddings and an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, J; Zenner, D; Anderson, S R; Grant, K; Kumar, D

    2010-06-24

    Food poisoning outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin occur occasionally in Europe but have become less common in recent years. This paper presents the microbiological and epidemiological results of a large C. perfringens outbreak occurring simultaneously at two weddings that used the same caterer. The outbreak involved several London locations and required coordination across multiple agencies. A case-control study (n=134) was carried out to analyse possible associations between the food consumed and becoming ill. Food, environmental and stool samples were tested for common causative agents, including enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. The clinical presentation and the epidemiological findings were compatible with C. perfringens food poisoning and C. perfringens enterotoxin was detected in stool samples from two cases. The case-control study found statistically significant associations between becoming ill and eating either a specific chicken or lamb dish prepared by the same food handler of the implicated catering company. A rapid outbreak investigation with preliminary real-time results and the successful collaboration between the agencies and the caterer led to timely identification and rectification of the failures in the food handling practices.

  4. Working in London hospitals: perceptions of place in nursing students' employment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, David A; Andrews, Gavin J; Andrews, Justin P; Thomas, B Gail; Wong, Josephine; Rixon, Lorna

    2005-11-01

    During the past decade, a distinct body of research has started to investigate the dynamics between nursing and place. However, despite attention being paid to a wide-range of nursing subjects, few studies have engaged with the important topic of labour force recruitment. In this context, this study uses a combined questionnaire (n=650), interview (n=30) and focus group (n=7) survey of London-based students, and investigates the complex mix of experiences and perceptions that result in hospitals having varying degrees of popularity as potential workplaces. The findings suggest experiences and perceptions of institutions-often gained on clinical placements-to be important, particularly relating to feeling valued, the quality of patient care, clinical and educational opportunities and team cohesion. These are often combined with experiences and perceptions of locality, relating to factors such as cost of living, travel considerations and sense of personnel safety. The study demonstrates that place is relevant to employment decision-making on multiple scales from wards to regions. Furthermore, that perceptions of potential workplaces result from engagements with complex mixes of cultural, economic and physical features, many of which are the consequences of management. It is argued that in order to effectively unpack workplaces, geographical research of nursing labour may benefit from researching simultaneously both 'inside' institutions, focusing on their dominant cultures of production and sub-cultures, and 'outside', focusing on their local urban or rural contexts.

  5. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.   Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.  Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  6. Forecasting peak asthma admissions in London: an application of quantile regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic condition of great public health concern globally. The associated morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation place an enormous burden on healthcare infrastructure and services. This study demonstrates a multistage quantile regression approach to predicting excess demand for health care services in the form of asthma daily admissions in London, using retrospective data from the Hospital Episode Statistics, weather and air quality. Trivariate quantile regression models (QRM) of asthma daily admissions were fitted to a 14-day range of lags of environmental factors, accounting for seasonality in a hold-in sample of the data. Representative lags were pooled to form multivariate predictive models, selected through a systematic backward stepwise reduction approach. Models were cross-validated using a hold-out sample of the data, and their respective root mean square error measures, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values compared. Two of the predictive models were able to detect extreme number of daily asthma admissions at sensitivity levels of 76 % and 62 %, as well as specificities of 66 % and 76 %. Their positive predictive values were slightly higher for the hold-out sample (29 % and 28 %) than for the hold-in model development sample (16 % and 18 %). QRMs can be used in multistage to select suitable variables to forecast extreme asthma events. The associations between asthma and environmental factors, including temperature, ozone and carbon monoxide can be exploited in predicting future events using QRMs.

  7. The impact of thunderstorm asthma on emergency department attendances across London during July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, A J; Hughes, H E; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Brown, R; Sarran, C; Clewlow, Y; Murray, V; Bone, A; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Smith, G E

    2014-08-01

    This study illustrates the potential of using emergency department attendance data, routinely accessed as part of a national syndromic surveillance system, to monitor the impact of thunderstorm asthma. The Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) routinely monitors anonymised attendance data on a daily basis across a sentinel network of 35 emergency departments. Attendance data for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing are analysed on a daily basis. A statistically significant spike in asthma attendances in two EDSSS emergency departments in London was detected on 23 July 2013, coinciding with a series of large violent thunderstorms across southern England. There was also an increase in the reported severity of these attendances. This preliminary report illustrates the potential of the EDSSS to monitor the impact of thunderstorms on emergency department asthma attendances. Further work will focus on how this system can be used to quantify the impact on emergency departments, thus potentially improving resource planning and also adding to the thunderstorm asthma evidence-base. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Social Media in Gay London: Tinder as an Alternative to Hook-Up Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MacKee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article explores how the mobile app Tinder complements dating practices and the wider app ecosystem gay men use in London. Within the local gay community discourse, Tinder is said to be a site where the gay “nice guys” go, rendering the platform as a socially constructed environment where gay men behave in a diametrically opposed way to the normative hyper-sexualized behavior of widespread gay hook-up apps. The research question, therefore, is whether Tinder is in fact a place where these “nice guys” go and where one would find them. Through an ethnographic methodology conducted both online and offline, a case is built on how initial conceptions about the app cannot be fully studied or interpreted without understanding the place it holds among other social networks. Evidence is presented to support the case that gay users of Tinder do, in fact, curate the portrayal of their digital identity to present a considerably less sexualized persona with the hopes of finding dates or a relationship. This, however, does not mean that users refrain from using other platforms in parallel as a way of exploring different subject positions and motivations. Behavior and normativity on Tinder are largely explained both by context and also by the design of the platform, which imports and displays personal data from other social networks. Findings should be limited to the population and location proposed as the fieldsite.

  9. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H

    2014-06-01

    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. National and ethnic identification, intergroup attitudes, and sport participation in the context of the London Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Virginia L; Corson, Eliza-Jane

    2013-11-01

    In the run-up to the 2012 London Olympics, the sense of national identity was salient. We tested children (N = 401) aged 5-15 years living near the Olympic site on national (British) and ethnic identification, national ingroup and outgroup attitudes, and sport participation. It was found that the strength of British identification peaked at age 9 years, but the strength of ethnic identification remained stable with age. Both liking for, and stereotyping of, different national groups diverged from age 9 years, but whilst stereotyping remained diverged liking converged by 15 years. The in group was one of the most liked, but one of the least positively stereotyped groups. Sport participation declined with age and was higher among boys, whilst the lowest socio-economic group showed the greatest discrepancy between normal and recent reported participation. The strength of British identification was associated with liking for, and stereotyping of, the British as well as sport participation, but the degree of associations varied between different groups of children. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: The road ahead. London, 15 January 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London, 15 January 2001. The Director General points out that for over five decades since the summer of 1945, strategies of national and international security have been intertwined with the concept of nuclear weapons as a strategic deterrent. In his view, the achievement of a nuclear weapon free world will crucially depend on a fundamental change in that concept of 'security'. Besides the historical perspectives the paper focuses on the non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament strategies. The Director General also states that to achieve the main goal of universal non-proliferation and disarmament it is indispensable to re-evaluate nuclear weapon states status; challenge the doctrine of nuclear deterrence; develop alternatives to nuclear deterrence; and engage in constructive dialogue. In conclusion it is re-emphasized that there remain both the difficulties and the opportunities of the road towards nuclear disarmament. It is pointed out that construction of a non-proliferation regime with near-universal participation has been successful and some progress towards nuclear disarmament has been achieved, but several goals must be pursued to maintain and build upon achievements

  12. In-Street Wind Direction Variability in the Vicinity of a Busy Intersection in Central London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Tomlin, Alison S.; Wood, Curtis R.; Barlow, Janet F.; Belcher, Stephen E.; Smalley, Robert J.; Lingard, Justin J. N.; Arnold, Sam J.; Dobre, Adrian; Robins, Alan G.; Martin, Damien; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2010-09-01

    We present results from fast-response wind measurements within and above a busy intersection between two street canyons (Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place) in Westminster, London taken as part of the DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollution and Penetration into the Local Environment; www.dapple.org.uk ) 2007 field campaign. The data reported here were collected using ultrasonic anemometers on the roof-top of a building adjacent to the intersection and at two heights on a pair of lamp-posts on opposite sides of the intersection. Site characteristics, data analysis and the variation of intersection flow with the above-roof wind direction ( θ ref ) are discussed. Evidence of both flow channelling and recirculation was identified within the canyon, only a few metres from the intersection for along-street and across-street roof-top winds respectively. Results also indicate that for oblique roof-top flows, the intersection flow is a complex combination of bifurcated channelled flows, recirculation and corner vortices. Asymmetries in local building geometry around the intersection and small changes in the background wind direction (changes in 15- min mean θ ref of 5°-10°) were also observed to have profound influences on the behaviour of intersection flow patterns. Consequently, short time-scale variability in the background flow direction can lead to highly scattered in-street mean flow angles masking the true multi-modal features of the flow and thus further complicating modelling challenges.

  13. The East London glaucoma prediction score: web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Cook; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza

    2013-01-01

    AIM It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS) is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific. METHOD The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described: Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment. RESULTS Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed: Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%. CONCLUSION Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables. PMID:23550097

  14. Dynamics of the Urban Water-Energy Nexuses of Mumbai and London

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stercke, S.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.; Chaturvedi, V.

    2016-12-01

    Both in developing as well as industrialized countries, cities are seeing their populations increase as more people concentrate in urban settlements. This burdens existing water and energy systems, which are also increasingly stressed on the supply side due to availability, and policy goals. In addition to the water and energy embedded in the electricity, fuels and water delivered to the city, the linkages in the urban environment itself are important and in magnitude they significantly exceed those upstream in the case of industrialized countries. However, little research has been published on urban water-energy linkages in developing countries. For cities in general, there is also a dearth of studies on the dynamics of these linkages with urban growth and socioeconomic development, and hence of the mutual influence of the urban water and energy systems. System dynamics modeling was used to understand and simulate these dynamics, building on modeling techniques from the water, energy, and urban systems literature. For each of the two characteristically different cities of Mumbai and London a model was constructed and calibrated with data from various public sources and personal interviews. The differences between the two cases are discussed by means of the models. Transition pathways to sustainable cities with respect to water use, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are illustrated for each city. Furthermore, uncertainties and model sensitivity, and their implications, are presented. Finally, applicability of either or a hybrid of these models to other cities is investigated.

  15. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-12-31

    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  17. Neighbourhood variation and inequity of primary health service use by mothers from London-Middlesex, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Catherine; Gilliland, Jason; Thind, Amardeep; Wilk, Piotr; Campbell, M Karen

    2014-01-01

    Primary health service use (P-HSU) may be influenced by contextual characteristics and is equitable when driven by need. Contextual effects and inequity of maternal P-HSU were determined. Participant data from a London-Middlesex, Ontario, prenatal cohort were linked by residential address to contextual characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression estimated contextual effects and tested for effect measure modification of need factors. Maternal P-HSU varied between neighbourhoods. The effect of obesity was different for rural mothers living in low- (OR = 0.26) and middle-income households (OR = 0.15) and for urban mothers living in high-income households (OR = 2.82). The effect of having a health condition was greatest in mothers with three or more children (OR = 2.41). Differences in maternal P-HSU exist between neighbourhoods, and enabling factors modified need factors' effects, identifying subgroups of mothers with inequitable P-HSU. RESULTS have the potential to inform Canadian health policy with regard to contextual effects and inequity of P-HSU.

  18. Greening London's black cabs: a study of driver's preferences for fuel cell taxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourato, Susana; Saynor, Bob; Hart, David

    2004-01-01

    Road transport accounts for about a quarter of all carbon emissions in the UK, highlighting the need for low carbon alternatives to current fuels and vehicles. Running on hydrogen and virtually emissions-free, fuel cell vehicles are considered to be one of the most promising ways of reducing transport-related emissions. Understanding the user benefits of fuel cell vehicles and the determinants of demand is essential for their successful penetration. This contingent valuation study investigates the preferences of London taxi drivers for driving emissions-free hydrogen fuel cell taxis, both in the short term as part of a pilot project, and in the longer term if production line fuel cell taxis become available. The results show that willingness to pay to participate in a pilot project seems to be driven mostly by drivers' expectation of personal financial gains. In contrast, however, environmental considerations are found to affect taxi drivers' longer-term vehicle purchasing decisions. The results also reveal that driving hydrogen-fuelled vehicles does not seem to raise safety concerns amongst taxi drivers

  19. 'Gay times': identity, locality, memory, and the Brixton squats in 1970's London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Through a thick description of a gay squatting community in south London in the 1970s, this piece explores the ways in which local histories complicate broader accounts of gay life, politics, and culture. Such a focus alerts us to the impact of personal encounters, of local politics, and material circumstances, of coincident local communities, of jobs (or the lack of them), and of major local events (like the Brixton riots of 1981). The local focus and the oral history sources also illuminate the complex ways in which unspoken and often unconscious imperatives associated with ethnicity, class, and the familial, social, and cultural contexts of our upbringings are played out under new and changing circumstances. Taking this approach fractures homogenizing assumptions about gay identity and community--even of a self-identified gay community like this squatting collective. It can also decentre sexuality as a primary category of identity and analysis as other factors come into sharper focus and shed light on the ebb and flow of identification and on the ways in which broader histories are woven into everyday lives. The piece thus considers different scales of analysis, the limits of identification, the inclusions and exclusions enacted when communities come together and identities coalesce, the continuities and discontinuities between broader and counter cultures (especially in relation to ideas and lived experiences of home), and the way memories of the squats and of the 1970s are modulated by subsequent national and gay politics, by AIDS, and by a profound sense of loss.

  20. Rates of undiagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in London drug and alcohol detoxification units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huntley Zoe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is a common childhood onset mental health disorder that persists into adulthood in two-thirds of cases. One of the most prevalent and impairing comorbidities of ADHD in adults are substance use disorders. We estimate rates of ADHD in patients with substance abuse disorders and delineate impairment in the co-morbid group. Method Screening for ADHD followed by a research diagnostic interview in people attending in-patient drug and alcohol detoxification units. Results We estimated prevalence of undiagnosed ADHD within substance use disorder in-patients in South London around 12%. Those individuals with substance use disorders and ADHD had significantly higher self-rated impairments across several domains of daily life; and higher rates of substance abuse and alcohol consumption, suicide attempts, and depression recorded in their case records. Conclusions This study demonstrates the high rates of untreated ADHD within substance use disorder populations and the association of ADHD in such patients with greater levels of impairment. These are likely to be a source of additional impairment to patients and represent an increased burden on clinical services.

  1. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunsoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  2. Reseña de Pinker, S. (1998. How the Mind Works, London, Penguin Books.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Eizaga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Se trata de una reseña de Pinker, S. (1998. How the Mind Works, London, Penguin Books.

  3. No evidence of XMRV or related retroviruses in a London HIV-1-positive patient cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor R Gray

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated a recently discovered gammaretrovirus, XMRV (Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus, in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, though whether as causative agent or opportunistic infection is unclear. It has also been suggested that the virus can be found circulating amongst the general population. The discovery has been controversial, with conflicting results from attempts to reproduce the original studies.We extracted peripheral blood DNA from a cohort of 540 HIV-1-positive patients (approximately 20% of whom have never been on anti-retroviral treatment and determined the presence of XMRV and related viruses using TaqMan PCR. While we were able to amplify as few as 5 copies of positive control DNA, we did not find any positive samples in the patient cohort.In view of these negative findings in this highly susceptible group, we conclude that it is unlikely that XMRV or related viruses are circulating at a significant level, if at all, in HIV-1-positive patients in London or in the general population.

  4. Identity management strategies among HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Williamson, Iain

    2017-12-01

    This study set out to explore the social-psychological aspects of living with HIV among a group of HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London, and the strategies that they deployed to manage ensuing threats to their identities. Focus group and individual interview data were collected from 14 Colombian gay men living with HIV, and were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and identity process theory. The following themes are discussed: (1) identity struggles and conflicts in Colombia, (2), managing multiple layers of social stigma in England, and (3) changing interpersonal and intergroup dynamics, which highlight the inter-connections between sexual prejudice, sexual risk-taking and HIV stigma. Identity may be chronically threatened due to the multiple layers of stigma, which can limit the coping strategies available to individuals. Findings strongly support the need for action and programmes to highlight and tackle both racism and HIV stigma on the gay scene and to fund more specific resources for sub-communities of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, which employ appropriately trained and culturally competent staff.

  5. Perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among patients from black ethnic groups in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonecha, Shaneil; Noble, Adam J; Morgan, Myfanwy; Ridsdale, Leone

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Clinical Excellence suggested black ethnic minorities with epilepsy have different cultural, communicative and health-care needs. However, little is known about these despite increasing migration of black African and Caribbean people to Europe. This study aims to explore perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among black African and Caribbean people in South London. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 participants, to examine their beliefs and perceptions of living with epilepsy. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken. African participants described supernatural causes for epilepsy and experienced considerable stigma whereas Caribbean participants described epilepsy as a 'normal illness'. However, both African and Caribbean participants experienced social restrictions arising from their epilepsy. The findings of higher levels of perceived stigma and social restriction seen in African participants may be a continuation of beliefs reported in participants' country of origin. There is also evidence that views regarding epilepsy transition through generations vary depending on place of birth. Practical Implications Health-care professionals need to be aware of and engage with the particular beliefs and concerns of black African and Caribbean people to achieve equity in health outcomes.

  6. Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halonen, Jaana I.; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B.; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Anderson, H. Ross; Beevers, Sean D.; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic pollution on health is inconsistent. In Greater London we examined associations between traffic pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases by applying linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models in a small-area analysis. For both models the results for children and adults were close to unity. In the elderly, linear models found negative associations whereas piecewise models found non-linear associations characterized by positive risks in the lowest and negative risks in the highest exposure category. An increased risk was observed among those living in areas with the highest socioeconomic deprivation. Estimates were not affected by adjustment for traffic noise. The lack of convincing positive linear associations between primary traffic pollution and hospital admissions agrees with a number of other reports, but may reflect residual confounding. The relatively greater vulnerability of the most deprived populations has important implications for public health. - Highlights: • Evidence concerning associations between traffic pollutants and morbidity is scarce. • We addressed this using state of the art small-area statistical methods. • There was no convincing evidence of positive linear associations with admissions. - In this study, there was no convincing evidence of positive linear associations between long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants and cardio-respiratory hospitalizations.

  7. Reflecting on the experience of interviewing online: perspectives from the Internet and HIV study in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M; Bolding, G; Hart, G; Sherr, L; Elford, J

    2004-11-01

    This paper considers some of the strengths and weaknesses of conducting synchronous online interviews for qualitative research. It is based on a study among gay/bisexual men that used both qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the association between seeking sex through the Internet and HIV transmission risk. Between June 2002 and January 2004, 128 gay/bisexual men living in London were interviewed one-to-one by the first author (MD) about their experience of using the Internet to find sexual partners and negotiating condom use for anal sex. Thirty-five men were interviewed online, while 93 were interviewed face-to-face (i.e. offline). This paper draws on MD's experience of conducting these interviews--both online and face-to-face. Synchronous online interviews have the advantage of being cheap, convenient and attractive to people who do not like face-to-face interviews. However, some of the social conventions and technical limitations of computer-mediated-communication can introduce ambiguity into the online dialogue. To minimize this ambiguity, both interviewer and interviewee have to edit their online interaction. One of the distinctive features of the online interview is that it emerges as a form of textual performance. This raises fundamental questions about the suitability of the synchronous online interview for exploring sensitive topics such as risky sexual behaviour.

  8. The London Spikes Controversy: Homelessness, Urban Securitisation and the Question of ‘Hostile Architecture’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Petty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an ostensibly new feature of the securitised urban landscape: ‘hostile architecture’. Following controversy in 2014 London over ‘anti-homeless spikes’– metal studs implanted at ground level designed to discourage the homeless from sleeping in otherwise unrestricted spaces – certain visible methods of environmental social control were temporarily subject to intense public scrutiny and debate. While contests over public and urban spaces are not new, the spikes controversy emerged in the context of broader socio-political and governmental shifts toward neoliberal arrangements. Using the spikes issue as a case study, I contextualise hostile architecture within these broader processes and in wider patterns of urban securitisation. The article then offers an explanatory framework for understanding the controversy itself. Ultimately the article questions whether the public backlash against the use of spikes indicates genuine resistance to patterns of urban securitisation or, counterintuitively, a broader public distaste for both the homeless and the mechanisms that regulate them. 

  9. London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: public health surveillance and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Brian; Endericks, Tina; Catchpole, Mike; Zambon, Maria; McLauchlin, Jim; Shetty, Nandini; Manuel, Rohini; Turbitt, Deborah; Smith, Gillian; Crook, Paul; Severi, Ettore; Jones, Jane; Ibbotson, Sue; Marshall, Roberta; Smallwood, Catherine A H; Isla, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Heymann, David L; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2014-06-14

    Mass gatherings are regarded as potential risks for transmission of infectious diseases, and might compromise the health system of countries in which they are hosted. The evidence for increased transmission of infectious diseases at international sporting mass gatherings that attract many visitors from all over the world is not clear, and the evidence base for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and response at events such as the Olympics is small. However, infectious diseases are a recognised risk, and public health planning is, and should remain, a crucial part of the overall planning of sporting events. In this Series paper, we set out the planning and the surveillance systems that were used to monitor public health risks during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in the summer of 2012, and draw attention to the public health issues-infectious diseases and chemical, radiation, and environmental hazards-that arose. Although the absolute risk of health-protection problems, including infectious diseases, at sporting mass gatherings is small, the need for reassurance of the absence of problems is higher than has previously been considered; this could challenge conventional public health surveillance systems. Recognition of the limitations of health-surveillance systems needs to be part of the planning for future sporting events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.    Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.   Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes.   Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  11. Mass current in 3He - A: Some exact representations and their London limit near zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, C.

    1995-09-01

    New representations for normal Green's function of the superfluid A-phase of helium-3 are obtained by an exact solution of the Dyson-Gor'kov equation. These representations result in new formulae for the mass current j-vector near zero temperature. Specific limiting cases for j-vector such ast the limit of lowest order in gradients, following the limit of zero temperature, and vice versa, are investigated. It is shown that the mass current previously known as j-vector = j-vector 0 , where j-vector 0 is an expression of first order in gradients, should be treated as a ''quasiclassical'' object in view of the approximations chosen. The parameter 1/χ implying the ''quasiclassics'', is a small quantity, as the London limit condition holds. Expansion of j-vector in powers of 1/χ is considered and first corrections to j-vector 0 are obtained at zero temperature, for two gauges of the order parameter. (author). 26 refs

  12. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  13. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Sediment Remediation at the London Olympic Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there is an emerging 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) movement. It is drawing increasing attention from both the government and the industry, because this GSR movement is promising in accelerating process in addressing the contaminated land issue, by overcoming regulatory barriers, encouraging technological innovation, and balancing life cycle environmental stewardship with economic vitality and social well-being. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used by both researchers and industrial practitioners in an initiative to make environmental remediation greener and more sustainable. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), aiming at expanding the traditional LCA model in both breadth and depth (e.g. to incorporate both environmental and social-economic sustainability), is an important research direction in the existing LCA research field. The present study intends to develop a LCSA method based on a hybrid LCA model and economic input-output (EIO) data. The LCSA method is applied to a contaminated sediment remediation project conducted at the London Olympic Park site.

  14. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  15. Exploring Twitter to analyze the public's reaction patterns to recently reported homicides in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people's perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public's concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users' estimated home locations to the homicides' locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident's occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency.

  16. Paleoactaea gen. nov. (Ranunculaceae) fruits from the Paleogene of North Dakota and the London Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L

    2005-10-01

    Paleoactea nagelii Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. is described for a small, ovoid ranunculaceous fossil fruit from the Late Paleocene Almont and Beicegel Creek floras of North Dakota, USA. Fruits are 5-7 mm wide, 4.5-6 mm high, 10-13 mm long, and bilaterally symmetrical, containing 10-17 seeds attached on the upper margin in 2-3 rows. A distinctive honeycomb pattern is formed where adjacent seeds with prominent palisade outer cell layers abut. Seeds are flattened, ovoid, and triangular. To the inside of the palisade cells, the seed coat has a region of isodiametric cells that become more tangentially elongate toward the center. The embryo cavity is replaced by an opaline cast. This fruit bears a striking resemblance to extant Actaea, the baneberry (Ranunculaceae), an herbaceous spring wildflower of North Temperate regions. A second species, Paleoactaea bowerbanki (Reid & Chandler) Pigg & DeVore nov. comb., is recognized from the Early Eocene London Clay flora, based on a single fruit. This fruit shares most of the organization and structure of P. nagelii but is larger and has a thicker pericarp. This study documents a rare Paleocene occurrence of a member of the buttercup family, a family that is today primarily herbaceous, and demonstrates a North Atlantic connection for an Actaea-like genus in the Paleogene.

  17. The use of health foods, spices and other botanicals in the Sikh community in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Davinder S; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-01

    Attitudes and practice concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are currently an area of considerable interest. However, little is known about the overall importance of such practices, for example, in immigrant communities such as the Sikh (Punjabi) British. The use of CAM in immigrants belonging to the Sikh religion in London was studied. The primary objective was to analyse the extent to which traditional medicine is used and understood by this population. Traditional Sikh medicine is important to this group of informants and a total of 42 species were recorded and identified tentatively. The most frequently mentioned species were Allium cepa (onion -- gunda), Allium sativum (garlic -- lasan, thon), Capsicum frutescens (cayenne pepper -- lalmirch), Cinnamomum verum (cinnamom--dhal chini), Citrus limon (lemon -- nimbu), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel -- saunf), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom -- elaichi) and Zingiber officinale (ginger -- adrak). The study also highlights the rapid change this tradition is undergoing in a diaspora situation. In depth studies on the use of CAM among other immigrant communities and among ethnic groups are urgent and may help to manage better the treatment of minor ailments as well as chronic diseases. Specifically, more research on traditional and herbal remedies amongst the numerous ethnic groups in urban Britain and how this impacts on the use of biomedicine (e.g. as it is provided by the NHS) is essential.

  18. Performance of humans vs. exploration algorithms on the Tower of London Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fimbel

    Full Text Available The Tower of London Test (TOL used to assess executive functions was inspired in Artificial Intelligence tasks used to test problem-solving algorithms. In this study, we compare the performance of humans and of exploration algorithms. Instead of absolute execution times, we focus on how the execution time varies with the tasks and/or the number of moves. This approach used in Algorithmic Complexity provides a fair comparison between humans and computers, although humans are several orders of magnitude slower. On easy tasks (1 to 5 moves, healthy elderly persons performed like exploration algorithms using bounded memory resources, i.e., the execution time grew exponentially with the number of moves. This result was replicated with a group of healthy young participants. However, for difficult tasks (5 to 8 moves the execution time of young participants did not increase significantly, whereas for exploration algorithms, the execution time keeps on increasing exponentially. A pre-and post-test control task showed a 25% improvement of visuo-motor skills but this was insufficient to explain this result. The findings suggest that naive participants used systematic exploration to solve the problem but under the effect of practice, they developed markedly more efficient strategies using the information acquired during the test.

  19. The Covent Garden Old Price Riots: Protest and Justice in Late‑Georgian London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James William Baker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions of the law and of how agents of the law responded to events at Covent Garden Theatre during the bitter months between mid-October and late-November 1809, the height of the Covent Garden Old Price riots. It does so through the lens of the periodical press, a vital and voluminous source of not only what happened during the riots but also of opinions on what happened and of perceptions of what happened, opinions and perceptions that are the primary concern of this article. The article begins with a discussion of how the magistrates, ‘police officers,’ justices, and lawyers who together were agents of the legal system were seen, where they were seen, and what they did. It moves on to examine how the actions of those agents and the legal system they represented were reported upon. And it concludes with a discussion of how theatregoers and Londoners were seen to have responded to those actions, moving a significant element of the conflict outside of Covent Garden Theatre and into the public press in a direct response to how they were policed as threats to public order and security. It argues that the Covent Garden Old Price riots was a significant urban act of multi-class protest because of the ways that it intersected with wider late-Georgian concerns, with discursive arenas where British liberty and the freedom of her subjects were contested and at stake.

  20. The introduction of hydrogen in London and Tokyo: costs and strategic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, David; Hutchinson, David

    1998-01-01

    While the proposals made in this work are no more than tentative at this stage, especially in the light of unfinished analysis of the situation in Tokyo, they represent an initial perspective on some strategies and policies affecting the potential introduction of hydrogen into the energy system of an urban area. It has been shown that given certain assumptions the introduction of hydrogen into an urban energy infrastructure could be both environmentally beneficial and economically viable. In order to achieve this introduction several possible strategies have been proposed, although none of these has been tested in detail. These strategies are highly likely to vary between different urban areas depending on the prevailing conditions. Specific analysis on the conditions in Tokyo will be carried out in the near future. This should enable the qualitative evaluation of some of the proposals already made, and suggestion of new ones. At the same time, the transferability both of the methodology used for analysing London and the strategies suggested for the early introduction of hydrogen will be examined. (author)

  1. The Sustainability of Shared Mobility in London: The Dilemma for Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Akyelken

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of governments in the regulation of potentially beneficial low carbon practices, such as car sharing, has proved difficult, as there are many different actors involved and as existing practices can be undermined. The mobility sector provides clear evidence of these dilemmas, as a wide range of users need to be engaged in the discourse over the innovations, and as existing governance structures may be unsuitable for addressing both the opportunities and limitations of innovation. This paper focuses on the sustainability implications of shared mobility and the need for new approaches to governance. A qualitative study of car sharing in London is used to examine the ideas, incentives, and institutions of the key actors involved in this sharing sector. The elements of change and continuity in the emerging sharing economy indicate the different possibilities for enhancing sustainable mobility. Any search for an alternative governance regime should take account of the ideational factors that would require an understanding of the different incentives needed to accommodate the full range of actors involved with the sharing economy.

  2. Sector Identification in a Set of Stock Return Time Series Traded at the London Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronnello, C.; Tumminello, M.; Lillo, F.; Micciche, S.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2005-09-01

    We compare some methods recently used in the literature to detect the existence of a certain degree of common behavior of stock returns belonging to the same economic sector. Specifically, we discuss methods based on random matrix theory and hierarchical clustering techniques. We apply these methods to a portfolio of stocks traded at the London Stock Exchange. The investigated time series are recorded both at a daily time horizon and at a 5-minute time horizon. The correlation coefficient matrix is very different at different time horizons confirming that more structured correlation coefficient matrices are observed for long time horizons. All the considered methods are able to detect economic information and the presence of clusters characterized by the economic sector of stocks. However, different methods present a different degree of sensitivity with respect to different sectors. Our comparative analysis suggests that the application of just a single method could not be able to extract all the economic information present in the correlation coefficient matrix of a stock portfolio.

  3. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  4. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  5. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from road freight transport in London: Trends and policies for long run reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Alberto M., E-mail: a.m.zanni@lboro.ac.u [Transport Studies Group, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough (United Kingdom); Bristow, Abigail L., E-mail: a.l.bristow@lboro.ac.u [Transport Studies Group, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Freight transport has been receiving increasing attention in both literature and practice following the growing recognition of its importance in urban transport planning. This paper analyses historical and projected road freight CO{sub 2} emissions in the city of London and explores the potential mitigation effect of a set of freight transport policies and logistics solutions. Findings indicate a range of policies with potential to reduce emissions in the period up to 2050. However, this reduction would appear to only be capable of partly counterbalancing the projected increase in freight traffic. More profound behavioural measures therefore appear to be necessary for London's CO{sub 2} emissions reduction targets to be met.

  6. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from road freight transport in London. Trends and policies for long run reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Alberto M.; Bristow, Abigail L. [Transport Studies Group, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Freight transport has been receiving increasing attention in both literature and practice following the growing recognition of its importance in urban transport planning. This paper analyses historical and projected road freight CO{sub 2} emissions in the city of London and explores the potential mitigation effect of a set of freight transport policies and logistics solutions. Findings indicate a range of policies with potential to reduce emissions in the period up to 2050. However, this reduction would appear to only be capable of partly counterbalancing the projected increase in freight traffic. More profound behavioural measures therefore appear to be necessary for London's CO{sub 2} emissions reduction targets to be met. (author)

  7. The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Jordan W.; Luginaah, Isaac N.; Booth, Gillian L.; Harris, Stewart B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. PMID:20623032

  8. Life in the shadow of the 2012 olympics: an ethnography of the host borough of the London games

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Iain

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. On 6th July 2005 the London Olympic bidding committee won the right to host the 2012 Olympic Games. Some seven years later London’s Olympic venues were built on time, Team GB accumulated an unprecedented medal haul and no significant security incidents occurred. These outcomes facilitated an understandable positive evaluation of the 2012 Games. It would be churlish not to be positive; Olympic...

  9. East London Modified-Broset as Decision-Making Tool to Predict Seclusion in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    Loi, Felice; Marlowe, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Seclusion is a last resort intervention for management of aggressive behavior in psychiatric settings. There is no current objective and practical decision-making instrument for seclusion use on psychiatric wards. Our aim was to test the predictive and discriminatory characteristics of the East London Modified-Broset (ELMB), to delineate its decision-making profile for seclusion of adult psychiatric patients, and second to benchmark it against the psychometric properties of the Broset Violenc...

  10. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted...

  11. Valstybės teatro baleto trupės gastrolės Monte Karle ir Londone 1935 metais

    OpenAIRE

    Šabasevičius, Helmutas

    2011-01-01

    The guest performance of the Ballet Company of Lithuanian State Theatre, which took place in Monte Carlo and London in 1935, is the exceptional cultural event of the history of Lithuanian theatre in the interwar period. It was organised with the help of Russian ballerina Vera Nemtchinova. The Lithuanian Ballet company performed in Monte Carlo in January 16-31, 1935, presenting three performances of "Raymonda" by Alexander Glazunov, two performances of "Coppelia" by Leo Delibes, two performanc...

  12. Dedicated outreach service for hard to reach patients with tuberculosis in London: observational study and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Stagg, Helen R; Aldridge, Robert W; White, Peter J; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2011-09-14

    To assess the cost effectiveness of the Find and Treat service for diagnosing and managing hard to reach individuals with active tuberculosis. Economic evaluation using a discrete, multiple age cohort, compartmental model of treated and untreated cases of active tuberculosis. London, United Kingdom. Population Hard to reach individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis screened or managed by the Find and Treat service (48 mobile screening unit cases, 188 cases referred for case management support, and 180 cases referred for loss to follow-up), and 252 passively presenting controls from London's enhanced tuberculosis surveillance system. Incremental costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and cost effectiveness ratios for the Find and Treat service. The model estimated that, on average, the Find and Treat service identifies 16 and manages 123 active cases of tuberculosis each year in hard to reach groups in London. The service has a net cost of £1.4 million/year and, under conservative assumptions, gains 220 QALYs. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was £6400-£10,000/QALY gained (about €7300-€11,000 or $10,000-$16 000 in September 2011). The two Find and Treat components were also cost effective, even in unfavourable scenarios (mobile screening unit (for undiagnosed cases), £18,000-£26,000/QALY gained; case management support team, £4100-£6800/QALY gained). Both the screening and case management components of the Find and Treat service are likely to be cost effective in London. The cost effectiveness of the mobile screening unit in particular could be even greater than estimated, in view of the secondary effects of infection transmission and development of antibiotic resistance.

  13. Victims and survivors: stable isotopes used to identify migrants from the Great Irish Famine to 19th century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Julia; Geber, Jonny; Powers, Natasha; Wilson, Andrew; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Montgomery, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Historical evidence documents mass migration from Ireland to London during the period of the Great Irish Famine of 1845-52. The rural Irish were reliant on a restricted diet based on potatoes but maize, a C(4) plant, was imported from the United States of America in 1846-47 to mitigate against Famine. In London, Irish migrants joined a population with a more varied diet. To investigate and characterize their diet, carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were obtained from bone collagen of 119 and hair keratin of six individuals from Lukin Street cemetery, Tower Hamlets (1843-54), and bone collagen of 20 individuals from the cemetery at Kilkenny Union Workhouse in Ireland (1847-51). A comparison of the results with other contemporaneous English populations suggests that Londoners may have elevated δ(15) N compared with their contemporaries in other cities. In comparison, the Irish group have lower δ(15) N. Hair analysis combined with bone collagen allows the reconstruction of perimortem dietary changes. Three children aged 5-15 years from Kilkenny have bone collagen δ(13) C values that indicate consumption of maize (C(4)). As maize was only imported into Ireland in quantity from late 1846 and 1847, these results demonstrate relatively rapid bone collagen turnover in children and highlight the importance of age-related bone turnover rates, and the impact the age of the individual can have on studies of short-term dietary change or recent migration. Stable light isotope data in this study are consistent with the epigraphic and documentary evidence for the presence of migrants within the London cemetery. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Generation X School Leaders as Agents of Care: Leader and Teacher Perspectives from Toronto, New York City and London

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, K. E.; Descours, K.; Frayman, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on evidence from our three-year Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded research study of the lives, careers, experiences and aspirations of Generation X (under 40 years of age) principals and vice-principals in London, New York City, and Toronto. More specifically, the paper examines interview evidence from nine school-based studies in which nine leaders and 54 teachers discuss their perspectives on leaders’ care of their staff members. The evidence demonstrates t...

  15. The London handicap scale: a re-evaluation of its validity using standard scoring and simple summation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkinson, C.; Mant, J.; Carter, J.; Wade, D.; Winner, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the validity of the London handicap scale (LHS) using a simple unweighted scoring system compared with traditional weighted scoring
METHODS—323 patients admitted to hospital with acute stroke were followed up by interview 6 months after their stroke as part of a trial looking at the impact of a family support organiser. Outcome measures included the six item LHS, the Dartmouth COOP charts, the Frenchay activities index, the Barthel index, and the hospital...

  16. An Olympic Legacy? Did the Urban Regeneration Associated With the London 2012 Olympic Games Influence Adolescent Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Smuk, Melanie; Cummins, Steven; Eldridge, Sandra; Fahy, Amanda; Lewis, Daniel; Moore, Derek G; Smith, Neil; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    Public expenditure on large events such as the London 2012 Olympic Games is often justified by the potential legacy of urban regeneration and its associated health and well-being benefits for local communities. In the Olympic Regeneration in East London Study, we examined whether there was an association between urban regeneration related to the 2012 Games and improved mental health in young people. Adolescents aged 11-12 years attending schools in the Olympic host borough of Newham in London or in 3 adjacent comparison London boroughs completed a survey before the 2012 Games and 6 and 18 months after the Games (in 2013 and 2014, respectively). Changes in depressive symptoms and well-being between baseline and each follow-up were examined. A total of 2,254 adolescents from 25 randomly selected schools participated. Adolescents from Newham were more likely to have remained depressed between baseline and the 6- and 18-month follow-up surveys (for 6-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.83; for 18-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.70) than adolescents from the comparison boroughs. No differences in well-being were observed. There was little evidence that urban regeneration had any positive influence on adolescent mental health and some suggestion that regeneration may have been associated with maintenance of depressive symptoms. Such programs may have limited short-term impact on the mental health of adolescents.

  17. Survey of gaseous air pollutants at selected UK sites: XX. Data digest for Central London Laboratory, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.; Drury, V.J.; Lilley, K.; Powell, K.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient air-quality measurements of six gaseous pollutants plus black smoke and particulate lead continued during 1984 at the Central London Laboratory. The data are presented here in the form of frequency distributions, averages, and other parameters for winter, summer, annual and monthly periods. Time-series graphs of pollutant concentrations for 1984 and of the historical data base between July 1972 and December 1984 are also included.

  18. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week ...

  19. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Cummins, Steven; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14,699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip count were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11,293: 95% CI 5169 to 17,416). Events that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have unintended short-term effects on travel behaviour. These findings suggest that limiting transportation options may have the potential to increase population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of cycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Jason

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario by using a geographic information system (GIS to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  1. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  2. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  3. Clinical characteristics of 385 illnesses of athletes with impairment reported on the WEB-IISS system during the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin; Jordaan, Esme

    2014-08-01

    Prevention of illness is important for a team physician. However, there are few studies that reported clinical aspects of illness of athletes with impairment. To describe the clinical characteristics of the 385 illnesses reported on the a novel Web-based electronic injury and illness capturing system (WEB-IISS) during the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Part of a large prospective cohort study. London 2012 Paralympic Games. Team physicians of 78 delegations (3329 athletes over 14 days) used WEB-IISS. Each day, information was recorded, which included daily team size and illness details, system affected, final diagnosis, type and onset of symptoms, training and/or competition days lost, and suspected cause. Incidence of illness (illness per 1000 athlete days). The incidence of illness in the cohort was 8.3 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 7.5-9.1) athlete days, and the percentage of athletes with an illness in this study was 9.2%. Respiratory system illnesses were the most common (39.4%), followed by the digestive system (15.8%), skin and subcutaneous system (11.8%), genitourinary system (8.8%), and nervous system (7.3%). Urinary tract illness was more common in athletes with spinal cord injury (22%) compared with the athletes with other impairments (0%-5%). Skin and subcutaneous illness varied from 0%-18% between impairment categories and was highest for athletes with spinal cord injury. Infections accounted for 40.8% of all illness and 19.5% of illness that resulted in a time loss of ≥1 day. In 34% of illnesses, symptoms were present for ≥1 day before being reported to the team physician. The majority of illnesses affected the respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin and subcutaneous, and genitourinary systems, and were mostly infective in nature. The highest number of all illnesses, including skin and subcutaneous illnesses, and urinary tract illnesses, were of athletes with spinal cord injury. Although most illnesses were not time-loss illnesses, 19.5% of

  4. SHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livroSHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

  5. Robillard, Amy E. and Ron Fortune (eds. Authorship Contested. Cultural Challenges to the Authentic Autonomous Author (New York, and London: Routledge, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ciorogar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of Amy E. Robillard and Ron Fortune's (eds Authorship Contested: Cultural Challenges to the Authentic Autonomous Author. New York, and London: Routledge, 2015. 214 pp. £100.

  6. News of the European Society of Cardiology Congress (London, 28 August - 2 September 2015: old drugs may be better than the new ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available News of the European Society of Cardiology Congress (London, 2015 is presented. The results of recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies (registers data are discussed.

  7. News of the European Society of Cardiology Congress (London, 28 August - 2 September 2015: old drugs may be better than the new ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available News of the European Society of Cardiology Congress (London, 2015 is presented. The results of recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies (registers data are discussed.

  8. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo project in summer 2012. Data were collected from 22 July to 18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation, and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at  ∼  02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime, peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak, suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH, and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to 0, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources from the literature, including dark conversion of NO2 on surfaces, direct emission, photolysis of ortho-substituted nitrophenols, the postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 ×  H2O with NO2, photolysis of adsorbed HNO3 on ground and aerosols, and HONO produced by photosensitized conversion of NO2 on the surface increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant missing daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity (used as a proxy for organic material, with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2, in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. Increasing the photosensitized surface conversion rate of NO2 by a

  9. THE CONCEPT “LONDON” AS A TEMPORAL CODE OF LINGUOCULTURE IN THE LITERARY AND REGIONAL WORK OF PETER ACKROYD “LONDON: THE BIOGRAPHY”

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliev, Sultan; Zhumagulova, Batima

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the spatial-temporal code oflingua-culture as one of the components of the general cognitive-matrix modelof the structure of the concept "London" in the literary and regionalwork of Peter Ackroyd "London: The Biography". This approachimplements integration of cognitive-matrix modeling of the structure of theconcept and the system of codes of lingua-culture (anthropomorphic,temporal, vegetative, spiritual, social, chemical, etc.) The space-timecode of ...

  10. Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima C. Stockton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix—common components of walkability indices—differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study.  Methods A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i 21,140 output areas, (ii 633 wards and (iii 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003–04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0 based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. Results There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92–0.98, and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39–0.70. After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1–1.9 than those in the least walkable. Conclusions Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This

  11. Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Jemima C; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mindell, Jennifer S; Brunner, Eric J; Shelton, Nicola J

    2016-05-18

    Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix-common components of walkability indices-differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study. A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i) 21,140 output areas, (ii) 633 wards and (iii) 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003-04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0) based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92-0.98), and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39-0.70). After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1-1.9) than those in the least walkable. Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This walkability index could help urban planners identify and design neighbourhoods in

  12. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  13. Role of Food Handlers in Norovirus Outbreaks in London and South East England, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, C; Addiman, S; Balasegaram, S; Chima, K; Ready, D; Heard, J; Alexander, E

    2017-02-01

    Outbreaks caused by norovirus infection are common and occur throughout the year. Outbreaks can be related to food outlets either through a contaminated food source or an infected food handler. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic food handlers are potentially implicated in outbreaks, but evidence of transmission is limited. To understand potential food handler transmission in outbreak scenarios, epidemiological and microbiological data on possible and confirmed norovirus outbreaks reported in London and South East England in a 2-year period were reviewed. One hundred eighty-six outbreaks were associated with a food outlet or registered caterer in this period. These occurred throughout the year with peaks in quarter 1 of study years. A case series of 17 outbreaks investigated by the local field epidemiological service were evaluated further, representing more than 606 cases. In five outbreaks, symptomatic food handlers were tested and found positive for norovirus. In four outbreaks, symptomatic food handlers were not tested. Asymptomatic food handlers were tested in three outbreaks but positive for norovirus in one only. Environmental sampling did not identify the causative agent conclusively in any of the outbreaks included in this analysis. Food sampling identified norovirus in one outbreak. Recommendations from this study include for outbreak investigations to encourage testing of symptomatic food handlers and for food and environmental samples to be taken as soon as possible. In addition, sampling of asymptomatic food handlers should be considered when possible. However, in light of the complexity in conclusively identifying a source of infection, general measures to improve hand hygiene are recommended, with specific education among food handlers about the potential for foodborne pathogen transmission during asymptomatic infection, as well as reinforcing the importance of self-exclusion from food handling activities when symptomatic.

  14. Tobacco smoking is associated with psychotic experiences in the general population of South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, V; Jauhar, S; Murray, R M; Hotopf, M; Hatch, S L; McNeill, A; Boydell, J; MacCabe, J H

    2018-01-01

    The association between cigarette smoking and psychosis remains unexplained, but could relate to causal effects in both directions, confounding by socioeconomic factors, such as ethnicity, or use of other substances, including cannabis. Few studies have evaluated the association between cigarettes and psychotic experiences (PEs) in diverse, inner-city populations, or relationships with number of cigarettes consumed. We assessed associations and dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and PEs in a cross-sectional survey of household residents (n = 1680) in South East London, using logistic regression to adjust for cannabis use, other illicit substances, and socioeconomic factors, including ethnicity. We found association between any PEs and daily cigarette smoking, which remained following adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, cannabis and use of illicit stimulant drugs (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.15). Fully adjusted estimates for the association, and with number of PEs, increased with number of cigarettes smoked daily, implying a dose-response effect (p = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Odds of reporting any PEs in ex-smokers were similar to never-smokers. In this diverse epidemiological sample, association between smoking and PEs was not explained by confounders such as cannabis or illicit drugs. Daily cigarette consumption showed a dose-response relationship with the odds of reporting PEs, and of reporting a greater number of PEs. There was no difference in odds of reporting PEs between ex-smokers and never-smokers, raising the possibility that the increase in PEs associated with smoking may be reversible.

  15. Scoping the role and education needs of practice nurses in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Susan; Griffiths, Lauren; Fanning, Agnes; Wallman, Lizzie; Loveday, Heather P

    2017-07-01

    Aims To identify education priorities for practice nursing across eight London Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs); to identify the education, training, development and support needs of practice nurses in undertaking current and future roles. The education needs of practice nurses have long been recognised but their employment status means that accessing education requires the support of their GP employer. This study scopes the educational requirements of the practice nurse workforce and working with educational providers and commissioners describes a coherent educational pathway for practice nurses. A survey of practice nurses to scope their educational attainment needs was undertaken. Focus groups were carried out which identified the education, training, development and support needs of practice nurses to fulfil current and future roles. Findings A total of 272 respondents completed the survey. Practice nurses took part in three focus groups (n=34) and one workshop (n=39). Findings from this research indicate a practice nurse workforce which lacked career progression, role autonomy or a coherent educational framework. Practice nurses recognised the strength of their role in building relationship-centred care with patients over an extended period of time. They valued this aspect of their role and would welcome opportunities to develop this to benefit patients. This paper demonstrates an appetite for more advanced education among practice nurses, a leadership role by the CCGs in working across the whole system to address the education needs of practice nurses, and a willingness on the part of National Health Service education commissioners to commission education which meets the education needs of the practice nurse workforce. Evidence is still required, however, to inform the scope of the practice nurse role within an integrated system of care and to identify the impact of practice nursing on improving health outcomes and care of local populations.

  16. Psychiatric morbidity of overseas patients in inner London: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshall Alice M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the referral, admission, treatment, and outcome of overseas patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in central London. Ethical, legal and economic implications, and the involvement of consulates in the admission process, are discussed. Method Assessment and review of overseas patients admitted between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. Non-parametric statistical tests were used, and relevant outcomes described. Results 19% of admissions were overseas patients. Mean age was 38 years. 90% were unattached; 84% were white, 71% from European countries. 45% spoke fluent English. Differences in socio-economic status between home country and England were found. 74% were unwell on arrival; 65% travelled to England as tourists. 65% of admissions came via the police. 32% had been ill for more than one year before admission; 68% had psychiatric history. 77% were admitted and 48% discharged under section of the Mental Health Act. 74% had psychotic disorders, all of them with positive symptoms. 55% showed little to moderate improvement in mental state; 10% were on Enhanced Care Programme Approach. Relatives of 48% of patients were contacted. The Hospital repatriated 52% of patients; the Mental Health Team followed up 13% of those discharged. The average length of admission was 43.4 days (range 1–365. Total cost of admissions was GBP350, 600 ($577, 490; average individual cost was GBP11, 116 (range GBP200-81, 000. Conclusions Mentally ill overseas individuals are a vulnerable group that need recognition by health organisations to adapt current practice to better serve their needs. The involvement of consulates needs further evaluation.

  17. Fast-food, everyday life and health: A qualitative study of 'chicken shops' in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Ponsford, Ruth; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven

    2018-05-26

    The higher prevalence of fast food outlets in deprived areas has been associated with the production and maintenance of geographical inequalities in diet. In the UK one type of fast food outlet - the 'chicken shop' - has been the focus of intense public health and media interest. Despite ongoing concerns and initiatives around regulating these establishments, the 'chicken shop' is both a commercially successful and ubiquitous feature of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods. However, little is known about how they are perceived by local residents. We report data from a qualitative study of neighbourhood perceptions in a low SES urban setting. Narrative family interviews, go-along interviews and school video focus group workshops with 66 residents of East London were conducted over two waves. The topic of chicken shops was a prolific theme and a narrative analysis of these accounts revealed that local perceptions of chicken shops are complex and contradictory. Chicken shops were depicted as both potentially damaging for the health of local residents and, at the same time, as valued community spaces. This contradiction was discursively addressed in narrative via a series of rhetorical rebuttals that negated their potential to damage health on the grounds of concepts such as trust, choice, balance, food hygiene and compensatory physical activity. In some instances, chicken shops were described as 'healthy' and patronising them constructed as part of a healthy lifestyle. Chicken shops are embedded in the social fabric of neighbourhoods. Successful strategies to improve diet therefore requires context-sensitive environmental interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Felix; Pappas, Yannis; Bardsley, Martin; Harris, Matthew; Curry, Natasha; Holder, Holly; Blunt, Ian; Soljak, Michael; Gunn, Laura; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Background Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect. Study design We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context. Theory and discussion This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them. Conclusions We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important. PMID:23687478

  19. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Greaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect. Study design: We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context. Theory and discussion: This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them. Conclusions: We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important

  20. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Greaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect.Study design: We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context.Theory and discussion: This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them.Conclusions: We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important

  1. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, G.D.; Lynam, D.R. [Air Conservation Department, Ethyl Corporation, 330 South Fourth Street, Richmond, VA (United States); Harrison, R.M. [The University of Birmingham, Environmental Health, School of Chemistry, Edgbaston, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM{sub 2.5} were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM{sub 2.5}, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rails, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear.

  2. Assessing the representativeness of monitoring data from an urban intersection site in Central London, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaperdas, A.; Colvile, R.N. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1999-02-01

    The wind flow field around urban street-building configurations has an important influence on the microscale pollutant dispersion from road traffic, affecting overall dilution and creating localised spatial variations of pollutant concentration. As a result, the ``representatives`` of air quality measurements made at different urban monitoring sites can be strongly dependent on the interaction of the local wind flow field with the street-building geometry surrounding the monitor. The present study is an initial attempt to develop a method for appraising the significance of air quality measurements from urban monitoring sites, using a general application computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate small-scale flow and dispersion patterns around real urban building configurations. The main focus of the work was to evaluate routine CO monitoring data collected by Westminster City Council at an intersection of street canyons at Marylebone Road, Central London. Many monitors in the UK are purposely situated at urban canyon intersections, which are thought to be local ``hot spots`` of pollutant emissions, however very limited information exists in the literature on the flow and dispersion patterns associated with them. With the use of simple CFD simulations and the analysis of available monitoring data, it was possible to gain insights into the effect of wind direction on the small-scale dispersion patterns at the chosen intersection, and how that can influence the data captured by a monitor. It was found that a change in wind direction could result in an increase or decrease of monitored CO concentration of up to 80%, for a given level of traffic emissions and meteorological conditions. Understanding and de-coupling the local effect of wind direction from monitoring data using the methods presented in this work could prove a useful new tool for urban monitoring data interpretation. (author)

  3. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries

  4. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Barrett, Geraldine; Dos Santos, Osmara Alves; Nascimento, Natalia de Castro; Cavalhieri, Fernanda Bigio; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2016-08-24

    Estimates of unplanned pregnancy worldwide are of concern, especially in low and middle-income countries, including Brazil. Although the contraceptive prevalence rate is high in Brazil, almost half of all pregnancies are reported as unintended. The only source of nationally representative data about pregnancy intention is the Demographic and Health Survey, as with many other countries. In more recent years, however, it has been realized that concept of unintended pregnancy is potentially more complex and requires more sophisticated measurement strategies, such as the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). The LMUP has been translated and validated in other languages, but not Portuguese yet. In this study, we evaluate the psychometric properties of the LMUP in the Portuguese language, Brazilian version. A Brazilian Portuguese version of the LMUP was produced via translation and back-translation. After piloting, the mode of administration was changed from self-completion to interviewer-administration. The measure was field tested with pregnant, postpartum, and postabortion women recruited at maternity and primary health care services in Sao Paulo city. Reliability (internal consistency) was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations. Construct validity was assessed using principal components analysis and hypothesis testing. Scaling was assessed with Mokken analysis. 759 women aged 15-44 completed the Brazilian Portuguese LMUP. There were no missing data. The measure was acceptable and well targeted. Reliability testing demonstrated good internal consistency (alpha = 0.81, all item-rest correlations >0.2). Validity testing confirmed that the measure was unidimensional and that all hypotheses were met: there were lower LMUP median scores among women in the extreme age groups (p Portuguese LMUP is a valid and reliable measure of pregnancy planning/intention that is now available for use in Brazil. It represents a useful addition to the

  5. Age and ethnic disparities in incidence of stroke over time: the South London Stroke Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhong; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2013-12-01

    Data on continuous monitoring of stroke risk among different age and ethnic groups are lacking. We aimed to investigate age and ethnic disparities in stroke incidence over time from an inner-city population-based stroke register. Trends in stroke incidence and before-stroke risk factors were investigated with the South London Stroke Register, a population-based register covering a multiethnic population of 357 308 inhabitants. Age-, ethnicity-, and sex-specific incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated, assuming a Poisson distribution and their trends over time tested by the Cochran-Armitage test. Four thousand two hundred forty-five patients with first-ever stroke were registered between 1995 and 2010. Total stroke incidence reduced by 39.5% during the 16-year period from 247 to 149.5 per 100 000 population (Pstroke incidence were observed in men, women, white groups, and those aged>45 years, but not in those aged 15 to 44 years (12.6-10.1; P=0.2034) and black groups (310.1-267.5; P=0.3633). The mean age at stroke decreased significantly from 71.7 to 69.6 years (P=0.0001). The reduction in prevalence of before-stroke risk factors was mostly seen in white patients aged>55 years, whereas an increase in diabetes mellitus was observed in younger black patients aged 15 to 54 years. Total stroke incidence decreased during the 16-year time period. However, this was not seen in younger age groups and black groups. The advances in risk factor reduction observed in white groups aged>55 years failed to be transferred to younger age groups and black groups.

  6. Sorption of activation products on London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Littleboy, A.K.; Pilkington, N.J. (AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The sortpion of a series of activation-product radionuclides onto London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel from the nuclear reactor sites at Bradwell and Dungeness, has been examined. Batch sorption and through-diffusion experiments with clay determined chlorine as the chloride ion to be effectively non-sorbing; calcium to be weakly sorbing, whereas cobalt, nickel, niobium and samarium were moderately to strongly sorbing and silver was strongly sorbing. Distribution ratios (R[sub D] values) for Nb, Sm and Ag were found to have a strong dependence on the liquid-solid separation technique employed. The presence of high concentrations of calcium hydroxide led to lower values of R[sub D] for radioactive Ca but higher R[sub D] values for Sm and Ag. The sorption of Ni showed no apparent dependence on groundwater composition at low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The values of R[sub D] for Co decreased as the DOC content was increased by addition of humic materials. Batch sorption studies with aquifer gravel demonstrated that Ca is weakly sorbing whereas Nb, Ag and Eu are moderately to strongly sorbing. R[sub D] values for Ca and for Ag under neutral pH conditions show little sensitivity to the liquid/solid separation technique used. However, R[sub D] values for Nb and Eu under neutral pH conditions and for Ag in alkaline solution (pH = 11 - 12) show a marked effect. The aquifer gravel was found to be highly inhomogeneous unlike the clay and sorption was greatest on samples with a high proportion of sand, reflecting the clay mineral content. (orig.).

  7. Sorption of activation products on London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Littleboy, A.K.; Pilkington, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    The sortpion of a series of activation-product radionuclides onto London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel from the nuclear reactor sites at Bradwell and Dungeness, has been examined. Batch sorption and through-diffusion experiments with clay determined chlorine as the chloride ion to be effectively non-sorbing; calcium to be weakly sorbing, whereas cobalt, nickel, niobium and samarium were moderately to strongly sorbing and silver was strongly sorbing. Distribution ratios (R D values) for Nb, Sm and Ag were found to have a strong dependence on the liquid-solid separation technique employed. The presence of high concentrations of calcium hydroxide led to lower values of R D for radioactive Ca but higher R D values for Sm and Ag. The sorption of Ni showed no apparent dependence on groundwater composition at low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The values of R D for Co decreased as the DOC content was increased by addition of humic materials. Batch sorption studies with aquifer gravel demonstrated that Ca is weakly sorbing whereas Nb, Ag and Eu are moderately to strongly sorbing. R D values for Ca and for Ag under neutral pH conditions show little sensitivity to the liquid/solid separation technique used. However, R D values for Nb and Eu under neutral pH conditions and for Ag in alkaline solution (pH = 11 - 12) show a marked effect. The aquifer gravel was found to be highly inhomogeneous unlike the clay and sorption was greatest on samples with a high proportion of sand, reflecting the clay mineral content. (orig.)

  8. "Chase CRP", "Review patient": Improving the Quality of Weekend Medical Handover at a London Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuddin, Aamir; Magee, Lucia; Barrett, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Clinical handover has been identified as a "major preventable cause of harm" by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP). Whilst working at a London teaching hospital from August 2013, we noted substandard weekend handover of medical patients. The existing pro forma was filled incompletely by day doctors so it was difficult for weekend colleagues to identify unwell patients, with inherent safety implications. Furthermore, on-call medical staff noted that poor accessibility of vital information in patients' files was affecting acute clinical management. We audited the pro formas over a six week period (n=83) and the Friday ward round (WR) entries for medical inpatients over two weekends (n=84) against the RCP's handover guidance. The results showed poor documentation of several important details on the pro formas, for example, ceiling of care (4%) and past medical history (PMH) (23%). Problem lists were specified on 62% of the WR entries. We designed new handover pro formas and 'Friday WR sheets' to provide prompts for this information and used Medical Meetings and emails to explain the project's aims. Re-audit demonstrated significant improvement in all parameters; for instance, PMH increased to 52% on the pro formas. Only 10% of Friday WR entries used our sheet. However, when used, outcomes were much better, for example, problem list documentation increased to 100%. In conclusion, our interventions improved the provision of crucial information needed to prioritise and manage patients over the weekend. Future work should further highlight the importance of safe handover to all doctors to induce a shift in culture and optimise patient care.

  9. The Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Behaviors of Latino Children in London (Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mandich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of a sample of Latino children in London, Ontario, Canada. Methods: Seventy-four Latino children (54.1% male; mean age = 11.4 completed self-report questionnaires related to physical activity and sedentary behaviors. A subset of children (n = 64 wore Actical (Mini Mitter, Respironics accelerometers for a maximum of four days. Results: Latino children self-reported moderate levels of physical activity (i.e., mean score of 2.8 on 5-point scale. Accelerometer data revealed that children spent an average of 50.0 min in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 59.2 min on weekdays and 50.6 min on weekend days and were sedentary for an average of 8.4 h (508.0 min per day (533.5 min on weekdays and 497.7 min on weekend days. Children reported spending an average of 3.8 h (228 min daily in front of screens—1.7 h (102 min watching television, 1.2 h (72 min on the computer, and 0.9 h (54 min playing video games. Conclusions: This feasibility project provided a preliminary account of objectively measured daily physical activity and sedentary time among a sample of Latino children in Canada, as well as insight into the challenge of measuring these behaviors. Sedentary behavior reduction techniques should be explored and implemented in this young population, along with strategies to promote adherence to accelerometer protocols.

  10. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  11. Natural Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural philosophy” is often used by European historians as an umbrella term to designate the study of nature before it can easily be identified with what we call “science” today, to avoid the modern and potentially anachronistic connotations of that term. But “natural philosophy” (and its equivalents in different languages) was also an actor's category, a term commonly used throughout the early modern period and typically defined quite broadly as the study of natural bodies. As the central ...

  12. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site-specificity. As exempl...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  13. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  14. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  15. Natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  16. Framing nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

    In this PhD

  17. Natur formet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011.......Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011....

  18. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  19. The superlative in front of the British coast. Offshore wind park ''London Array''; Der Superlativ vor der britischen Kueste. Offshore-Windpark ''London Array''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechenbach, Baerbel

    2012-07-01

    Fossil energy is finite and is getting more expensive. In order to develop alternative energy sources, technical solutions are becoming increasingly complex. Such technical solutions usually are implementable in international cooperation. German engineering know-how is in high demand, such as the construction of the world's largest offshore wind farm London Array. This project arises 24 km east of the British coasts of Essex and Kent in the estuary of the Thames. The project cost amounts approximately 400 million Euro.

  20. The development of non-essentialist concepts of ethnicity among children in a multicultural London community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ruth

    2017-11-01

    Ethnic constancy, the belief that a person cannot change ethnicity, is an important component of ethnic essentialism, the conviction that members of ethnic groups share an immutable underlying essence. Most children in previous research viewed ethnicity as increasingly immutable with age. However, some evidence suggests that children growing up in communities, which define ethnicity primarily in terms of changeable features (e.g., lifestyle) rather than fixed features (e.g., ancestry), may not follow this trajectory. This study examined ethnic constancy development in a community which defined ethnicity primarily in terms of changeable features. It was hypothesized that older children would view ethnicity as more changeable than younger children, but that because of personal investment which increases with age, children would view their own ethnicity as more stable than a peer's ethnicity, entailing a significant interaction between age and self-other. Ninety-two children in three age groups (mean ages 7, 9, and 11 years) from a multicultural school in London were interviewed individually. Their ethnicities were 45% Indian, 16% English, 7% Pakistani, 7% Somali, 2% unknown, and 25% other. Children's explanations were analysed thematically. All hypotheses were supported. Children's conceptions of others' ethnicity as changeable were supported by definitions focusing on religion, and by the concept of freedom of choice. This suggests that in a community in which ethnicity is primarily defined in terms of attributes which are seen as mutable (in this case, religion), children may not essentialize ethnicity. Still, ethnic change may rarely occur in practice due to an emotional commitment to one's own ethnic group. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Most research finds that children develop concept of ethnicity as fixed and essential; But limited evidence of non-essentialist developmental pathways for ethnicity For gender, children assert

  1. Effects of the urban heat island on the phenology of Odonata in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Jiménez, Giovanna; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation is one of the major drivers of ecosystem change and includes increased temperatures in cities leading to an urban heat island (UHI). This study quantified the phenological response of odonates across London, UK, from 1990 to 2012, using a database of 1,031,277 historical sightings. The ordinal flight dates of each species were used to calculate the leading edge, middle and trailing edge of the flight period (P5, P50 and P95, respectively). The results suggest that the phenology of odonates is affected by the UHI only at a community level: no significant changes in the P5 or P50 of the flight period were found, although the P95 shows a mean advance of 4.13 days compared to rural areas, thus suggesting a contraction of the flight period in urban areas. However, only one individual species ( Sympetrum striolatum) exhibited an advance in the P95 of the flight period in urban areas compared to rural areas. On the other hand, climate change (minimum temperature) had a much stronger impact on the phenology of odonates at the community level with a significant advance of 6.9 days °C-1 in the P5 of the flight period, 3.1 days °C-1 in the P50 and 3.3 days °C-1 in the P95 flight date. Similarly, a significant advance in P5 was found in 7 of the 15 species tested in response to minimum temperature, and 2 species showed a significant advance in P50 in response to minimum temperature, but no species showed a shift in the P95 flight date due to minimum temperature. As shown in previous studies, life history influences the phenological response of odonates, with spring species and those species lacking an egg diapause being the most responsive to increased temperatures, although summer species and species with obligate egg diapause also respond to the UHI by advancing the P95 by 3.8 and 4.5 days, respectively, compared to rural areas, thus contracting the flight period. The present study shows that the UHI has negligible impacts on emergence patterns of odonates

  2. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING FOR COMPANIES LISTED ON THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental aspects have become significant for an increasing number of companies and can have, under certain circumstances, a significant impact on financial statements. A large number of studies can be outlined in time analyzing the variation of environmental reporting (Deegan et al, 2002; O'Donovan, 2002; Holland and Foo, 2003; Nyquist, 2003; Cormier et al, 2005; Yusoff et al, 2006; Jorgensen and Sodorstrom, 2006; Taylor and Shan, 2007; Sumiani et al, 2007. The main objective targeted by this study is the evaluation of environmental reporting for the European companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. In order to achieve the proposed objective, we have completed an longitudinal and transversal analysis of environmental reporting within companies listed on FTSE 100, monitoring first of all the way in which these companies report non-financial and financial aspects related to environmental impact as well as how these reports are being audited. For each annual statement or sustainable report, we have analized the level of environmental reporting. The evaluation of how information on environmental impact are being reported is based on four categories of information: information on indicators (technical, financial that would reflect the environmental impact (water, air, soil, information regarding the financial indicators (investments, assets and other environmental costs, debts and provisions, non-financial information (related to the company's comitment, objectives, programs, management, future perspectives etc, information on environmental audit. Analysing the results we have obtained, the following can be outlined a certain increasing trend on the level and relevance of environmental information supplied for the companies listed on FTSE 100. Only 22 of the analysed companies are reporting the environmental performance indicators recommended by accredited bodies such as the GRI Guidelines (the most complex guidance in this respect. 20 of

  3. The sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans (SALLEE Project: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Rebecca S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since May 2004, ten Central and Eastern European (CEE countries have joined the European Union, leading to a large influx of CEE migrants to the United Kingdom (UK. The SALLEE project (sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans set out to establish an understanding of the sexual lifestyles and reproductive health risks of CEE migrants. CEE nationals make up a small minority of the population resident in the UK with no sampling frame from which to select a probability sample. There is also difficulty estimating the socio-demographic and geographical distribution of the population. In addition, measuring self-reported sexual behaviour which is generally found to be problematic, may be compounded among people from a range of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This paper will describe the methods adopted by the SALLEE project to address these challenges. Methods The research was undertaken using quantitative and qualitative methods: a cross-sectional survey of CEE migrants based on three convenience samples (recruited from community venues, sexual health clinics and from the Internet and semi-structured in-depth interviews with a purposively selected sample of CEE migrants. A detailed social mapping exercise of the CEE community was conducted prior to commencement of the survey to identify places where CEE migrants could be recruited. A total of 3,005 respondents took part in the cross-sectional survey, including 2,276 respondents in the community sample, 357 in the clinic sample and 372 in the Internet sample. 40 in-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with a range of individuals, as determined by the interview quota matrix. Discussion The SALLEE project has benefited from using quantitative research to provide generalisable data on a range of variables and qualitative research to add in-depth understanding and interpretation. The social mapping exercise successfully located a large number

  4. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  5. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Melvyn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercalated BScs (iBScs are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year exams. Methods A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276. A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance. Results The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without. Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01. (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300. There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66. (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed". Conclusions Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this

  6. Outcomes of domestic violence screening at an acute London trust: are there missed opportunities for intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Bartley, Angela; Bayly, Jude; Dutey-Magni, Peter; Edwards, Sarah; Madge, Sara; Miller, Charlotte; Nicholas, Rachel; Radhakrishnan, Sheila; Sathia, Leena; Swarbrick, Helen; Blaikie, Dee; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-04

    Domestic violence screening is advocated in some healthcare settings. Evidence that it increases referral to support agencies or improves health outcomes is limited. This study aimed to (1) investigate the proportion of hospital patients reporting domestic violence, (2) describe characteristics and previous hospital attendances of affected patients and (3) assess referrals to an in-house domestic violence advisor from Camden Safety Net. A series of observational studies. Three outpatient clinics at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. 10,158 patients screened for domestic violence in community gynaecology, genitourinary medicine (GUM) and HIV medicine clinics between 1 October 2013 and 30 June 2014. Also 2253 Camden Safety Net referrals over the same period. (1) Percentage reporting domestic violence by age group gender, ethnicity and clinic. (2) Rates of hospital attendances in the past 3 years for those screening positive and negative. (3) Characteristics, uptake and risk assessment results for hospital in-house domestic violence referrals compared with Camden Safety Net referrals from other sources. Of the 10,158 patients screened, 57.4% were female with a median age of 30 years. Overall, 7.1% reported ever-experiencing domestic violence, ranging from 5.7% in GUM to 29.4% in HIV services. People screening positive for domestic violence had higher rates of previous emergency department attendances (rate ratio (RR) 1.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.48), emergency inpatient admissions (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.84) and day-case admissions (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.43) than those screening negative. The 77 hospital referrals to the hospital-based domestic violence advisor during the study period were more likely to be taken up and to be classified as high risk than referrals from elsewhere. Selective screening for domestic violence in high-risk hospital clinic populations has the potential to identify affected patients and promote good uptake of referrals for in

  7. Natural radiation; A radiacao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included.

  8. Developing a physical activity legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: a policy-led systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Mike; Coren, Esther; Fiore, Jo; Wellard, Ian; Mansfield, Louise; Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia; Dowse, Suzanne

    2012-03-01

    There is no evidence that previous Olympic Games have raised physical activity levels in adult populations. However, it may be premature to assume that this lack of previous evidence for an inherent effect is an indication that there is no potential to proactively harness the Games to generate a physical activity or sport legacy. Given that the political goal of achieving a physical activity legacy had already been set, the policy-led aim of this systematic review was to examine the processes by which the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games might deliver a physical activity (as opposed to sport) legacy. Searches were conducted on five databases: SPORTS DISCUS, CINAHL, PsychLNFO, MEDLINE and Web of Knowledge. There are two key findings: first, that communities that are not positively engaged with hosting the 2012 Games in London are likely to be beyond the reach of any initiatives seeking to harness the Games to develop legacies in any area; second, major events such as London 2012 can, if promoted in the right way, generate a 'festival effect' that may have the potential to be harnessed to promote physical activity among the least active. The 'festival effect' derives from the promotion of the 2012 Games as a national festival that is bigger than and beyond sport, but that is also rooted in the lives of local and cultural communities, thus creating a strong desire to participate in some way in an event that is both nationally significant and locally or culturally relevant. Physical activity policy makers and professionals should seek to satisfy this desire to participate through providing physical activity (rather than sport) opportunities presented as fun community events or programmes. The key to generating a physical activity legacy among the least active adults through this process is to de-emphasise the sporting element of the 2012 Games and promote the festival element.

  9. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  10. Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...

  11. Pluralising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2017-01-01

    suppress other valid perceptions, in conflict with the need for different groups of people to be able to identify with the same territory. However, planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does not necessarily mean planning for one common nature. Understanding and working......Denmark is recognised for its democratic approach to planning, and for the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and in common values also seems to be reflected in the way that the restoration of nature is planned and managed, suggesting that there is one common...... “nature” that everyone can agree on. But nature restoration is far from being an unproblematic undertaking. As with any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project, one perception of a landscape and its value as “nature” can...

  12. Writing Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

  13. Natural aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany

    2010-01-01

    The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function. Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women. There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited. The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.

  14. International society of blood transfusion working party on red cell immunogenetics and terminology: report of the Seoul and London meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storry, J. R.; Castilho, L.; Chen, Q.; Daniels, G.; Denomme, G.; Flegel, W. A.; Gassner, C.; de Haas, M.; Hyland, C.; Keller, M.; Lomas-Francis, C.; Moulds, J. M.; Nogues, N.; Olsson, M. L.; Peyrard, T.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Tani, Y.; Thornton, N.; Wagner, F.; Wendel, S.; Westhoff, C.; Yahalom, V.

    2017-01-01

    The Working Party has met twice since the last report: in Seoul, South Korea 2014, and in London, UK 2015, both in association with the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Congress. As in previous meetings, matters pertaining to blood group antigen nomenclature were discussed. Eleven new blood group antigens were added to seven blood group systems. This brings the current total of blood group antigens recognized by the ISBT to 346, of which 308 are clustered within 36 blood groups systems. The remaining 38 antigens are currently unassigned to a known blood group system. PMID:29093749

  15. Entry and Accommodation in Airline Markets: Easyjet Caught in the Middle on the London-Grenoble Route

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Barbot

    2006-01-01

    Low cost carriers (LCCs) have recently proved that they can develop aggressive behaviour towards the threat of new entrants. This paper analyses the theoretical conditions under which a low cost carrier can deter or accommodate entry by means of product proliferation, using the example of Easyjet on the London-Grenoble route. Theoretical conclusions show that they can only deter entry if they launch a service with a quality that is superior to the entrant’s and to their own previous one. Othe...

  16. Volatility in the Housing Market: Evidence on Risk and Return in theLondon Sub-market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cook

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of volatility in housing market analysis is reconsidered via examinaton ofthe risk-return relationship in the London housing market is examined. In addition to providing thefirst empirical results for the relationship between risk (as measured by volatility and returns forthis submarket, the analysis offers a more general message to empiricists via a detailed and explicitevaluation of the impact of empirical design decisions upon inferences. In particular, the negativerisk-return relationship discussed frequently in the housing market literature is examined and shown todepend upon typically overlooked decisions concerning components of the empirical framework fromwhich statistical inferences are drawn.

  17. The London Charter and the Seville Principles as sources of requirements for e-archaeology systems development purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Carrillo Gea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Requirements engineering (RE is a discipline of critical importance in software development. This paper provides a process and a set of software artefacts to help in the production of e-archaeology systems with emphasis on requirements reuse and standards. In particular, two important guidelines in the field of earchaeology, the London Charter and the Principles of Seville, have been shown as two sources of requirements to be considered as a starting point for developing this type of systems.

  18. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  19. Emancipating Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations of it – hydrodyn......The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations...... of it – hydrodynamic equations – which have their own anticipations and place their own demands on their modellers. Through the experience of a flood modelling apprenticeship I argue that the taking-place of such anticipations paradoxically relies on the birth of a hybrid, the model-modeller, and thus on a nature...

  20. Planning like an Olympian. How London Ambulance Service successfully handled their 'summer of sport'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killens, Jason

    2013-03-01

    LOCOG Medical managed thousands of patient contacts across all the Games venues without our intervention. A polyclinic in the athlete's village had extensive diagnostic options, including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging for athletes and the Olympic family. These helped limit the number of patients who needed transport to the ED. Although the delivery was seamless, there were "behind the scenes" moments in the final stages of planning that made us think. We received additional requests for ambulance cover at training venues that hadn't been planned for on short notice. In addition, the torch relay attracted bigger crowds than initially planned for. Some of the planning assumptions and agreements changed on short notice for various reasons. This meant we had to adjust our plans while also solving human resource issues that you would expect to see among a workforce of around 500 across a six-week period. As part of the National Health Service (NHS) ambulance service Games cohort, more than 500 staff were deployed across 18 venues and 30 days of sport in London. In doing so, they delivered in excess of 165,000 hours of standby and care, responded to nearly 1,500 Games-related incidents and conveyed 800 patients to emergency departments across the capital. After such an influx, it wasn't easy to return to business as usual. Officials with previous host cities had advised us that there would be a feeling of "what next" once the Games concluded. When I first heard this, I thought the opposite would be the case. I expected feeling relieved of overwhelming emotion as well as from the exhaustion of the long days. I do have to say that although this was the case, it's also true that there is a "post Games" come down. We had just been part of a fantastic summer of sport with a brilliant medal tally from Team Great Britain and Paralympics Great Britain that, of course, helped the euphoria. But we did feel real sense of uncertainty about what to do next. We had spent five