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Sample records for wine samples electronic

  1. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  2. Determination of tritium in wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotarlea, Monica-Ionela; Paunescu Niculina; Galeriu, D; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.; Marin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical procedures were developed to determine tritium in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractioning distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation/fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples were normally distilled with K MO 4 . The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine samples from Murfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  3. Determination of tritium in wine and wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotarlea, Monica-Ionela; Paunescu, Niculina; Galeriu, D.; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.; Marin, G.

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive method for evaluating the tritium content in wine and wine yeast was applied to estimate tritium impact on the environment in the surrounding area of nuclear power plant Cernavoda, where the vineyards are part of representative agricultural ecosystem. Analytical procedures were developed to determine HTO in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractionating distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation followed by fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples obtained after fractional distillation were normally distilled with KMO 4 . The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine yeast samples from Mulfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  4. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of electronic noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments.

  5. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  6. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

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    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  7. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers...

  8. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  9. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  10. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberl, A; Coelhan, M

    2013-01-01

    Sulfites are routinely added as preservatives and antioxidants in wine production. By law, the total sulfur dioxide content in wine is restricted and therefore must be monitored. Currently, the method of choice for determining the total content of sulfur dioxide in wine is the optimised Monier-Williams method, which is time consuming and laborious. The headspace gas chromatographic method described in this study offers a fast and reliable alternative method for the detection and quantification of the sulfur dioxide content in wine. The analysis was performed using an automatic headspace injection sampler, coupled with a gas chromatograph and an electron capture detector. The method is based on the formation of gaseous sulfur dioxide subsequent to acidification and heating of the sample. In addition to free sulfur dioxide, reversibly bound sulfur dioxide in carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, was also measured with this method. A total of 20 wine samples produced using diverse grape varieties and vintages of varied provenance were analysed using the new method. For reference and comparison purposes, 10 of the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those acquired by the optimised Monier-Williams method. Overall, the results from the headspace analysis showed good correlation (R = 0.9985) when compared with the conventional method. This new method requires minimal sample preparation and is simple to perform, and the analysis can also be completed within a short period of time.

  12. Portable Electronic Tongue Based on Microsensors for the Analysis of Cava Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Escudé-Pujol, Roger; Capdevila, Fina; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel

    2016-10-27

    Cava is a quality sparkling wine produced in Spain. As a product with a designation of origin, Cava wine has to meet certain quality requirements throughout its production process; therefore, the analysis of several parameters is of great interest. In this work, a portable electronic tongue for the analysis of Cava wine is described. The system is comprised of compact and low-power-consumption electronic equipment and an array of microsensors formed by six ion-selective field effect transistors sensitive to pH, Na⁺, K⁺, Ca 2+ , Cl - , and CO₃ 2- , one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric gold microelectrodes. This system, combined with chemometric tools, has been applied to the analysis of 78 Cava wine samples. Results demonstrate that the electronic tongue is able to classify the samples according to the aging time, with a percentage of correct prediction between 80% and 96%, by using linear discriminant analysis, as well as to quantify the total acidity, pH, volumetric alcoholic degree, potassium, conductivity, glycerol, and methanol parameters, with mean relative errors between 2.3% and 6.0%, by using partial least squares regressions.

  13. Portable Electronic Tongue Based on Microsensors for the Analysis of Cava Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Giménez-Gómez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cava is a quality sparkling wine produced in Spain. As a product with a designation of origin, Cava wine has to meet certain quality requirements throughout its production process; therefore, the analysis of several parameters is of great interest. In this work, a portable electronic tongue for the analysis of Cava wine is described. The system is comprised of compact and low-power-consumption electronic equipment and an array of microsensors formed by six ion-selective field effect transistors sensitive to pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, and CO32−, one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric gold microelectrodes. This system, combined with chemometric tools, has been applied to the analysis of 78 Cava wine samples. Results demonstrate that the electronic tongue is able to classify the samples according to the aging time, with a percentage of correct prediction between 80% and 96%, by using linear discriminant analysis, as well as to quantify the total acidity, pH, volumetric alcoholic degree, potassium, conductivity, glycerol, and methanol parameters, with mean relative errors between 2.3% and 6.0%, by using partial least squares regressions.

  14. The inspirations with a radioactive intercomparison on a wine sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong

    1993-12-01

    The methods used and results in a radioactive intercomparison on a wine sample are reported, which was organized by WHO-IRC in May, 1992. In order to analyse and compare the results obtained by all laboratories from WHO-IRC report (IRC NOTE No.41, 1993) are given. A re-measured new result about nuclide 40 K in the sample is also reported which coincides quite well with the result reported to IRC in a deviation of less than +-1%. And the problems concerning 'reference values' and standard sources etc. are also discussed

  15. Hybrid electronic tongue based on optical and electrochemical microsensors for quality control of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Capdevila, Fina; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2010-07-01

    A multiparametric system able to classify red and white wines according to the grape varieties and for analysing some specific parameters is presented. The system, known as hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors and a colorimetric optofluidic system. The array of electrochemical sensors is composed of six ISFETs based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, an Au microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand. The optofluidic system is entirely fabricated in polymer technology and comprises a hollow structure, air mirrors, microlenses and self-alignment structures. The data obtained from these sensors has been treated with multivariate advanced tools; Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the patterning recognition and classification of wine samples, and Partial-Least Squares (PLS) regression, for quantification of several chemical and optical parameters of interest in wine quality. The results have demonstrated the utility of this system for distinguishing the samples according to the grape variety and year vintage and for quantifying several sample parameters of interest in wine quality control.

  16. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Céspedes, Francisco; Capdevila, Josefina; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Valle, Manel del

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. ► It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. ► Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. ► Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. ► Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin–Ciocalteau method and I 280 index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I 280 ) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L −1 gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  17. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Spoilage Yeasts in Wine Samples by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many genera and species of microorganisms can be found in grape musts and wines at various times during the winemaking process. For instance, Saccharomyces, Brettanomyces, and Pediococcus can be found together in wine. There are many species of yeast involved in wine spoilage during storage. Aim of this study was to isolate the spoilage yeasts from wine samples with using special selective agar media and identified on species level by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Fly Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Six red wines used in this study. We identified 10 yeast species from 152 isolates. The most common species in wine samples was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also identified four Candida species, two Zygosaccharomyces species and one species from genus Rhodotorula, Saccharomycodes and Dekkera.

  19. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynkar, Wies, E-mail: wies.cynkar@awri.com.au [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Dambergs, Robert [Australian Wine Research Institute, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  20. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cynkar, Wies; Dambergs, Robert; Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  1. Study of the influence of micro-oxygenation and oak chip maceration on wine composition using an electronic tongue and chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, A., E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Schmidtke, L.M., E-mail: lschmidtke@csu.edu.au [National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, School of Agricultural and Wine Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Delgadillo, I. [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Legin, A. [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Scollary, G. [School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2009-05-29

    The influence of micro-oxygenation (MOX) and maceration with oak chips treatments on wine was studied on wine samples from three vintages produced in the Yarra Valley, Australia. A full factorial design was employed where two factors (MOX and oak chips treatments) had two levels and one factor (vintage) had three levels. Three replicated treatments were run for each factor's setting. Wine samples were analysed using conventional laboratory methods with respect to the phenolic wine compounds and colour attributes since the phenolic fraction of wine is most affected by both MOX and oak maceration treatments. The same wine samples were measured with an electronic tongue based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The significance of treatments and vintage effects on wine phenolic compounds was assessed using ANOVA and ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Cross-validation was used for the ASCA sub-model optimisations and permutation test for evaluations of the significance of the factors. Main effects of vintage and maceration with oak chips were found to be significant for both physicochemical and the ET data. Main effect of MOX treatment was also found significant for the physicochemical parameters. The largest effect on the phenolic composition of wine was due to its vintage, which accounted for 70% and 33% of total variance in the physicochemical and ET data respectively. The ET was calibrated with respect to the total phenolic content, colour density and hue and chemical ages 1 and 2 and could predict these parameters of wine with good precision.

  2. Study of the influence of micro-oxygenation and oak chip maceration on wine composition using an electronic tongue and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, A.; Schmidtke, L.M.; Delgadillo, I.; Legin, A.; Scollary, G.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of micro-oxygenation (MOX) and maceration with oak chips treatments on wine was studied on wine samples from three vintages produced in the Yarra Valley, Australia. A full factorial design was employed where two factors (MOX and oak chips treatments) had two levels and one factor (vintage) had three levels. Three replicated treatments were run for each factor's setting. Wine samples were analysed using conventional laboratory methods with respect to the phenolic wine compounds and colour attributes since the phenolic fraction of wine is most affected by both MOX and oak maceration treatments. The same wine samples were measured with an electronic tongue based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The significance of treatments and vintage effects on wine phenolic compounds was assessed using ANOVA and ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Cross-validation was used for the ASCA sub-model optimisations and permutation test for evaluations of the significance of the factors. Main effects of vintage and maceration with oak chips were found to be significant for both physicochemical and the ET data. Main effect of MOX treatment was also found significant for the physicochemical parameters. The largest effect on the phenolic composition of wine was due to its vintage, which accounted for 70% and 33% of total variance in the physicochemical and ET data respectively. The ET was calibrated with respect to the total phenolic content, colour density and hue and chemical ages 1 and 2 and could predict these parameters of wine with good precision.

  3. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in wine and beer samples from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Tan, Yinfeng; Wang, Yuqi; Xu, Rong

    2011-01-01

    A total of 125 wine and beer samples, including 42 white, 63 red wine and 20 beer samples, originating from several areas of China were analyzed for ochratoxin A (OTA). An analytical method based on immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) was used to determine OTA. Positive results were further confirmed by LC-MS-MS. OTA was detected in 22 (17.6%) samples at levels of 0.02-1.18 ng/ml, which were below the EU maximum limit. The mean OTA concentration in red wine was slightly higher than in white wine. This study showed that OTA occurs in wine and beer in China but at levels that pose no danger of significant human exposure to OTA from this source.

  4. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceto, Xavier [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gutierrez, Juan Manuel [Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cespedes, Francisco [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Capdevila, Josefina; Minguez, Santiago [Estacio de Viticultura i Enologia, INCAVI, Vilafranca del Penedes (Spain); Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Valle, Manel del, E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.cat [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin-Ciocalteau method and I{sub 280} index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I{sub 280}) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L{sup -1} gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  5. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T.

    2016-01-01

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca"2"+/Mg"2"+, K"+/Na"+) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  6. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska, E-mail: ewitkowskanery@ichf.edu.pl [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil)

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}/Na{sup +}) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only

  7. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, R.; Rodriguez, I.; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R.

    2007-01-01

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 μL. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L -1 , depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated

  8. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Rodriguez, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)], E-mail: qnisaac@usc.es; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2007-09-05

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 {mu}L. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L{sup -1}, depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated.

  9. COLOUR, PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE SLOVAK ALIBERNET RED WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Alibernet wine samples, originated from three most important Slovak vineyard regions, were evaluated spectrophotometrically for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines ranged from 2141 to 4274 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 3057 mg gallic acid/L and total anthocyanin contents ranged from 73.4 to 791.2 mg/L (average content was 403.4 mg/L. Determined values of antioxidant activity were within the interval 54.8 – 86.8% (average value was 74.5% and the values of wine colour density varied between 0.944 and 4.592 (average value was 2.317. The statistical evaluation of the obtained results confirmed only weak linear correlation between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, however strong linear correlations between total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, resp. wine colour density were observed. Our results also confirmed very highly significant linear relationship between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant activity and between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  10. The history of tritium fallout in southern Australia as inferred from rainfall and wine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.B.; Hughes, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall and wine samples have been analysed for tritium in order to obtain a record of tritium fallout since 1950 for use in hydrologic studies in southern Australia. The tritium concentrations of rainfall have been estimated for years when no samples are available by using measured values of the tritium concentration of wine samples together with Roether's (1967) exchange model and a simple model for predicting the age of soil water used by vines. As expected, the tritium fallout pattern is similar to that obtained for Kaitoke in New Zealand and Pretoria in southern Africa. (Auth.)

  11. Quantification of Wine Mixtures with an Electronic Nose and a Human Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Cabellos, Juan M.; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an electronic nose and a human panel were used for the quantification of wines formed by binary mixtures of four white grape varieties and two varieties of red wines at different percentages (from 0 to 100% in 10% steps for the electronic nose and from 0 to 100% in 25% steps for the human panel). The wines were prepared using the traditional method with commercial yeasts. Both techniques were able to quantify the mixtures tested, but it is important to note that the technology of the electronic nose is faster, simpler, and more objective than the human panel. In addition, better results of quantification were also obtained using the electronic nose. PMID:29484296

  12. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), K(+)/Na(+)) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  13. Application of multi-way analysis to UV-visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, N. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Leardi, R. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Chemistry and Technology, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147 8 Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P., E-mail: oliveri@dictfa.unige.it [Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Chemistry and Technology, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147 8 Genoa (Italy); Hernando-Esquisabel, D.; Iniguez-Crespo, M. [Gobierno de la Rioja, Consejeria de Agricultura y Alimentacion, Estacion Enologica, Breton de los Herreros 4, 26200 Haro, La Rioja (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wine samples were analytically characterised according to their ageing process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Signals from a sensor-based electronic nose were fused with GC-MS and UV-visible data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study involved 6 periodical determinations of 20 variables on 6 different wines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-way analysis allowed to efficiently extract the maximum information from data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-way methods represent the most suitable tool for processing three-mode data. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC-MS, and colour characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation.

  14. Application of multi-way analysis to UV–visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, N.; Rodriguez-Méndez, M.L.; Leardi, R.; Oliveri, P.; Hernando-Esquisabel, D.; Iñiguez-Crespo, M.; Saja, J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wine samples were analytically characterised according to their ageing process. ► Signals from a sensor-based electronic nose were fused with GC–MS and UV–visible data. ► The study involved 6 periodical determinations of 20 variables on 6 different wines. ► Multi-way analysis allowed to efficiently extract the maximum information from data. ► Multi-way methods represent the most suitable tool for processing three-mode data. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC–MS, and colour characterisation by UV–visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation.

  15. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Red Wine Samples Using the Union College Pelletron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuff, Katie; Labrake, Scott

    2010-11-01

    A 1-megavolt tandem electrostatic Pelletron particle accelerator housed at Union College was used to measure the elemental composition and concentration of homemade Cabernet and Merlot red wine samples. A beam of 1.8-MeV protons directed at an approximately 12-μm thin Mylar substrate onto which 8-μL of concentrated red wine was dried caused inner shell electrons to be ejected from the target nuclei and these vacancies are filled through electronic transitions of higher orbital electrons accompanied by the production of an x-ray photon characteristic of the elemental composition of the target. This is the PIXE Method. Data on the intensity versus energy of the x-rays were collected using an Amptek silicon drift detector and were analyzed to determine the elemental composition and the samples were found to contain P, S, K, Cl, Ca, Sc, Mn, Al, Fe, & Co. Elemental concentrations were determined using the analysis package GUPIX. It is hypothesized that the cobalt seen is a direct result of the uptake by the grapes and as a product of the fermentation process a complex of vitamin B12 is produced.

  16. Ultratrace determination of Pb, Se and As in wine samples by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindlay, Guillermo, E-mail: guillermo.grindlay@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, PO Box 99, 03080 - Alicante (Spain); Mora, Juan; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, PO Box 99, 03080 - Alicante (Spain); de Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. [Delft University of Technology, Fac. Applied Sciences, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC - Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-12

    The determination of Pb, Se and As in wine has a great interest due to health risks and legal requirements. To perform the analysis of wine, two considerations must be taken into account: (i) the low concentration level of the analytes; and (ii) the risk of interferences due to wine matrix components. The goal of this work is to evaluate electrothermal vaporization (ETV) sample introduction for ultratrace determination of Pb, Se and As in wine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained with ETV-ICP-MS were compared to those obtained with conventional liquid sample introduction in ICP-MS and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Analytical figures of merit of ETV sample introduction strongly depend on the amount of wine sample, on the modifier nature (i.e. Pd, ascorbic acid or citric acid) and concentration and on the temperature program. Wine matrix components exert a great influence on analyte transport efficiency. Due to this fact, the analysis of wine cannot be performed by means of external calibration but the standard addition methodology should be used. The determination of Pb and Se in wine by ETV-ICP-MS provides similar results as conventional liquid sample introduction ICP-MS. For As, the concentration values obtained with ETV sample introduction were between two and four times lower than with the conventional system. These differences are related to the lower intensity of polyatomic interferences (i.e. {sup 40}Ar{sup 35}Cl{sup +} vs. {sup 75}As{sup +}) obtained for ETV sample introduction when compared to the conventional system. Finally, no differences for Pb determination were observed between ETV sample introduction and ETAAS. Unfortunately, the limits of detection for As and Se in ETAAS were not low enough to quantify these elements in the wine samples tested.

  17. Ultratrace determination of Pb, Se and As in wine samples by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindlay, Guillermo; Mora, Juan; Gras, Luis; de Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of Pb, Se and As in wine has a great interest due to health risks and legal requirements. To perform the analysis of wine, two considerations must be taken into account: (i) the low concentration level of the analytes; and (ii) the risk of interferences due to wine matrix components. The goal of this work is to evaluate electrothermal vaporization (ETV) sample introduction for ultratrace determination of Pb, Se and As in wine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained with ETV-ICP-MS were compared to those obtained with conventional liquid sample introduction in ICP-MS and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Analytical figures of merit of ETV sample introduction strongly depend on the amount of wine sample, on the modifier nature (i.e. Pd, ascorbic acid or citric acid) and concentration and on the temperature program. Wine matrix components exert a great influence on analyte transport efficiency. Due to this fact, the analysis of wine cannot be performed by means of external calibration but the standard addition methodology should be used. The determination of Pb and Se in wine by ETV-ICP-MS provides similar results as conventional liquid sample introduction ICP-MS. For As, the concentration values obtained with ETV sample introduction were between two and four times lower than with the conventional system. These differences are related to the lower intensity of polyatomic interferences (i.e. 40 Ar 35 Cl + vs. 75 As + ) obtained for ETV sample introduction when compared to the conventional system. Finally, no differences for Pb determination were observed between ETV sample introduction and ETAAS. Unfortunately, the limits of detection for As and Se in ETAAS were not low enough to quantify these elements in the wine samples tested.

  18. Laser-based measurements of 18O/16O stable isotope ratios (δ18O in wine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Manish Gupta,1 J Brian Leen,1 Elena Simone Franklin Berman,1 Aldo Ciambotti2 1Los Gatos Research, Mountain View, CA, USA; 2Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Enologia, Asti, Italy Abstract: Wine counterfeiting is an international, multi-billion dollar issue, with some estimates suggesting that up to 5% of wines sold at auctions or secondary markets are fraudulent. Isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS measurements of the 18O/16O stable isotope ratio (δ18O of water-in-wine have been used for wine authentication; however, these analyses are time-consuming and costly. In this preliminary study, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS is used to quantify δ18O in wines. This laser-based method has been extensively used to study water isotopes for hydrological and medical applications. Recently, the development of a spectral contaminant identifier (SCI has extended the application of these OA-ICOS analyzers to contaminated water samples (eg, plant, soil, and leaf waters. Here, we utilize OA-ICOS with the SCI to characterize wine samples (9%–15% ethanol, and show that the laser-based instrument provides a δ18O measurement precision of ±0.07‰ (1σ and agrees with IRMS to within ±0.63‰ (1σ. Moreover, by training the SCI on isotopically-characterized wines, the agreement with IRMS improves to within ±0.30‰ (1σ. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated by measuring watered and mixed wines. The method presented here can be readily extended to address other food authentication applications. Keywords: wine isotopes, wine fraud, counterfeit wines, OA-ICOS

  19. Mixed-mode solid-phase extraction followed by acetylation and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the reliable determination of trans-resveratrol in wine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, R.; Garcia-Lopez, M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Rodriguez, I., E-mail: isaac.rodriguez@usc.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Cela, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2010-07-12

    This work presents an advantageous analytical procedure for the accurate determination of free trans-resveratrol in red and white wines. The proposed method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE), acetylation of the analyte in aqueous media and further determination by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry detection (MS). The use of a mixed-mode SPE sorbent provides an improvement in the selectivity of the extraction step; moreover, the presence of several intense ions in the electron impact mass spectra of its acetyl derivative guarantees the unambiguous identification of trans-resveratrol. Considering a sample intake of 10 mL, the method provides a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.8 ng mL{sup -1} and linear responses for concentrations up to 2.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, referred to wine samples. The average recovery, estimated with samples fortified at different concentrations in the above range, was 99.6% and the inter-day precision stayed below 8%. Trans-resveratrol levels in the analyzed wines varied from 3.4 to 1810 ng mL{sup -1}. Cis-resveratrol was also found in all samples. In most cases, equal or higher responses were measured for this latter form than for the trans-isomer. The reduced form of resveratrol, dihydro-resveratrol, was systematically identified in red wines.

  20. Mixed-mode solid-phase extraction followed by acetylation and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the reliable determination of trans-resveratrol in wine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, R.; Garcia-Lopez, M.; Rodriguez, I.; Cela, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents an advantageous analytical procedure for the accurate determination of free trans-resveratrol in red and white wines. The proposed method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE), acetylation of the analyte in aqueous media and further determination by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry detection (MS). The use of a mixed-mode SPE sorbent provides an improvement in the selectivity of the extraction step; moreover, the presence of several intense ions in the electron impact mass spectra of its acetyl derivative guarantees the unambiguous identification of trans-resveratrol. Considering a sample intake of 10 mL, the method provides a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.8 ng mL -1 and linear responses for concentrations up to 2.5 μg mL -1 , referred to wine samples. The average recovery, estimated with samples fortified at different concentrations in the above range, was 99.6% and the inter-day precision stayed below 8%. Trans-resveratrol levels in the analyzed wines varied from 3.4 to 1810 ng mL -1 . Cis-resveratrol was also found in all samples. In most cases, equal or higher responses were measured for this latter form than for the trans-isomer. The reduced form of resveratrol, dihydro-resveratrol, was systematically identified in red wines.

  1. Application of multi-way analysis to UV-visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Rodriguez-Méndez, M L; Leardi, R; Oliveri, P; Hernando-Esquisabel, D; Iñiguez-Crespo, M; de Saja, J A

    2012-03-16

    In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC-MS, and colour characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhebo; Xiao, Xize; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2017-10-31

    In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose) was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages-all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP) and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP). The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA), locally linear embedding (LLE) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R² = 0.9942) worked much better than PLSR.

  3. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhebo Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages—all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP. The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA, locally linear embedding (LLE and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR and support vector machine (SVM were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R2 = 0.9942 worked much better than PLSR.

  4. New procedure of selected biogenic amines determination in wine samples by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasta, Anna M.; Jastrzębska, Aneta, E-mail: aj@chem.uni.torun.pl; Krzemiński, Marek P.; Muzioł, Tadeusz M.; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We proposed new procedure for derivatization of biogenic amines. • The NMR and XRD analysis confirmed the purity and uniqueness of derivatives. • Concentration of biogenic amines in wine samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC. • Sample contamination and derivatization reactions interferences were minimized. - Abstract: A new procedure for determination of biogenic amines (BA): histamine, phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine, based on the derivatization reaction with 2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-benzene (CNBF), is proposed. The amines derivatives with CNBF were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy in solution. The novelty of the procedure is based on the pure and well-characterized products of the amines derivatization reaction. The method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of the above mentioned biogenic amines in wine samples by the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The procedure revealed correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) between 0.9997 and 0.9999, and linear range: 0.10–9.00 mg L{sup −1} (histamine); 0.10–9.36 mg L{sup -1} (tyramine); 0.09–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (tryptamine) and 0.10–8.64 mg L{sup −1} (phenethylamine), whereas accuracy was 97%–102% (recovery test). Detection limit of biogenic amines in wine samples was 0.02–0.03 mg L{sup −1}, whereas quantification limit ranged 0.05–0.10 mg L{sup −1}. The variation coefficients for the analyzed amines ranged between 0.49% and 3.92%. Obtained BA derivatives enhanced separation the analytes on chromatograms due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction and the reduction of by-products formation.

  5. Electron holography of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Lichte, H; Formanek, P; Lehmann, M; Huhle, R; Carrillo-Cabrera, W; Harscher, A; Ehrlich, H

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we summarise the development of off-axis electron holography on biological samples starting in 1986 with the first results on ferritin from the group of Tonomura. In the middle of the 1990s strong interest was evoked, but then stagnation took place because the results obtained at that stage did not reach the contrast and the resolution achieved by conventional electron microscopy. To date, there exist only a few ( approximately 12) publications on electron holography of biological objects, thus this topic is quite small and concise. The reason for this could be that holography is mostly established in materials science by physicists. Therefore, applications for off-axis holography were powerfully pushed forward in the area of imaging, e.g. electric or magnetic micro- and nanofields. Unstained biological systems investigated by means of off-axis electron holography up to now are ferritin, tobacco mosaic virus, a bacterial flagellum, T5 bacteriophage virus, hexagonal packed intermediate layer of bacteria and the Semliki Forest virus. New results of the authors on collagen fibres and surface layer of bacteria, the so-called S-layer 2D crystal lattice are presented in this review. For the sake of completeness, we will shortly discuss in-line holography of biological samples and off-axis holography of materials related to biological systems, such as biomaterial composites or magnetotactic bacteria.

  6. GET electronics samples data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovinazzo, J.; Goigoux, T.; Anvar, S.; Baron, P.; Blank, B.; Delagnes, E.; Grinyer, G.F.; Pancin, J.; Pedroza, J.L.; Pibernat, J.; Pollacco, E.; Rebii, A.

    2016-01-01

    The General Electronics for TPCs (GET) has been developed to equip a generation of time projection chamber detectors for nuclear physics, and may also be used for a wider range of detector types. The goal of this paper is to propose first analysis procedures to be applied on raw data samples from the GET system, in order to correct for systematic effects observed on test measurements. We also present a method to estimate the response function of the GET system channels. The response function is required in analysis where the input signal needs to be reconstructed, in terms of time distribution, from the registered output samples.

  7. Comparison of Dilution, Filtration, and Microwave Digestion Sample Pretreatments in Elemental Profiling of Wine by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godshaw, Joshua; Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Susan E

    2017-09-25

    Wine elemental composition varies by cultivar, geographic origin, viticultural and enological practices, and is often used for authenticity validation. Elemental analysis of wine by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging due to the potential for non-spectral interferences and plasma instability arising from organic matrix components. Sample preparation mitigates these interferences, however, conflicting recommendations of best practices in ICP-MS analysis of wine have been reported. This study compared direct dilution, microwave-assisted acid digestion, and two filtration sample pretreatments, acidification prior to filtration and filtration followed by acidification, in elemental profiling of one white and three red table wines by ICP-MS. Of 43 monitored isotopes, 37 varied by sample preparation method, with significantly higher results of 17 isotopes in the microwave-digested samples. Both filtration treatments resulted in lower results for 11 isotopes compared to the other methods. Finally, isotope dilution determination of copper based on natural abundances and the 63 Cu: 65 Cu instrument response ratio agreed with external calibration and confirmed a significant sample preparation effect. Overall, microwave digestion did not compare favorably, and direct dilution was found to provide the best compromise between ease of use and result accuracy and precision, although all preparation strategies were able to differentiate the wines.

  8. Consumer demand for low-alcohol wine in an Australian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba, Linda A Ovington, Carmen C MoranCharles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The aim of this paper is to inform wine producers and marketers of those in the population who are interested in low-alcohol wine by describing the results of an Australian survey.Method: In the present study, 851 adult wine consumers completed an online questionnaire on their purchasing and consumption of wine, demographics, knowledge, and reasons for consuming wine. Reasons for consumption were defined using Brunner and Siegrist’s validated model. Self-reported interest in low-alcohol wine was used to determine the likely maximum possible market size.Results: The majority of respondents considered “low-alcohol wine” to contain around 3%–8% alcohol. Results indicated that those most likely to purchase low-alcohol wine were female and those who drink wine with food. Those who drank wine more frequently showed interest in wine sold in known-dose quantities, such as one standard drink. Reasons for preferring a low-alcohol wine included driving after drinking, to lessen the adverse effects of alcohol, and to consume more without the effects of a higher-alcohol wine. Finally, results pointed to the importance of taste as a driver of consumption.Conclusion: This is the first study to define the opportunity market for low-alcohol wine in Australia agnostic to intervening variables, thus defines the likely upper limit. Further, we showed what consumers currently define as low alcohol. Both of these findings allow wine companies to make a decision on the profitability of the low-alcohol market in Australia.Keywords: consumer demand, low alcohol, wine, consumer preference

  9. Personality differences between users of wine, beer and spirits in a community sample: the Winnipeg Health and Drinking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Darcy; Murray, Robert P; Barnes, Gordon E

    2003-09-01

    To date there are many studies describing the protective and risk factors associated with alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health (the U- or J-shaped curve). These studies have only accounted for part of the effects. One hypothesis is that personality differences may account for some of the unexplained variance. It is also unclear if wine, beer and distilled spirits have equivalent effects on health. The purpose of this study is to describe the differences in personality among users of wine, beer and spirits. Data were from a community sample of 1,257 men and women in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, that was first enrolled in 1989-90. We examined and compared the demographic and personality characteristics of wine, beer and spirits drinkers in this sample. The groups differed significantly on the dimensions of extraversion, psychoticism and reducer-augmenter in univariate tests. In multivariate models, for the total sample and for females, predominant drinking of wine was associated with low scores on the Vando scale (augmenters). Higher consumption of beer among males was associated with higher levels of neuroticism. In these instances, personality does contribute to the characterization of groups.

  10. Trace analysis of multi-class pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal health wines using gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Kong, Dan-Dan; Liu, Qian-Zhen; Ma, Xin-Ping; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-02-01

    A method is described for multi-residue, high-throughput determination of trace levels of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 5 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Chinese medicinal (CM) health wines using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) based extraction method and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Several parameters were optimized to improve preparation and separation time while still maintaining high sensitivity. Validation tests of spiked samples showed good linearities for 27 pesticides (R = 0.9909-0.9996) over wide concentration ranges. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were measured at ng/L levels, 0.06-2 ng/L and 0.2-6 ng/L for OCPs and 0.02-3 ng/L and 0.06-7 ng/L for PYPs, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision tests showed variations of 0.65-9.89% for OCPs and 0.98-13.99% for PYPs, respectively. Average recoveries were in the range of 47.74-120.31%, with relative standard deviations below 20%. The developed method was then applied to analyze 80 CM wine samples. Beta-BHC (Benzene hexachloride) was the most frequently detected pesticide at concentration levels of 5.67-31.55 mg/L, followed by delta-BHC, trans-chlordane, gamma-BHC, and alpha-BHC. The validated method is simple and economical, with adequate sensitivity for trace levels of multi-class pesticides. It could be adopted by laboratories for this and other types of complex matrices analysis.

  11. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Higgins; Marianne McGarry Wolf; Mitchell J. Wolf

    2014-01-01

    As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine th...

  12. Wine consumers' subjective responses to wine mouthfeel and understanding of wine body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Danner, Lukas; Li, Luxing; Bossan, Hélène; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    Wine mouthfeel is considered important for wine quality by experts, while consumers understanding of mouthfeel and the role of wine body in their wine choice is unknown. One experiment determined the influence of intrinsic wine mouthfeel on consumers' wine liking and emotions, and the other, how consumers understand the term wine body. The first experiment used a 2 astringency level×2 body level experimental design. The samples were base wine with; nothing added (control), added xanthan gum (for increased body), added grape seed extract (GSE, for increased astringency), and with both added xanthan gum and GSE. The consumer taste trial (n=112) indicated that wine with increased body did not influence wine liking and emotions; while increased astringency decreased liking and elicited more intense negative emotions. The second experiment examined consumers' knowledge of wine body through an online survey (n=136). Consumers described wine body most frequently using words such as flavour, fullness, and strength. Wine body was therefore understood by consumers predominantly as a holistic multi-sensory perception of flavour. Wine flavour was indicated by consumers to be the most important factor driving purchase decisions followed by balance of flavours and wine body. It is crucial that wine professionals carefully communicate wine characteristics to consumers to prevent possible misunderstandings such as the meaning of wine body and as a result better meet consumer expectations. In future, the term body may benefit from a clearer definition for academic research as well as industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Sample presentation, sources of error and future perspectives on the application of vibrational spectroscopy in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Daniel

    2015-03-30

    Vibrational spectroscopy encompasses a number of techniques and methods including ultra-violet, visible, Fourier transform infrared or mid infrared, near infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The use and application of spectroscopy generates spectra containing hundreds of variables (absorbances at each wavenumbers or wavelengths), resulting in the production of large data sets representing the chemical and biochemical wine fingerprint. Multivariate data analysis techniques are then required to handle the large amount of data generated in order to interpret the spectra in a meaningful way in order to develop a specific application. This paper focuses on the developments of sample presentation and main sources of error when vibrational spectroscopy methods are applied in wine analysis. Recent and novel applications will be discussed as examples of these developments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Electrochemical sensing of total antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content in wine samples using amperometry online-coupled with microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubec, Petr; Bancirova, Martina; Halouzka, Vladimir; Lojek, Antonin; Ciz, Milan; Denev, Petko; Cibicek, Norbert; Vacek, Jan; Vostalova, Jitka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Hrbac, Jan

    2012-08-15

    This work describes the method for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and/or total content of phenolics (TCP) analysis in wines using microdialysis online-coupled with amperometric detection using a carbon microfiber working electrode. The system was tested on 10 selected wine samples, and the results were compared with total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and chemiluminescent determination of total antioxidant capacity (CL-TAC) methods using Trolox and catechin as standards. Microdialysis online-coupled with amperometric detection gives similar results to the widely used cyclic voltammetry methodology and closely correlates with ORAC and TRAP. The problem of electrode fouling is overcome by the introduction of an electrochemical cleaning step (1-2 min at the potential of 0 V vs Ag/AgCl). Such a procedure is sufficient to fully regenerate the electrode response for both red and white wine samples as well as catechin/Trolox standards. The appropriate size of microdialysis probes enables easy automation of the electrochemical TAC/TCP measurement using 96-well microtitration plates.

  15. Trace determination of organophosphate esters in white wine, red wine, and beer samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Peijie; Zhang, Hongzhong; Zhao, Jihong

    2017-08-15

    In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of five representative organophosphate esters (OPEs) in wine samples. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method resulted in good linearity (R 2 >0.9933) over the range of 0.1-100μgL -1 , with limits of detection (LODs, S/N =3) and quantification (LOQs, S/N =10) in the ranges of 0.48-18.8ngL -1 and 1.58-62.5ngL -1 , respectively. Inter- and intra-assay precisions of RSD% ranged from 3.21% to 6.13% and from 1.69% to 7.63%, respectively. The spiked recoveries of target OPEs from white wine, red wine, and beer samples were in the ranges of 80-122%, 76-120%, and 76-110%, respectively, at two different concentration levels. The total concentrations of five OPEs found in white wine, red wine, and beer samples were in the ranges of 0.29-0.85μgL -1 , 1.00-3.05μgL -1 , and 0.86-1.47μgL -1 , respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ballistic electron transport in mesoscopic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis, the electron transport in the ballistic regime has been studied. Ballistic means that the lateral sample dimensions are smaller than the mean free path of the electrons, i.e. the electrons can travel through the whole device without being scattered. This leads to transport characteristics that differ significantly from the diffusive regime which is realised in most experiments. Making use of samples with high mean free path, features of ballistic transport have been observed on samples with sizes up to 100 μm. The basic device used in ballistic electron transport is the point contact, from which a collimated beam of ballistic electrons can be injected. Such point contacts were realised with focused ion beam (FIB) implantation and the collimating properties were analysed using a two opposite point contact configuration. The typical angular width at half maximum is around 50 , which is comparable with that of point contacts defined by other methods. (orig.)

  18. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Yin, Xuefeng

    2012-07-01

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L- 1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L- 1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min- 1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h- 1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L- 1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three Chinese

  19. Aplicación de una lengua electrónica voltamétrica para la clasificación de vinos y estudio de correlación con la caracterización química y sensorial Voltametric electronic tongue application to wines classification and correlation study with the chemical and sensory characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro A. Arrieta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analytical application of a novel electronic tongue based on voltammetric sensors array. This device was used in the classification of wines aged in barrels of different origins and toasting levels. Furthermore, a study of correlation between the response of the electronic tongue and the sensory and chemical characterization of samples was carried out. The results were evaluated by applying both principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The samples were clearly classified. Their distribution showed a high correspondence degree with the characteristics of the analyzed wines, it also showed similarity with the classification obtained from organoleptic analysis.

  20. Shielded scanning electron microscope for radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, R.S.; Parsley, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    A small commercial SEM had been successfully shielded for examining radioactive materials transferred directly from a remote handling facility. Relatively minor mechanical modifications were required to achieve excellent operation. Two inches of steel provide adequate shielding for most samples encountered. However, samples reading 75 rad/hr γ have been examined by adding extra shielding in the form of tungsten sample holders and external lead shadow shields. Some degradation of secondary electron imaging was seen but was adequately compensated for by changing operating conditions

  1. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, A., E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [CESAM/Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Rocha, S.M. [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Legin, A. [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C. [Madeira Chemistry Center, University of Madeira, Funchal 9000-390 (Portugal)

    2010-03-03

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  2. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, A.; Rocha, S.M.; Legin, A.; Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  3. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample.

  4. Wine producers’ perceptions of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...

  5. Consumer perceptions of organic wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IORDACHESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a study on the Romanians’ attitudes towards the organic wines. The analysis has been done in two stages – at a quantitative level and a qualitative one. The quantitative study has been done on a sample of 122 respondents – consumers and non-consumersin low percentage. The questionnaire investigated the general perception of wines, and included a dedicated section for the organic wines, addressed to the respondents aware of this product.The qualitative stage has been realized through a sensorial analysis, where three white wines and two red wines have been tasted by trained tasters. Among the five wines, one white – Chardonnay was organicwine. Both studies proved that the organic wine has a potential in Romania due to the sensorial qualities and people’s perception. However, the development of organic wine market won’t be a quick process and it will require first of all improving Romanians’ ‘organic’ culture.

  6. Wine fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fra...

  7. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Heyong [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Liu, Jinhua [College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Xu, Zigang [Institute of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Yin, Xuefeng, E-mail: yinxf@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China)

    2012-07-15

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 {mu}L), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L{sup -1} glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L{sup -1} glucose was downscaled to 0.8 {mu}L. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 {mu}L, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 {mu}L was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 {mu}L min{sup -1} for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection ({mu}FI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h{sup -1} with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion

  8. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Yin, Xuefeng

    2012-01-01

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1–0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L −1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L −1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min −1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h −1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L −1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three

  9. A drink is a drink? Variation in the amount of alcohol contained in beer, wine and spirits drinks in a US methodological sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Tujague, Jennifer; Brown, Stephan E

    2005-11-01

    Empirically based estimates of the mean alcohol content of beer, wine and spirits drinks from a national sample of US drinkers are not currently available. A sample of 310 drinkers from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey were re-contacted to participate in a telephone survey with specific questions about the drinks they consume. Subjects were instructed to prepare their usual drink of each beverage at home and to measure each alcoholic beverage and other ingredients with a provided beaker. Information on the brand or type of each beverage was used to specify the percentage of alcohol. The weighted mean alcohol content of respondents' drinks was 0.67 ounces overall, 0.56 ounces for beer, 0.66 ounces for wine and 0.89 ounces for spirits. Spirits and wine drink contents were particularly variable with many high-alcohol drinks observed. While the 0.6-ounce of alcohol drink standard appears to be a reasonable single standard, it cannot capture the substantial variation evident in this sample and it underestimates average wine and spirits ethanol content. Direct measurement or beverage-specific mean ethanol content estimates would improve the precision of survey alcohol assessment.

  10. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine that is produced locally, organically, or sustainably are more likely to employ technology in their wine purchase decision. While disruption appears to have occurred on the supply side (number of wine applications available and the number of wine labels with a QR code, this research suggests that relatively little change is occurring on the demand side (a relatively small segment of the population—those already interested in wine—are employing the technology to aid in their purchase decision.

  11. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  12. Wine fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holmberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fraud are discussed.Keywords: adulteration, counterfeit, detection

  13. Wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2002-05-01

    Wine contains many phenolic substances, most of which originate in the grape berry. The phenolics have a number of important functions in wine, affecting the tastes of bitterness and astringency, especially in red wine. Second, the color of red wine is caused by phenolics. Third, the phenolics are the key wine preservative and the basis of long aging. Lastly, since phenolics oxidize readily, they are the component that suffers owing to oxidation and the substance that turns brown in wine (and other foods) when exposed to air. Wine phenolics include the non-flavonoids: hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates and the stilbenes; plus the flavonoids: flavan-3-ols, the flavonols, and the anthocyanins. While polymeric condensed tannins and pigmented tannins constitute the majority of wine phenolics, their large size precludes absorption and thus they are not likely to have many health effects (except, perhaps, in the gut). The total amount of phenols found in a glass of red wine is on the order of 200 mg versus about 40 mg in a glass of white wine.

  14. Estimating the tritium input to groundwater from wine samples: Groundwater and direct run-off contribution to Central European surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roether, W.

    1967-01-01

    A model is derived which allows a quantitative evaluation of wine tritium data. It is shown that the tritium content of a wine sample is not determined exclusively by water taken up by the roots, but is also influenced to a large extent by direct exchange with atmospheric moisture. The soil-water fraction amounts normally to not more than 40%. Thus, wine is a sample partly of atmospheric moisture at ground level, partly of soil moisture, integrated over a period around three weeks before vintage. The tritium content of two sets of wine samples originating from two selected sites in the Federal Republic of Germany and dating back to 1949 is reported. For the period since records of the tritium content of rain in Europe have become available comparisons of wine tritium with reported tritium activities of rain are in favour of the model outlined. The first distinguishable influence of bomb tritium shows up in the 1953 wine, whilst no detectable response to Castle tritium is found in 1954. By comparison with recorded rain activities at Ottawa, Canada, it is concluded that Castle influenced the tritium fall-out in Central Europe much less than it did at Ottawa. For the period before 1955 the tritium activity of the annual groundwater recharge, including pre-thermonuclear recharge in Central Europe, is estimated from the wine data. An estimation of the total assimilation of pre-thermonuclear tritium into the ocean at 50 degrees N is also given, which points to a value of 1-1.5 atoms/cm 2 s. It is shown that in further uses of pre-thermonuclear wines the possibility that samples have been contaminated by penetration of thermonuclear tritium through the bottle seals must be considered. The estimates of the tritium activities of groundwater recharge are based on the fact that in our climate the main contribution to groundwater is made up by autumn and winter precipitation. Because of this correlation with season the groundwater recharge is much lower in tritium than the

  15. Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy combined with second-order multivariate algorithms for the quantification of polyphenols in red wine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bañegil, Manuel; Hurtado-Sánchez, María Del Carmen; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; Durán-Merás, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    The potential of front-face fluorescence spectroscopy combined with second-order chemometric methods was investigated for the quantification of the main polyphenols present in wine samples. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and unfolded-partial least squares coupled to residual bilinearization (U-PLS/RBL) were assessed for the quantification of catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, resveratrol, caffeic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, and vanillic acid in red wines. Excitation-emission matrices of different red wine samples, without pretreatment, were obtained in front-face mode, recording emission between 290 and 450 nm, exciting between 240 and 290 nm, for the analysis of epicatechin, catechin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and vanillic acid; and excitation and emission between 300-360 and 330-400nm, respectively, for the analysis of resveratrol. U-PLS/RBL algorithm provided the best results and this methodology was validated by an optimized liquid chromatographic coupled to diode array and fluorimetric detectors procedure, obtaining a very good correlation for vanillic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin and resveratrol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  17. Composition quantification of electron-transparent samples by backscattered electron imaging in scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, E., E-mail: erich.mueller@kit.edu; Gerthsen, D.

    2017-02-15

    The contrast of backscattered electron (BSE) images in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depends on material parameters which can be exploited for composition quantification if some information on the material system is available. As an example, the In-concentration in thin In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As layers embedded in a GaAs matrix is analyzed in this work. The spatial resolution of the technique is improved by using thin electron-transparent specimens instead of bulk samples. Although the BSEs are detected in a comparably small angular range by an annular semiconductor detector, the image intensity can be evaluated to determine the composition and local thickness of the specimen. The measured intensities are calibrated within one single image to eliminate the influence of the detection and amplification system. Quantification is performed by comparison of experimental and calculated data. Instead of using time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations, an analytical model is applied for BSE-intensity calculations which considers single electron scattering and electron diffusion. - Highlights: • Sample thickness and composition are quantified by backscattered electron imaging. • A thin sample is used to achieve spatial resolution of few nanometers. • Calculations are carried out with a time-saving electron diffusion model. • Small differences in atomic number and density detected at low electron energies.

  18. Application of an e-tongue to the analysis of monovarietal and blends of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Ipatov, Andrey; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Mínguez, Santiago; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Capdevila, Fina; Domingo, Carme; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors-six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand--and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine.

  19. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Domingo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis, classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine.

  20. Principal component analysis applied to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the design of calibration sets for glycerol prediction models in wine and for the detection and classification of outlier samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Helene H; Prior, Bernard A; Pretorius, Isak S; Manley, Marena; Bauer, Florian F

    2004-06-16

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the main sources of variation in the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of 329 wines of various styles. The FT-IR spectra were gathered using a specialized WineScan instrument. The main sources of variation included the reducing sugar and alcohol content of the samples, as well as the stage of fermentation and the maturation period of the wines. The implications of the variation between the different wine styles for the design of calibration models with accurate predictive abilities were investigated using glycerol calibration in wine as a model system. PCA enabled the identification and interpretation of samples that were poorly predicted by the calibration models, as well as the detection of individual samples in the sample set that had atypical spectra (i.e., outlier samples). The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) approach was used to establish a model for the classification of the outlier samples. A glycerol calibration for wine was developed (reducing sugar content 8% v/v) with satisfactory predictive ability (SEP = 0.40 g/L). The RPD value (ratio of the standard deviation of the data to the standard error of prediction) was 5.6, indicating that the calibration is suitable for quantification purposes. A calibration for glycerol in special late harvest and noble late harvest wines (RS 31-147 g/L, alcohol > 11.6% v/v) with a prediction error SECV = 0.65 g/L, was also established. This study yielded an analytical strategy that combined the careful design of calibration sets with measures that facilitated the early detection and interpretation of poorly predicted samples and outlier samples in a sample set. The strategy provided a powerful means of quality control, which is necessary for the generation of accurate prediction data and therefore for the successful implementation of FT-IR in the routine analytical laboratory.

  1. Properties of palm wine yeasts and its performance in wine making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh palm wine samples were obtained from oil palm and raffia palm into sterile flasks. The samples were examined for yeasts properties and performance in wine making using grapes. The yeasts in the palm wine were characterized, identified, and screened for their sedimentation rate, ethanol tolerance, alcohol content, ...

  2. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use cues to assist them in making buying decisions. Consumers are also sceptical about the honesty of producers in marketing their awards. The question arises, whether, in the minds of South Africa's wine consumers, awards play a strong enough role in influencing their choice when buying wine. Research design: A convenience sample was drawn among South African wine consumers by using an online survey questionnaire. A sample of 285 was realised and the data analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings and implications: Wine awards are indeed recognised by the consumer as a cue that shapes their choices / selection criteria, but their importance is relatively low compared to other cues such as variety, vintage, producer, production method, packaging, place of origin and price. Yet, having established that decision-making is a complex set of interactions, wine awards do nevertheless play a role in supporting a decision in certain circumstances and for certain customer segments. Generally speaking, it was found that the more sophisticated a consumer (connoisseur is the less regard exists for wine awards. Not only do wine awards have lesser power in shaping decisions, but also attitudes towards the concept of wine awards are more negative. Lesser informed consumers tend to take more guidance from, and are less opinionated about the concept of wine awards. An independent monitoring authority is seen as a solution to raise the profile of wine

  3. Electrochemical Sensing of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenol Content in Wine Samples Using Amperometry Online-Coupled with Microdialysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubec, P.; Bančíčová, M.; Halouzka, V.; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan; Denev, P.; Cibiček, N.; Vacek, J.; Vostálová, J.; Ulrichová, J.; Hrbáč, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 32 (2012), s. 7836-7843 ISSN 0021-8561 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI4/457; PrF(CZ) PrF_2011_025 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : wine * antioxidant capacity * phenolics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.906, year: 2012

  4. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  5. Rapid and automated on-line solid phase extraction HPLC-MS/MS with peak focusing for the determination of ochratoxin A in wine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2018-04-01

    This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure based on an on-line SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method for the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive determination of OTA in wine. The amount of OTA contained in 100μL of sample (pH≅5.5) was retained and concentrated on an Oasis MAX SPE cartridge. After a washing step to remove matrix interferents, the analyte was eluted in back-flush mode and the eluent from the SPE column was diluted through a mixing Tee, using an aqueous solution before the chromatographic separation achieved on a monolithic column. The developed method has been validated according to EU regulation N. 519/2014 and applied for the analysis of 41 red and 17 white wines. The developed method features minimal sample handling, low solvent consumption, high sample throughput, low analysis cost and provides an accurate and highly selective results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physico-chemical characterisation of Slovak wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lapčíková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was characterisation of selected varieties of still wines produced in Slovak Republic in vintage year 2013 and one 2012. There were tested ten samples of nine varieties of wines originated from Malokarpatská "Lesser Carpathian" and Južnoslovenská "Southern Slovakia" wine regions of Slovak Republic, Dornfelder, Frankovka modrá, Svätovarinecké, Zweigeltrebe, Müller Thurgau, Veltlínské zelené, Rizling rýnsky, Rizling vlašský and Sauvignon wines. There were studied selected physico-chemical properties of tested wines as a total contents of anthocyanins and polyphenols by means of spectrophotometry, titratable acidity, density and chromatic characteristics. The highest content of anthocyanins (TAC was found in red wine Frankovka modrá, 183 mg.L-1 and the lowest for sample rose wine St. Laurent 19 mg.L-1. The content of total phenolic compounds as a gallic acid was in range 2833 to 1961 mg.L-1 for red wines, 1016 and 1013 mg.L-1 for rose wines, 1085 to 549 mg.L-1for white wines.  Total acidy was average 6.3 ±0.3 g.L-1 only for Ryzling rýnský, 8.2 g.L-1 and Sauvignon rose 8.0 g.L-1 and was expressed as the amount of tartaric acid. Quality of wines can be expressed by colour intensity too. Was evaluated and compared intensity of colour in wines by CIE Lab method and the total differences between red, rose and white wine DE* was calculated. The most differences was found for Svätovarinecké a Frankovka modrá (2.5 - red wines ("clearly perceptible" and 4.9 for Veltlýnské zelené and Müller Thurgau - white wine ("moderating effect".

  7. A nanocomposite consisting of graphene oxide and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for the extraction of flavonoids from tea, wine and urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianrong; Xiao, Deli; Peng, Jun; Wang, Cuixia; Zhang, Chan; He, Jia; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We describe a single-step solvothermal method for the preparation of nanocomposites consisting of graphene oxide and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (GO/Fe 3 O 4 ). This material is shown to be useful as a magnetic sorbent for the extraction of flavonoids from green tea, red wine, and urine samples. The nanocomposite is taking advantage of the high surface area of GO and the magnetic phase separation feature of the magnetic sorbent. The nanocomposite is recyclable and was applied to the extraction of flavonoids prior to their determination by HPLC. The effects of amount of surfactant, pH value of the sample solution, extraction time, and desorption condition on the extraction efficiency, and the regeneration conditions were optimized. The limits of detection for luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol range from 0.2 to 0.5 ng∙ mL −1 in urine, from 3.0 to 6.0 ng∙mL −1 in green tea, and from 1.0 to 2.5 ng∙mL −1 in red wine. The recoveries are between 82.0 and 101.4 %, with relative standard deviations of <9.3 %. (author)

  8. Potential wine ageing during transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Rainer

    2014-01-01

    , younger white and lighter wines with distinct levels of carbon dioxide showed tendencially clearer analytical and sensorical differences between transported and non-transported samples.

  9. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cane Koteski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wine (Latin: vinum is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained from other types of fruit. These wines are referred to as fruit wines, or wear a name by which the fruit is used for obtaining them (for example apple wine. Wine tourism is a type of tourism that involves visiting wineries, tasting, consumption and purchase of wine, usually directly from the manufacturer. This type of tourism includes visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants famous for special local wines, as well as organized wine tours, visits to wine festivals and other special events. Many wine regions around the world to promote this tourism because it affects very positively to the local economy. In these regions, viticulture and hospitality organizations have spent significant resources over the years for the promotion of wine tourism. Wine tourism in my country is respected, but strong growth.

  10. Transmission electron microscope sample holder with optical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Mirko [Port Jefferson, NY; Zhu, Yimei [Stony Brook, NY; Rameau, Jonathan David [Coram, NY

    2012-03-27

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  11. Exploring mouthfeel in model wines: Sensory-to-instrumental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Laura; Sarkar, Anwesha; Bryant, Michael G; Beadling, Andrew R; Bartolomé, Begoña; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2017-12-01

    Wine creates a group of oral-tactile stimulations not related to taste or aroma, such as astringency or fullness; better known as mouthfeel. During wine consumption, mouthfeel is affected by ethanol content, phenolic compounds and their interactions with the oral components. Mouthfeel arises through changes in the salivary film when wine is consumed. In order to understand the role of each wine component, eight different model wines with/without ethanol (8%), glycerol (10g/L) and commercial tannins (1g/L) were described using a trained panel. Descriptive analysis techniques were used to train the panel and measure the intensity of the mouthfeel attributes. Alongside, the suitability of different instrumental techniques (rheology, particle size, tribology and microstructure, using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)) to measure wine mouthfeel sensation was investigated. Panelists discriminated samples based on their tactile-related components (ethanol, glycerol and tannins) at the levels found naturally in wine. Higher scores were found for all sensory attributes in the samples containing ethanol. Sensory astringency was associated mainly with the addition of tannins to the wine model and glycerol did not seem to play a discriminating role at the levels found in red wines. Visual viscosity was correlated with instrumental viscosity (R=0.815, p=0.014). Hydrodynamic diameter of saliva showed an increase in presence of tannins (almost 2.5-3-folds). However, presence of ethanol or glycerol decreased hydrodynamic diameter. These results were related with the sensory astringency and earthiness as well as with the formation of nano-complexes as observed by TEM. Rheologically, the most viscous samples were those containing glycerol or tannins. Tribology results showed that at a boundary lubrication regime, differences in traction coefficient lubrication were due by the presence of glycerol. However, no differences in traction coefficients were observed in presence

  12. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cane Koteski; Zlatko Jakovlev; Dragana Soltirovska

    2016-01-01

    Wine (Latin: vinum) is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained ...

  13. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in wine: Set-up and optimization of sample pre-treatment and instrumental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Finale, Carolina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for the determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in white wine after UV photo-oxidative digestion of the sample. The best procedure for the sample pre-treatment consisted in a 6-h UV irradiation of diluted, acidified wine, with the addition of ultrapure H 2 O 2 (three sequential additions during the irradiation). Due to metal concentration differences, separate measurements were carried out for Cd (deposition potential −950 mV vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl deposition time 15 min) and simultaneously for Pb and Cu (E d −750 mV, t d 30 s). The optimum set-up of the main instrumental parameters, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: E SW 20 mV, f 100 Hz, ΔE step 8 mV, t step 100 ms, t wait 60 ms, t delay 2 ms, t meas 3 ms. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible bielectronic for Cd and Pb, and kinetically controlled monoelectronic for Cu. Good accuracy was found both when the recovery procedure was used and when the results were compared with data obtained by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The linearity of the response was verified up to ∼4 μg L −1 for Cd and Pb and ∼15 μg L −1 for Cu. The detection limits for t d = 5 min in the 10 times diluted, UV digested sample were (ng L −1 ): Cd 7.0, Pb 1.2 and Cu 6.6, which are well below currently applied methods. Application to a Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi white wine revealed concentration levels of Cd ∼0.2, Pb ∼10, Cu ∼30 μg L −1 with repeatabilities of (±RSD%) Cd ±6%, Pb ±5%, Cu ±10%

  14. Talking About Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Adrienne

    1975-01-01

    A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is given. Experiments involving typical wine drinkers show that there is little consensus in how the words are applied to wine. Communication tasks show that the sender and receiver of messages about wine perform little better than chance. (Author/RM)

  15. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Selected Vranac Wines Against Six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucoside and. Folin - Ciocalteu`s phenol reagent were supplied from Sigma Chemical Co. (St Louis, Mo, USA); used reagents were of analytical quality. Wines samples. Selected Vranac wines from vintage 2009, made from autochthonic Vranac V.

  16. Nanomolar electrochemical detection of caffeic acid in fortified wine samples based on gold/palladium nanoparticles decorated graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Kokulnathan; Raja, Nehru; Chen, Shen-Ming; Liao, Wei-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Amalgamation of noble metal nanomaterials on graphene flakes potentially paves one way to improve their physicochemical properties. This paper deals with the simultaneous electrochemical deposition of gold and palladium nanoparticles on graphene flakes (Au/PdNPs-GRF) for the sensitive determination of caffeic acid (CA). The physiochemical properties of the prepared Au/PdNPs-GRF was characterized by using numerous analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The enhanced electrochemical determination of CA at Au/PdNPs deposition on GRF were studied by using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. In results, Au/PdNPs-GRF electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards CA with wide linear range and low limit of detection of 0.03-938.97µM and 6nM, respectively. Eventually, the Au/PdNPs-GRF was found as a selective and stable active material for the sensing of CA. In addition, the proposed sensor showed the adequate results in real sample analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Different preferences for wine communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sillani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the presence of variations in the reactions of different types of audiences to certain communication tools for wine. Five samples of audiences were compared: wine professionals, organic produce specialists, wine tourists, and two samples of general tourists. The following bundle of attributes were considered: name of the grape; information on organic production methods; type of closure; QR code; landscape; advertising language. Diverse audience’s preferences were measured by conjoint analysis. The results have shown a common sensitivity to certain attributes, and a different or contrary sensitivity to others. In particular, all samples have demonstrated that: 1 certified organic wines communicated in standard wine-market style have the potential of becoming market leaders; 2 photographs facilitate the acceptance of technologically-advanced closures; 3 the presence of the QR code in printed advertisements increases the expected value of the product; 4a landscape characterised by holistic “garden viticulture” increases preferences. Textual language was more effective with professionals, while photographic language was more effective with tourists. Supplementary information on the organic production methods, in addition to the mandatory labelling requirements, increased the preferences of professionals and wine tourists, and was counterproductive with the general tourists.

  18. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  19. Segmentation and drivers of wine liking and consumption in US wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering GJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gary J Pickering,1–3 Arun K Jain,4 Ram Bezawada4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 2Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 4School of Management, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: This study examined the influence of selected experiential (wine expertise, psychological (alcoholic beverage adventurousness, and biological (age, sex, 6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP] responsiveness factors on self-reported liking and consumption of 14 wine styles in a sample of 1,010 US wine consumers. Cluster analysis of wine liking scores revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments, namely red wine lovers, dry table wine likers and sweet dislikers, and sweet wine likers. These clusters differ in key demographic measures, including sex, age, household income, and education, as well as wine expertise and PROP responsiveness. Wines were collapsed into five categories (dry table, sparkling, fortified, sweet, and wine-based beverages to examine more closely the factors affecting wine liking, total annual intake, and consumption frequency (analysis of variance [ANOVA] followed by Tukey's honest significant difference [HSD] 0.05. Wine expertise was most strongly associated with liking and consumption measures, while PROP responsiveness and alcoholic beverage adventurousness were also important contributors. Neither age nor sex had any large and consistent effects on liking or consumption, although the sex × expertise interaction was significant for some styles. These data provide an example of multifactorial segmentation of a wine market using Northeastern United States as an example, and indicate opportunities for targeted alignment of marketing to cohorts identified here. Keywords: market segmentation, taste genetics, PROP, wine expertise, wine liking

  20. Sample Development on Java Smart-Card Electronic Wallet Application

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Cristian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, are highlighted concepts as: complete Java card application, life cycle of an applet, and a practical electronic wallet sample implemented in Java card technology. As a practical approach it would be interesting building applets for ID, Driving License, Health-Insurance smart cards, for encrypt and digitally sign documents, for E-Commerce and for accessing critical resources in government and military field. The end of this article it is presented a java card electronic wallet ...

  1. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  2. Processing scarce biological samples for light and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taupin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM aim at understanding the relationship structure-function. With advances in biology, isolation and purification of scarce populations of cells or subcellular structures may not lead to enough biological material, for processing for LM and TEM. A protocol for preparation of scarce biological samples is presented. It is based on pre-embedding the biological samples, suspensions or pellets, in bovine serum albumin (BSA and bis-acrylamide (BA, cross-linked and polymerized. This preparation provides a simple and reproducible technique to process biological materials, present in limited quantities that can not be amplified, for light and transmission electron microscopy.

  3. Influence of biological, experiential and psychological factors in wine preference segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gary J; Hayes, John E

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6- n -propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables. PROP hypo-tasters ( n =113) and PROP hyper-tasters ( n =112) differed in liking scores for nine of the 11 wine styles [ANCOVA, P (F)branding and marketing strategies.

  4. Sample Preparation for Electron Probe Microanalysis—Pushing the Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D.; Engle, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    There are two fundamental considerations in preparing samples for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The first one may seem obvious, but we often find it is overlooked. That is, the sample analyzed should be representative of the population from which it comes. The second is a direct result of the assumptions in the calculations used to convert x-ray intensity ratios, between the sample and standard, to concentrations. Samples originate from a wide range of sources. During their journey to being excited under the electron beam for the production of x rays there are many possibilities for sample alteration. Handling can contaminate samples by adding extraneous matter. In preparation, the various abrasives used in sizing the sample by sawing, grinding and polishing can embed themselves. The most accurate composition of a contaminated sample is, at best, not representative of the original sample; it is misleading. Our laboratory performs EPMA analysis on customer submitted samples and prepares over 250 different calibration standards including pure elements, compounds, alloys, glasses and minerals. This large variety of samples does not lend itself to mass production techniques, including automatic polishing. Our manual preparation techniques are designed individually for each sample. The use of automated preparation equipment does not lend itself to this environment, and is not included in this manuscript. The final step in quantitative electron probe microanalysis is the conversion of x-ray intensities ratios, known as the “k-ratios,” to composition (in mass fraction or atomic percent) and/or film thickness. Of the many assumptions made in the ZAF (where these letters stand for atomic number, absorption and fluorescence) corrections the localized geometry between the sample and electron beam, or takeoff angle, must be accurately known. Small angular errors can lead to significant errors in the final results. The sample preparation technique then becomes very

  5. Sample Preparation for Electron Probe Microanalysis-Pushing the Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D; Engle, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    There are two fundamental considerations in preparing samples for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The first one may seem obvious, but we often find it is overlooked. That is, the sample analyzed should be representative of the population from which it comes. The second is a direct result of the assumptions in the calculations used to convert x-ray intensity ratios, between the sample and standard, to concentrations. Samples originate from a wide range of sources. During their journey to being excited under the electron beam for the production of x rays there are many possibilities for sample alteration. Handling can contaminate samples by adding extraneous matter. In preparation, the various abrasives used in sizing the sample by sawing, grinding and polishing can embed themselves. The most accurate composition of a contaminated sample is, at best, not representative of the original sample; it is misleading. Our laboratory performs EPMA analysis on customer submitted samples and prepares over 250 different calibration standards including pure elements, compounds, alloys, glasses and minerals. This large variety of samples does not lend itself to mass production techniques, including automatic polishing. Our manual preparation techniques are designed individually for each sample. The use of automated preparation equipment does not lend itself to this environment, and is not included in this manuscript. The final step in quantitative electron probe microanalysis is the conversion of x-ray intensities ratios, known as the "k-ratios," to composition (in mass fraction or atomic percent) and/or film thickness. Of the many assumptions made in the ZAF (where these letters stand for atomic number, absorption and fluorescence) corrections the localized geometry between the sample and electron beam, or takeoff angle, must be accurately known. Small angular errors can lead to significant errors in the final results. The sample preparation technique then becomes very

  6. How intrinsic values influence wines prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gál Péter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hedonic price indices is quite common in the wine economics literature, yet they mainly include scores of organoleptic tests and some dummy variables representing varieties and quality signs as geographical indications. This study focuses on the relation between the composition and the price of wines on the example of Hungarian wines. In Hungary, the wine law renders chemical analysis compulsory for all wines released to the market. The study includes five main compounds: actual alcoholic strength, total sugars, total acidity, sugar free extract and pH value and is based on hedonic price indices calculated on a sample of 2,453 wines. Results of several regressions – using different model specifications – consistently show that actual alcoholic strength, sugar content, sugar free extract and pH value are related with the price. Some characteristics have an optimal level, while in other cases the relation is linear.

  7. Radioactive and electron microscope analysis of effluent monitor sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Effluent air sampling at nuclear power plant often leads to the question ''How representative is the sample of the effluent stream?'' Samples from radiation monitors are typically obtained at great distances from the sample nozzle because of high background concerns under postulated accidents. Sample line plateout during normal effluent sampling becomes the major concern. A US Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection raised a concern that monitors were not collecting representative samples per ANSI standard N13.1. A comprehensive 2-yr study at Beaver Valley was performed during normal effluent releases in two phases: 1) weekly charcoal and glass fiber filter samples were analyzed for radioactivity for 6 months, and 2) nuclepore membrane filter samples were analyzed by electron microscope for 4- and 6-h periods. A specially designed test nozzle was directly inserted into an effluent stream for comparison with the radiation monitor samples. Particle behavior characteristics can be determined during effluent releases using a simple test probe. While particle plateout was the major purpose of the study, other particle behavior characteristics were evident and equally as important. Particle travel through long sample lines can also lead to (a) agglomeration or the coagulation of smaller particles to form larger ones, (b) particle splitting or fracturing upon impact with the sample line interior walls, and (c) resuspension of large particles in sample lines

  8. Zero additives preservation of Raphia palm wine | Dioha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm wine obtained from Raphia palm (Raphia hookeri) in Ayingba, Kogi State, Nigeria, was pasteurized through zero addition of preservative and placed on the shelf for 6 months. After 6 months, another sample of palm wine obtained from the same area was fetched and comparative analysis was carried out on both wine ...

  9. Tears of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  10. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth / For Parents / Port-Wine Stains What's ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  11. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of returned comet nucleus samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Fundow; Kim, S.S.; Liang, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The most important objective of the Comet Nucleus Sample Returm Mission is to return samples which could reflect formation conditions and evolutionary processes in the early solar nebula. It is expected that the returned samples will consist of fine-grained silicate materials mixed with ices composed of simple molecules such as H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4 as well as organics and/or more complex compounds. Because of the exposure to ionizing radiation from cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and solar wind protons at low temperature, free radicals are expected to be formed and trapped in the solid ice matrices. The kind of trapped radical species together with their concentration and thermal stability can be used as a dosimeter as well as a geothermometer to determine thermal and radiation histories as well as outgassing and other possible alternation effects since the nucleus material was formed. Since free radicals that are known to contain unpaired electrons are all paramagnetic in nature, they can be readily detected and characterized in their native form by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. In fact, ESR has been shown to be a non-destructive, highly sensitive tool for the detection and characterization of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and radiation damage centers in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geological samples. The potential use of ESR as an effective method in the study of returned comet nucleus samples, in particular, in the analysis of fine-grained solid state icy samples is discussed

  12. Between wine consumption and wine tourism: Consumer and spatial behavior of Israeli wine tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Shor, Noa; Mansfeld, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    The development of wine tourism worldwide has been accompanied by academic research on wine tourism and wine tourists. Wine tourists and wine enthusiasts have been found to share many socio-demographic similarities. It has been found that people visiting wineries consume wine on a regular basis, have an average to high level of knowledge about wine, and visit wineries and wine-producing regions a few times a year. Their involvement with wine is apparent both from their daily consumption and f...

  13. Influence of biological, experiential and psychological factors in wine preference segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gary J; Hayes, John E

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. Methods and Results Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables. PROP hypo-tasters (n=113) and PROP hyper-tasters (n=112) differed in liking scores for nine of the 11 wine styles [ANCOVA, P(F)variables examined. Taste phenotype also contributes significantly to variation in wine liking. Significance of the Study Ontario wine consumers fall into one of three wine liking clusters, which differ in experiential, biological, psychological and demographic features that can be targeted through branding and marketing strategies. PMID:28579910

  14. Quantification of Polyfunctional Thiols in Wine by HS-SPME-GC-MS Following Extractive Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Lauren E; Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Loscos, Natalia; Feng, Hui; Cleary, Michael T; Sacks, Gavin L

    2015-07-06

    Analyses of key odorous polyfunctional volatile thiols in wines (3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH), 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3-MHA), and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4-MMP)) are challenging due to their high reactivity and ultra-trace concentrations, especially when using conventional gas-chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). We describe a method in which thiols are converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives by extractive alkylation and the organic layer is evaporated prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC-EI-MS analysis. Optimal parameters were determined by response surface area modeling. The addition of NaCl solution to the dried SPME vials prior to extraction resulted in up to less than fivefold improvement in detection limits. Using 40 mL wine samples, limits of detection for 4-MMP, 3-MH, and 3-MHA were 0.9 ng/L, 1 ng/L, and 17 ng/L, respectively. Good recovery (90%-109%) and precision (5%-11% RSD) were achieved in wine matrices. The new method was used to survey polyfunctional thiol concentrations in 61 commercial California and New York State wines produced from V. vinifera (Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and non-varietal rosé wines), V. labruscana (Niagara), and Vitis spp. (Cayuga White). Mean 4-MMP concentrations in New York Niagara (17 ng/L) were not significantly different from concentrations in Sauvignon blanc, but were significantly higher than 4-MMP in other varietal wines.

  15. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-03-25

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant ( p tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50-62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  16. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhijing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC, mean degree of polymerization (mDP, and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05 impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62% and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material. This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  17. Discrimination of wine from grape cultivated in Japan, imported wine, and others by multi-elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideaki; Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Kamada, Aya; Koyama, Kazuya; Okuda, Masaki; Fukuda, Hisashi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2018-04-01

    Differences in mineral concentrations were examined among three types of wine in the Japanese market place: Japan wine, imported wine, and domestically produced wine mainly from foreign ingredients (DWF), where Japan wine has been recently defined by the National Tax Agency as domestically produced wine from grapes cultivated in Japan. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of controlling the authenticity of Japan wine. The concentrations of 18 minerals (Li, B, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba, and Pb) in 214 wine samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In general, Japan wine had a higher concentration of potassium and lower concentrations of eight elements (Li, B, Na, Si, S, Co, Sr, and Pb) as compared with the other two groups of wine. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models based on concentrations of the 18 minerals facilitated the identification of three wine groups: Japan wine, imported wine, and DWF with a 91.1% classification score and 87.9% prediction score. In addition, an LDA model for discrimination of wine from four domestic geographic origins (Yamanashi, Nagano, Hokkaido, and Yamagata Prefectures) using 18 elements gave a classification score of 93.1% and a prediction score of 76.4%. In summary, we have shown that an LDA model based on mineral concentrations is useful for distinguishing Japan wine from other wine groups, and can contribute to classification of the four main domestic wine-producing regions of Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitive determination of thiols in wine samples by a stable isotope-coded derivatization reagent d0/d4-acridone-10-ethyl-N-maleimide coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhengxian; You, Jinmao; Lu, Shuaimin; Sun, Weidi; Ji, Zhongyin; Sun, Zhiwei; Song, Cuihua; Chen, Guang; Li, Guoliang; Hu, Na; Zhou, Wu; Suo, Yourui

    2017-03-31

    As the key aroma compounds, varietal thiols are the crucial odorants responsible for the flavor of wines. Quantitative analysis of thiols can provide crucial information for the aroma profiles of different wine styles. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of six thiols in wine using d 0 /d 4 -acridone-10-ethyl-N-maleimide (d 0 /d 4 -AENM) as stable isotope-coded derivatization reagent (SICD) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed. Quantification of thiols was performed by using d 4 -AENM labeled thiols as the internal standards (IS), followed by stable isotope dilution HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The AENM derivatization combined with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) not only allowed trace analysis of thiols due to the extremely high sensitivity, but also efficiently corrected the matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and the fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. The obtained internal standard calibration curves for six thiols were linear over the range of 25-10,000pmol/L (R 2 ≥0.9961). Detection limits (LODs) for most of analytes were below 6.3pmol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of six kinds of thiols in wine samples with precisions ≤3.5% and recoveries ≥78.1%. In conclusion, the developed method is expected to be a promising tool for detection of trace thiols in wine and also in other complex matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. PMID:29587406

  20. Quantification of multielement-multilayer-samples in electron probe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, A.

    1995-03-01

    The following dissertation presents the theoretical basis of analytical correction models and Monte Carlo simulations in the field of electron probe microanalysis to describe the excitation conditions of x-rays in a multilayer-multielement-sample. In this connection analyzing programs have been developed to make a quantitative investigation of heterogeneous samples possible. In the work the mathematical methods and formulas, which are mainly based on empirical and semiempirical findings, are described and their validity is discussed in detail. Especially the improvements of the 'multiple reflections'-model by August are compared with the Φ(ρz)-models by Pouchou, Merlet and Bastin. The calculations of depth distribution functions for characteristics and continuous fluorescence excitation result in a consistent and completeΦ(ρz)-model. This allows to analyze layered structures in great detail. Because of the increasing importance in electron probe microanalysis and as a reference method a Monte Carlo model is described. With this model electron trajectories and excitation conditions in arbitrary two dimensional geometries can be calculated. The validity of the analytical model is proven with a comprehensive comparison of results of new calculations to published data. To show an application of the programs and models in routine use in the industrial research and development, a quantitative analysis of a Co/Si system is made. In the conclusion of this dissertation some reflections upon investigations, which are based on this work and which should be made in future are outlined. (author)

  1. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  2. Inhibition of the Decrease of Volatile Esters and Terpenes During Storage of Wines and a Model Wine Medium by Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Lambropoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of red wine phenolic extracts on the stability of wine volatile esters and terpenes was examined. Muscat (white and Xinomavro (red wines were enriched with each extract at 120 or 200 mg/L, and stored in open bottles at 20 °C for 3 and 2.5 days, respectively. Moreover, a model wine medium containing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and linalool was enriched with each extract at 100 mg/L, and stored in sealed bottles at 20 °C for 45–90 days. All samples were analysed for volatiles using SPME along with GC-MS analysis. Phenolic composition of wine extracts was determined using HPLC-DAD. No effect on the concentration of any volatiles was observed as a result of the addition of each extract in each wine or the model medium. A wine extract rich in phenolic acids and another one rich in anthocyanins and flavanols inhibited the decrease of volatile esters and terpenes in one or both wines and the model medium. Among them were several important for the aroma of wine such as ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and linalool. The results presented here indicate that wine phenolic acids, and anthocyanins or flavanols may be taken into account as potent inhibitors of the disappearance of volatile esters and terpenes in wines.

  3. Tracing the role of endogenous carbon in denitrification using wine industry by-product as an external electron donor: Coupling isotopic tools with mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrey, R; Rodríguez-Escales, P; Soler, A; Otero, N

    2018-02-01

    Nitrate removal through enhanced biological denitrification (EBD), consisting of the inoculation of an external electron donor, is a feasible solution for the recovery of groundwater quality. In this context, liquid waste from wine industries (wine industry by-products, WIB) may be feasible for use as a reactant to enhance heterotrophic denitrification. To address the feasibility of WIB as electron donor to promote denitrification, as well as to evaluate the role of biomass as a secondary organic C source, a flow-through experiment was carried out. Chemical and isotopic characterization was performed and coupled with mathematical modeling. Complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite accumulation was successfully achieved after 10 days. Four different C/N molar ratios (7.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0) were tested. Progressive decrease of the C/N ratio reduced the remaining C in the outflow and favored biomass migration, producing significant changes in dispersivity in the reactor, which favored efficient nitrate degradation. The applied mathematical model described the general trends for nitrate, ethanol, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. This model shows how the biomass present in the system is degraded to dissolved organic C (DOC en ) and becomes the main source of DOC for a C/N ratio between 1.0 and 0. The isotopic model developed for organic and inorganic carbon also describes the general trends of δ 13 C of ethanol, DOC and DIC in the outflow water. The study of the evolution of the isotopic fractionation of organic C using a Rayleigh distillation model shows the shift in the organic carbon source from the WIB to the biomass and is in agreement with the isotopic fractionation values used to calibrate the model. Isotopic fractionations (ε) of C-ethanol and C-DOC en were -1‰ and -5‰ (model) and -3.3‰ and -4.8‰ (Rayleigh), respectively. In addition, an inverse isotopic fractionation of +10‰ was observed for

  4. Globalization and wine business: Port wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Joao; Correia, Leonida; Caldas, Jose Vaz

    2007-01-01

    In the past two decades the world has seen acceleration in the process of globalisation, affecting virtually all industries and consumers. The wine sector is no exception, witnessing increased exports and imports, decreasing consumption per capita in the producing countries, and a wave of direct foreign investment and mergers and acquisitions in the industry. Among European wine producers the Port wine can be seen as a representative case of globalisation and as a benchmark, because almost 90...

  5. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velden, D.P.; Mansvelt, E.P.G.; Troup, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  6. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applied...... measuring the level of importance given by participants to a list of most common attributes used in choice of wine. Independent sample t-tests were applied to compare the best-worst scores between Generation Y and older cohorts. Findings – Differences were found in the level of importance that Generation Y...... gives to wine attributes in comparison to older cohorts. Generation Y was found to attach more importance to attributes such as “Someone recommended it”, “Attractive front label” and “Promotional display in-store”, whereas older cohorts gave more importance to attributes such as “I read about it...

  7. Sample acceptance time criteria, electronic issue and alloimmunisation in thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, S; Baxter, L; McBrearty, M; Zatkya, E; Porter, J

    2015-12-01

    To determine the safety of a 1-week acceptance criteria of sample receipt in laboratory to transfusion commencement in transfusion dependent thalassaemia with respect to alloimmunisation. To determine the safety of electronic issue of blood components in such a setting. Retrospective audit of alloimmunisation (1999-2012) and blood exposure in registered thalassaemia patients at a central London thalassaemia centre where the acceptance criteria for the group and save sample from arrival in the laboratory to the time of issue of blood for transfusion for someone who has been transfused in the last 28 days was 1 week, and there was electronic issue protocol for patients who have always had a negative antibody screen (other than temporary positivity in pregnant women receiving prophylactic anti-D or anti Le-a, Anti Le-b and Anti P1 that are no longer detectable). There were 133 patients with thalassemia variants regularly attending UCLH for review. A total of 105 patients had transfusion dependent thalassaemia (TDT) (7 E-beta thalassaemia, 98 beta thalassaemia major). Ten of the 84 patients who received their transfusions at UCLH were alloimmunised. Seven of them had been alloimmunised prior to arrival at UCLH. Only two patients developed antibodies at UCLH during this period. The prevalence of alloantibody formation of 2% in UCLH transfused patients, with presumptive incidence of 0.01 alloantibodies per 100 units or 0·001 immunisations per person per year compares favourably with other reported series and suggests that 1 week interval with appropriate electronic issue is acceptable practice. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  8. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  9. Activation of wine bentonite with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, N.; Antonov, M.

    1997-01-01

    The action of gamma rays on wine bentonite as well as influence of its adsorption and technologic qualities on the composition and stability of wines against protein darkening and precipitation has been studied. The experiments were carried out with wine bentonite produced in the firm Bentonite and irradiated with doses of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 MR. White and red wines have been treated with irradiated bentonite under laboratory conditions at 1.0 g/dm 3 . All samples are treated at the same conditions. The flocculation rate of the sediment was determined visually. Samples have been taken 24 h later from the cleared wine layers. The following parameters have been determined: clarification, filtration rate, phenolic compounds, calcium, colour intensity, total extracted substances, etc. The volume of the sediment has been determined also. The control samples have been taken from the same unirradiated wines. The results showed better and faster clarification in on the third, the 20th and the 24th hours with using of gamma-irradiated at doses 0.8 and 1.0 MR. The sediment was the most compact and its volume - the smallest compared to the samples treated with bentonite irradiated with doses of 0.6 and 0.4 MR. This ensures a faster clarification and better filtration of treated wines. The bentonite activated with doses of 0.8 and 1.0 MR adsorbs the phenolic compounds and the complex protein-phenolic molecules better. In the same time it adsorbs less extracted substances compared to untreated bentonite and so preserves all organoleptic properties of wine. The irradiated bentonite adsorbs less the monomers of anthocyan compounds which ensures brighter natural colour of wine. The gamma-rays activation consolidates calcium in the crystal lattice of bentonite particles and in this way eliminates the formation of crystal precipitates

  10. Scanning electron microscope autoradiography of critical point dried biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the localization of isotopes in the scanning electron microscope. Autoradiographic studies have been performed using a model system and a unicellular biflagellate alga. One requirement of this technique is that all manipulations be carried out on samples that are maintained in a liquid state. Observations of a source of radiation ( 125 I-ferritin) show that the nuclear emulsion used to detect radiation is active under these conditions. Efficiency measurement performed using 125 I-ferritin indicate that 125 I-SEM autoradiography is an efficient process that exhibits a 'dose dependent' response. Two types of labeling methods were used with cells, surface labeling with 125 I and internal labeling with 3 H. Silver grains appeared on labeled cells after autoradiography, removal of residual gelatin and critical point drying. The location of grains was examined on a flagellated green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardi) capable of undergoing cell fusion. Fusion experiments using labeled and unlabeled cells indicate that 1. Labeling is specific for incorporated radioactivity; 2. Cell surface structure is preserved in SEM autoradiographs and 3. The technique appears to produce reliable autoradiographs. Thus scanning electron microscope autoradiography should provide a new and useful experimental approach

  11. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  12. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part II: The consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo; Panighel, Annarita

    2006-01-01

    Controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. For products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. In this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, and compounds from the yeast and bacterial metabolism in wine. The presence of pesticides in wine is mainly linked to the use of dicarboxyimide fungicides on vineyard shortly before the harvest to prevent the Botrytis cinerea attack of grape. Pesticide residues are regulated at maximum residue limits in grape of low ppm levels, but significantly lower levels in wine have to be detected, and mass spectrometry offers effective and sensitive methods. Moreover, mass spectrometry represent an advantageous alternative to the radioactive-source-containing electron capture detector commonly used in GC analysis of pesticides. Analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine by LC/MS and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits to confirm the toxin presence without the use of expensive immunoaffinity columns, or time and solvent consuming sample derivatization procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is used to control heavy metals contamination in wine, and to verify the wine origin and authenticity. Isotopic ratio-mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to reveal wine watering and sugar additions, and to determine the product origin and traceability.

  13. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-09

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p astringent tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  14. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  15. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  16. A photo-oxidation procedure using UV radiation/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for decomposition of wine samples - Determination of iron and manganese content by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Walter N.L. dos [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, Campus Ondina, Salvador, Bahia, 40170-290 Brazil (Brazil)], E-mail: wlopes@uneb.br; Brandao, Geovani C.; Portugal, Lindomar A.; David, Jorge M.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, Campus Ondina, Salvador, Bahia, 40170-290 Brazil (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    This paper proposes the use of photo-oxidation with UV radiation/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as sample pretreatment for the determination of iron and manganese in wines by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The optimization involved the study of the following variables: pH and concentration of buffer solution, concentrated hydrogen peroxide volume and irradiation time. The evaluation of sample degradation was monitored by measuring the absorbance at the maximum wavelength of red wine (530 nm). Using the experimental conditions established during the optimization (irradiation time of 30 min, oxidant volume of 2.5 mL, pH 10, and a buffer concentration of 0.15 mol L{sup - 1}), this procedure allows the determination of iron and manganese with limits of detection of 30 and 22 {mu}g L{sup - 1}, respectively, for a 5 mL volume of digested sample. The precision levels, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were 2.8% and 0.65% for iron and 2.7% and 0.54% for manganese for concentrations of 0.5 and 2.0 mg L{sup - 1}, respectively. Addition/recovery tests for evaluation of the accuracy were in the ranges of 90%-111% and 95%-107% for iron and manganese, respectively. This digestion procedure has been applied for the determination of iron and manganese in six wine samples. The concentrations varied from 1.58 to 2.77 mg L{sup - 1} for iron and from 1.30 to 1.91 mg L{sup - 1} for manganese. The results were compared with those obtained by an acid digestion procedure and determination of the elements by FAAS. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on a paired t-test (at 95% confidence level)

  17. Phenolic Analysis and Theoretic Design for Chinese Commercial Wines' Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-01

    To develop a robust tool for Chinese commercial wines' varietal, regional, and vintage authentication, phenolic compounds in 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines were detected and quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and differentiation abilities of principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were compared. Better than PCA and PLS-DA, OPLS-DA models used to differentiate wines according to their varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon or other varieties), regions (east or west Cabernet Sauvignon wines), and vintages (young or old Cabernet Sauvignon wines) were ideally established. The S-plot provided in OPLS-DA models showed the key phenolic compounds which were both statistically and biochemically significant in sample differentiation. Besides, the potential of the OPLS-DA models in deeper sample differentiating of more detailed regional and vintage information of wines was proved optimistic. On the basis of our results, a promising theoretic design for wine authentication was further proposed for the first time, which might be helpful in practical authentication of more commercial wines. The phenolic data of 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines was processed with different statistical tools for varietal, regional, and vintage differentiation. A promising theoretical design was summarized, which might be helpful for wine authentication in practical situation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Untargeted metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-volatile profiling of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbulu, M.; Sampedro, M.C.; Gómez-Caballero, A.; Goicolea, M.A.; Barrio, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An untargeted metabolomic method for the non-volatile profile of the Graciano wine was developed. • 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified. • 15 compounds could serve to differentiate Graciano and Tempranillo wines. • An enological database (WinMet) with 2080 compounds was constructed. - Abstract: The current study presents a method for comprehensive untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting of the non-volatile profile of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-QTOF). Pre-treatment of samples, chromatographic columns, mobile phases, elution gradients and ionization sources, were evaluated for the extraction of the maximum number of metabolites in red wine. Putative compounds were extracted from the raw data using the extraction algorithm, molecular feature extractor (MFE). For the metabolite identification the WinMet database was designed based on electronic databases and literature research and includes only the putative metabolites reported to be present in oenological matrices. The results from WinMet were compared with those in the METLIN database to evaluate how much the databases overlap for performing identifications. The reproducibility of the analysis was assessed using manual processing following replicate injections of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano wine spiked with external standards. In the present work, 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified, including primary wine metabolites such as sugars (4%), amino acids (23%), biogenic amines (4%), fatty acids (2%), and organic acids (32%) and secondary metabolites such as phenols (27%) and esters (8%). Significant differences between varieties Tempranillo and Graciano were related to the presence of fifteen specific compounds

  19. Untargeted metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-volatile profiling of wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbulu, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Sampedro, M.C. [Central Service of Analysis, SGIker, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Gómez-Caballero, A.; Goicolea, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Barrio, R.J., E-mail: r.barrio@ehu.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • An untargeted metabolomic method for the non-volatile profile of the Graciano wine was developed. • 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified. • 15 compounds could serve to differentiate Graciano and Tempranillo wines. • An enological database (WinMet) with 2080 compounds was constructed. - Abstract: The current study presents a method for comprehensive untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting of the non-volatile profile of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-QTOF). Pre-treatment of samples, chromatographic columns, mobile phases, elution gradients and ionization sources, were evaluated for the extraction of the maximum number of metabolites in red wine. Putative compounds were extracted from the raw data using the extraction algorithm, molecular feature extractor (MFE). For the metabolite identification the WinMet database was designed based on electronic databases and literature research and includes only the putative metabolites reported to be present in oenological matrices. The results from WinMet were compared with those in the METLIN database to evaluate how much the databases overlap for performing identifications. The reproducibility of the analysis was assessed using manual processing following replicate injections of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano wine spiked with external standards. In the present work, 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified, including primary wine metabolites such as sugars (4%), amino acids (23%), biogenic amines (4%), fatty acids (2%), and organic acids (32%) and secondary metabolites such as phenols (27%) and esters (8%). Significant differences between varieties Tempranillo and Graciano were related to the presence of fifteen specific compounds.

  20. Metal Concentrations of Red Wines in Southeast Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumitru BORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily consumption, wine contributes to the requirements of essential elements, such as Ca, Fe, Mn, Mo, Co, Cr, K, Ni, Se and Zn for humans. However, the presence of significant amount of heavy metal in wine may harm the health of consumers. The present work is aimed at establishing the heavy metal content in red wines from Dealu Bujorului vineyard using ICP-MS method for the determination of metals content. In this study 3 red wines obtained from ‘Băbească neagră’, ‘Negru Aromat’ and ‘Burgund Mare’ cultivars were investigated. The wine samples were obtained from micro-wine production under conditions of 2014, 2015, 2016 from Dealu Bujorului vineyard. The determination of 13 elements was performed with ICP-MS. The high level of Ca (64.81-62.49 mg/L, Mg (132.61-101.44 mg/L and Fe were observed in the wine samples analysed. Heavy metals like As, Cd, U, Hg and Pb was found below acceptable limits. Concentration of Na (1 mg/L, Cu (1 mg/L, As (0.2 mg/L, Cd (0.01 mg/L, Zn (5 mg/L and Pb (0.15 mg/L metals in analysed wine samples were under Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL, respectively as published by the Organization of Vine and Wine. Calcium and magnesium were the most abundant elements in all investigated wine samples. Concentration of Na (1 mg/L, Cu (1 mg/L, As (0.2 mg/L, Cd (0.01 mg/L, Zn (5 mg/L and Pb (0.15 mg/L in analysed wine samples were under Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL, respectively as published by the Organization of Vine and Wine.

  1. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect data from more than 1000 U.S. wine consumers. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference across demographic segments in terms of the level of health consciousness. Millennials and Asians are the most concerned, whereas Whites are the least, about health in their respective segments. Red wine is considered the healthiest wine type compared to other colors and styles. Moreover, more than 80% of the sample believes drinking red wine is healthier than drinking beer or spirits. However, nearly 50% of the sample thinks sulfites in wine can cause headaches. Managerial implications are discussed.

  2. Headspace-Sampling Paper-Based Analytical Device for Colorimetric/Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Dual Sensing of Sulfur Dioxide in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Duan, Huazhen; Ma, Yadan; Deng, Wei

    2018-05-01

    This study demonstrates a novel strategy for colorimetric/surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode sensing of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) by coupling headspace sampling (HS) with paper-based analytical device (PAD). The smart and multifunctional PAD is fabricated with a vacuum filtration method in which 4-mercaptopyridine (Mpy)-modified gold nanorods (GNRs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids (rGO/MPy-GNRs), anhydrous methanol, and starch-iodine complex are immobilized into cellulose-based filter papers. The resultant PAD exhibits a deep-blue color with a strong absorption peak at 600 nm due to the formation of an intermolecular charge-transfer complex between starch and iodine. However, the addition of SO 2 induces the Karl Fischer reaction, resulting in the decrease of color and increase of SERS signals. Therefore, the PAD can be used not only as a naked-eye indicator of SO 2 changed from blue to colorless but also as a highly sensitive SERS substrates because of the SO 2 -triggered conversion of Mpy to pyridine methyl sulfate on the GNRs. A distinguishable change in the color was observed at a SO 2 concentration of 5 μM by the naked eye, and a detection limit as low as 1.45 μM was obtained by virtue of UV-vis spectroscopy. The PAD-based SERS method is effective over a wide range of concentrations (1 μM to 2000 μM) for SO 2 , and the detection limit for SO 2 is found to be 1 μM. The HS-PAD based colorimetric/SERS method is applied for the determination of SO 2 in wine, and the detection results match well with those obtained from the traditional Monier-Williams method. This study not only offers a new method for on-site monitoring of SO 2 but also provides a new strategy for designing of paper-based sensing platform for a wide range of field-test applications.

  3. Relationship between wine scores and visible-near-infrared spectra of Australian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Cowey, G; Lattey, K A; Godden, P; Cynkar, W U; Dambergs, R G; Janik, L; Gishen, M

    2008-06-01

    Sensory analysis of wine involves the measurement, interpretation and understanding of human responses to the properties perceived by the senses such as sight, smell and taste. The sensory evaluation of wine is often carried out by wine judges, winemakers and technical staff, and allows characterization of the quality of the wine. However, this method is lengthy, expensive, and its results depend on panel training and the specific vocabulary used by the panel. A robust, rapid, unbiased and inexpensive method to assist in quality assessment purposes will therefore be beneficial for the modern wine industry. This study aims to investigate the relationship between sensory analysis, visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sensory properties of commercial Australian wine varieties. For the purposes of this study 118 red wine samples (Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Nebbiolo and blends) graded by a panel of experienced tasters and scored according to the Australian wine show system were scanned in transmission in the VIS and NIR range (400-2,500 nm). Partial least squares regression models were developed between the overall score given by the judges and the combined VIS-NIR spectra, using full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The results showed that NIR spectroscopy was able to predict wine quality scores in red wine samples (R = 0.61 and standard error of prediction of 0.81). The practical implication of this study is that instrumental methods such as VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used to complement sensory analysis and can facilitate the task at early stages of product development, making high-throughput screening of novel products feasible or maintaining the consistency of the product.

  4. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from wine...

  5. Wine and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet.

  6. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  7. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Samples in an Electric Field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk; Hovorka, Miloš; Mikmeková, Šárka; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona; Pokorná, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2012), s. 2731-2756 ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2270; GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scanning electron microscopy * slow electrons * low energy SEM * low energy STEM * cathode lens Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.247, year: 2012

  8. Determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages by HPLC with a refractive index detector: First Action 2013.12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupina, Steve; Roman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of an HPLC-refractive index (RI) detector method for the determination of the combined amounts of sugars, glycerol, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in wines and wine-like beverages. Nine collaborating laboratories representing major winery, contract laboratories, and government laboratories tested eight different materials as blind duplicates using the proposed method. Sample materials included red and white wines, port, wine cooler, and nonalcoholic wine. One material was a negative control, and one material was a reference material. Samples were either treated with an ion-exchange resin to remove interfering organic acids prior to analysis or left untreated to include organic acids and phenolics. Red wine samples were treated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone to remove potential interferences from phenolics prior to analysis. The HPLC analyses were performed on a Bio-Rad Fast Acid Analysis Column using RI detection. Reproducibility (RSD(R)) for untreated samples (sugars + phenolics + organic acids) ranged from 6.6% for Titrivin AA4 reference material to 11.0% for dry red wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) ranged from 6.8% for white zinfandel to 18.9% for dry white wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) + glycerol ranged from 6.4% for white zinfandel to 19.8% for dry red wine. Based on these results, the method was adopted as Official First Action status for determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages.

  9. "I like the sound of that!" Wine descriptions influence consumers' expectations, liking, emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Johnson, Trent E; Ristic, Renata; Meiselman, Herbert L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated how information, typically presented on wine back-labels or wine company websites, influences consumers' expected liking, informed liking, wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines. Regular white wine consumers (n=126) evaluated the same set of three commercially available white wines (mono-varietal Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc) under three information levels. Session 1, blind tasting (no information provided) and Session 2, informed tasting (held at least 1week later) with both basic (sensory description of the wines) and elaborate (sensory plus high wine quality and favourable winery information) descriptions followed by liking, wine-evoked emotions (measured with the Australian Wine Evoked Emotions Lexicon (AWEEL)) and willingness to pay evaluations. Before tasting the wine in session 2, consumers also rated expected liking. Results showed that information level had a significant effect on all investigated variables. The elaborate information level evoked higher expectations before tasting the wines, plus resulted in higher liking ratings, elicitation of more intense positive (e.g. contented, happy and warm-hearted) and less intense negative emotions (e.g. embarrassed and unfulfilled), and a substantial increase in willingness to pay after tasting the wines compared to the blind condition, with the basic condition ranging in-between. These results were consistent across the three wine samples. Furthermore, if the liking rating after tasting the wines matched the expected liking or exceeded the expectations by 1 point on a 9-point hedonic scale, participants felt the most intense positive emotions and the least intense negative emotions. Whereas, if the expectations were not met or the actual liking exceeded the expectations by >2 points, participants felt less intense positive and more intense negative emotions. This highlights not only the importance of well written and accurate wine descriptions

  10. Mapping of wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Віліна Пересадько; Надія Максименко; Катерина Біла

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very un...

  11. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2017-07-12

    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  12. Development of a rapid "fingerprinting" system for wine authenticity by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevin, Christopher J; Fergusson, Allison J; Perry, Wade B; Janik, Leslie J; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2006-12-27

    This paper reports on the development of a rapid and simple method for red wine authenticity confirmation during transport and processing; namely, a wine "fingerprinting" system. When wine is transported between two sites, a sample is taken and a mid-infrared (MIR) spectrum is obtained. One hundred sixty-one (n = 161) samples of three main red wine varieties grown in Australia, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot, were collected from six commercial wineries across Australia and scanned in transmission on two MIR spectrophotometers located at The Hardy Wine Company's main site at Reynella, South Australia (Foss WineScan FT 120) (926-5012 cm-1). A similarity index (SI) method was used as a tool to classify wine samples on the basis of their spectral data. The results showed that high rates of classification were obtained when wine samples scanned in different instruments were analyzed. The SI has been proven to provide an acceptable measurement for authentication of red wine integrity during transportation. In five of the six winery data sets, the SI correctly classified 98% of the wines. It was also observed that less than 1% of wines were misclassified between the different wineries investigated. Further studies are needed in order to test the applicability of the SI in a commercial situation and to evaluate its potential as a rapid quality control tool for routine use to authenticate wine samples during transport.

  13. Exogenous CO2 in South American sparkling wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardelli Susiane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine production and consumption have increased significantly in the last years. With the increased demand appear the necessity to check the sparkling wine authenticity, because the practice of adding CO2 in sparkling wine is not allow. A way to control the carbonation process is through the determination of CO2 δ13C, because the sugar added during the second fermentation define the CO2 isotopic value, according to elaboration process. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between values of δ13C from still wines and sparkling wines, in order to set up limit values to exogenous carbonation control. Thirty-eight still wines elaborated by microvinification and 59 samples of commercial sparkling wines were analyzed, using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS. The most negative value of natural δ13C from still wine found was − 24.7‰, it can be to estimate that lowest values are an indicative of industrial CO2 addition. Among the commercial sparkling wine from South America evaluated in this study, 10% from the samples showed signs of carbonation. Through this research was possible to establish limits of isotopic values to determine the presence of exogenous CO2.

  14. Sparse sampling and reconstruction for electron and scanning probe microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hyrum; Helms, Jovana; Wheeler, Jason W.; Larson, Kurt W.; Rohrer, Brandon R.

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy are provided herein. In a general embodiment, the systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy with an undersampled data set include: driving an electron beam or probe to scan across a sample and visit a subset of pixel locations of the sample that are randomly or pseudo-randomly designated; determining actual pixel locations on the sample that are visited by the electron beam or probe; and processing data collected by detectors from the visits of the electron beam or probe at the actual pixel locations and recovering a reconstructed image of the sample.

  15. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  16. Scopolamine poisoning from homemade 'moon flower' wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Meloan, C E; Pickell, J A; Oehme, F W

    1991-01-01

    LH, a 76-year-old Caucasian male, ingested 3 teaspoons (15 mL) of a homemade wine over a 1-h period and became ill. Approximately 1.5 h later, he was taken to the emergency room of a local hospital with symptoms of respiratory distress and weakness. The plant used in making the wine was Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens), which reportedly contains varying amounts of scopolamine and atropine. A sample of the wine was collected and analyzed for these two compounds by reversed-phase HPLC chromatography using 97% methanol-3% deionized water. The filtered wine contained an estimated 29 mg scopolamine/mL, which produced a total ingested dose of 435 mg. No atropine was detected. The scopolamine was confirmed by TLC. An oral dose of 50 mg of atropine sulfate in humans has been reported fatal, but there is no reported fatal dose for scopolamine. The alcohol content and 3.8 pH of the homemade wine may have increased the extraction of this compound from the plant material, and the wine fermentation process may have concentrated the original extract.

  17. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.42 Section 27.42...

  18. Context and wine quality effects on consumers' mood, emotions, liking and willingness to pay for Australian Shiraz wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Ristic, Renata; Johnson, Trent E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Hoek, Annet C; Jeffery, David W; Bastian, Susan E P

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different contexts on consumers' mood, product-evoked emotions, liking and willingness to pay for wine. Three consumer trials (n=114, 115, and 120) examined 3 different sample sets of 4 Australian commercial Shiraz wines. Each sample set was comprised of a high, medium-high, medium-low and low quality wine as designated by an expert panel. Wine consumers evaluated the same set of wines in the three different contexts, ranging from a highly-controlled laboratory setting to more realistic restaurant and at-home settings. Results showed that high quality wines were liked more and elicited more intense emotions of positive valence compared to wines of lower quality. Context effects were observed on emotions, but not on liking, indicating that although emotions and liking are correlated, the measurement of emotions can deliver additional information over liking. Tasting wine in the restaurant context evoked more intense positive emotions compared to the home and laboratory contexts. Participants' mood before tasting the wines had a strong influence on consecutive product-evoked emotion ratings, but only weak influence on liking ratings. Furthermore, a strong relationship between wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay was observed, showing that if a wine-evoked more intense emotion of positive valence e.g., contented, enthusiastic, happy, optimistic and passionate participants were willing to pay significantly more for a bottle. Additionally, the absence of negative emotions, even if typically evoked to a very weak extent, is a requirement for an increased willingness to pay. This study indicates it is worthwhile to consider context and emotions in wine testing and marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of Polyfunctional Thiols in Wine by HS-SPME-GC-MS Following Extractive Alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Musumeci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of key odorous polyfunctional volatile thiols in wines (3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH, 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3-MHA, and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4-MMP are challenging due to their high reactivity and ultra-trace concentrations, especially when using conventional gas-chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS. We describe a method in which thiols are converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB derivatives by extractive alkylation and the organic layer is evaporated prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and GC-EI-MS analysis. Optimal parameters were determined by response surface area modeling. The addition of NaCl solution to the dried SPME vials prior to extraction resulted in up to less than fivefold improvement in detection limits. Using 40 mL wine samples, limits of detection for 4-MMP, 3-MH, and 3-MHA were 0.9 ng/L, 1 ng/L, and 17 ng/L, respectively. Good recovery (90%–109% and precision (5%–11% RSD were achieved in wine matrices. The new method was used to survey polyfunctional thiol concentrations in 61 commercial California and New York State wines produced from V. vinifera (Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and non-varietal rosé wines, V. labruscana (Niagara, and Vitis spp. (Cayuga White. Mean 4-MMP concentrations in New York Niagara (17 ng/L were not significantly different from concentrations in Sauvignon blanc, but were significantly higher than 4-MMP in other varietal wines.

  20. Evaluation of red wines antioxidant capacity by means of a voltammetric e-tongue with an optimized sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetó, Xavi; Apetrei, Constantin; Valle, Manel del; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, two sets of voltammetric sensors -prepared using different strategies- have been combined in an electronic tongue to evaluate the complete antioxidant profile of red wines. To this aim, wine samples were analyzed with the whole set of sensors. In order to reduce the large dimensionality of the data set while keeping the relevant information provided by the sensors, two different methods of feature selection and data compression were used (the kernels method and Discrete Wavelet Transform feature extraction method). Then, the coefficients obtained were used as the input variables of Principal Component Analysis (to evaluate the capability of discrimination. Partial-least squares regression (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were performer to build the quantitative prediction models that allowed the quantification of the antioxidant capacity of the tested wines

  1. Development of a mass spectrometry immunoassay for unambiguous detection of egg allergen traces in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilolli, Rosa; Chaudhari, Ravindra; Palmisano, Francesco; Monaci, Linda

    2017-02-01

    A mass spectrometry immunoassay (MSIA) specifically designed for the detection of egg allergens in wines is described. MSIA is based on an immunoaffinity enrichment procedure combined with targeted MS/MS detection of selected egg peptide markers. Polyclonal antibodies raised against native ovalbumin, chosen as the target protein tracing for egg powder, were immobilized onto low backpressure monolithic MSIA customized disposable tips. Ovalbumin-free wine samples were fortified with standard protein at different concentrations in the low microgram-per-milliliter range. A simple protocol was devised consisting of a 1:4 dilution of the wine sample with a basic solution for pH adjustment, followed by a semi-automated purification/enrichment step on MSIA customized disposable tips fitted on a multichannel electronic pipette. Among the main figures of merit, LOD and LOQ values as low as 0.01 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively, and within-day precision of 18% should be noticed. Noteworthy, the developed assay outperformed current MS-based methods for the detection of allergenic protein in wine matrices, thanks to the immunoaffinity enrichment. In addition, compared to other immunoassays, the present approach boasts the unquestionable advantage of providing an unambiguous identification of the target protein by simultaneous detection of three unique peptide markers each giving three specific MS/MS transitions.

  2. Microoxidation in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Detectors, sampling, shielding, and electronics for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1981-08-01

    A brief discussion of the important design elements for positron emission tomographs is presented. The conclusions are that the instrumentation can be improved by the use of larger numbers of small, efficient detectors closely packed in many rings, the development of new detector materials, and novel electronic designs to reduce the deadtime and increase maximum event rates

  4. Sample Preparation and Imaging of Exosomes by Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Kyo; Mun, Ji Young

    2018-01-04

    Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles secreted by body fluids and are known to represent the characteristics of cells that secrete them. The contents and morphology of the secreted vesicles reflect cell behavior or physiological status, for example cell growth, migration, cleavage, and death. The exosomes' role may depend highly on size, and the size of exosomes varies from 30 to 300 nm. The most widely used method for exosome imaging is negative staining, while other results are based on Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. The typical exosome's morphology assessed through negative staining is a cup-shape, but further details are not yet clear. An exosome well-characterized through structural study is necessary particular in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Therefore, function-dependent morphology should be verified by electron microscopy techniques such as labeling a specific protein in the detailed structure of exosome. To observe detailed structure, ultrathin sectioned images and negative stained images of exosomes were compared. In this protocol, we suggest transmission electron microscopy for the imaging of exosomes including negative staining, whole mount immuno-staining, block preparation, thin section, and immuno-gold labelling.

  5. Relations between must clarification and organoleptic attributes of wine varietes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blowdown musts is important operation performed in winemaking, which can have a major impact on the future quality of the wine. Blowdown of the wine removes components that may carry elements that negatively affect the hygienic and sensory quality of the wine. Fining of musts and wines is carried either by a static method or using different fining preparations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different methods of decanting on the wine quality varieties of Sauvignon. The overall sensory quality was evaluated (100 - points system, and semantic differential and the aromatic profile (profile method. All sensory evaluations were practiced by skilled sensory panel in controled conditions of Faculty sensory lab. Wine samples were clarified by static manner or with the assistance of the preparation applied to the clarification of wine in two different doses. By the results and their visualization of flavour and smell profile by spider plots we could conclude that pure cultures have positive effect on processed wine. Based on the results we found a beneficial effect of clearing by the clarification of the preparation based on cellulose, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, gelatin and mineral adsorbents at 100 g.100 L-1  of the sensory quality of the wine.

  6. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villiers, André de; Alberts, Phillipus; Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  7. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  8. Effects of In-Amphorae Winemaking on the Chemical and Sensory Profile of Chardonnay Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The high value of dry extract and volatile acidity could statistically differentiate (P ˂ 0.05 the Chardonnay wine obtained in amphorae with maceration and stored for six months from the wine obtained in barrels and barriques, as evidenced by the analysis of variance. Similarly, the principal component analysis showed that all the amphorae wines sampled between November and March (not the wine analyzed immediately after alcoholic fermentation were clearly differentiated from the analogue barrel and barrique wines due to the high volatile acidity, straw colour, and tannic perception. The Chardonnay wine produced in amphorae was characterized by a spicy flavour, pleasant tannic and a less ‘green’ character than wines from barrels and barriques, but showed a weak varietal aroma. Thus, the commercial offer of finished wines based on Chardonnay grapes can be potentially extended by including a product processed in amphorae.

  9. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An appraisal of uncertainties in the Western Australian wine industry supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nazrul; Quaddus, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Wine is one of the significant export items of Western Australia. In 2001/2002, the State’s wine exports amounted to about A$42 million. Despite its economic importance research on the supply chain aspects of WA wine industry is rather limited. This paper presents the sources of uncertainties in WA wine supply chain based on the results of an electronic focus group study with WA wine industry stakeholders. The group identified 74 items of uncertainties, which were then grouped into 26 unique ...

  11. Ethyl carbamate levels in wine and spirits from markets in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Dong, B; Qin, Z S; Yang, N J; Lu, Y; Yang, L X; Chang, F Q; Wu, Y N

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine, grain spirits and wine sauce (145 samples) was analysed using solid-phase extraction and stable isotope dilution GC/MS. Samples were obtained from markets in eight areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Xingtai and Cangzhou) of Hebei Province, China. The method had a limit of detection of 2 µg kg⁻¹, with recoveries varying from 95.7 to 102% and RSD ranging 2.3-5.6%. The average concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wines, grain spirits and wine sauce were 14.7 (wines.

  12. 1H-NMR metabolic profiling of wines from three cultivans, three soil types and two contrasting vintages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Elias Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Significance and impact of study: After validation on a larger number of wine samples this chemical profiling will be a useful new method to the qualify wines in relation to climate, soil, and cultivar effects which contribute to the terroir.

  13. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  14. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  15. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, Katalin; Kovacs, I.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z. E-mail: sznagy@rmki.kfki.hu

    2002-04-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 {mu}g/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 {mu}l aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured.

  16. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, Katalin; Kovacs, I.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 μg/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 μl aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured

  17. Transmission electron microscope cells for use with liquid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Waqas; Alivisatos, Paul A.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-08-09

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and devices related to transmission electron microscopy cells for use with liquids. In one aspect a device includes a substrate, a first graphene layer, and a second graphene layer. The substrate has a first surface and a second surface. The first surface defines a first channel, a second channel, and an outlet channel. The first channel and the second channel are joined to the outlet channel. The outlet channel defines a viewport region forming a though hole in the substrate. The first graphene layer overlays the first surface of the substrate, including an interior area of the first channel, the second channel, and the outlet channel. The second graphene layer overlays the first surface of the substrate, including open regions defined by the first channel, the second channel, and the outlet channel.

  18. An electron-hadron separator for digital sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, K. de; Geiregat, D.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Bergsma, F.; Binder, U.; Burkard, H.; Capone, A.; Ereditato, A.; Flegel, W.; Grote, H.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Oeveras, H.; Palladino, V.; Panman, J.; Piredda, G.; Winter, K.; Zacek, G.; Zacek, V.; Bauche, T.; Beyer, R.; Blobel, V.; Buesser, F.W.; Foos, C.; Gerland, L.; Niebergall, F.; Staehelin, P.; Tadsen, A.; Gorbunov, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Khovansky, V.; Maslennikov, A.; Rosanov, A.; Lippich, W.; Nathaniel, A.; Staude, A.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Loverre, P.F.; Rambaldi-Frenkel, A.; Santacesaria, R.; Zanello, D.

    1989-01-01

    A fast and effective algorithm for electromagnetic and hadronic shower separation has been developed for the digital sampling calorimeter of the CHARM II experiment. It is based on a generalization of the minimal spanning tree concept and can be easily applied to other existing calorimeters. In this particular application, which requires the highest efficiency for retaining electromagnetic showers, one gets, for 99% efficiency, a rejection factor of the order of 100 for hadronic showers. (orig.)

  19. High Resolution Melting (HRM) applied to wine authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonor; Gomes, Sónia; Castro, Cláudia; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo; Brazão, João; Graça, António; Fernandes, José R; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Wine authenticity methods are in increasing demand mainly in Denomination of Origin designations. The DNA-based methodologies are a reliable means of tracking food/wine varietal composition. The main aim of this work was the study of High Resolution Melting (HRM) application as a screening method for must and wine authenticity. Three sample types (leaf, must and wine) were used to validate the three developed HRM assays (Vv1-705bp; Vv2-375bp; and Vv3-119bp). The Vv1 HRM assay was only successful when applied to leaf and must samples. The Vv2 HRM assay successfully amplified all sample types, allowing genotype discrimination based on melting temperature values. The smallest amplicon, Vv3, produced a coincident melting curve shape in all sample types (leaf and wine) with corresponding genotypes. This study presents sensitive, rapid and efficient HRM assays applied for the first time to wine samples suitable for wine authenticity purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Flavouring estimation of quality of grape wines with use of methods of mathematical statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakuba, Yu F; Khalaphyan, A A; Temerdashev, Z A; Bessonov, V V; Malinkin, A D

    2016-01-01

    The questions of forming of wine's flavour integral estimation during the tasting are discussed, the advantages and disadvantages of the procedures are declared. As investigating materials we used the natural white and red wines of Russian manufactures, which were made with the traditional technologies from Vitis Vinifera, straight hybrids, blending and experimental wines (more than 300 different samples). The aim of the research was to set the correlation between the content of wine's nonvolatile matter and wine's tasting quality rating by mathematical statistics methods. The content of organic acids, amino acids and cations in wines were considered as the main factors influencing on the flavor. Basically, they define the beverage's quality. The determination of those components in wine's samples was done by the electrophoretic method «CAPEL». Together with the analytical checking of wine's samples quality the representative group of specialists simultaneously carried out wine's tasting estimation using 100 scores system. The possibility of statistical modelling of correlation of wine's tasting estimation based on analytical data of amino acids and cations determination reasonably describing the wine's flavour was examined. The statistical modelling of correlation between the wine's tasting estimation and the content of major cations (ammonium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium), free amino acids (proline, threonine, arginine) and the taking into account the level of influence on flavour and analytical valuation within fixed limits of quality accordance were done with Statistica. Adequate statistical models which are able to predict tasting estimation that is to determine the wine's quality using the content of components forming the flavour properties have been constructed. It is emphasized that along with aromatic (volatile) substances the nonvolatile matter - mineral substances and organic substances - amino acids such as proline, threonine, arginine

  1. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, S.; Ballabio, D.; Giovanelli, G.; Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga; Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: → We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. → NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. → Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. → NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. → The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that

  2. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratti, S., E-mail: susanna.buratti@unimi.it [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ballabio, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, G. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia); Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: > We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. > NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. > Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. > NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. > The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that NIR and MIR

  3. New techniques for wine aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging of wine requires a long time therefore it can cause loss of time and money. Therefore using of new techniques for wine aging shortens the length of aging time and wines may be placed on the market more quickly. Nowadays, gamma irradiation, ultrasonic waves, AC electric field and micro-oxygenation are the new techniques for wine aging. Gamma irradiation (after fermentation is accelerated physical maturation method. Gamma irradiation, in a suitable dosage (200 Gy, is a suitable method for improving some wine defects and producing a higher taste quality in wine. The 20 kHz ultrasonic waves aged wine much more quickly than standard aging, with similar quality. The wine treated by 20 kHz ultrasonic waves had a taste equivalent to 1 year aged wine. Wine maturing with AC electric field promises novel process accelerating aging process of fresh wine when suitable conditions are applied. As a result of research, an optimum treatment (electric field 600 V/cm and duration time 3 min was identified to accelerate wine aging. Harsh and pungent raw wine become harmonious and dainty. This process is equivalent to 6 month aging in oak barrel. Microoxygenation is a very important technique used in aging wines in order to improve their characteristics. The techniques of wine tank aging imply the use of small doses of oxygen (2 ml L−1 month−1 and the addition of wood pieces of oak to the wine. Studies concerning these new techniques demonstrated that maturation of wines become more quickly than standard maturation procedures with keeping and improving the wine quality.

  4. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine. Those...

  5. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  6. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made in...

  7. Wine and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenfelter, Orley; Storchmann, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the extensive literature on the impact of weather and climate on grapes and wine with the goal of describing how climate change is likely to affect their production. We start by discussing the physical impact of weather on vine phenology, berry composition and yields, and then survey the economic literature measuring the effects of temperature on wine quality, prices, costs and profits and how climate change will affect these. We also describe what ha...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of table and Port red wine anthocyanins: a crossover trial in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I; Marques, C; Évora, A; Cruz, L; de Freitas, V; Calhau, C; Faria, A; Mateus, N

    2017-05-24

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Port and table red wine anthocyanins in healthy men. Volunteers were recruited to drink 250 mL of a table red wine (221 mg of anthocyanins) and 150 mL of young Port red wine (49 mg of anthocyanins). Venous blood was collected from participants at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after wine ingestion. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 120 min. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in plasma and urine samples were quantified by HPLC-DAD and tentatively identified by LC-MS. Red wine anthocyanins were detected in their intact forms in both plasma and urine samples, but the glucuronylated metabolites of peonidin and malvidin (PnGlucr and MvGlucr) were the two main derivatives detected after both red wine consumptions. For the first time, and supported by the synthesis of Mv3Glucr, the main pathway followed by Mv3glc after absorption was described and involves anthocyanidin conjugation with glucuronic acid after glucose removal. Despite the lower total content of anthocyanins ingested when volunteers drank Port wine, no differences were observed in the plasma C max of MvGlucr and PnGlucr after table and Port red wine consumption. The relative bioavailability of anthocyanins in Port wine was 96.58 ± 5.74%, compared to the anthocyanins present in red wine. In conclusion, both Port and table red wines are good sources of bioavailable anthocyanins.

  9. Wine tourism and sustainable environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa González San José

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a model of development in which the present actions should not compromise the future of future generations, and is linked to economic and social development which must respect the environment. Wine tourism or enotourism is a pleasant mode of tourism that combines the pleasure of wine-tasting, with cultural aspects related to the wine culture developing in wine regions over time until the present day. It can be affirmed that wine culture, and its use through wine tourism experiences, is clearly correlated to social (socially equitable, economic (economically feasible, environmental (environmentally sound and cultural aspects of the sustainability of winegrowing regions and territories.

  10. Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.E.; Krueger, H.W.; Burggraff, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Specific 14 C-activities, percent of modern 14 C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO 2 are presented for CO 2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO 2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14 C-activities of CO 2 in these wines. Data for 14 C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14 C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

  11. Using Data Mining for Wine Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Paulo; Teixeira, Juliana; Cerdeira, António; Almeida, Fernando; Matos, Telmo; Reis, José

    Certification and quality assessment are crucial issues within the wine industry. Currently, wine quality is mostly assessed by physicochemical (e.g alcohol levels) and sensory (e.g. human expert evaluation) tests. In this paper, we propose a data mining approach to predict wine preferences that is based on easily available analytical tests at the certification step. A large dataset is considered with white vinho verde samples from the Minho region of Portugal. Wine quality is modeled under a regression approach, which preserves the order of the grades. Explanatory knowledge is given in terms of a sensitivity analysis, which measures the response changes when a given input variable is varied through its domain. Three regression techniques were applied, under a computationally efficient procedure that performs simultaneous variable and model selection and that is guided by the sensitivity analysis. The support vector machine achieved promising results, outperforming the multiple regression and neural network methods. Such model is useful for understanding how physicochemical tests affect the sensory preferences. Moreover, it can support the wine expert evaluations and ultimately improve the production.

  12. A new wine superpower? An analysis of the Chinese wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the most attractive wine markets and a hopeful wine producer in the twenty-first century. Current studies of wine in China tend to focus on the wine market but seldom analyze the domestic wine industry, which contributes approximately 70% of the total wine consumed in the country. This paper reviews the wine history and the development of wine in China and analyses the current situation and perspectives of the Chinese wine industry, considering both traditional con...

  13. ASPECTS REGARDING WINE PRODUCTION AND WINE SECTOR COMPETITIVENESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine sector competitiveness in Romania. Vineyards have an important share in Romanian agriculture, Romania being ranked on 11th position in the world and on 5th position in the European Union in terms of vineyards surface, while the wine industry is an important contributor to the GDP. The research method was based on analyze of wine sector evolution in the last years. The paper presents current global context of wine market at international level and focus on Romanian wine production sector and wine trade, seen in the light of competitiveness. The competitiveness of Romanian wine sector need to be related with measures that are able to increase the attractiveness of Romanian wines, both on domestic and external markets.

  14. Spectrochemical determination of lead in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MARKOVIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of lead in wines of different origin was performed by means of atomic emission spectroscopy with argon stabilized DC. U-shaped arc and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The comparison of the results obtained by the direct and standard addition method has indicated the presence of a depressive effect of the complex organic matrix. The effect is avoided successfully by mineralization, as well as by dissolution of the samples. Thus, a relative simple but precise and sensitive method involving the application of a stabilized arc and photoelectric detection with time integration of the emission signals is recommended for the determination of low concentrations of lead in wines. The complex organic matrix was investigated by recording the IR spectra of different wine fractions.

  15. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulia, Danae S., E-mail: ntoulia@mail.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Anagnos, Efstathios K. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Liapis, Konstantinos S. [Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 7 Ekalis Str., Kiphissia, Athens GR-14561 (Greece); Klimentzos, Demetrios A. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  16. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doulia, Danae S.; Anagnos, Efstathios K.; Liapis, Konstantinos S.; Klimentzos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  17. Quantitating morphological changes in biological samples during scanning electron microscopy sample preparation with correlative super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Huang, Tao; Jorgens, Danielle M; Nickerson, Andrew; Lin, Li-Jung; Pelz, Joshua; Gray, Joe W; López, Claudia S; Nan, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Sample preparation is critical to biological electron microscopy (EM), and there have been continuous efforts on optimizing the procedures to best preserve structures of interest in the sample. However, a quantitative characterization of the morphological changes associated with each step in EM sample preparation is currently lacking. Using correlative EM and superresolution microscopy (SRM), we have examined the effects of different drying methods as well as osmium tetroxide (OsO4) post-fixation on cell morphology during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sample preparation. Here, SRM images of the sample acquired under hydrated conditions were used as a baseline for evaluating morphological changes as the sample went through SEM sample processing. We found that both chemical drying and critical point drying lead to a mild cellular boundary retraction of ~60 nm. Post-fixation by OsO4 causes at least 40 nm additional boundary retraction. We also found that coating coverslips with adhesion molecules such as fibronectin prior to cell plating helps reduce cell distortion from OsO4 post-fixation. These quantitative measurements offer useful information for identifying causes of cell distortions in SEM sample preparation and improving current procedures.

  18. Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quing An; Shen, Yuan; Fan, Xue-Hui; García-Martín, Juan Francisco; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radic...

  19. Wine and Maths: Mathematical Solutions to Wine-Inspired Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, L.; Cauli, A.

    2018-01-01

    We deal with an application of partial differential equations to the correct definition of a wine cellar. We present some historical details about this problem. We also discuss how to build or renew a wine cellar, creating ideal conditions for the ageing process and improving the quality of wines. Our goal is to calculate the optimal depth…

  20. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  1. Determination of Metal Elements in Wine Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocková, Jana; Tian, Ye; Yin, Hualiang; Delepine-Gilon, Nicole; Chen, Yanping; Veis, Pavel; Yu, Jin

    2017-08-01

    We developed a method for sensitive elemental analysis of wines using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In order to overcome the inefficiency of direct ablation of bulk wine (an organic liquid), a thin layer of wine residue was prepared on a metallic target according to an appropriated heating procedure applied to an amount of liquid wine dropped on the target surface. The obtained ensemble was thus ablated. Such a sample preparation procedure used a very small volume of 2 mL of wine and took only 30 min without reagent or solvent. The results show the detection of tens of metal and non-metal elements including majors (Na, Mg, K, Ca), minors, and traces (Li, B, Si, P, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb) in wines purchased from local supermarkets and from different production places in France. Commercially available wines were then spiked with certified standard solutions of Ti and Fe. Three series of laboratory reference samples were thus prepared using three different wines (a red wine and a white wine from a same production region and a red wine from another production region) with concentrations of Ti and Fe in the range of 1-40 mg/L. Calibration graphs established with the spiked samples allowed extracting the figures-of-merit parameters of the method for wine analysis such as the coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) and the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ). The calibration curves built with the three wines were then compared. We studied the residual matrix effect between these wines in the determination of the concentrations of Ti and Fe.

  2. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of major Australian red wines throughout the winemaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjom, Irine R; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Caffin, Nola A; Gidley, Michael J

    2010-09-22

    Three Australian red wine types (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot) were analyzed for antioxidant activity and a range of phenolic component contents using various spectral methods. More than half of the total phenolic compounds were tannins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavonols were present in much lesser amounts (wine samples from all stages of winemaking showed progressive changes toward those of commercial wines. The antioxidant activity of the wines in DPPH and ABTS assays was positively correlated with total phenolic contents and tannins. Comparisons of the three wine varieties based on their individual phenolic component groups and antioxidant activities showed limited differences between the different varieties. However, when all of the variables were combined in a principal component analysis, variety differentiation was observed. The three varieties of red wines all contained similar and high concentrations of antioxidants despite differences in grape variety/maturity and winemaking process, suggesting that related health benefits would accrue from all of the red wines studied.

  3. Wine Traceability with Rare Earth Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Aceto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that can act as soil markers are being sought. In this work, the role of rare earth elements (REEs as geochemical markers in the traceability of red wine is discussed. The REE distribution in samples from each step of the wine making process of Primitivo wine (produced in Southern Italy was determined using the highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. Samples analyzed include grapes, must, and wine samples after every step in the vinification process. The resulting data were compared to the REE distribution in the soil, revealing that the soil fingerprint is maintained in the intermediate products up to and including grape must. Fractionation occurs thereafter as a consequence of further external interventions, which tends to modify the REE profile.

  4. Fun with Singing Wine Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency…

  5. Differentiation of the aromas of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using sensory and instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotseridis, Y; Razungles, A; Bertrand, A; Baumes, R

    2000-11-01

    The aromas of six Merlot and three Cabernet Sauvignon wines of the 1996 vintage from the Bordeaux region were evaluated by sensory analysis. A panel of selected enology students was trained to assess 20 attributes previously generated for these wines by enologists of Bordeaux. Using statistical methods, this 20-attribute list was reduced to a 12-attribute list. The aroma profiles of the wines of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon were very close. Differentiation of the wines of these two varieties was significant only for the caramel descriptor, which was rated higher in the Merlot wines. Gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) and GC/MS analyses were used to detect and identify the potent odorants with the caramel odor in the two most differentiated samples for this attribute, a Merlot wine and a Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Two odorant zones with this odor resulted in identification of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (HEMF). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method showed a higher dilution factor (FD) for HDMF in the Merlot wine extract than in the Cabernet Sauvignon extract. The HDMF levels determined in the wines studied using a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) method were consistent with the results found by sensory analysis and GC/O; i.e., higher HDMF levels were present in the Merlot wines than in the Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

  6. [Eulogy of wine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, I O

    1997-12-20

    In the literature the beneficial effects on health of drinking alcoholic beverages, especially red wine, is becoming increasingly more evident. We report an objective analysis of the advantages and the dangers of such a tendency. It appears that the daily consumption of red wine at moderate doses (200-400 ml a day) has real prophylactic effects. These are particularly marked in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but also for a possible cancer chemopreventive activity, in the prevention of type II diabetes, of ischemic stroke, of osteoporosis in older women, and of Alzheimer's disease. But, inasmuch as the consumption of alcoholic beverages always involves a potential danger (organic diseases, risk of dependence, alcoholism), from a medical point of view eulogy to wine is ethically indefensible. Similar effects may be obtained from a diet rich in fruits and fresh vegetables.

  7. Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Shen, Yuan; Fan, Xue-Hui; Martín, Juan Francisco García; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radicals. Spin adducts of hydroxyl free radicals were detected in DMPO aqueous solution after sonication while 1-hydroxylethyl free radical adducts were observed in ultrasound-processed red wine and model wine. The latter radical arose from ethanol oxidation via the hydroxyl radical generated by ultrasound in water, thus providing the first direct evidence of the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl free radical in red wine exposed to ultrasound. Finally, the effects of ultrasound frequency, ultrasound power, temperature and ultrasound exposure time were assessed on the intensity of 1-hydroxylethyl radical spin adducts in model wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A sniffer-camera for imaging of ethanol vaporization from wine: the effect of wine glass shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Iitani, Kenta; Wang, Xin; Kajiro, Takumi; Toma, Koji; Yano, Kazuyoshi; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-04-21

    A two-dimensional imaging system (Sniffer-camera) for visualizing the concentration distribution of ethanol vapor emitting from wine in a wine glass has been developed. This system provides image information of ethanol vapor concentration using chemiluminescence (CL) from an enzyme-immobilized mesh. This system measures ethanol vapor concentration as CL intensities from luminol reactions induced by alcohol oxidase and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. Conversion of ethanol distribution and concentration to two-dimensional CL was conducted using an enzyme-immobilized mesh containing an alcohol oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and luminol solution. The temporal changes in CL were detected using an electron multiplier (EM)-CCD camera and analyzed. We selected three types of glasses-a wine glass, a cocktail glass, and a straight glass-to determine the differences in ethanol emission caused by the shape effects of the glass. The emission measurements of ethanol vapor from wine in each glass were successfully visualized, with pixel intensity reflecting ethanol concentration. Of note, a characteristic ring shape attributed to high alcohol concentration appeared near the rim of the wine glass containing 13 °C wine. Thus, the alcohol concentration in the center of the wine glass was comparatively lower. The Sniffer-camera was demonstrated to be sufficiently useful for non-destructive ethanol measurement for the assessment of food characteristics.

  9. Consumer Involvement and Knowledge Influence on Wine Choice Cue Utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruwer, Johan; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lesschaeve, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    of consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada...... an image of desirability, etc., but not nearly as much on the functionality aspects thereof; for example alternative smaller packaging sizes to the standard 750 ml wine bottle. Originality/value The study uses a multi-dimensional approach to measure the impact of enduring involvement on utilisation...

  10. Determination of semi-volatile additives in wines using SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagandykova, Gulyaim N; Alimzhanova, Mereke B; Nurzhanova, Yenglik T; Kenessov, Bulat

    2017-04-01

    Parameters of headspace solid-phase microextraction, such as fiber coating (85μm CAR/PDMS), extraction time (2min for white and 3min for red wines), temperature (85°C), pre-incubation time (15min) were optimized for identification and quantification of semi-volatile additives (propylene glycol, sorbic and benzoic acids) in wines. To overcome problems in their determination, an evaporation of the wine matrix was performed. Using the optimized method, screening of 25 wine samples was performed, and the presence of propylene glycol, sorbic and benzoic acids was found in 22, 20 and 6 samples, respectively. Analysis of different wines using a standard addition approach showed good linearity in concentration ranges 0-250, 0-125, and 0-250mg/L for propylene glycol, sorbic and benzoic acids, respectively. The proposed method can be recommended for quality control of wine and disclosing adulterated samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Botrytized wines – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magyar I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ildikó Magyar, János Soós Department of Oenology, Institute of Viticulture and Oenology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Botrytized wines are wine specialties made of overripe grapes infected by Botrytis cinerea with the form “noble rot”. Due to the particular characteristics of the noble rotted grape, these wines (eg, Tokaji Aszú, Sauternes, Trockenbeerenauslese types, etc have many characteristic features, including higher or lower residual sugar content and unique aroma composition. The technology, biochemistry, and special characteristics of botrytized wines have been researched for a long time. This review outlines the main directions of the current studies, giving a brief overview on the recent findings. Beside the traditional wine types, noble rot is increasingly utilized in making newer sweet wine styles and straw (passito wines, which generates a series of new interesting experimental results. The fungus–grape interactions during the noble rot, the induced botrytization, the microbial communities of botrytized wines, and the volatile compounds having key roles in the distinct aroma of these wine styles are being focused on in the current studies in this field. Keywords: Botrytis, noble rot, sweet wines, passito wine, aroma

  12. Associations between the sensory attributes and volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines and the volatile composition of the grapes used for their production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Ciarán G; Cox, Agnieszka; Williams, Emlyn R; Boss, Paul K

    2011-03-23

    The sensory properties of wine are influenced by the chemical composition of the grapes used to produce them. Identification of grape and wine chemical markers associated with the attributes perceived by the consumer of the wine will enable better prediction of the potential of a parcel of grapes to produce wine of a certain flavor. This study explores the relationships between Cabernet Sauvignon grape volatile composition and wine volatile profiles with the sensory properties of wines. Twenty grape samples were obtained from nine vineyard sites across three vintages and wines vinified from these parcels using controlled winemaking methods. The volatile composition of the grapes were analyzed by SBSE-GCMS, the wines were analyzed by SPME-GCMS, and these data sets were compared to that obtained from the sensory analysis of the wines. Statistical treatment of the data to account for vintage and region effects allowed underlying relationships to be seen between wine sensory attributes and wine or grape volatile components. The observed associations between grape or wine volatile compounds and wine sensory attributes has revealed target compounds and pathways whose levels may reflect the biochemical effects on grape composition by differing growth conditions during berry development and ripening. The compounds identified in this study may be useful grape or wine markers for potential wine sensory characteristics.

  13. Fruit Wines Inhibitory Activity Against α-Glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Uros; Grozdanic, Nada; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Pejin, Boris; Nastasijevic, Branislav; Markovic, Bojan; Dordevic, Brizita

    2017-01-01

    Fruit wines are well known for their profound health-promoting properties including both enzyme activations and inhibitions. They may act preventive in regard to diabetes melitus and other chronic diseases. Potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of fruit wines made from blueberry, black chokeberry, blackberry, raspberry and sour cherry was the subject of this study. In order to increase the alcohol content due to enriched extraction of total phenolics, sugar was added in the fruit pomace of the half of the examined fruit wine samples. Compared with acarbose used as a positive control (IC50 = 73.78 µg/mL), all fruit wine samples exhibited higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Indeed, blueberry wine samples stood out, both prepared with IC50 = 24.14 µg/mL, lyophilised extract yield 3.23% and without IC50 = 46.39 µg/mL, lyophilised extract yield 2.89% and with addition of sugar before fermentation. Chlorogenic acid predominantly contributed to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the blueberry, black chokeberry and sour cherry wine samples. However, ellagic acid, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor possessing a planar structure, only slightly affected the activity of the blueberry wine samples, due to the lower concentration. In addition to this, molecular docking study of chlorogenic acid pointed out the importance of binding energy (-8.5 kcal/mol) for the inhibition of the enzyme. In summary, fruit wines made from blueberry should be primarily taken into consideration as a medicinal food targeting diabetes mellitus type 2 in the early stage, if additional studies would confirm their therapeutic potential for the control of postprandial hyperglycemia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Electronic-nose technology using sputum samples in diagnosis of patients with tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Hoelscher, M.; Maboko, L.; Jung, J.; Kuijper, S.; Cauchi, M.; Bessant, C.; van Beers, S.; Dutta, R.; Gibson, T.; Reither, K.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the potential of two different electronic noses (EN; code named "Rob" and "Walter") to differentiate between sputum headspace samples from tuberculosis (TB) patients and non-TB patients. Only samples from Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN)- and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive

  15. Radiological and microanalytical studies of fine Melnik wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, Dimiter; Geleva, Elena; Damianova, Anna; Grigorov, Todor; Goutev, Nikolai; Protohristov, Hristo; Stoyanov, Chavdar; Bashev, Vladimir; Popov, Evgeni; Tringovska, Ivanka; Kostova, Dimitrina

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear methods and chemical fingerprinting can help in the process of determination of the year of production (vintage) and the geographical provenance or designation of origin of high quality wines. For the first time we report results obtained for fine Bulgarian wines from Melnik region, as well as, vineyard soil, vine stems and grape leaves. The gamma-ray activity of the radioisotope 137 Cs has been measured also for the first time in wines from different vintages using low background, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The specific concentrations of 16 elements have been measured in samples from soil, vine stems, grape leaves and fine wines from the type Shiroka Melnishka, which are grown in typical Melnik vineyard by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The obtained radiological and chemical correlations can be used as initial data base in order to determinate the wine vintage back to 1986 and, eventually, as tool to establish the designation of origin of the Melnik fine wine and the quality of the wine

  16. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTA O. SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  17. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  18. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  19. Port-wine stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Port-wine stain URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  20. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  1. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-06

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.

  2. Influence of Plastic Deformation of Steel Samples on the Fast electron Backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Trujillo, J. X.; Herrera Palma, V.; Desdin Garcia, L. F.; Codorniu Pujals, D.

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of a fast electron beam incident on a target is scattered in backward direction. It is a very complex process involving electron - nucleus and electron - electron collisions. The fraction of backscattered electrons is described by a parameterization as a function of the atomic number and energy of the incident electrons. In such approaches the possible influence of the material structure is not taken into account. In this paper, the behavior of the 90 Sr/ 90 Y backscattered electrons from 08JuA and 15GJuT steel strained samples is investigated. A clear dependence between the degree of plastic deformation and the fraction of backscattered electrons was observed. This relationship is explained by the interaction of electrons with the dislocations in the material, whose density depends on the magnitude of the strain in the plastic region. On the basis of a simple model for describing this interaction, a mathematical expression is obtained for the relationship between the fraction of backscattered electrons and the degree of deformation. (Author)

  3. Wine fingerprinting using a bio-geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes José Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wine sector is a billion euro business and therefore subjected to multiple attempts of fraudulent practices. This requires the development of rapid and reliable methods to detect such situations. Several methodologies have been developed based on the chemical profiles of the wines, but they are limited due to the environmental conditions that cannot be controlled. The use of DNA-based detection systems are an emergent research field that have been extended to a wide variety of food prod- ucts and are still the most reliable methods for varietal identification. However these methods are not suitable for geographical determination. Soil related fingerprints have a primary role considering that there is a relationship between the elemental compo- sition of wine and the composition of the provenance soil. WineBioCode is a project aiming to define the best strategy for wine authenticity based on a multidisciplinary approach. Two DNA-based strategies have been developed based on Real-time PCR and a label free optical biosensor platform. Both platforms enabled successful identification of specific DNA-targets when applied to Vitis vinifera L., and can be applied throughout the grape-wine chain. The methods are complementary and can be used in dif- ferent situations, according to the requirements. The geographical evaluation has been assessed by the strontium 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio determination involving soil evaluation in the vineyards followed by its assay in the wine samples. The results are being integrated in order to establish the best procedure to be undertaken for wine fingerprinting, including varietal composition and geographical origin, therefore fulfilling the requirements of the geographical denominations in wine certification.

  4. Sensory characterization of the astringency of commercial Uruguayan Tannat wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Leticia; Antúnez, Lucía; Giménez, Ana; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Ares, Gastón

    2017-12-01

    Astringency is one of the most important characteristics that define the quality of red wine, and is of particular relevance for Tannat, Uruguayan emblematic red wine variety. Astringency is a time-dependant and complex sensory characteristic, related to several sensations, or sub-qualities, that can be simultaneously perceived. The aim of the present study was to obtain a sensory characterization of the astringency of commercial Uruguayan Tannat wines. Forty samples with different characteristics in terms of vintage, price segment and aging in oak barrels were assessed by a panel of 9 trained assessors. Total astringency intensity was evaluated using time-intensity (TI), while astringency sub-qualities were described using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question composed of sixteen terms. TI and the CATA question provided different information on the astringency of Tannat wines. Regarding global astringency, samples mainly differed in intensity-related parameters rather than in the development of astringency over time, although the variability was moderate. A wide range of sub-qualities, from silky and velvety to harsh and aggressive were used to describe the astringency of the evaluated wines. Four groups of samples with different astringency characteristics were identified, but this sorting was not related to vintage, price segment or aging in oak barrels. Further research is necessary to better understand how astringency characteristics are influenced by production variables, and to understand their relationship to consumers' and experts' perceived quality of Tannat wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential of wines from ‘Welschriesling’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ varieties during ageing on fine lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lužar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are key components of wine, since they contribute to wine characteristics such as colour, astringency and bitterness. They also act like antioxidants, with mechanisms involving free-radical scavenging that could prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The aim of the present work was to compare the obtained results of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential (AOP of several white wines (welschriesling and sauvignon blanc during ageing on fine lees. The total polyphenols content decreased in average for 16.1 % in welschriesling wines and for 18.7 % in sauvignon blanc wines in the period of three months of wine ageing on lees. In the same period AOP of wines decreased in average for 16.0 % in welschriesling wines and for 8.0 % in sauvignon blanc wines. Expectedly, the samples with added oak chips in grape must had higher antioxidant potential than others.

  6. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  7. Classification of wine by determination of bioactive phenolic compounds using high resolution mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Dimovska, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeva, Elena; Petruseva, Dragana; Causon, Tim; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In this project proposal, metabolomic fingerprinting of wine samples will be examined using high performance liquid chromatography combined with ion mobility quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–IMS-QTOF-MS) for the first time. Bioactive compounds in wines from various red and white varieties produced in Macedonia and Austria from different wine regions and different vintages will be determined for the first time using a non-targeted fingerprinting approach on this analytical plat...

  8. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  9. Dynamical "in situ" observation of biological samples using variable pressure scanning electron microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 126, - (2008), 012046:1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Conference 2007 (EMAG 2007). Glasgow, 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0886; GA AV ČR KJB200650602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : biological sample * VP-SEM * dynamical experiments Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. The electron transport problem sampling by Monte Carlo individual collision technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, P.A.; Belousov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of electron transport is of most interest in all fields of the modern science. To solve this problem the Monte Carlo sampling has to be used. The electron transport is characterized by a large number of individual interactions. To simulate electron transport the 'condensed history' technique may be used where a large number of collisions are grouped into a single step to be sampled randomly. Another kind of Monte Carlo sampling is the individual collision technique. In comparison with condensed history technique researcher has the incontestable advantages. For example one does not need to give parameters altered by condensed history technique like upper limit for electron energy, resolution, number of sub-steps etc. Also the condensed history technique may lose some very important tracks of electrons because of its limited nature by step parameters of particle movement and due to weakness of algorithms for example energy indexing algorithm. There are no these disadvantages in the individual collision technique. This report presents some sampling algorithms of new version BRAND code where above mentioned technique is used. All information on electrons was taken from Endf-6 files. They are the important part of BRAND. These files have not been processed but directly taken from electron information source. Four kinds of interaction like the elastic interaction, the Bremsstrahlung, the atomic excitation and the atomic electro-ionization were considered. In this report some results of sampling are presented after comparison with analogs. For example the endovascular radiotherapy problem (P2) of QUADOS2002 was presented in comparison with another techniques that are usually used. (authors)

  11. The electron transport problem sampling by Monte Carlo individual collision technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androsenko, P.A.; Belousov, V.I. [Obninsk State Technical Univ. of Nuclear Power Engineering, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The problem of electron transport is of most interest in all fields of the modern science. To solve this problem the Monte Carlo sampling has to be used. The electron transport is characterized by a large number of individual interactions. To simulate electron transport the 'condensed history' technique may be used where a large number of collisions are grouped into a single step to be sampled randomly. Another kind of Monte Carlo sampling is the individual collision technique. In comparison with condensed history technique researcher has the incontestable advantages. For example one does not need to give parameters altered by condensed history technique like upper limit for electron energy, resolution, number of sub-steps etc. Also the condensed history technique may lose some very important tracks of electrons because of its limited nature by step parameters of particle movement and due to weakness of algorithms for example energy indexing algorithm. There are no these disadvantages in the individual collision technique. This report presents some sampling algorithms of new version BRAND code where above mentioned technique is used. All information on electrons was taken from Endf-6 files. They are the important part of BRAND. These files have not been processed but directly taken from electron information source. Four kinds of interaction like the elastic interaction, the Bremsstrahlung, the atomic excitation and the atomic electro-ionization were considered. In this report some results of sampling are presented after comparison with analogs. For example the endovascular radiotherapy problem (P2) of QUADOS2002 was presented in comparison with another techniques that are usually used. (authors)

  12. A new Langmuir probe concept for rapid sampling of space plasma electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, K S; Pedersen, A; Moen, J I; Bekkeng, T A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new Langmuir probe concept that was invented for the in situ investigation of HF radar backscatter irregularities, with the capability to measure absolute electron density at a resolution sufficient to resolve the finest conceivable structure in an ionospheric plasma. The instrument consists of two or more fixed-bias cylindrical Langmuir probes whose radius is small compared to the Debye length. With this configuration, it is possible to acquire absolute electron density measurements independent of electron temperature and rocket/satellite potential. The system was flown on the ICI-2 sounding rocket to investigate the plasma irregularities which cause HF backscatter. It had a sampling rate of more than 5 kHz and successfully measured structures down to the scale of one electron gyro radius. The system can easily be adapted for any ionospheric rocket or satellite, and provides high-quality measurements of electron density at any desired resolution

  13. Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Martínez-Gil, Ana M

    2017-06-01

    Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  15. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  16. Soil Types Effect on Grape and Wine Composition in Helan Mountain Area of Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types—aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  17. Estimating Hedonic Prices for Stellenbosch wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Lutzeyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a hedonic price function for Stellenbosch wines to determine the association between market value and different characteristics of these wines. In such a hedonic price function, the price of a bottle of wine is ascribed to the implicit value of its attributes. Besides contributing to both South African and international wine pricing literature, the benefits of developing a hedonic wine pricing model extend to numerous players in the wine industry. Consumers are provided w...

  18. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  19. Selenium speciation profiles in biofortified sangiovese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Maria Chiara; D'Amato, Roberto; Regni, Luca; Proietti, Primo; Beone, Gian Maria; Businelli, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Biofortification is an agronomic-based strategy, utilized by farmers, to produce selenium (Se)-enriched food products that may help reduce dietary deficiencies of Se occurring throughout susceptible regions of the world. The foliar exposure route application ensures a high efficiency of Se assimilation by the plant since it does not depend on root-to-shoot translocation. In this study we treated grapevines of Sangiovese variety in the pre-flowering period with sodium selenate (100mg Se L -1 ). Se content was measured in leaves, fruit at harvest time and in wine respectively in treated and not treated samples with ICP-MS. At harvest, a higher amount of Se in the treated leaves compared to untreated ones was found, 16.0±3.1mgkg -1 dry weight (dw) against 0.17±0.006mgkg -1 dw in the untreated ones. The treated grapes had a content of Se of 0.800±0.08mgkg -1 dw, while that untreated one 0.065±0.025mgkg -1 dw. Immediately after the malolactic fermentation, the wine obtained from treated and untreated vines had a Se content of 0.620±0.09mg Se L -1 and 0.024±0.010mg Se L -1 respectively. In our case the percentage of inorganic Se is 26% of the total Se in the untreated wine, while in Se enriched wine this percentage increase to 47.5% of the total Se. The Se(VI) was the inorganic chemical form more present in enriched wine, probably due to foliar application with selenate. Distributions of Se species suggested being careful to the choice of the enrichment solutions to promote a balanced distribution of different chemical forms, perhaps favouring the accumulation of organic forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  1. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-01-01

    Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to deter...

  2. New wine world from China: An analysis of competitiveness of the wine industry in Ningxia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Recently, China has become a huge wine consumer market as well as being an important wine producer. China has the fifth largest global wine consumption and the largest global red wine market (OIV, 2015) with most of the wine consumed (approximately 70%-80%) being produced domestically. With the growing economy and technological advances, the Chinese domestic wine industry has seen significant development. Now, China has the second largest vineyard area (table grape and wine grape) just after ...

  3. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers

  4. Taxation and Consumption of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Dimitris

    1983-01-01

    In this article, the impact that a sales tax might have upon wine consumption and, hence, on the wine and grape growing industries, is analysed. Implications for government revenue are also considered. It is shown that the relative responsiveness of supply and demand, rather than the level in the marketing chain at which a tax is levied, determines where the tax burden finally falls. The imposition of a tax on wine might force certain sectors of the wine and grape industries to undergo a phas...

  5. Is Wine a Financial Parachute?

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Lucia; Vandone, Daniela; Peri, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between Global Wine Industry Share Price Indexes and composite stock market indexes using a Threshold Vector Error Correction Model (TVECM), aiming to investigate if investments in the wine sector play a role in determining financial risk and return to investors who include it in their portfolio. Whilst in most of the literature analyses the return of investments of fine wine, this paper places the focus to “normal” (i.e. non‐fine) wine, using data from th...

  6. A Transmission Electron Microscope Investigation of Space Weathering Effects in Hayabusa Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Berger, Eve L.

    2014-01-01

    The Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa successfully returned the first direct samples of the regolith from the surface of an asteroid. The Hayabusa samples thus present a special opportunity to directly investigate the evolution of asteroidal surfaces, from the development of the regolith to the study of the more complex effects of space weathering. Here we describe the mineralogy, microstructure and composition of three Hayabusa mission particles using transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques

  7. Changes in sparkling wine aroma during the second fermentation under CO2 pressure in sealed bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Rafael; García-Martínez, Teresa; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2017-12-15

    High quality sparkling wine made by the traditional method requires a second alcoholic fermentation of a base wine in sealed bottles, followed by an aging time in contact with yeast lees. The CO 2 overpressure released during this second fermentation has an important effect on the yeast metabolism and therefore on the wine aroma composition. This study focuses on the changes in chemical composition and 43 aroma compounds released by yeast during this fermentation carried out under two pressure conditions. The data were subjected to statistical analysis allowing differentiating between the base wine and the wine samples taken in the middle and at the end of fermentation. The differentiation among wines obtained to the end of fermentation with or without CO 2 pressure is only achieved by a principal component analysis of 15 selected minor compounds (mainly ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate, hexyl acetate, ethyl butanoate and ethyl isobutanoate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope with open sample space observes dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Mitsuo; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Konyuba, Yuji; Iwamatsu, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Yoshiura, Chie; Ueda, Takumi; Sato, Chikara

    2011-12-01

    Although conventional electron microscopy (EM) requires samples to be in vacuum, most chemical and physical reactions occur in liquid or gas. The Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM) can observe dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas under atmospheric pressure in real time. An electron-permeable window made of pressure-resistant 100 nm-thick silicon nitride (SiN) film, set into the bottom of the open ASEM sample dish, allows an electron beam to be projected from underneath the sample. A detector positioned below captures backscattered electrons. Using the ASEM, we observed the radiation-induced self-organization process of particles, as well as phenomena accompanying volume change, including evaporation-induced crystallization. Using the electrochemical ASEM dish, we observed tree-like electrochemical depositions on the cathode. In silver nitrate solution, we observed silver depositions near the cathode forming incidental internal voids. The heated ASEM dish allowed observation of patterns of contrast in melting and solidifying solder. Finally, to demonstrate its applicability for monitoring and control of industrial processes, silver paste and solder paste were examined at high throughput. High resolution, imaging speed, flexibility, adaptability, and ease of use facilitate the observation of previously difficult-to-image phenomena, and make the ASEM applicable to various fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrimination of different red wine by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) correlation spectroscopy were applied to analyze main components of liquid red wine with different sugar contents and volatilization residues of dry red wine from different manufactures. The infrared spectra, second derivative spectra of dry red wine show the typical peaks of alcohol, while the spectra of sweet wine are composed of the peaks of both alcohol and sugar, and the contribution of sugar enhanced as the increase of sugar content. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method, dry and sweet wine can be readily classified. Analysis of the infrared spectra of the volatilization residues of dry red wine samples from five different manufactures indicates that dry red wine may be composed of glycerol, carboxylic acids or esters and carboxyl ate, at the same time, different dry red wine show different characteristic peaks in the second derivative spectra and 2D IR correlation spectra, which can be used to discriminate the different manufactures and evaluate the quality of wine samples. The results suggested that infrared spectroscopy is a direct and effective method for the analysis of principle components of different red wines and discrimination of different red wines.

  10. Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro; Urano, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The minimum detection limit and spatial resolution for a thinned semiconductor sample were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a Schottky field emission (FE) electron gun and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the FE-EPMA results with those obtained using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that FE-EPMA is largely superior in terms of detection sensitivity. Thin-sample FE-EPMA is demonstrated as a very effective method for high resolution, high sensitivity analysis in a laboratory environment because a high probe current and high signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved. - Highlights: • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution determined for FE-EPMA. • Detection sensitivity of FE-EPMA greatly superior to that of STEM-EDX. • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution controllable by probe current

  11. Process and device of elementary and chemical analysis of a sample through a spectral analysis of the secondary electron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gressus, Claude; Massignon, Daniel; Sopizet, Rene.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of chemical and elementary analysis of samples through a spectral analysis of secondary electrons (Auger electrons) emitted from said sample under a primary monokinetic electron beam concentrated on its surface. Said method is characterized in that the intensity of the primary monokinetic electron beam emitted from an electron gun is modulated at a frequency ω; and in that the secondary electrons of energy E emitted from the sample are then collected. A reference voltage corresponding to the modulation in intensity of the primary electron beam is applied at the input of a phase sensitive detector together with a voltage proportional to the intensity of the flux of said collected secondary electrons to obtain at the output of said detector a voltage proportional to the number of the secondary electrons of energy E. The secondary emission energy spectrum of the sample is then plotted [fr

  12. [Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in identification of wine spoilage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian-De; Dong, Da-Ming; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Jiao, Lei-Zi; Lang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, fresh and spoiled wine samples from three wines produced by different companies were studied u- sing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We analyzed the physicochemical property change in the process of spoil- age, and then, gave out the attribution of some main FTIR absorption peaks. A novel determination method was explored based on the comparisons of some absorbance ratios at different wavebands although the absorbance ratios in this method were relative. Through the compare of the wine spectra before and after spoiled, the authors found that they were informative at the bands of 3,020~2,790, 1,760~1,620 and 1,550~800 cm(-1). In order to find the relation between these informative spectral bands and the wine deterioration and achieve the discriminant analysis, chemometrics methods were introduced. Principal compounds analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used for classifying different-quality wines. And partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to identify spoiled wines and good wines. Results showed that FTIR technique combined with chemometrics methods could effectively distinguish spoiled wines from fresh samples. The effect of classification at the wave band of 1 550-800 cm(-1) was the best. The recognition rate of SIMCA and PLSDA were respectively 94% and 100%. This study demonstrates that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for monitoring red wine's spoilage and provides theoretical support for developing early-warning equipments.

  13. Secondary electron emission and self-consistent charge transport in semi-insulating samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitting, H.-J. [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, Universitaetsplatz 3, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Touzin, M. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-08-15

    Electron beam induced self-consistent charge transport and secondary electron emission (SEE) in insulators are described by means of an electron-hole flight-drift model (FDM) now extended by a certain intrinsic conductivity (c) and are implemented by an iterative computer simulation. Ballistic secondary electrons (SE) and holes, their attenuation to drifting charge carriers, and their recombination, trapping, and field- and temperature-dependent detrapping are included. As a main result the time dependent ''true'' secondary electron emission rate {delta}(t) released from the target material and based on ballistic electrons and the spatial distributions of currents j(x,t), charges {rho}(x,t), field F(x,t), and potential V(x,t) are obtained where V{sub 0} = V(0,t) presents the surface potential. The intrinsic electronic conductivity limits the charging process and leads to a conduction sample current to the support. In that case the steady-state total SE yield will be fixed below the unit: i.e., {sigma} {eta} + {delta} < 1.

  14. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  15. Comparison on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cabernet sauvignon and merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-07-25

    The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  16. Analytical characterization of wine and its precursors by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Federico J V; Monasterio, Romina P; Vargas, Verónica Carolina Soto; Silva, María F

    2012-08-01

    The accurate determination of marker chemical species in grape, musts, and wines presents a unique analytical challenge with high impact on diverse areas of knowledge such as health, plant physiology, and economy. Capillary electromigration techniques have emerged as a powerful tool, allowing the separation and identification of highly polar compounds that cannot be easily separated by traditional HPLC methods, providing complementary information and permitting the simultaneous analysis of analytes with different nature in a single run. The main advantage of CE over traditional methods for wine analysis is that in most cases samples require no treatment other than filtration. The purpose of this article is to present a revision on capillary electromigration methods applied to the analysis of wine and its precursors over the last decade. The current state of the art of the topic is evaluated, with special emphasis on the natural compounds that have allowed wine to be considered as a functional food. The most representative revised compounds are phenolic compounds, amino acids, proteins, elemental species, mycotoxins, and organic acids. Finally, a discussion on future trends of the role of capillary electrophoresis in the field of analytical characterization of wines for routine analysis, wine classification, as well as multidisciplinary aspects of the so-called "from soil to glass" chain is presented. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective methods for polyphenols and sulphur dioxide determination in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Juan J; Hernández-Artiga, María P; Palacios-Ponce de León, Lourdes; Bellido-Milla, Dolores

    2015-09-01

    A critical review to the methods recommended by international bodies and widely used in the winery industry and research studies was performed. A Laccase biosensor was applied to the selective determination of polyphenols in wines. The biosensor response was characterised and it responds mainly to o-diphenols which are the principal polyphenols responsible for the stability and sensory qualities of wines. The spectrophotometric method to determine free and total sulphur dioxide recommended for beers was applied directly to wines. A sampling of 14 red and white wines was performed and they were analysed for biosensor polyphenol index (IBP) and sulphur dioxide concentration (SO2). The antioxidant capacity by the ABTS(+) spectrophotometric method was also determined. A correlation study was performed to elucidate the influence of the polyphenols and SO2 on the wines stability. High correlations were found between IBP and antioxidant capacity and low correlation between SO2 and antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the benefits of wine drinking a new parameter (IBP/SO2) is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Contributing to a Memorable Wine Route Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wine tourism, especially wine festivals and routes, is becoming more popular in South Africa, primarily because it gives wine cellars and wine farms greater publicity and exposure leading to increase in wine sales. The wine farmers or cellars are also expanding their product offering to involve more than just wine tasting ...

  20. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process will...

  1. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  2. The health benefits of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J B; Walzem, R L

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from numerous disparate populations reveal that individuals with the habit of daily moderate wine consumption enjoy significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality when compared with individuals who abstain or who drink alcohol to excess. Researchers are working to explain this observation in molecular and nutritional terms. Moderate ethanol intake from any type of beverage improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether wine, particularly red wine with its abundant content of phenolic acids and polyphenols, confers additional health benefits. Discovering the nutritional properties of wine is a challenging task, which requires that the biological actions and bioavailability of the >200 individual phenolic compounds be documented and interpreted within the societal factors that stratify wine consumption and the myriad effects of alcohol alone. Further challenge arises because the health benefits of wine address the prevention of slowly developing diseases for which validated biomarkers are rare. Thus, although the benefits of the polyphenols from fruits and vegetables are increasingly accepted, consensus on wine is developing more slowly. Scientific research has demonstrated that the molecules present in grapes and in wine alter cellular metabolism and signaling, which is consistent mechanistically with reducing arterial disease. Future research must address specific mechanisms both of alcohol and of polyphenolic action and develop biomarkers of their role in disease prevention in individuals.

  3. [Beer, wine, spirits and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M N; Sørensen, T I; Johansen, D; Becker, U; Gottschau, A; Schnohr, P; Hein, H O; Jensen, G

    2001-05-23

    A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.

  4. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  5. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  6. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec. 455...

  7. Cellar-Associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure Revealed High-Level Diversity and Perennial Persistence at Sauternes Wine Estates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börlin, Marine; Venet, Pauline; Claisse, Olivier; Salin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three wine estates (designated A, B, and C) were sampled in Sauternes, a typical appellation of the Bordeaux wine area producing sweet white wine. From those wine estates, 551 yeast strains were collected between 2012 and 2014, added to 102 older strains from 1992 to 2011 from wine estate C. All the strains were analyzed through 15 microsatellite markers, resulting in 503 unique Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes, revealing high genetic diversity and a low presence of commercial yeast starters. Population analysis performed using Fst genetic distance or ancestry profiles revealed that the two closest wine estates, B and C, which have juxtaposed vineyard plots and common seasonal staff, share more related isolates with each other than with wine estate A, indicating exchange between estates. The characterization of isolates collected 23 years ago at wine estate C in relation to recent isolates obtained at wine estate B revealed the long-term persistence of isolates. Last, during the 2014 harvest period, a temporal succession of ancestral subpopulations related to the different batches associated with the selective picking of noble rotted grapes was highlighted. IMPORTANCE High genetic diversity of S. cerevisiae isolates from spontaneous fermentation on wine estates in the Sauternes appellation of Bordeaux was revealed. Only 7% of all Sauternes strains were considered genetically related to specific commercial strains. The long-term persistence (over 20 years) of S. cerevisiae profiles on a given wine estate is highlighted. PMID:26969698

  8. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific...

  9. On the effects of search attributes on price variability: An empirical investigation on quality wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seccia Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a bottle of wine is affected by the presence of attributes that are searched by consumers and can be evaluated before the purchase. The aim of the paper is to analyze the effect of some search attributes on wine price variability applying the Hedonic Price Model. It allows explaining how the price of wine varies depending on its main quality attributes. The analysis has been based on a sample of wines made in Puglia, Italian region characterized by a tradition in wine production and consumption. Data have been collected from a wine guidebook considering the years 2008–2013. The study provided a measure of the market value of some search attributes for wines produced in Puglia. Attributes as alcoholic content, age and score given by experts, influence price variability allowing wines to obtain a premium price, such as the most known Protected Designation of Origin (PDO and some Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. The name of the variety seems not to have high influence with the exception of less known and locally grown varieties. Results may be of interest for marketers and policy makers of wine industry. Managerial implications could refer to the importance of differentiation strategies aimed to market segmentation and to the pricing strategy. Policymakers could also find interesting hints about the influence of the different appellations and the importance of minor autochthonous grape varieties.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE PHTHALATE CONTENT LEVELS IN WINE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duca Gheorghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of studies conducted in the laboratory of National Center for Quality Testing of the Alcoholic Beverages (Republic of Moldova were included more than 1300 samples of the bottled wine and base-wine for the presence of most widespread and toxic phthalate – dibutylphthalate using modern method of analysis like GC-MS. Results display presences DBP in 85 % of studied samples of wines, i.e. a content of DBP more than LOQ (0.01mg/dm3. Has been determined that contamination of phthalates has a technogenic character, and it is the result of contact with polymeric materials. Optimum conditions of extraction DBP from liquid samples were obtained.

  11. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    ., Burkholderia spp., Serratia spp., Staphylococcus spp., among others, have been isolated from grapes but do not have the ability to grow in wines. Saprophytic moulds, like Botrytis cinerea, causing grey rot, or Aspergillus spp., possibly producing ochratoxin, are only active in the vineyard, although their metabolites may affect wine quality during grape processing. The impact of damaged grapes in yeast ecology has been underestimated mostly because of inaccurate grape sampling. Injured berries hidden in apparently sound bunches explain the recovery of a higher number of species when whole bunches are picked. Grape health status is the main factor affecting the microbial ecology of grapes, increasing both microbial numbers and species diversity. Therefore, the influence of abiotic (e.g. climate, rain, hail), biotic (e.g. insects, birds, phytopathogenic and saprophytic moulds) and viticultural (e.g. fungicides) factors is dependent on their primary damaging effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lukyanchuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex avtomatization sites grape processing with bulk transportation of the latter; improving the quality and durability of wines by the processing of a wide applying wine cold and heat, as well as technical and microbiological control most powerful automation equipment; the introduction of automated production processes of continuous technical champagne, sherry wine and cognac alcohol madery; the use of complex automation auxiliary production sites (boilers, air conditioners, refrigeration unitsand other.; complex avtomatization creation of enterprises, and sites manufactory bottling wines. In the wine industry developed more sophisticated schemes of automation and devices that enable the transition to integrated production automation, will create, are indicative automated enterprise serving for laboratories to study of the main problems of automation of production processes of winemaking.

  13. Microdosimetry calculations for monoenergetic electrons using Geant4-DNA combined with a weighted track sampling algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famulari, Gabriel; Pater, Piotr; Enger, Shirin A

    2017-07-07

    The aim of this study was to calculate microdosimetric distributions for low energy electrons simulated using the Monte Carlo track structure code Geant4-DNA. Tracks for monoenergetic electrons with kinetic energies ranging from 100 eV to 1 MeV were simulated in an infinite spherical water phantom using the Geant4-DNA extension included in Geant4 toolkit version 10.2 (patch 02). The microdosimetric distributions were obtained through random sampling of transfer points and overlaying scoring volumes within the associated volume of the tracks. Relative frequency distributions of energy deposition f(>E)/f(>0) and dose mean lineal energy ([Formula: see text]) values were calculated in nanometer-sized spherical and cylindrical targets. The effects of scoring volume and scoring techniques were examined. The results were compared with published data generated using MOCA8B and KURBUC. Geant4-DNA produces a lower frequency of higher energy deposits than MOCA8B. The [Formula: see text] values calculated with Geant4-DNA are smaller than those calculated using MOCA8B and KURBUC. The differences are mainly due to the lower ionization and excitation cross sections of Geant4-DNA for low energy electrons. To a lesser extent, discrepancies can also be attributed to the implementation in this study of a new and fast scoring technique that differs from that used in previous studies. For the same mean chord length ([Formula: see text]), the [Formula: see text] calculated in cylindrical volumes are larger than those calculated in spherical volumes. The discrepancies due to cross sections and scoring geometries increase with decreasing scoring site dimensions. A new set of [Formula: see text] values has been presented for monoenergetic electrons using a fast track sampling algorithm and the most recent physics models implemented in Geant4-DNA. This dataset can be combined with primary electron spectra to predict the radiation quality of photon and electron beams.

  14. Electro-optic sampling for time resolving relativistic ultrafast electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoby, C. M.; Musumeci, P.; Moody, J.; Gutierrez, M.; Tran, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Pegasus laboratory at UCLA features a state-of-the-art electron photoinjector capable of producing ultrashort (<100 fs) high-brightness electron bunches at energies of 3.75 MeV. These beams recently have been used to produce static diffraction patterns from scattering off thin metal foils, and it is foreseen to take advantage of the ultrashort nature of these bunches in future pump-probe time-resolved diffraction studies. In this paper, single shot 2-d electro-optic sampling is presented as a potential technique for time of arrival stamping of electron bunches used for diffraction. Effects of relatively low bunch charge (a few 10's of pC) and modestly relativistic beams are discussed and background compensation techniques to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio are explored. From these preliminary tests, electro-optic sampling is suitable to be a reliable nondestructive time stamping method for relativistic ultrafast electron diffraction at the Pegasus lab.

  15. The problem of large samples. An activation analysis study of electronic waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segebade, C.; Goerner, W.; Bode, P.

    2007-01-01

    Large-volume instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) was used for the investigation of shredded electronic waste material. Sample masses from 1 to 150 grams were analyzed to obtain an estimate of the minimum sample size to be taken to achieve a representativeness of the results which is satisfactory for a defined investigation task. Furthermore, the influence of irradiation and measurement parameters upon the quality of the analytical results were studied. Finally, the analytical data obtained from IPAA and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), both carried out in a large-volume mode, were compared. Only parts of the values were found in satisfactory agreement. (author)

  16. On the preparation of electron sensor using LiRbSO4 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Muraikhi, M.; Kassem, M. E.; Gaafar, M.; Abdel Gawad, M. M. H.; Ragab, I. M.

    2005-01-01

    The dielectric spectroscopy of metal-metal sulfate LiRbSO4 samples are described with particular emphasis on sensor performance to be used in the field of radiation. The obtained results as the effect of different electron energy beams at fixed dose, 0.5 Gy, showed abrupt change of the electrical properties (electrical conductivity, capacitance, and loss tangent). The results can be explained on the basis of radiation-induced defects followed by radiation quenching. The prepared samples can be used in the field of radiation dosimeter.

  17. Note: A scanning electron microscope sample holder for bidirectional characterization of atomic force microscope probe tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Alon; Goh, M. Cynthia [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    A novel sample holder that enables atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to be mounted inside a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the purpose of characterizing the AFM tips is described. The holder provides quick and easy handling of tips by using a spring clip to hold them in place. The holder can accommodate two tips simultaneously in two perpendicular orientations, allowing both top and side view imaging of the tips by the SEM.

  18. Metagenomic sequencing reveals the relationship between microbiota composition and quality of Chinese Rice Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xutao; Chen, Jing; Liu, Lin; Wu, Huan; Tan, Haiqin; Xie, Guangfa; Xu, Qian; Zou, Huijun; Yu, Wenjing; Wang, Lan; Qin, Nan

    2016-05-31

    Chinese Rice Wine (CRW) is a common alcoholic beverage in China. To investigate the influence of microbial composition on the quality of CRW, high throughput sequencing was performed for 110 wine samples on bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer II (ITS2). Bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that the quality of yeast starter and final wine correlated with microbial taxonomic composition, which was exemplified by our finding that wine spoilage resulted from a high proportion of genus Lactobacillus. Subsequently, based on Lactobacillus abundance of an early stage, a model was constructed to predict final wine quality. In addition, three batches of 20 representative wine samples selected from a pool of 110 samples were further analyzed in metagenomics. The results revealed that wine spoilage was due to rapid growth of Lactobacillus brevis at the early stage of fermentation. Gene functional analysis indicated the importance of some pathways such as synthesis of biotin, malolactic fermentation and production of short-chain fatty acid. These results led to a conclusion that metabolisms of microbes influence the wine quality. Thus, nurturing of beneficial microbes and inhibition of undesired ones are both important for the mechanized brewery.

  19. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fermentation wine, produced as provided in § 24.212; (b) Heavy bodied blending wine, produced as provided in...; (f) Vinegar stock, produced as provided in § 24.217; and (g) Wines other than those in classes listed...

  20. [Determination of wine original regions using information fusion of NIR and MIR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling-Li; Li, Meng-Hua; Li, Jing-Mingz; Li, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Da; Zhao, Long-Lian

    2014-10-01

    Geographical origins of wine grapes are significant factors affecting wine quality and wine prices. Tasters' evaluation is a good method but has some limitations. It is important to discriminate different wine original regions quickly and accurately. The present paper proposed a method to determine wine original regions based on Bayesian information fusion that fused near-infrared (NIR) transmission spectra information and mid-infrared (MIR) ATR spectra information of wines. This method improved the determination results by expanding the sources of analysis information. NIR spectra and MIR spectra of 153 wine samples from four different regions of grape growing were collected by near-infrared and mid-infrared Fourier transform spe trometer separately. These four different regions are Huailai, Yantai, Gansu and Changli, which areall typical geographical originals for Chinese wines. NIR and MIR discriminant models for wine regions were established using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on NIR spectra and MIR spectra separately. In PLS-DA, the regions of wine samples are presented in group of binary code. There are four wine regions in this paper, thereby using four nodes standing for categorical variables. The output nodes values for each sample in NIR and MIR models were normalized first. These values stand for the probabilities of each sample belonging to each category. They seemed as the input to the Bayesian discriminant formula as a priori probability value. The probabilities were substituteed into the Bayesian formula to get posterior probabilities, by which we can judge the new class characteristics of these samples. Considering the stability of PLS-DA models, all the wine samples were divided into calibration sets and validation sets randomly for ten times. The results of NIR and MIR discriminant models of four wine regions were as follows: the average accuracy rates of calibration sets were 78.21% (NIR) and 82.57% (MIR), and the

  1. Wine tourism among Generations X and Y

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, Donald; Carlsen, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the wine tourism experience from the perspective of young adults, specifically Generation X and Y consumers. Both the wine industry and wine tourism destinations have a particular interest in learning more about these age cohorts, as wine consumption and wine-related travel have been dominated by older adults. Little research has focused on Gen X and Y and how they might become more involved. Accordingly, in this paper their motivation for taking a winery tour, level of eg...

  2. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  3. New wine world from Asia. Development, regional comparison and opportunities for the wine industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Recently, China has become a huge wine consumer market as China had the fifth largest global wine consumption and the largest global red wine consumption in 2015 with most of the wine consumed (approximately 70%) being produced domestically. With the growing economy and technological advance, the Chinese domestic wine industry has seen significant development. The Chinese wine industry has flourished across the broad territory from the east costal area to the west desert area with distinct cl...

  4. High Incidence and Levels of Ochratoxin A in Wines Sourced from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Christopher Lawrence; Bartley, Amanda; Welch, Aaron Z; Berry, John P

    2017-12-21

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminants of food crops. Among the agricultural products consequently contaminated by OTA is wine. In the present study, a sample of wines sourced from the United States was assessed for OTA. Wines were primarily analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) coupled to a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique which was developed and validated as a simplified sample preparation approach. More than 85% of the wines evaluated were found to contain OTA, at levels above the limit-of-detection (LOD = 0.1 µg L -1 ), and 76% were above the limit-of-quantitation (LOQ = 0.3 µg L -1 ) for the LLE/HPLC-FD method. More than two-thirds of the wines above the LOQ were found to exceed 1 µg L -1 . Complementary analysis by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) confirmed OTA in 74% of the OTA-positive wines (i.e., >LOQ by HPLC-FD). Overall, both the occurrence and measured levels of OTA were generally high, specifically relative to previous assessments of OTA in wine, and two of the wines were above the only current (European Union) regulatory limit of two parts-per-billion (ppb, ~2 µg L -1 ). Possible trends with respect to geographical region and/or growing climate are noted. As the first assessment of U.S. wines in more than a decade, the overall high occurrence and levels of OTA in wine, and possible geographic and climatic trends, point to a need for regular surveillance of wines, as well as investigation of the relevant contributors to OTA occurrence toward mitigating contamination and exposure risks.

  5. Volatile phenolics in Teran PTP red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile phenolics, 4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol were quantified in Teran PTP wines that were produced in the Kras winegrowing district. The compounds were determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry after extraction with diethylether. Three years monitoring (2011, 2012, 2013 vintages showed that all four undesirable compounds were identified in Teran PTP wines, however their content did not influence significantly the sensory characteristics of the wine. The average contents gained over the three-year period (2011-2013; n=82 were 153±193 µg L-1 for 4-ethylphenol, 1265±682 µg L-1 for 4-vinylphenol, 69±94 µg L-1 for 4-ethylguaiacol and 128±106 µg L-1 for 4-vinylguaiacol. 7.3 % of samples showed contents of 4-ethylphenol above the odour threshold values. For 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol that percentage was 98.8 %, 25.6 % and 91.5 %, respectively.

  6. Statistical modelling of fine red wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing wine is a very important economic activity in the province of San Juan in Argentina; it is therefore most important to predict production regarding the quantity of raw material needed. This work was aimed at obtaining a model relating kilograms of crushed grape to the litres of wine so produced. Such model will be used for predicting precise future values and confidence intervals for determined quantities of crushed grapes. Data from a vineyard in the province of San Juan was thus used in this work. The sampling coefficient of correlation was calculated and a dispersion diagram was then constructed; this indicated a li- neal relationship between the litres of wine obtained and the kilograms of crushed grape. Two lineal models were then adopted and variance analysis was carried out because the data came from normal populations having the same variance. The most appropriate model was obtained from this analysis; it was validated with experimental values, a good approach being obtained.

  7. Electron spin resonance of particulate soot samples from automobiles to help environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Matsuda, T.; Ikeya, M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of electron spin resonance (ESR) was studied for diesel soot samples and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from automobile engines. Soot samples or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) were recovered at various points: in the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, at the dust sampler of a highway tunnel (standard DEP), on the soundproofing wall alongside a heavy traffic road, and on the filters of a dust sampler for SPM. The diesel soot samples apparently showed two ESR spectra: one was a broad spectrum at g=2.1 with a line width of ca. 80-120mT and the other was a sharp signal of a carbon radical at g=2.003 with a line width of 0.4mT. Annealing experiments with a DEP sample at 250 deg. C revealed drastic enhancement of the sharp ESR signal, which suggested a thermal process of carbonization of remnant organics. An oximetric study by ESR showed an enhancement of the broad signal in the diesel soot sample as well as in the sharp ESR signal. Therefore, the main part of the broad ESR signal would be attributed to carbon radicals, which form a different configuration, probably closely interacting aggregates. Enhancement of the sharp ESR signal was not observed in the standard DEP sample under vacuum condition, which suggested less adsorption sites on the surface of DEP samples

  8. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  9. Determination of wine authenticity and geographical origin by measuring non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in wine ethanol with EIM-IRMS® methodology in combination with δ18O values obtained from wine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajlovic, Ivan; Glavanovic, Mirko; Sparks, Kimberlee L.; Sparks, Jed P.; Jovic, Slobodan

    2014-05-01

    drawn from the wine water δ18O value. If water is added prior or during alcoholic fermentation, final ethanol δDn value will fall outside of the range of -205 to -215 ‰ vs. V-SMOW, while wine water δ18O value may still appear valid for the wine origin. We are certain that measuring wine water δ18O alone could give wrong impression about wine origin. With the new set of ethanol δDn and wine water δ18O results obtained from genuine wine samples from different vintages and from different geographic destinations (Serbia and USA), we are more certain that EIM-IRMS® method can help in determination of geographical origin and give additional information about wine authenticity and also important information about illegal production practices (addition of sugar and/or dilution with water) in wine production. Keywords: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), Wine, Authenticity, determination of origin

  10. Relativistic electron influence on sanitary-model microorganisms and antibiotics in model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.S.; Berezhna, I.V.; Kovpik, O.F.; Babych, E.M.; Voliansky, Yu.L.; Sklar, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    A series of the investigations of the electron beam influence on sanitary-model test cultures and antibiotics in model solutions has been carried out. For each of the test objects, the authors have found the boundary doses of the absorbed radiation. The higher doses cause the sharp increase in the bactericidal influence, which becomes complete. The sanitary-bactericidal indices of the water samples remain sable during 6 days. The samples of antibiotics in various concentrations (from 100 UA) have been irradiated. It is proved that the substratum processing by the beam (in the regimes 30 kGy) causes diminution and complete neutralization of the antibacterial activity in all probes of the samples

  11. Chemical and microbiological analysis of red wines during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall, chemical and microbiological analyses are very important for the quality of wine during and after winemaking process. One of the most important factors during wine storage is the temperature of storage. During storage of red wines in tanks, barrique barrels or glass bottles underway many physical, chemical and biochemical changes, which have significant influence for the stabilize of taste, scent, colour and general character of wine. The aim of our study we used two different wines, specifically Cabernet Sauvignon and Blaufränkisch and chemically and microbiologically analysed these wines during storage at different temperatures. These wines were bottled in 2011 and 2013. We stored these samples at different temperatures. The first four samples were stored at 6-8°C in refrigerator, and the next four were stored at 20-25°C in room temperature. We had together eight wine samples. We had determined in all wine samples sequentially the free and total sulphur dioxide content, ethyl-alcohol content, extract, sugars, total and volatile acids. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 6-8°C had content 12,14% ethyl-alcohol, 2.3% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,444 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.6 g.L-1 extract, 8 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 20-25°C had content 12,05% ethyl-alcohol, 2.4% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,456 g.L-1 volatile acids, 27.4 g.L-1extract, 6 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2.The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 6-8°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 20-25°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1 extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2.These results were collected from one measuring, but we had results from three measuring

  12. On the role of the gas environment, electron-dose-rate, and sample on the image resolution in transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Martin; Jespersen, Sebastian Pirel Fredsgaard; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2016-01-01

    on the electron-dose-rate. In this article, we demonstrate that both the total and areal electron-dose-rates work as descriptors for the dose-rate-dependent resolution and are related through the illumination area. Furthermore, the resolution degradation was observed to occur gradually over time after......The introduction of gaseous atmospheres in transmission electron microscopy offers the possibility of studying materials in situ under chemically relevant environments. The presence of a gas environment can degrade the resolution. Surprisingly, this phenomenon has been shown to depend...... initializing the illumination of the sample and gas by the electron beam. The resolution was also observed to be sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the sample. These observations can be explained by a charge buildup over the electron-illuminated sample area, caused by the beam–gas–sample interaction...

  13. Protective effect of red wine on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, M.; Joksic, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of red wines 'Cabernet Sauvignon' on the micronuclei formation in human lymphocytes. Blood samples of healthy volunteers were irratiated in vitro using 60 Co as a source of radiation, dose of 2Gy. Irradiated samples, as well as unirradiated controls, were treated with concentrations of red wine ranged from 100-500 ml/2x106 cells. Obtained results demonstrated significant decrease of the micronuclei frequency (t=9.14; p0.05) in treated samples versus untreated controls. The results of our study demonstrated radioprotective effect of red wine

  14. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: Configuration and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Koji; Kitamura, Shinich; Konyuba, Yuji; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240 °C and sintered. - Highlights: • Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) allows observation of samples in liquid or gas. • Open sample chamber allows in situ monitoring of evaporation and sintering processes. • in situ monitoring of processes during reagent administration is also accomplished. • Protection system for film breakage is developed for ASEM. • Usability of ASEM has been improved significantly including GUI control

  15. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: Configuration and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Hidetoshi, E-mail: hinishiy@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: koizumi@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Ogawa, Koji, E-mail: kogawa@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Kitamura, Shinich, E-mail: kitamura@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Konyuba, Yuji, E-mail: ykonyuub@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: watanabeyoshiy@pref.yamagata.jp [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, 2-2-1, Matsuei, Yamagata 990-2473 (Japan); Ohbayashi, Norihiko, E-mail: n.ohbayashi@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsunori, E-mail: nori@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Suga, Mitsuo, E-mail: msuga@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-4, Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240 °C and sintered. - Highlights: • Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) allows observation of samples in liquid or gas. • Open sample chamber allows in situ monitoring of evaporation and sintering processes. • in situ monitoring of processes during reagent administration is also accomplished. • Protection system for film breakage is developed for ASEM. • Usability of ASEM has been improved significantly including GUI control.

  16. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Lukyanchuk; V. A. Khobin; V. A. Khobin

    2016-01-01

    The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex a...

  17. Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features.

  18. Sample preparation technique for transmission electron microscopy anodized Al-Li-SiC metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Thomson, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Along with improved mechanical properties, metal matrix composites (MMC) have a disadvantage of enhanced corrosion susceptibility in aggressive environments. Recent studies on corrosion behaviour of an Al-alloy 8090/SiC MMC, revealed considerably high corrosion rates of the MMC in near neutral solutions containing chloride ions. Anodizing is one of the potential surface treatment for the MMC to provide protective coating against corrosion. The surface and cross section of the anodized MMC can easily be observed using scanning electron microscope. The anodizing behaviour of the MMC can be understood further if the anodized cross section in examined under transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, it is relatively difficult to prepare small (3 mm diameter) electron transparent specimens of the MMC supporting an anodic film. In the present study a technique has been developed for preparing thin electron transparent specimens of the anodized MMC. This technique employed conventional ion beam thinning process but the preparation of small discs was a problem. A MMMC consisting of Al-alloy 8090 with 20 % (by weight) SiC particulate with an average size of 5 Mu m, was anodized and observed in TEM after preparing the samples using the above mentioned techniques. (author)

  19. Localization of fluorescently labeled structures in frozen-hydrated samples using integrated light electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faas, F G A; Bárcena, M; Agronskaia, A V; Gerritsen, H C; Moscicka, K B; Diebolder, C A; van Driel, L F; Limpens, R W A L; Bos, E; Ravelli, R B G; Koning, R I; Koster, A J

    2013-03-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy is an increasingly popular technique to study complex biological systems at various levels of resolution. Fluorescence microscopy can be employed to scan large areas to localize regions of interest which are then analyzed by electron microscopy to obtain morphological and structural information from a selected field of view at nm-scale resolution. Previously, an integrated approach to room temperature correlative microscopy was described. Combined use of light and electron microscopy within one instrument greatly simplifies sample handling, avoids cumbersome experimental overheads, simplifies navigation between the two modalities, and improves the success rate of image correlation. Here, an integrated approach for correlative microscopy under cryogenic conditions is presented. Its advantages over the room temperature approach include safeguarding the native hydrated state of the biological specimen, preservation of the fluorescence signal without risk of quenching due to heavy atom stains, and reduced photo bleaching. The potential of cryo integrated light and electron microscopy is demonstrated for the detection of viable bacteria, the study of in vitro polymerized microtubules, the localization of mitochondria in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and for a search into virus-induced intracellular membrane modifications within mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. LACTIC ACID AND ACETIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was the identification of red wine microbiota during the fermentation process using a classical microbiological method and real-time PCR. The changes in different groups of microorganisms were monitored in total counts of bacteria, Lactobacillus cells and Acetobacter cells. Microbiological parameters were observed during the current collection and processing of wine in 2012. Samples were taken during the fermentation process in wine enterprises and were storaged with different conditions. During this period were examined 4 bottles of wine berween Cabernet Sauvignon and Frankovka modra. The total counts of bacteria ranged from 4.98±0.08 in the wine Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C of storage to 5.63±0.13 log CFU.ml-1 in the wine Cabernet Sauvignon at 25 °C of storage. The number of lactobacilli ranged from 2.18±0.10 in the Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C to 2.49±0.04 log CFU.ml-1 in the Frankovka modra wine at 25 °C of storage and the number of Acetobacter cells ranged from 4.21±0.04 in the Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C of storage to 4.52±0.15 log CFU.ml-1 in Cabernet Sauvignon at 25 °C of storage. The presence and sensitivity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter orleaniensis were detected using Real time PCR.

  1. STUDY OF WINES POSITIONING ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex GAVRILESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I have done a research on the positioning of Romanian wines. The positioning is a necessary approach of brands to have a privileged position in the minds of consumers. In front of the keen foreign competition, the Romanian wine brands must assert a new identity to match the Romanian client's current lifestyle. The main objective of the research is the identification of the Romanian wine brand positioning. To achieve the objective of the research I have conducted a market research. The study was conducted on a sample of 100 respondents, consumers of Romanian wines. In the study, I have focused on a number of elements necessary for obtaining the positioning maps. Thus I tested the assisted and unassisted recognition of vineyards, the vineyards positioning depending on internal and international recognition and tradition / reputation, the vineyards positioning depending on the internal and international recognition and price, the vineyards positioning depending on sweet, red and light wines and on strong and dry wines. The positioning strategy will determine, on the one hand, the efficiency of the marketing activity at the level of consumer segment by obtaining a better image due to the high satisfaction of the specific needs, and on the other hand, the differentiation will enable to the company to gain competitive advantages, hence substantially increased profits. The theoretical contribution of this paper is to clarify the issues of positioning and to emphasize its importance. The practical contribution refers to the positioning of wines brands, which can be a model of reflection for each of the analyzed vineyards.

  2. Measuring protection of aromatic wine thiols from oxidation by competitive reactions vs wine preservatives with ortho-quinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolantonaki, Maria; Magiatis, Prokopios; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2014-11-15

    Quinones are central intermediates in wine oxidation that can degrade the quality of wine by reactions with varietal thiols, such as 3-sulfanylhexanol, decreasing desirable aroma. Protection by wine preservatives (sulphur dioxide, glutathione, ascorbic acid and model tannin, phloroglucinol) was assessed by competitive sacrificial reactions with 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone, quantifying products and ratios by HPLC-UV-MS. Regioselectivity was assessed by product isolation and identification by NMR spectroscopy. Nucleophilic addition reactions compete with two electron reduction of quinones by sulphur dioxide or ascorbic acid, and both routes serve as effective quenching pathways, but minor secondary products from coupled redox reactions between the products and reactants are also observed. The wine preservatives were all highly reactive and thus all very protective against 3-sulfanylhexanol loss to the quinone, but showed only additive antioxidant effects. Confirmation of these reaction rates and pathways in wine is needed to assess the actual protective action of each tested preservative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An analytical approach to Sr isotope ratio determination in Lambrusco wines for geographical traceability purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Caterina; Baschieri, Carlo; Bertacchini, Lucia; Bertelli, Davide; Cocchi, Marina; Marchetti, Andrea; Manzini, Daniela; Papotti, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Simona

    2015-04-15

    Geographical origin and authenticity of food are topics of interest for both consumers and producers. Among the different indicators used for traceability studies, (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic ratio has provided excellent results. In this study, two analytical approaches for wine sample pre-treatment, microwave and low temperature mineralisation, were investigated to develop accurate and precise analytical method for (87)Sr/(86)Sr determination. The two procedures led to comparable results (paired t-test, with tsample (wine sample), processed during each sample batch (calculated Relative Standard Deviation, RSD%, equal to 0.002%. Lambrusco PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) wines coming from four different vintages (2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were pre-treated according to the best procedure and their isotopic values were compared with isotopic data coming from (i) soils of their territory of origin and (ii) wines obtained by same grape varieties cultivated in different districts. The obtained results have shown no significant variability among the different vintages of wines and a perfect agreement between the isotopic range of the soils and wines has been observed. Nevertheless, the investigated indicator was not enough powerful to discriminate between similar products. To this regard, it is worth to note that more soil samples as well as wines coming from different districts will be considered to obtain more trustworthy results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.

    2012-01-01

    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.

  5. The SAMPLE experiment: Parity-violating electron scattering from the proton and deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, M.; Arrington, J.; Beck, D.; Beise, E.; Candell, E.; Cardman, L.; Carr, R.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Duncan, F.; Farkhondeh, M.; Filippone, B.; Forest, T.; Gao, H.; Korsch, W.; Kowalski, S.; Lung, A.; McKeown, R.; Mohring, R.; Mueller, B.; Napolitano, J.; Simicevic, N.; Terburg, B.; Witkowski, M.

    1995-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence on nucleon structure has provided indications that some strange quark matrix elements can be comparable to those involving up and down quarks. The SAMPLE experiment will determine the strange magnetic form factor G s M at Q 2 =0.1 (GeV/c) 2 from a measurement of the asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from the proton. The error on the extraction of G s M is ultimately limited by a theoretical uncertainty---the uncertain electroweak hadronic radiative correction to the axial form factor, R T=1 A . To address this issue, the collaboration is also approved to measure the asymmetry in parity-violating quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron. The combination of the proton and deuteron measurements will yield a value of G s M that is almost completely free of the uncertainty in R T=1 A

  6. Focussed ion beam thin sample microanalysis using a field emission gun electron probe microanalyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Field emission gun electron probe microanalysis (FEG-EPMA) in conjunction with wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry using a low acceleration voltage (V acc) allows elemental analysis with sub-micrometre lateral spatial resolution (SR). However, this degree of SR does not necessarily meet the requirements associated with increasingly miniaturised devices. Another challenge related to performing FEG-EPMA with a low V acc is that the accuracy of quantitative analyses is adversely affected, primarily because low energy X-ray lines such as the L- and M-lines must be employed and due to the potential of line interference. One promising means of obtaining high SR with FEG-EPMA is to use thin samples together with high V acc values. This mini-review covers the basic principles of thin-sample FEG-EPMA and describes an application of this technique to the analysis of optical fibres. Outstanding issues related to this technique that must be addressed are also discussed, which include the potential for electron beam damage during analysis of insulating materials and the development of methods to use thin samples for quantitative analysis.

  7. Use of an Electronic Tongue System and Fuzzy Logic to Analyze Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) system incorporating 8 chemical sensors was used in combination with two pattern recognition tools, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy logic for discriminating/classification of water samples from different sources (tap, distilled and three brands of mineral water). The Fuzzy program exhibited a higher accuracy than the PCA and allowed the ET to classify correctly 4 in 5 types of water. Exception was made for one brand of mineral water which was sometimes misclassified as tap water. On the other hand, the PCA grouped water samples in three clusters, one with the distilled water; a second with tap water and one brand of mineral water, and the third with the other two other brands of mineral water. Samples in the second and third clusters could not be distinguished. Nevertheless, close grouping between repeated tests indicated that the ET system response is reproducible. The potential use of the Fuzzy logic as the data processing tool in combination with an electronic tongue system is discussed.

  8. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  9. Differentiating gold nanorod samples using particle size and shape distributions from transmission electron microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulke, Eric A.; Wu, Xiaochun; Ji, Yinglu; Buhr, Egbert; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Song, Nam Woong; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Burchett, Woodrow W.; Lambert, Joshua; Stromberg, Arnold J.

    2018-04-01

    Size and shape distributions of gold nanorod samples are critical to their physico-chemical properties, especially their longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. This interlaboratory comparison study developed methods for measuring and evaluating size and shape distributions for gold nanorod samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The objective was to determine whether two different samples, which had different performance attributes in their application, were different with respect to their size and/or shape descriptor distributions. Touching particles in the captured images were identified using a ruggedness shape descriptor. Nanorods could be distinguished from nanocubes using an elongational shape descriptor. A non-parametric statistical test showed that cumulative distributions of an elongational shape descriptor, that is, the aspect ratio, were statistically different between the two samples for all laboratories. While the scale parameters of size and shape distributions were similar for both samples, the width parameters of size and shape distributions were statistically different. This protocol fulfills an important need for a standardized approach to measure gold nanorod size and shape distributions for applications in which quantitative measurements and comparisons are important. Furthermore, the validated protocol workflow can be automated, thus providing consistent and rapid measurements of nanorod size and shape distributions for researchers, regulatory agencies, and industry.

  10. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  11. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free of...

  12. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized by...

  13. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit without...

  14. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  15. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling house...

  16. Conversion electron Moessbauer and XPS study on the effect of polishing of a stainless steel sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, Cs.; Kuzmann, E.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Vertes, A.; Vass, G.; Romhanyi, K.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and XPS has been used for the surface analysis of an 'X10CrNiTi 18/9 (DIN 1.7440)'-type stainless steel in order to determine the supposed structural and/or chemical changes in the surface layer caused by polishing. Both, CEMS and XPS results can be associated with the appearance of Fe nitride in the outer layer of steel samples after polishing, while no sing of nitrogen was detected in the bulk material. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Barber, Nelson; Taylor,Chris; Deale,Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism desti...

  18. A cointegration analysis of wine stock indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Introvigne; Emanuele Bacchiocchi; Daniela Vandone

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes price patterns and long-run relationships for both fine wine and non-fine wine, with the aim to highlight price dynamics and co-movements between series, and to exploit potential diversification benefits. Data are from Liv-Ex 100 Fine Wine for fine wine, the Mediobanca Global Wine Industry Share Price for normal wine, and the MSCI World Index as a proxy of the overall stock market. Engle-Granger and Johansen tests were used to detect whether and to what extent the series c...

  19. Effects of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of Aglianico red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Morena; Gerardi, Chiara; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura; Domenici, Valentina

    2018-04-15

    This study analyzed the effect of low sulfur dioxide concentrations on the chromatic properties, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Aglianico red wines with respect to wines produced from conventional winemaking. We determined the phytochemical composition by spectrophotometric methods and HPLC-DAD analysis and the in vitro antioxidant activity of different wine samples by the ORAC assay. The main important classes of fluorophore molecules in red wine were identified by Front-Face fluorescence spectroscopy, and the emission intensity trend was investigated at various sulfur dioxide concentrations. Lastly, we tested the effects of both conventional and low sulfite wines on ex vivo human erythrocytes under oxidative stimulus by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay and the hemolysis test. The addition of sulfur dioxide, which has well-known side effects, increased the content of certain bioactive components but did not raise the erythrocyte antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flavour Characters of Wines from Cool-Climate Grape Cultivars in Relation to Different Fermentation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing

    -climate grape cultivars have been grown. However there is little knowledge on the flavour properties and potential of Danish wines. The overall aim of this project was to investigate the sensory characters and chemical composition of wines from different cool-climate grape cultivars and co-fermentations...... caused by inadequate sulphite management, which resulted in accelerated aging, oxidation and/or spontaneous malolactic fermentation. These findings indicated that producers in Denmark should be more cautious in their use and management of sulphite in wine making. To develop a rapid methodology...... for evaluating sensory properties of wines, different variations of Napping and Flash Profile methods were tested using model wines. It turned out that conducting Napping with panel training on either the method (training on how to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarization with the sensory...

  1. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by enzyme amperometric biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of the procedure of ethanol determination in wine by an enzyme amperometric biosensor. Methods. The amperometric biosensor method of ethanol analysis has been used in this work. Results. The paper presents comparative analysis of two methods of alcohol oxidase (AO immobilization for development of amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination in wine. The method of AO immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapour was chosen as optimal for this purpose. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by amperometric biosensor on the basis of platinum printed electrode SensLab and AO was optimized. The analysis of ethanol concentration in wine and must samples was carried out using the developed high-stable biosensor. A good correlation between the data obtained by the biosensor and densitometry methods was shown. Conclusion. The proposed method of ethanol analysis could be used in wine production

  2. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  3. A saliva molecular imprinted localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for wine astringency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, J Rafaela L; Teixeira, Natércia; De Freitas, Victor; Sales, M Goreti F; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2017-10-15

    Wine astringency was evaluated based on the interaction of two complex matrices (red wine and saliva) by combining localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) at gold nanodisks as an alternative to sensorial analysis. The main objective of the work was to simulate wine astringency inside the mouth by mimicking this biological system. The LSPR/MIP sensor provided a linear response for astringency expressed in pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) units in concentrations ranging from 1 to 140μmol/L. The sensor was also applied to wine samples correlating well with sensorial analysis obtained by a trained panel. The correlation of astringency and wine composition was also evaluated showing that anthocyanins may have an important role, not only for pigmentation but also in astringency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  5. Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Maicas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics.

  6. Natural sparkling guava wine: volatile and physicochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although different tropical fruit species have been used in the development of fermented beverages, there are only few references in the literature to the production of natural sparkling wines from fruits other than grapes. In this sense, the objective of the present research was the development and physicochemical and volatile characterization of a natural sparkling guava wine produced by the champenoise method. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME technique on samples. Eighty-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which 51 were identified. Esters were the predominant class of volatile compounds (a total of 26, followed by alcohols (10, terpenes (9, ketones (3, and acids (3. Volatile compounds with possible odoriferous activity were reported in the beverage, including ethyl octanoate, ethyl 5-hexenoate, phenethyl acetate, (E-β-damascenone, (E-ethyl cinnamate, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl 3-(E-hexenoate, and methyl 5-hexenoate. Natural sparkling guava wine produced showed a complex composition of fruity and floral aromas. Furthermore, the use of the champenoise method, traditionally applied to grapes, enabled the manufacture of a natural sparkling guava wine with physicochemical characteristics equivalent to those of sparkling wines made from grapes.

  7. Crowdfunding and wine business: Some insights from Fundovino experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to achieve a deeper understanding of the opportunities offered by crowdfunding in the wine sector and offer some guidelines to entrepreneurs for running a successful campaign. For this purpose, a case study research that explores the experience of the first wine-dedicated crowdfunding platform, namely Fundovino, has been conducted. Multiple data sources were used, among which documents and archival data from the Fundovino website, an email interview to its management team and an on line questionnaire sent to a sample of projects’ funders. The results suggest that crowdfunding is ideally suited for the wine sector and that winemakers could exploit both the financial and marketing opportunities offered. According to our survey, the main motivations for funding projects are the willingness to support and interact with small winemakers and the fun of being involved first-hand. So, the creation of other wine-dedicated crowdfunding platforms may help raise awareness about crowdfunding and attract funders interested in projects related to the world of wine. Running a successful crowdfunding campaign requires a significant investment of time and the development of some specific skills by proponents. Indeed, these latter should also be supported by platforms and other actors through the provision of appropriate services.

  8. Thermal diffusivity and electron transport properties of NTC samples obtained by the photoacoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, S.M.; Aleksic, O.S.; Nikolic, M.V.; Lukovic, D.T.; Pejovic, V.Z.; Nikolic, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity and electron transport parameters of sintered NTC samples were determined by the photoacoustic (PA) technique. Powder mixtures composed of MnO, NiO, CoO and Fe 2 O 3 were milled to nanometer particle size. NTC discs were dry powder pressed and sintered at different temperatures in the range from 900 deg. C to 1300 deg. C for 30 min. A second group of NTC discs was sintered at 1200 deg. C with the sintering time varying from 30 min to 360 min. These NTC samples were polished and exposed to a chopped laser beam in order to plot a response in the acoustic range. The thermal diffusivity of sintered NTC layers based on a metal oxide powder mixture was measured at room temperature by the photoacoustic technique. An increase of thermal diffusivity with the sintering temperature and time of sintering was observed

  9. Thermal diffusivity and electron transport properties of NTC samples obtained by the photoacoustic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, S.M. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Aleksic, O.S. [Center for Multidisciplinary Studies of the University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nikolic, M.V. [Center for Multidisciplinary Studies of the University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Lukovic, D.T. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Pejovic, V.Z. [Center for Multidisciplinary Studies of the University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nikolic, P.M. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)]. E-mail: nikolic@sanu.ac.yu

    2006-07-15

    Thermal diffusivity and electron transport parameters of sintered NTC samples were determined by the photoacoustic (PA) technique. Powder mixtures composed of MnO, NiO, CoO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were milled to nanometer particle size. NTC discs were dry powder pressed and sintered at different temperatures in the range from 900 deg. C to 1300 deg. C for 30 min. A second group of NTC discs was sintered at 1200 deg. C with the sintering time varying from 30 min to 360 min. These NTC samples were polished and exposed to a chopped laser beam in order to plot a response in the acoustic range. The thermal diffusivity of sintered NTC layers based on a metal oxide powder mixture was measured at room temperature by the photoacoustic technique. An increase of thermal diffusivity with the sintering temperature and time of sintering was observed.

  10. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  11. Composition of amino acids and bioactive amines in common wines of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carla Agustini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since most consumed wines in Brazil are common wines and since their representativeness is not accounted for in scientific research, current study quantifies bioactive amines and their precursors in Brazilian sweet and dry common wines, correlates the formation of amines with physical and chemical parameters and clusters studied areas by their amine and amino acid contents. Forty-seven wine samples varying in type, color and origin were analyzed simultaneously for seventeen amino acids, ammonium ion and five bioactive amines by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection after the derivation phase. Physical and chemical analyses comprised titratable acidity, pH, organic acids, sugar and alcohol contents. Sweet wines had lower concentrations of amino acids and bioactive amines. Dry white wines had higher amino acid contents when compared to those in dry red wines. Since multivariate data analysis confirmed similarities between the studied regions, their unity as potential viniculture area was reinforced. Amine levels in Brazilian common wines were reported for the first time and results reinforced the importance of bioactive amines quantification and the use of suitable vinification practices to reduce their formation.

  12. Enantioselective behaviour of tetraconazole during strawberry wine-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Pan, Xinglu; Zhang, Shuang; Ji, Mingshan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-01

    The fate of tetraconazole enantiomers in strawberries during wine-making process was studied. The residues were determined by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry after each process steps. Results indicated that there was significant enantioselective dissipation of tetraconazole enantiomers during the fermentation process. And (-)-tetraconazole degraded faster than (+)-tetraconazole. The half-lives of (-)-tetraconazole and (+)-tetraconazole were 3.12, 3.76 days with washing procedure and 3.18, 4.05 days without washing procedure. The processing factors of strawberry wine samples after each step were generally less than 1. In particular, the processing factors of the fermentation process were the lowest. The results could help facilitate more accurate risk assessments of tetraconazole during wine-making process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Martin, J.P.; Belhadfa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  14. Widespread Occurrence of the Mycotoxin Fumonisin B-2 in Wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2010-01-01

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins because they are suspected to cause human and animal toxicoses by the consumption of contaminated corn-based food and feeds. However, with the discovery of fumonisin production in grapes by Aspergillus niger, wine may also be a fumonisin-containing commodity....... In the present study, we have developed a simple and quantitative cation-exchange-based purification method for the subsequent isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of fumonisins in wine. A comparative study of seven different solid-phase extraction (SPE......) columns showed that polymeric mixed-mode reversed-phase (RP) cation-exchange columns were superior to classic silica-based cation and mixed-mode cation-exchange columns. A total of 77 wine samples from 13 countries were subsequently tested, and surprisingly, 18 (23%) were found to contain fumonisin B-2...

  15. Determination of Flavonoids in Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Queija, Celeste; Queirós, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M.

    2001-02-01

    The experiment presented is an application of HPLC to the analysis of flavonoids in wines, designed for students of instrumental methods. It is done in two successive 4-hour laboratory sessions. While the hydrolysis of the wines is in progress, the students prepare the calibration curves with standard solutions of flavonoids and calculate the regression lines and correlation coefficients. During the second session they analyze the hydrolyzed wine samples and calculate the concentrations of the flavonoids using the calibration curves obtained earlier. This laboratory work is very attractive to students because they deal with a common daily product whose components are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects. Furthermore, students can execute preparative work and apply a more elaborate technique that is nowadays an indispensable tool in instrumental analysis.

  16. Impact of ambient environment on the electronic structure of CuPc/Au sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumona; Mukherjee, M.

    2018-02-01

    The performances of organic devices are crucially connected with their stability in the ambient environment. The impact of 24 h. Ambient environment exposure to the electronic structures of about 12 nm thick CuPc thin film on clean Au substrate have been studied employing UV photoemission spectroscopy technique. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to find out the origin of the change of the electronic structures in the sample with the exposure. The XPS study suggests that the oxidation occurs at the CuPc thin film. Due to the adsorption of oxygen in the CuPc film from the ambient air, charge carriers are formed within the CuPc film. Moreover, the XPS results imply that the CuPc film is sufficiently thinner for diffusing oxygen molecules through it and gets physically absorbed on Au substrate during the ambient exposure. Consequently, the hole injection barrier height of pristine CuPc film, grown on Au substrate, is reduced by about 0.50 eV and work-function of the pristine CuPc sample is enhanced by around 0.25 eV in the exposure. The findings will help to understand the mechanism that governs the degradation of performance of CuPc based devices in ambient environment.

  17. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, J S; Tondare, V N; Vladár, A E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples-mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  18. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1,2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  19. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2 /Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  20. Control of Authenticity and Geographic Origin of Austrian, Slovenian, Romanian, Montenegrin and Argentinean wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Micha; Papesch, Wolfgang; Ogrinc, Nives; Magdas, Alina; Wunderlin, Daniel; Misurovic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Consumers are willing to pay elevated prices for specific product qualities, e.g. for food from a certain region, thus there is the need to control the correct declaration of origin of these products. Conventionally this is done by estimating the flow of goods and by controlling the documentation accompanying the products. However, this means are often not sufficient to detect intentional deception. Since the 1990-ies the EU controls the authenticity of wine by isotope analyses of authentic wine samples from every wine-producing EU-country. Initially this was implemented to counteract adulteration of wine, but the produced data can also be used for the control geographic origin of wine samples. The measurement of the stable isotope composition of wine offers the possibility to investigate the product itself. The stable isotope ratios of the elements C and O are varying geographically due to diverse environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, soil, altitude, geography, cultivation…) thus creating individual patterns for different regions. Therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can be a potent tool for geographic differentiation. We investigated the stable isotope composition (C and O) of wine samples from Austria, Slovenia, Romania, Montenegro and Argentina from the years 2008 and 2009. Significant isotope variations are identified within samples from the same country as well as between samples from different countries, evidencing the potential of identifying wine from different regions in an individual country as well as discriminating wine from different countries. Also differences between the two investigated vintages exist, due to variations in the respective climate conditions.

  1. Age determination of bottled Chinese rice wine by VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Lin, Tao; Ying, Yibin; Pan, Xingxiang

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining wine age (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years) of Chinese rice wine was investigated. Samples of Chinese rice wine were analyzed in 600 mL square brown glass bottles with side length of approximately 64 mm at room temperature. VIS-NIR spectra of 100 bottled Chinese rice wine samples were collected in transmission mode in the wavelength range of 350-1200 nm by a fiber spectrometer system. Discriminant models were developed based on discriminant analysis (DA) together with raw, first and second derivative spectra. The concentration of alcoholic degree, total acid, and °Brix was determined to validate the NIR results. The calibration result for raw spectra was better than that for first and second derivative spectra. The percentage of samples correctly classified for raw spectra was 98%. For 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old sample groups, the sample were all correctly classified, and for 4- and 5-year-old sample groups, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 92.9%, respectively. In validation analysis, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 100%. The results demonstrated that VIS-NIR spectroscopic technique could be used as a non-invasive, rapid and reliable method for predicting wine age of bottled Chinese rice wine.

  2. Chemical and volatile composition of jujube wines fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and without pulp contact and protease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenye ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the chemical and volatile composition of jujube wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae A1.25 with and without pulp contact and protease treatment during fermentation. Yeast cell population, total reducing sugar and methanol contents had significant differences between nonextracted and extracted wine. The nonextracted wines had significantly higher concentrations of ethyl 9-hexadecenoate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate than the extracted wines. Pulp contact also could enhance phenylethyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, ethyl palmitat and ethyl oleate. Furthermore, protease treatment can accelerate the release of fusel oils. The first principal component separated the wine from the extracted juice without protease from other samples based on the higher concentrations of medium-chain fatty acids and medium-chain ethyl esters. Sensory evaluation showed pulp contact and protease could improve the intensity and complexity of wine aroma due to the increase of the assimilable nitrogen.

  3. Willingness to Provide a Hair Sample for Drug Testing among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Cleland, Charles M; Sherman, Scott

    2018-04-25

    Non-disclosure of drug use on surveys is common and many drug users unknowingly ingest adulterant or replacement drugs, which leads to underreporting of use of these drugs. Biological testing can complement survey research, and hair-testing is an appealing method as many drugs are detectable for months post-use. We examined willingness to donate a hair sample to be tested among those surveyed in a population at high risk for consuming adulterated drugs-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. We surveyed 933 adults entering EDM parties in New York City in 2017. Hair donation response rates and reasons for refusal were examined from this cross-sectional study. A third (n = 312; 33.4%) provided a hair sample. Lack of interest (21.0%), lack of time (19.8%), not wanting a lock of hair cut (17.7%), and disinterest in having hair cut in public (13.8%) were the main reported reasons for refusal. 4.7% refused because they could not receive results. Past-year drug users were more likely to fear identification than non-users (p<.001). Asian participants were at lower odds of providing a hair sample (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.87), and those reporting past-year use of LSD (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11-2.35), opioids (nonmedical; aOR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.25-2.99), and/or methamphetamine (aOR = 3.43, 95% CI = 1.36-8.62) were at higher odds of providing a sample than non-users of these drugs. Only a third of participants provided a hair sample and we found individual-level differences regarding willingness to provide a sample. Factors contributing to refusal should be considered to increase response rates and generalizability of results.

  4. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the volatile and non-volatile compositions as well as sensory properties of the most common monovarietal white wine (var. Solaris) in Denmark. Using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 volatile compounds were...

  5. Sweet Little Gabonese Palm Wine: A Neglected Alcohol | Mavioga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: During the last ten years, consumption of palm wine, a popular traditional alcoholic beverage, seriously increases in Gabon. This sweet beverage seems to be the main alcohol and the most drunken in low socioeconomic population. OBJECTIVE: To have an idea of it composition and toxicity, 21 samples of ...

  6. Influence of spice and wine based marinades on bovine Biceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh beef slices were marinated by immersion in marinades based on dry red wine, lime-tree honey, salt, spices and seasoning plants as thyme (Thymus vulgaris), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), garlic (Allium sativum) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). Control samples were prepared without marinating treatment ...

  7. Blackberry wines mineral and heavy metal content determination after dry ashing: multivariate data analysis as a tool for fruit wine quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Mornar, Ana; Velić, Darko; Velić, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    This study brings out the data on the content of 21 mineral and heavy metal in 15 blackberry wines made of conventionally and organically grown blackberries. The objective of this study was to classify the blackberry wine samples based on their mineral composition and the applied cultivation method of the starting raw material by using chemometric analysis. The metal content of Croatian blackberry wine samples was determined by AAS after dry ashing. The comparison between an organic and conventional group of investigated blackberry wines showed statistically significant difference in concentrations of Si and Li, where the organic group contained higher concentrations of these compounds. According to multivariate data analysis, the model based on the original metal content data set finally included seven original variables (K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cd and Cr) and gave a satisfactory separation of two applied cultivation methods of the starting raw material.

  8. Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Sforza, Stefano; Galaverna, Gianni; Ghidini, Cristiana; Caporaso, Nicola; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2005-05-01

    Many in vitro studies demonstrated significant biological effects of trans-resveratrol. Thus, understanding the rate of intestinal absorption and metabolization in vivo of trans-resveratrol is the prerequisite to evaluate its potential health impact. Bioavailability studies mainly in animals or in humans using the pure compound at very high doses were performed. In this work, trans-resveratrol bioavailability from a moderate consumption of red wine in 25 healthy humans has been studied by three different experiments. The wine ingestion was associated to three different dietary approaches: fasting, a standard meal, a meal with high and low amount of lipids. Trans-resveratrol 3- and 4'-glucuronides were synthesized, purified, and characterized as pure standards. Bioavailability data were obtained by measuring the concentration of free, 3-glucuronide and 4'-glucuronide trans-resveratrol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection, in serum samples taken at different times after red wine administration. Free trans-resveratrol was found, in trace amounts, only in some serum samples collected 30 min after red wine ingestion while after longer times resveratrol glucuronides predominated. Trans-resveratrol bioavailability was shown to be independent from the meal or its lipid content. The finding in human serum of trans-resveratrol glucuronides, rather than the free form of the compound, with a high interindividual variability, raises some doubts about the health effects of dietary resveratrol consumption and suggests that the benefits associated to red wine consumption could be probably due to the whole antioxidant pool present in red wine.

  9. Alcohol, Tannins, and Mannoprotein and their Interactions Influence the Sensory Properties of Selected Commercial Merlot Wines: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diako, Charles; McMahon, Kenneth; Mattinson, Scott; Evans, Marc; Ross, Carolyn

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the interaction among alcohol, tannins, and mannoproteins on the aroma, flavor, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics of selected commercial Merlot wines. Merlot wines (n = 61) were characterized for wine chemistry parameters, including pH, titratable acidity, alcohol, glucose, fructose, tannin profile, total proteins, and mannoprotein content. Agglomerative clustering of these physicochemical characteristics revealed 6 groups of wines. Two wines were selected from each group (n = 12) and profiled by a trained sensory evaluation panel. One wine from each group was evaluated using the electronic tongue (e-tongue). Sensory evaluation results showed complex effects among tannins, alcohol, and mannoproteins on the perception of most aromas, flavors, tastes, and mouthfeel attributes (P wines as indicated by a high discrimination index (DI = 95). Strong correlations (r(2) > 0.930) were reported between the e-tongue and sensory perception of sweet, sour, bitter, burning, astringent, and metallic. This study showed that interactions among wine matrix components influence the resulting sensory perceptions. The strong correlation between the e-tongue and trained panel evaluations indicated the e-tongue can complement sensory evaluations to improve wine quality assessment. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Electrochemical and colorimetric assessment on the influence of target metals on wine color

    OpenAIRE

    Esparza, I. (Irene); Santamaria, C. (Carolina); Garcia-Mina, J.M. (José María); Fernandez, J.M. (José María)

    2006-01-01

    Presentado en Book of abstracts of the11th International Conference on Electroanalysis ESEAC, 2006; P2-081. Three year old samples of Vitis vinifera origin-controlled red wine samples were spiked with adequate amounts of metals and subsequent colorimetric parameters evolution and complexing capacity behaviour were checked. The used approach consisted in the study of the complexing capacity of natural occurring ligands on wine with respect to Zn and Cu by means of stripping voltammetry in ...

  11. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  12. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Belda Aguilar, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina Díaz, Domingo; Santos de la Sen, Antonio; Moreno Arribas, M. Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production ...

  13. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Collins, Thomas S; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Mills, David A

    2016-06-14

    Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir Wine production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry for which microbial control and wine chemical composition are crucial aspects of quality. Terroir is an important feature of consumer appreciation and wine culture, but the many factors that contribute to terroir are nebulous. We show that grape and wine microbiota exhibit regional patterns that correlate with wine chemical composition, suggesting that the grape microbiome may influence terroir In addition to enriching our understanding of how growing region and wine properties interact, this may provide further economic incentive for agricultural and enological practices that maintain regional

  14. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  15. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person...

  16. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  17. Changes in Wine Ethanol Content Due to Evaporation from Wine Glasses and Implications for Sensory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, David; Pham, Duc-Truc; Wilkinson, Kerry Leigh

    2016-10-12

    The relative proportion of water and ethanol present in alcoholic beverages can significantly influence the perception of wine sensory attributes. This study therefore investigated changes in wine ethanol concentration due to evaporation from wine glasses. The ethanol content of commercial wines exposed to ambient conditions while in wine glasses was monitored over time. No change in wine ethanol content was observed where glasses were covered with plastic lids, but where glasses were not covered, evaporation had a significant impact on wine ethanol content, with losses from 0.9 to 1.9% alcohol by volume observed for wines that received direct exposure to airflow for 2 h. Evaporation also resulted in decreases in the concentration of some fermentation volatiles (determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and a perceptible change in wine aroma. The rate of ethanol loss was strongly influenced by exposure to airflow (i.e., from the laboratory air-conditioning unit), together with certain glass shape and wine parameters; glass headspace in particular. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant potential for ethanol evaporation from wine in wine glasses. Research findings have important implications for the technical evaluation of wine sensory properties; in particular, informal sensory trials and wine show judging, where the use of covers on wine glasses is not standard practice.

  18. In-focus electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated biological samples with a Boersch phase plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, B.; Rhinow, D.; Walter, A.; Schroeder, R. [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Benner, G.; Majorovits, E.; Matijevic, M.; Niebel, H. [Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Mueller, H.; Haider, M. [CEOS GmbH, Englerstr. 26, 69126 Heidleberg (Germany); Lacher, M.; Schmitz, S.; Holik, P. [Caesar Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Kuehlbrandt, W., E-mail: werner.kuehlbrandt@mpibp-frankfurt.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We report the implementation of an electrostatic Einzel lens (Boersch) phase plate in a prototype transmission electron microscope dedicated to aberration-corrected cryo-EM. The combination of phase plate, C{sub s} corrector and Diffraction Magnification Unit (DMU) as a new electron-optical element ensures minimal information loss due to obstruction by the phase plate and enables in-focus phase contrast imaging of large macromolecular assemblies. As no defocussing is necessary and the spherical aberration is corrected, maximal, non-oscillating phase contrast transfer can be achieved up to the information limit of the instrument. A microchip produced by a scalable micro-fabrication process has 10 phase plates, which are positioned in a conjugate, magnified diffraction plane generated by the DMU. Phase plates remained fully functional for weeks or months. The large distance between phase plate and the cryo sample permits the use of an effective anti-contaminator, resulting in ice contamination rates of <0.6 nm/h at the specimen. Maximal in-focus phase contrast was obtained by applying voltages between 80 and 700 mV to the phase plate electrode. The phase plate allows for in-focus imaging of biological objects with a signal-to-noise of 5-10 at a resolution of 2-3 nm, as demonstrated for frozen-hydrated virus particles and purple membrane at liquid-nitrogen temperature. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We implement an electrostatic Boersch phase plate into a dedicated prototypical TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase contrast aberration-corrected electron microscope (PACEM) includes a diffraction magnification unit (DMU). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DMU minimizes obstruction of low spatial frequencies by the phase plate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-focus phase contrast generation is demonstrated for frozen-hydrated biological specimens.

  19. Characteristics of recycled and electron beam irradiated high density polyethylene samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Gabriel, Leandro; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.; Moura, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Polymers modification by irradiation is a well-known process that allows degradation and cross-linking in concurrent events; this last is expected when an increase of mechanical properties is required. Actually, the interest of recycling and reuse of polymeric material is linked to the increase of plastics ending up in waste streams. Therefore, these both irradiation and recycling process may be conducted to allow a new use to this material that would be discarded by an improvement of its mechanical properties. In this work, the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) matrix has been recycled five times from original substrate. The electron beam irradiation process was applied from 50 kGy to 200 kGy in both original and recycled samples; in this way, mechanical properties and thermal characteristics were evaluated. The results of applied process and material characterization are discussed. (author)

  20. Importance sampling techniques and treatment of electron transport in MCNP 4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, K.

    1994-01-01

    The continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP was developed by the Radiation Transport Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the MCNP 4A version is available, now. The MCNP 4A is able to do the coupled neutron-secondary gamma-ray-electron-bremsstrahlung calculation. The calculated results, such as energy spectra, tally fluctuation chart, and geometrical input data can be displayed by using a work station. The document of the MCNP 4A code has no description on the subroutines, except few ones of 'SOURCE', 'TALLYX'. However, when we want to improve the MCNP Monte Carlo sampling techniques to get more accuracy or efficiency results for some problems, some subroutines are required or needed to revised. Three subroutines have been revised and built in the MCNP 4A code. (author)

  1. Characteristics of recycled and electron beam irradiated high density polyethylene samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Gabriel, Leandro; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.; Moura, Eduardo, E-mail: jrcardoso@ipen.br, E-mail: lgabriell@gmail.com, E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymers modification by irradiation is a well-known process that allows degradation and cross-linking in concurrent events; this last is expected when an increase of mechanical properties is required. Actually, the interest of recycling and reuse of polymeric material is linked to the increase of plastics ending up in waste streams. Therefore, these both irradiation and recycling process may be conducted to allow a new use to this material that would be discarded by an improvement of its mechanical properties. In this work, the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) matrix has been recycled five times from original substrate. The electron beam irradiation process was applied from 50 kGy to 200 kGy in both original and recycled samples; in this way, mechanical properties and thermal characteristics were evaluated. The results of applied process and material characterization are discussed. (author)

  2. Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Costa de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

  3. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  4. Systematic identification of yeast proteins extracted into model wine during aging on the yeast lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jeffrey D; Harbertson, James F; Osborne, James P; Freitag, Michael; Lim, Juyun; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2010-02-24

    Total protein and protein-associated mannan concentrations were measured, and individual proteins were identified during extraction into model wines over 9 months of aging on the yeast lees following completion of fermentations by seven wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In aged wines, protein-associated mannan increased about 6-fold (+/-66%), while total protein only increased 2-fold (+/-20%), which resulted in a significantly greater protein-associated mannan/total protein ratio for three strains. A total of 219 proteins were identified among all wine samples taken over the entire time course. Of the 17 "long-lived" proteins detected in all 9 month samples, 13 were cell wall mannoproteins, and four were glycolytic enzymes. Most cytosolic proteins were not detected after 6 months. Native mannosylated yeast invertase was assayed for binding to wine tannin and was found to have a 10-fold lower affinity than nonglycosylated bovine serum albumin. Enrichment of mannoproteins in the aged model wines implies greater solution stability than other yeast proteins and the possibility that their contributions to wine quality may persist long after bottling.

  5. Determination of metals content from wines by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, Andreea-Maria; Geana, Elisabeta-Irina

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Wine is a widely consumed beverage with thousands of years of tradition. Wine composition strongly determines its quality besides having a great relevance on wine characterization, tipyfication and frauds detection. Wine composition is influenced by many and diverse factors corresponding to the specific production area, such as grape variety, soil and climate, culture, yeast, winemaking practices, transport and storage. Daily consumption of wine in moderate quantities contributes significantly to the requirements of the human organism for essential elements such as Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and Sr. On the other hand, several metals, such as Pb and Cd , are known to be potentially toxic. The objective of this work was to develop a method to determine the metals content in wine samples from Romania. Three samples of difference white wines available in the supermarket was analyzed for identify the presence of: Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Sr by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). (authors)

  6. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  7. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Chinese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qi Ding; Li, Guo Hui; Wang, Dao Bing; Shao, Yi; Li, Jing Guang; Xiong, Zheng He; Wu, Yong Ning

    2014-09-03

    A rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive method of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after an anion-exchange solid-phase extraction cleanup step for the analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Chinese wine was developed. The average recovery rate and the average RSD of recovery were 97.47% and about 4%. The relative standard deviations of both the interday and intraday precision were 6.7 and 12.6%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were determined to be 0.01 and 0.03 μg/L, respectively. A total of 223 samples from the major wine-producing areas of China were analyzed for OTA. OTA was detected at levels of 0.01-0.98 μg/L. The mean was 0.15 μg/L. Then, participants as representative inhabitants were invited to answer the designed questionnaire about the quantity and frequency of wine consumption. All data were simulated by the point evaluation for the risk assessment of OTA contamination from wine. Those results indicated that daily intake (DI) of OTA for the average adult consumer varies between 0.86 and 1.08 ng/kg bw per week, which was lower than all the reference standards. However, the DI value (4.38-5.54 ng/kg bw per week) in the high percentile (97.5) was slightly above 5% PTWI (100 ng kg(-1) week(-1)) of the JECFA. In conclusion, OTA exposure from Chinese wine has no risk of harm. This research will provide the scientific basis for determining the maximum limit of OTA content in Chinese wine.

  8. Wine tourism : a review of the Chilean case

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has become a thriving niche in global tourism industry with successful cases like Napa Valley in the USA with 19 million visitors per year. However, there are important disparities among wine regions. The paper analyses the case of the Chilean wine tourism, which is one of the regions with less wine tourists although it is very important in global wine industry, and its reasons for its low level of development. Chilean wine industry has been developing its infrastructure in wine ...

  9. Tartaric acid in red wine as one of the key factors to induce superconductivity in FeTe0.8S0.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Keita; Okuda, Tohru; Hara, Hiroshi; Demura, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tohru; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Masaya; Denholme, Saleem James; Ozaki, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Saito, Fumie; Hisamoto, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the key factor of superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx induced by alcoholic beverages. To understand the reason why red wine shows larger shielding volume fraction than the other alcoholic beverages, the red wine dependence of superconductivity was performed. All the samples heated in red wine made from different grapes shows large shielding volume fraction compared with the samples heated in water and other alcoholic beverages. The shielding volume fraction of the red wine samples is proportional to the concentration of tartaric acid. We found that tartaric acid is one of the key factors to induce superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx.

  10. Fun with singing wine glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-05-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency against water volume percent are made using a spreadsheet. Students can also play combinations of pitches with several glasses. A video (Ruiz 2018 Video: Singing glasses http://mjtruiz.com/ped/wineglasses/) is provided which includes an excerpt of a beautiful piece written for singing glasses and choir: Stars by Latvian composer Ēriks Ešenvalds.

  11. QUALITY EVALUATION OF DENDALION WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Sugintienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The world tendencies are pronounced to attach significance to production of natural fermentation alcohol drinks. The fanciers of drinks take interest in the production of homemade drinks, and especially healthy drinks.Production of original and even health friendly drinks has been recently a matter of increased interest among amateur producers and drink manufacturers in Europe as well. Dandelion wine is one of the drinks produced by use of different amounts of various ingredients and available equipment in the fermentation laboratory. The following characteristics are determined upon the main fermentation in the matured and clarified wine:- sensory indicators (color, appearance and clearness; aroma and bouquets, taste and texture, and aftertaste,- analytical indicators (alcoholic strength by volume, determination of sugars, total acidity, volatile acidity.Dandelions wine is most distinguished by its flavor characteristics.

  12. Study of runaway electrons using the conditional average sampling method in the Damavand tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourshahab, B., E-mail: bpourshahab@gmail.com [University of Isfahan, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advance Sciences and Technologies (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadighzadeh, A. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, M. R., E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.ir [University of Isfahan, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasouli, C. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Some experiments for studying the runaway electron (RE) effects have been performed using the poloidal magnetic probes system installed around the plasma column in the Damavand tokamak. In these experiments, the so-called runaway-dominated discharges were considered in which the main part of the plasma current is carried by REs. The induced magnetic effects on the poloidal pickup coils signals are observed simultaneously with the Parail–Pogutse instability moments for REs and hard X-ray bursts. The output signals of all diagnostic systems enter the data acquisition system with 2 Msample/(s channel) sampling rate. The temporal evolution of the diagnostic signals is analyzed by the conditional average sampling (CAS) technique. The CASed profiles indicate RE collisions with the high-field-side plasma facing components at the instability moments. The investigation has been carried out for two discharge modes—low-toroidal-field (LTF) and high-toroidal-field (HTF) ones—related to both up and down limits of the toroidal magnetic field in the Damavand tokamak and their comparison has shown that the RE confinement is better in HTF discharges.

  13. Yeast Autolysis in Sparkling Wine Aging: Use of Killer and Sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains in Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Silvia Jane; De Leonardis, Antonella; Lustrato, Giuseppe; Testa, Bruno; Iorizzo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Sparkling wines produced by traditional method owe their characteristics to secondary fermentation and maturation that occur during a slow ageing in bottles. Yeast autolysis plays an important role during the sparkling wine aging. Using a combination of killer and sensitive yeasts is possible to accelerate yeast autolysis and reduce maturing time. killer and sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, separately and in co-cultures, were inoculated in base wine and bottled on pilot-plant scale. Commercial Saccaromyces bayanus strain was also investigated. Protein free amino acid and polysaccharides contents and sensory analysis were determined on the wine samples at 3, 6 and 9 months of aging. Yeast autolysis that occurs during the production of sparkling wines, obtained with co-cultures of killer and sensitive strains, has influenced free amino acids, total protein and polysaccharides content after 3 months aging time: sparkling wines, produced without the use of these yeasts, have reached the same results only after 9 months aging time. These results demonstrate that killer and sensitive yeasts in co-culture can accelerate the onset of autolysis in enological conditions, and has a positive effect on the quality of the aroma and flavor of sparkling wine. This paper offers an interesting biotechnological method to reduce production time of sparkling wine with economical benefits for the producers. We revised all patents relating to sparkling wine considering only those of interest for our study.

  14. (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis of the effect of moderate wine consumption on subjects with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Alcaro, Francesca; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Vinaixa, Maria; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Estruch, Ramon; Correig, Xavier; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Moderate wine consumption is associated with health-promoting activities. An H-NMR-based metabolomic approach was used to identify urinary metabolomic differences of moderate wine intake in the setting of a prospective, randomized, crossover, and controlled trial. Sixty-one male volunteers with high cardiovascular risk factors followed three dietary interventions (28 days): dealcoholized red wine (RWD) (272mL/day, polyphenol control), alcoholized red wine (RWA) (272mL/day) and gin (GIN) (100mL/day, alcohol control). After each period, 24-h urine samples were collected and analyzed by (1) H-NMR. According to the results of a one-way ANOVA, significant markers were grouped in four categories: alcohol-related markers (ethanol); gin-related markers; wine-related markers; and gut microbiota markers (hippurate and 4-hydroxphenylacetic acid). Wine metabolites were classified into two groups; first, metabolites of food metabolome: tartrate (RWA and RWD), ethanol, and mannitol (RWA); and second, biomarkers that relates to endogenous modifications after wine consumption, comprising branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolite (3-methyl-oxovalerate). Additionally, a possible interaction between alcohol and gut-related biomarkers has been identified. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach has been applied in a nutritional intervention with red wine. The results show the capacity of this approach to obtain a comprehensive metabolome picture including food metabolome and endogenous biomarkers of moderate wine intake. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71. This study confirms an earlier work that magnets have no observable effect on red wine.

  16. Conducting wine marketing research with impact in China: Guidelines for design, execution and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cohen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China is the fastest growing wine market, but conducting research there is fraught with a variety of issues. This article explores some of the issues the authors have dealt with in conducting wine marketing research in China over the last five years. We discuss issues with the design of research to focus on important issues for both academics and the industry. We relate the key problems in gaining proper translation and useful sampling procedures. Finally, we provide some guidelines for communicating results effectively to different members of the wine trade.

  17. Lights Will Guide You : Sample Preparation and Applications for Integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karreman, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Correlative microscopy is the combined use of two different forms of microscopy in the study of a specimen, allowing for the exploitation of the advantages of both imaging tools. The integrated Laser and Electron Microscope (iLEM), developed at Utrecht University, combines a fluorescence microscope (FM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in a single set-up. The region of interest in the specimen is labeled or tagged with a fluorescent probe and can easily be identified within a large field of view with the FM. Next, this same area is retraced in the TEM and can be studied at high resolution. The iLEM demands samples that can be imaged with both FM and TEM. Biological specimen, typically composed of light elements, generate low image contrast in the TEM. Therefore, these samples are often ‘contrasted’ with heavy metal stains. FM, on the other hand, images fluorescent samples. Sample preparation for correlative microscopy, and iLEM in particular, is complicated by the fact that the heavy metals stains employed for TEM quench the fluorescent signal of the probe that is imaged with FM. The first part of this thesis outlines preparation procedures for biological material yielding specimen that can be imaged with the iLEM. Here, approaches for the contrasting of thin sections of cells and tissue are introduced that do not affect the fluorescence signal of the probe that marks the region of interest. Furthermore, two novel procedures, VIS2FIXH and VIS2FIX­FS are described that allow for the chemical fixation of thin sections of cryo-immobilized material. These procedures greatly expedite the sample preparation process, and open up novel possibilities for the immuno-labeling of difficult antigens, eg. proteins and lipids that are challenging to preserve. The second part of this thesis describes applications of iLEM in research in the field of life and material science. The iLEM was employed in the study of UVC induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) of

  18. Wine polyphenols: potential agents in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  19. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols. PMID:22829964

  20. Effect of the sample annealing temperature and sample crystallographic orientation on the charge kinetics of MgO single crystals subjected to keV electron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughariou, A; Damamme, G; Kallel, A

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of sample annealing temperature and crystallographic orientation on the secondary electron yield of MgO during charging by a defocused electron beam irradiation. The experimental results show that there are two regimes during the charging process that are better identified by plotting the logarithm of the secondary electron emission yield, lnσ, as function of the total trapped charge in the material QT. The impact of the annealing temperature and crystallographic orientation on the evolution of lnσ is presented here. The slope of the asymptotic regime of the curve lnσ as function of QT, expressed in cm(2) per trapped charge, is probably linked to the elementary cross section of electron-hole recombination, σhole, which controls the trapping evolution in the reach of the stationary flow regime. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  2. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  3. Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

    2010-02-15

    Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Classifying wine according to geographical origin via quadrupole-based ICP-mass spectrometry measurements of boron isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coetzee, Paul P. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemistry, Johannesburg (South Africa); Vanhaecke, Frank [Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2005-11-01

    The potential of quadrupole-based ICP-MS as a tool for B-isotopic analysis of wines and its usefulness in provenance determinations were assessed. A precision of 0.1-0.25% RSD (corresponding to a relative standard deviation of the mean of three replicate measurements of 0.06-0.12%) was sufficient to establish small differences in the B isotope ratios in wines from different geographical origins. Each sample measurement was bracketed by measurements of a standard and mass bias drift correction made by interpolation. Sample preparation was kept to a minimum to avoid possible fractionation. Dilution of the wine samples by a factor of 100 with 0.65% HNO{sub 3} was found to reduce matrix-induced mass discrimination substantially. Wines from three wine-producing regions, Stellenbosch, Robertson, and Swartland, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and wines from specific regions in France (Bergerac) and Italy (Valpolicella) were analyzed by ICP-QMS for their B-isotopic compositions. It was concluded that the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios can be used to characterize wines from different geographical origins. Average {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios in red wines from South Africa (Stellenbosch), France (Bergerac), and Italy (Valpolicella) were found to differ by between 0.5 and 1.5%. (orig.)

  5. Classifying wine according to geographical origin via quadrupole-based ICP-mass spectrometry measurements of boron isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, Paul P.; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The potential of quadrupole-based ICP-MS as a tool for B-isotopic analysis of wines and its usefulness in provenance determinations were assessed. A precision of 0.1-0.25% RSD (corresponding to a relative standard deviation of the mean of three replicate measurements of 0.06-0.12%) was sufficient to establish small differences in the B isotope ratios in wines from different geographical origins. Each sample measurement was bracketed by measurements of a standard and mass bias drift correction made by interpolation. Sample preparation was kept to a minimum to avoid possible fractionation. Dilution of the wine samples by a factor of 100 with 0.65% HNO 3 was found to reduce matrix-induced mass discrimination substantially. Wines from three wine-producing regions, Stellenbosch, Robertson, and Swartland, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and wines from specific regions in France (Bergerac) and Italy (Valpolicella) were analyzed by ICP-QMS for their B-isotopic compositions. It was concluded that the 11 B/ 10 B ratios can be used to characterize wines from different geographical origins. Average 11 B/ 10 B ratios in red wines from South Africa (Stellenbosch), France (Bergerac), and Italy (Valpolicella) were found to differ by between 0.5 and 1.5%. (orig.)

  6. Development of Young Coconut (Cocos nucifera Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polemer M. Cuarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop wine from young coconut water. This investigated the acceptability of the quality attributes of young coconut wine compared with commercial wine. Using a 5 - point hedonic scale, sensory evaluation test was done by the panelists (N=30 to evaluate the accep tability of the product quality attributes such as color, aroma and taste. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that young coconut wine has a pale light color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Results also showed that panelists choose the color and tast e of the young coconut wine as its desirable attributes. Statistical analysis (p<0.05 showed significant difference in the color and aroma between young coconut wine and commercial wine but no significant difference in terms of taste.

  7. The complexity of wine: clarifying the role of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempère, Sophie; Marchal, Axel; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bely, Marina; Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle; Marullo, Philippe; Albertin, Warren

    2018-05-01

    The concept of wine complexity has gained considerable interest in recent years, both for wine consumers and wine scientists. As a consequence, some research programs concentrate on the factors that could improve the perceived complexity of a wine. Notably, the possible influence of microbiological factors is particularly investigated. However, wine complexity is a multicomponent concept not easily defined. In this review, we first describe the actual knowledge regarding wine complexity, its perception, and wine chemical composition. In particular, we emphasize that, contrary to expectations, the perception of wine complexity is not related to wine chemical complexity. Then, we review the impact of wine microorganisms on wine complexity, with a specific focus on publications including sensory analyses. While microorganisms definitively can impact wine complexity, the underlying mechanisms and molecules are far from being deciphered. Finally, we discuss some prospective research fields that will help improving our understanding of wine complexity, including perceptive interactions, microbial interactions, and other challenging phenomena.

  8. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Time evolution of the characteristic electron energy losses spectra of the electrons scattered on polycrystal samples of Al mechanically cleaned in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczesny, R.; Baranowski, A.; Beliczynski, J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements by the reflection technique of characteristic electron energy losses (CEEL) with a primary electron beam of energy E 0 =1 keV have been carried out on polycrystal samples of Al. The sample surfaces have been mechanically cleaned in a dinamical vacuum of the order 10 -6 Tr before each measurement. The CEEL spectra have been corrected for the resolving power of the apparatus by the deconvolution method. We have ascertained that the measuring technique and elaboration data method are useful for quickly obtaining the plasmon energy loss spectrum for an investigated material. (author)

  10. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  11. Comparative study of wine tannin classification using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Labarca, Ximena; Bordeu, Edmundo; Guesalaga, Andrés; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-11-01

    Wine tannins are fundamental to the determination of wine quality. However, the chemical and sensorial analysis of these compounds is not straightforward and a simple and rapid technique is necessary. We analyzed the mid-infrared spectra of white, red, and model wines spiked with known amounts of skin or seed tannins, collected using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) transmission spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The spectral data were classified according to their tannin source, skin or seed, and tannin concentration by means of discriminant analysis (DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to obtain a probabilistic classification. Wines were also classified sensorially by a trained panel and compared with FT-MIR. SIMCA models gave the most accurate classification (over 97%) and prediction (over 60%) among the wine samples. The prediction was increased (over 73%) using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Sensory classification of the wines was less accurate than that obtained with FT-MIR and SIMCA. Overall, these results show the potential of FT-MIR spectroscopy, in combination with adequate statistical tools, to discriminate wines with different tannin levels.

  12. Drivers of high-involvement consumers' intention to buy PDO wines: Valpolicella PDO case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitello, Roberta; Agnoli, Lara; Begalli, Diego

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates whether different sensory profiles of wines belonging to the same Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are perceived as different products by consumers. It identifies the drivers of consumers' intention to buy preferred wines. Descriptive sensory analysis, consumer tests and consumer interviews were conducted to reach research aims. To perform the consumer tests and interviews, 443 consumers participated in the survey. The tasted wines comprised five samples representative of Valpolicella PDO wine. Analysis of variance tests, principal component analysis and linear and logit regressions were employed to verify the research hypotheses. The results demonstrated: (1) different sensory profiles exist within the Valpolicella PDO wine; (2) these sensory profiles result in consumers having the perception of diversified products; (3) the perception of differences was less marked for consumers than for trained assessors due to the different weight attributed to visual, aroma and the taste/mouthfeel hedonic dimensions; and (4) consumers' liking, as well as general perceptions, attitudes, preferences, wine knowledge and experience, contribute to consumers' intentions to buy more than the socio-demographic characteristics of consumers. The analysis of the drivers of consumers' intention to buy certain PDO wines provides new marketing insights into the roles of intrinsic quality, preferences and consumers' subjective characteristics in market segmentation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The use of stable isotopes in quantitative determinations of exogenous water and added ethanol in wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, D. A.; Moldovan, Z.; Cristea, G.

    2012-02-01

    The application of oxygen isotope ratios analysis to wine water according to EU regulation no. 822/97 to determine wine's origin and also, the possible water addition to wines, gained great importance in wines authenticity control. In the natural cycle of water isotopic fractionation, during water evaporation process, the water vapors are depleted in heavy isotopes. On the other hand inside the plants take place an isotope enrichment of heavy stable isotopes of water compared with meteoric water due to photosynthesis and plants transpiration. This process makes possible the detection of exogenous water from wines 18O/16O ratios. Carbon isotopic ratios were used to estimate the supplementary addition of ethanol obtained from C4 plants (sugar cane or corn). This work presents the way in which the isotopic fingerprints (δ13C and δ18O) were used to determine the content of exogenous water from wines and the added supplementary ethanol coming from C4 plants. By using this method, the calculated values obtained for the degree of wine adulteration were in a good agreement with the real exogenous percent of water and ethanol from investigated samples.

  14. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or vinegar.... The bulk still wine record will contain the following: (a) The volume produced by fermentation in wine... fermentation, amelioration, sweetening, addition of spirits, blending; (d) The volume of wine used and produced...

  15. Country-wine making from Eembe fruit (Berchemia discolor) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Country-wine was made from dried Eembe fruit purchased from Katima Mulilo open market using commercial wine yeast. The fruit produced a wine with 8.6% alcohol content when no sugar was added. Fermentation to produce the wine was carried out at 22ºC. The clarity, aroma, colour and acceptability of the wine was ...

  16. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  17. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of such...

  18. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet the...

  19. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain records...

  20. Phenolics composition and antioxidant activity of wine produced from spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx.) fruits from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiangfei; Fang, Yulin; Gao, Jinshan; Qiao, Lingling; Zhang, Ang; Guo, Zhijun; Qin, Minyang; Huang, Jizhuang; Hu, Ying; Zhuang, Xifu

    2012-01-01

    Wines made from 3 spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) genotypes-Junzi 1# (JZ 1#), Junzi 2# (JZ 2#), and Liantang (LT)-and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx., CR) were evaluated for their phenolics composition and antioxidant activities by several assays, including 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS scavenging capacity, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and metal-chelating capacity). The results showed that CR wine had higher contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and oligomeric proanthocyanidins than the 3 spine grape genotype wines and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) wine. Among the 3 varieties of spine grape wines, JZ 1# had higher contents than the 2 other genotypes. Moreover, the total monomeric anthocyanins in JZ 1# was about 4.5-fold higher than those in CS wine and CR wine. A significance analysis demonstrated that the antioxidant capacity (as measured by the ABTS scavenging capacity and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) of CR wine was significantly higher than that of the control and spine grape wines. With respect to metal-chelating capacity, the CR wine was the strongest amongst all the wine samples tested, followed by JZ 1#. This indicates that CR and JZ 1# wines can potentially be considered as wild fruit wines with abundant phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx.) are 2 species of important wild plants in South China. However, they have not yet been effectively developed and utilized. Recently, some researchers attempted to convert their juice to wine. We anticipate that this research will provide sufficient experimental evidence for their good antioxidant activity and potential for further development and utilization. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2014-07-23

    The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.

  2. Investigation of the copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Tingting; Yu, Jing; Huang, Weidong; Fang, Yulin; Zhan, Jicheng

    2018-02-15

    The copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China, were investigated. The results showed that the copper pollution status in vineyard soils, grapes and wines in the investigated area in China is under control, with only 4 surface soil (0-20cm) samples over maximum residue limits (MRL) and no grape or wine samples over MRL. Different vineyards, grape varieties, vine ages, and training systems all significantly influenced the copper contents in the vineyard soils, grape and wines. Additionally, the copper levels in the vineyard soils, grapes and wines all had some correlation. In wine samples, the copper contents ranged from 0.52 to 663μg/L, which is only approximately one percent the level found in grapes and one ten-thousandth that found in soils. Of the wine samples, red wines showed a significantly higher copper content than white wines, while in the red/white grape and soil samples, no significant differences were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensory profile of portuguese white wines using long-term memory: a novel nationwide approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, A. J.; Ávila, P.; Silva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    WOS:000362820600004 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) White wine sensory profiling of all 12 Protected Geographical Indications (PGIs) of mainland Portugal was achieved through completion of extended sensory questionnaires by 20 professional wine experts. No samples were assessed; the experiment was based on memory alone. Three macro-zonings were found and typicality differences were statistically validated and sensory described. PGI MINHO was found the most typical of all PGIs, with several e...

  4. Conducting wine marketing research with impact in China: Guidelines for design, execution and dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Cohen; Larry Lockshin

    2017-01-01

    China is the fastest growing wine market, but conducting research there is fraught with a variety of issues. This article explores some of the issues the authors have dealt with in conducting wine marketing research in China over the last five years. We discuss issues with the design of research to focus on important issues for both academics and the industry. We relate the key problems in gaining proper translation and useful sampling procedures. Finally, we provide some guidelines for commu...

  5. Sample preparation and study by electronic diffraction of oxidations and fluorinations of some metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auguin, B.

    1963-06-01

    After having recalled that electron diffraction is particularly adapted to the study of thin films and surface layers, notably those forming during corrosions, and recalled some characteristics of this technique (wavelength, interactions with substances, parasite reactions, observation by transmission or reflection, obtained diagrams for polycrystalline and mono-crystalline substances), the author describes how samples are prepared in the case of examinations performed by transmission and by reflection. As fluorination agents are used for the separation of uranium 235 and 238, the second part discusses some works related to the fluorination of metals and alloys, some of them being used in these separation installations. Chlorine trifluoride is generally used and materials are generally oxidised. Thus, the author reports the study of the action of ClF 3 on different oxides. Oxidations of iron, nickel and Monel are addressed, as well as the behaviour of stainless steel. The study of fluorinations of metals (nickel, chromium, copper), alloys (stainless steel, Monel) and oxides is reported. The author finally addresses treatments performed after fluorinations: vacuum heating, action of humid air

  6. Sulfites and the wine metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Hemmler, Daniel; Gonsior, Michael; Li, Yan; Nikolantonaki, Maria; Aron, Alissa; Coelho, Christian; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-12-15

    In a context of societal concern about food preservation, the reduction of sulfite input plays a major role in the wine industry. To improve the understanding of the chemistry involved in the SO 2 protection, a series of bottle aged Chardonnay wines made from the same must, but with different concentrations of SO 2 added at pressing were analyzed by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF). Metabolic fingerprints from FT-ICR-MS data could discriminate wines according to the added concentration to the must but they also revealed chemistry-related differences according to the type of stopper, providing a wine metabolomics picture of the impact of distinct stopping strategies. Spearman rank correlation was applied to link the statistically modeled EEMF components (parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)) and the exact mass information from FT-ICR-MS, and thus revealing the extent of sulfur-containing compounds which could show some correlation with fluorescence fingerprints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differentiation of wines according to grape variety and geographical origin based on volatiles profiling using SPME-MS and SPME-GC/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Angelika; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2016-12-15

    Among methods to detect wine adulteration, profiling volatiles is one with a great potential regarding robustness, analysis time and abundance of information for subsequent data treatment. Volatile fraction fingerprinting by solid-phase microextraction with direct analysis by mass spectrometry without compounds separation (SPME-MS) was used for differentiation of white as well as red wines. The aim was to differentiate between varieties used for wine production and to also differentiate wines by country of origin. The results obtained were compared to SPME-GC/MS analysis in which compounds were resolved by gas chromatography. For both approaches the same type of statistical procedure was used to compare samples: principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). White wines (38) and red wines (41) representing different grape varieties and various regions of origin were analysed. SPME-MS proved to be advantageous in use due to better discrimination and higher sample throughput. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant activity of wine assessed by different in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that a diet rich in antioxidant compounds could help in counteracting the effects of reactive oxygen species, reducing the risk factors for chronic diseases. The moderate consumption of wine, especially red wine, has been associated with the reduction in mortalities from cardiovascular diseases. One of the possible reasons for the protective effect of wine can be identified in the high content of polyphenols (mainly flavonoids, which have significant antioxidant activity. Even though several in vitro tests have been developed for the measure of the antioxidant property, no method has showed a satisfactory correlation with the in vivo situation. On these bases, the aim of this study was the application and comparison of different in vitro methods to assess the antioxidant activity of red, rosé and white wines. The methods were: 1 Folin-Cocalteau's assay for the quantification of total polyphenol content; 2 the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl spectrophotometric assay and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC spectrophotometric assay for measuring the antioxidant activity of samples; 3 High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography for separation of phenolic substances and assessment of the associated antioxidant activity; 4 electrochemical detection by using a biosensor. Although all the approaches show some limitations, this battery of tests offers a more reliable body of data on the antioxidant activity of vine derivatives.

  9. Effects of must concentration techniques on wine isotopic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Francois; Douet, Christine; Colas, Sebastien; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène; Medina, Bernard

    2006-12-27

    Despite the robustness of isotopic methods applied in the field of wine control, isotopic values can be slightly influenced by enological practices. For this reason, must concentration technique effects on wine isotopic parameters were studied. The two studied concentration techniques were reverse osmosis (RO) and high-vacuum evaporation (HVE). Samples (must and extracted water) have been collected in various French vineyards. Musts were microfermented at the laboratory, and isotope parameters were determined on the obtained wine. Deuterium and carbon-13 isotope ratios were studied on distilled ethanol by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. The oxygen-18 ratio was determined on extracted and wine water using IRMS apparatus. The study showed that the RO technique has a very low effect on isotopic parameters, indicating that this concentration technique does not create any isotopic fractionation, neither at sugar level nor at water level. The effect is notable for must submitted to HVE concentration: water evaporation leads to a modification of the oxygen-18 ratio of the must and, as a consequence, ethanol deuterium concentration is also modified.

  10. Chromatographic Methods for the Analysis of Polyphenols in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić-Šarić, M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine is an excellent source of various classes of polyphenols, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and trihydroxystilbene resveratrol (Fig.1. Polyphenols play a major role in wine quality since they contribute to the sensory characteristics of wine, particularly color and astringency. A recent interest in these substances has been stimulated by abundant evidence of their beneficial effects on human health, such as anticarcinogenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, numerous studies have been performed in the attempt to analyze polyphenols in wine. This paper reviews the current advances in the determination of polyphenols in wine by the major chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The great complexity of the polyphenolic content of wine and the difficulty in obtaining some of the standards usually require sample preparation before analysis. Two methods for sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are most commonly applied. Hydrolysis is applied frequently, but not exclusively, to remove the sugar moieties from glycosides.TLC on silica gel plates is useful for the rapid and low-cost separation and identification of the polyphenols present in wine (Fig. 2. Densitometric quantitative analysis of polyphenols in wine extracts is usually performed by scanning the TLC plates with UV light at wavelengths of 350–365 nm or 250–260 nm (Fig. 3. For the evaluation of the most efficient mobile phase and an optimal choice of the combination of two or more mobile phases, two methods may be applied: information theory and numerical taxonomy. HPLC currently represents the most popular technique for the analysis of polyphenols in wine. For this purpose, a reversed-phase HPLC method that uses gradient elution with binary elution system is usually employed. Routine detection is based on measurement of UV-Vis absorption with a diode

  11. The Microbial Diversity of Sherry Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cordero-Bueso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The principal role of wine yeast is to transform efficiently the grape-berries’ sugars to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and other metabolites, without the production of off-flavors. Wine yeast strains are able to ferment musts, while other commercial or laboratory strains fail to do so. The genetic differences that characterize wine yeast strains in contrast to the biological ageing of the veil-forming yeasts in Sherry wines are poorly understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains frequently exhibit rather specific phenotypic features needed for adaptation to a special environment, like fortified wines with ethanol up to 15% (v/v, known as Sherry wines. Factors that affect the correct development of the veil of flor during ageing are also reviewed, along with the related aspects of wine composition, biofilm formation processes, and yeast autolysis. This review highlights the importance of yeast ecology and yeast metabolic reactions in determining Sherry wine quality and the wealth of untapped indigenous microorganisms co-existing with the veil-forming yeast strains. It covers the complexity of the veil forming wine yeasts’ genetic features, and the genetic techniques often used in strain selection and monitoring during fermentation or biological ageing. Finally, the outlook for new insights to protect and to maintain the microbiota of the Sherry wines will be discussed.

  12. How do consumers describe wine astringency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Ares, Gastón

    2015-12-01

    Astringency is one of the most important sensory characteristics of red wine. Although a hierarchically structured vocabulary to describe the mouthfeel sensations of red wine has been proposed, research on consumers' astringency vocabulary is lacking. In this context, the aim of this work was to gain an insight on the vocabulary used by wine consumers to describe the astringency of red wine and to evaluate the influence of wine involvement on consumers' vocabulary. One hundred and twenty-five wine consumers completed and on-line survey with five tasks: an open-ended question about the definition of wine astringency, free listing the sensations perceived when drinking an astringent wine, free listing the words they would use to describe the astringency of a red wine, a CATA question with 44 terms used in the literature to describe astringency, and a wine involvement questionnaire. When thinking about wine astringency consumers freely elicited terms included in the Mouth-feel Wheel, such as dryness and harsh. The majority of the specific sub-qualities of the Mouth-feel Wheel were not included in consumer responses. Also, terms not classified as astringency descriptors were elicited (e.g. acid and bitter). Only 17 out of the 31 terms from the Mouth-feel Wheel were used by more than 10% of participants when answering the CATA question. There were no large differences in the responses of consumer segments with different wine involvement. Results from the present work suggest that most of the terms of the Mouth-feel Wheel might not be adequate to communicate the astringency characteristics of red wine to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. OLFACTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TAMÂIOASA ROMÂNEASCĂ WINE COME FROM DIFFERENT WINE REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa VIŞAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The work refers to the analysis of aroma compounds identified in Tamaioasa Romanian wines from 2 distinct Romanian wine-growing areas: vineyard Stefanesti-Arges and Pietroasa, watching, and in particular the variation of flavorings depending on the region of origin. Gas chromatographic method coupled with mass Spectrometry were identified 6 esters, 3 higher alcohols, 1 aromatic alcohol, 2 terpenes, 1 lactone, 1 acid and 1 aldehyde. The high concentration of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, isoamyl alcohol were identified; flavor specific Tamaioasa Romanian wine is given by 1-Į-terpineol, terpenic alcohol has been identified in this wine in large quantities. Research has shown that wine-growing region influence the organoleptic characteristics of wine and aromatic content of their wines, so the wines can be very quickly recognized when tasting.

  14. Putting words on wine: OENOLEX Burgundy, new directions in wine lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    OENOLEX Burgundy: New Directions in Specialised Lexicography The (meta)lexicography of wine encompasses the study and compiling of entries on the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or on the knowledge of wine in specialised dictionaries and encyclopedias. Also, although more rarely......, it encompasses the study and compiling of single-field dictionaries of the language and/or knowledge of wine. However, this is but a fraction of the lexicographic picture. The lexicography of wine also includes a broad range of lexicographically structured information tools on paper and online, such as wine...... Burgundy is an ongoing interdisplinary, international research project between specialised (meta)lexicographers, linguists, and wine experts. The project is co-financed by the Burgundy Wine Board and by the French region Burgundy. It is aimed at the development of new functions and multimodal usage modes...

  15. Multivariate Methods Based Soft Measurement for Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yin

    2014-01-01

    a decision. However, since the physicochemical indexes of wine can to some extent reflect the quality of wine, the multivariate statistical methods based soft measure can help the oenologist in wine evaluation.

  16. Effect of clarification process on the removal of pesticide residues in red wine and comparison with white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulia, Danae S; Anagnos, Efstathios K; Liapis, Konstantinos S; Klimentzos, Demetrios A

    2018-04-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of seven clarifying agents to remove pesticides in red wine. The presence of pesticides in wine consists a great problem for winemakers and therefore, results on pesticide removal by clarification are very useful for taking a decision on the appropriate adsorbent. The selection of an efficient adsorbent can be based on data correlating pesticide removal in red wine to pesticides' properties, given the great number and variety of pesticides used. So, this experimental work is focused on the collection of results with regard to pesticide removal by clarification using a great number of pesticides and fining agents. A Greek red wine, fortified with single solutions and mixtures of 23 or 9 pesticides was studied. The seven fining agents, used at two concentrations, were activated carbon, bentonite, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), gelatin, egg albumin, isinglass-fish glue, and casein. Pesticides were selected with a wide range of properties (octanol-water partition coefficient (log K ow ) 2.7-6.3 and water solubility 0.0002-142) and belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the clarified fortified wine. The correlation of the clarifying agents' effectiveness to pesticide's chemical structure and properties (log K ow , water solubility) was investigated. The antagonistic and/or synergistic effects, occurring among the pesticides in the mixtures, were calculated by indices. Pesticide removal effectiveness results of the red wine were compared to those obtained from a white wine under the same experimental conditions and discussed. The order of decreasing adsorbent effectiveness (mixture of 23 pesticides) was: activated carbon 40% > gelatin 23% > egg albumin 21% > PVPP 18% > casein 12% > bentonite 7%. Isinglass showed 12% removal at the highest permitted concentration. In the case of

  17. SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOME WHITE WINES, FLAVORED WINES AND VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, PREPARED BY USING OWN RECIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize, from sensorial point of view, the basic white wines White Fetească, Italian Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, as well as flavored wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to basic wines, tasting technique was used. It is known that sensory analysis is a method that can provide an overview of a wine. The main features analyzed were: appearance, color, smell and taste. Initial, wines presented specific features of grapes variety from which they belong, being characterized by harmony and complex flavor. The hydroalcoholic macerates were obtained by preparing two recipes (labeled I and II of different mixtures of plants. Recipes I A in 45% alcohol and I B in 60% alcohol, had characteristics of appearance, color, taste and smell, very intense, specific, prevailing the taste of anise, fennel and coriander. The macerates prepared with recipes II A in 45% alcohol and II B in 60% alcohol (mixture of a few herbs and peel of citrus fruits showed peculiarities of taste, odor, flavor less intense, prevailing the smell of nutmeg and citrus flavor. Recipes I A and I B of hydroalcoholic plants macerates decisively influenced the color, taste, flavor, smell and appearance of flavored wines. Recipes II A and II B influenced discreetly the sensory properties of flavored wines. Vermouth type wines obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates + other ingredients (citric acid, alcohol, sugar, presented harmonious sensory characteristics, balanced, discreet, subtle, compared with flavored wines obtained only by the addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to the basic wines. The latter had a color, aroma, taste, smell, more intense, more rustic. Herbal recipes I B and II B (prepared in 60% alcohol, have strongly influenced the sensory properties of flavored wines, compared to recipes I A and II A (prepared in 45% alcohol.

  18. Use of two osmoethanol tolerant yeast strain to ferment must from Tempranillo dried grapes: effect on wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lerma, N; Peinado, R A

    2011-01-31

    The must from Tempranillo dried grapes was divided into four batches to produce sweet wine. The first one was fortified with ethanol up to 12% (v/v) to avoid fermentation (traditional way). Other two batches were partially fermented with two osmoethanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (X4 and X5). The last one was fermented with native yeast by spontaneous fermentation. Wines fermented partially with the strains X4 and X5 show high volatile acidity values (above 2g/L expressed as acetic acid), and a glycerol concentration around 20 g/L. Both strains also produce high amount of carboxylic acids and therefore the wines show a high ethyl ester concentration. Aromatic series were obtained for all the wines by grouping aroma compounds according to their odor descriptors. The series of the fermented wines with higher values in relation with the control wine were fruity, sweet and fatty, emphasizing the fruity series in the samples fermented with the X4 and X5 strains. The sensorial analysis of the wine samples by a tasting panel put in evidence that the musts fermented with the osmoethanol tolerant yeasts were better valued than the rest of the wine samples. The must fermented with the X4 strain obtained the maximum score in terms of aroma and flavour. So, the use of these osmoethanol tolerant S. cerevisiae strains could be a suitable alternative to produce sweet wines from must with high sugar concentration. The wines obtained this way are chemically and organoleptically more complex than those elaborated traditionally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordevic, N.; Wehrens, R.; Postma, G.J.; Buydens, L.M.C.; Camin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The assessment of claims of origin is of enormous economic importance for DOC and DOCG wines. ► The official method is based on univariate statistical tests of H, C and O isotopic ratios. ► We consider 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000–2010. ► Multivariate statistical analysis leads to much better specificity and easier detection of false claims of origin. ► In the case of multi-modal data, mixture modelling provides additional improvements. - Abstract: Wine derives its economic value to a large extent from geographical origin, which has a significant impact on the quality of the wine. According to the food legislation, wines can be without geographical origin (table wine) and wines with origin. Wines with origin must have characteristics which are essential due to its region of production and must be produced, processed and prepared, exclusively within that region. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the assessment of claims of origin is very important. The current official method is based on the measurement of stable isotope ratios of water and alcohol in wine, which are influenced by climatic factors. The results in this paper are based on 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000–2010. We evaluate the univariate approach underlying the official method to assess claims of origin and propose several new methods to get better geographical discrimination between samples. It is shown that multivariate methods are superior to univariate approaches in that they show increased sensitivity and specificity. In cases where data are non-normally distributed, an approach based on mixture modelling provides additional improvements.

  20. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dordevic, N.; Wehrens, R. [IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all' Adige (Italy); Postma, G.J.; Buydens, L.M.C. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Camin, F., E-mail: federica.camin@fmach.it [IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all' Adige (Italy)

    2012-12-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of claims of origin is of enormous economic importance for DOC and DOCG wines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The official method is based on univariate statistical tests of H, C and O isotopic ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000-2010. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multivariate statistical analysis leads to much better specificity and easier detection of false claims of origin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the case of multi-modal data, mixture modelling provides additional improvements. - Abstract: Wine derives its economic value to a large extent from geographical origin, which has a significant impact on the quality of the wine. According to the food legislation, wines can be without geographical origin (table wine) and wines with origin. Wines with origin must have characteristics which are essential due to its region of production and must be produced, processed and prepared, exclusively within that region. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the assessment of claims of origin is very important. The current official method is based on the measurement of stable isotope ratios of water and alcohol in wine, which are influenced by climatic factors. The results in this paper are based on 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000-2010. We evaluate the univariate approach underlying the official method to assess claims of origin and propose several new methods to get better geographical discrimination between samples. It is shown that multivariate methods are superior to univariate approaches in that they show increased sensitivity and specificity. In cases where data are non-normally distributed, an approach based on mixture modelling provides additional improvements.

  1. Electron microprobe analyses of selected samples from deep rock disposal experiment No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlava, P.F.; Chambers, W.F.

    1976-04-01

    Deep Rock Disposal Experiment No. 1 was designed to provide information about the interaction between a molten, glass-based, nuclear waste simulant and rock material. Selected samples from this experiment were examined by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Analysis of the homogenized material in the convection cell that was created in the central portion of the melt region shows that an amount of rock equal to about one-half of the original amount of waste simulant was incorporated in the melt during the experiment. Stagnant melt at the sides of the cell formed a glass with large compositional gradients. A white band separated the convected and stagnant materials. The color of the band is attributed to light scattering by small crystallites formed during cooling. Four types of crystallites grew from the melt: two oxides, a Mg--Fe borate, and a silicate. Spinel (MgO, Cr 2 O 3 , FeO (Fe 2 O 3 ), and NiO) was the most common crystallite in the glass. The spinel crystallites found within the convection cell displayed skeletal morphology and oscillatory zoning which indicates growth at varying temperatures as they were carried along by convection. A single cluster of nonskeletal (Fe,Cr) 2 O 3 crystallites was found at the bottom of the melt zone where convection did not occur. Mg--Fe borate crystallites grew in clusters in the central portion of the convection cell after convection ceased. A silicate similar to Fe-rich diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) with unusual amounts of Ce 2 O 3 and other heavy metal oxides formed as larger crystallites in the stagnant melt at the side of the convection cell and as many very small crystallites in the white band

  2. Electronic module for control of sample feeding device of spectrometers of X-ray fluorescent analysis of CRV type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Fursov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The scheme of electronic module for sample feeding device control for the CRV type X-ray fluorescence analysis spectrometers is considered. This module provides realization of next functions: sample change operations and installation in starting position; signaling and defense at emergency cases; indication of any sample amount in the spectrometer chamber; testing function at tuning and testing of modules. All these principal functions are entrusted with microcontroller. Programming of the microcontroller is putting into effect by algorithm of the whole sample feeding device. In the capacity of microcontroller the single crystalline processor PICI16C54 and stepping motor of NV-306-V2202 model have been used

  3. Fast determination of seven synthetic pigments from wine and soft drinks using magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Zhou, Li-Xin; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-06-13

    A novel, simple and sensitive method based on the use of magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (M-dSPE) procedure combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine seven synthetic pigments (tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, allura red, brilliant blue and erythrosine) in wines and soft drinks. An amino-functionalized low degrees of cross-linking magnetic polymer (NH2-LDC-MP) was synthesized via suspension polymerization, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NH2-LDC-MP was used as the M-dSPE sorbent to remove the matrix from the solution, and the main factors affecting the extraction were investigated in detail. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of NH2-LDC-MP with recoveries between 84.0 and 116.2%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the seven synthetic pigments were between 1.51 and 5.0μg/L in wines and soft drinks. The developed M-dSPE UFLC-MS/MS method had been successfully applied to the real wines and soft drinks for food-safety risk monitoring in Zhejiang Province, China. The results showed that sunset yellow was in three out of thirty soft drink samples (2.95-42.6μg/L), and erythrosine in one out of fifteen dry red wine samples (3.22μg/L), respectively. It was confirmed that the NH2-LDC-MP was a kind of highly effective M-dSPE materials for the pigments analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    OpenAIRE

    Radka Šperková; Jiří Duda

    2010-01-01

    Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and resta...

  5. WinePeer - A Pre-Launch Strategic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Larry; McLeod, Kevin; Renke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    WinePeer is a mobile application that enables wine consumers to rate wines in 60 seconds for the purposes of developing an evolving taste profile with the potential to be leveraged in many different ways. This work determines the viability of WinePeer as a business venture through providing a comprehensive analysis of the external environment including the wine industry supply chain, regulatory influences and global wine industry trends. Drawing on the work of Kim and Mauborgne, this analysis...

  6. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  7. THE EFFECT OF PARTIAL DEFOLIATION ON MONOTERPENE LEVELS OF GEWURZTRAMINER WINE (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Karoglan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that different viticultural practices have an important influence on the quality of grapes, must and wine. Aiming to examine impact of partial defoliation we were measured composition of the aromatic components in the wine of Gewurztraminer, winegrowing hills of Zagreb, subregion Prigorje-Bilogora. Partial defoliation, i.e. removing of 4 (D1 and 8 (D2 basal leaves, conducted manually at veraison and grapevines without defoliation (ND-non defoliated were used as control. Samples for analyses were taken after filtration, stabilization and bottling of wine. It was shown that the wine made from completely sun exposed grapes (D2, were the richest in the content of free volatile terpenes (FVT and potentially volatile terpenes (PVT respectively.

  8. Rationale for Haze Formation after Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) Addition to Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Stephan; Dickescheid, Christian; Harbertson, James F; Fischer, Ulrich; Cohen, Seth D

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this study was to identify the source of haze formation in red wine after the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and to characterize the dynamics of precipitation. Ninety commercial wines representing eight grape varieties were collected, tested with two commercial CMC products, and analyzed for susceptibility to haze formation. Seventy-four of these wines showed a precipitation within 14 days independent of the CMC product used. The precipitates of four representative samples were further analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS analysis) and solubility under different conditions to determine the nature of the solids. All of the precipitates were composed of approximately 50% proteins and 50% CMC and polyphenols. It was determined that the interactions between CMC and bovine serum albumin are pH dependent in wine-like model solution. Furthermore, it was found that the color loss associated with CMC additions required the presence of proteins and cannot be observed with CMC and anthocyanins alone.

  9. Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla dos Santos Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

  10. [Determination of polyphenolic complex in wines by electrochemical methods and using the enzymes tyrosinase and laccase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shleev, S V; Chekanova, S A; Koroleva, O V; Stepanova, E V; Telegin, Iu A; Sen'kina, Z E

    2004-01-01

    Several red wines were studied to find a correlation between physicochemical parameters characterizing the antioxidant status of wine and total content of phenols in samples. The content of dissolved oxygen (its value varied from 0.75 to 3.28 mg/ml), pH (3.10-3.63), redox potential (-186 to -106 mV), mass concentration of free and total sulfur dioxide (10-30 and 36-200 mg/dm3, respectively), absorption spectra, and total phenol content were determined. The wines fell into two main groups-with a relatively low (1850-2050 mg/dm3) and high (2300-2900 mg/dm3) contents of polyphenols. It was demonstrated that physicochemical parameters (except for the content of sulfur dioxide) correlate with the total phenol content in the wines studied.

  11. Wine vessels (Vasa vinaria in roman law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Samir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of 'wine vessels' in Roman law comprises all the winecontaining recipients. There is no legal standardization of wine vessels by means of volume, and although the terms amphora, urna and culleus are used to designate both the vessels and the units of measure, these are two different meanings of the terms. In regard of the question, whether the vessels make appurtenance of the wine, jurisprudents of proculean school divided them in two categories. In the first category are those that follow legal status of wine, usually amphoras and other jars (cadi which are used for 'packaging', i. e. 'bottling' of the wine. The second category make mostly vats (cuppae and ceramic cisterns (dolia, which don't follow legal status of wine, making instead part of farming equipment of a landed property (instrumentum fundi and it's appurtenance. But, the roman jurists are not consistent regarding criteria for distinguishing these two categories.

  12. Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Revilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain, Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA.

  13. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  14. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  15. Localization of fluorescently labeled structures in frozen-hydrated samples using integrated light electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, F.G.A.; Bárcena, M.A.; Agronskaia, A.V.; Gerritsen, H.C.; Moscicka, K.B.; Diebolder, C.A.; Driel, L.F.; Limpens, R.W.A.L.; Bos, E.; Ravelli, R.B.G.; Koning, R.I.; Koster, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy is an increasingly popular technique to study complex biological systems at various levels of resolution. Fluorescence microscopy can be employed to scan large areas to localize regions of interest which are then analyzed by electron microscopy to obtain

  16. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Joshi, Vineet V.; Rhodes, Mark A.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  17. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines.

  18. Consumption metrics of chardonnay wine consumers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba,1 Johan Bruwer,2 Jasmine B MacDonald1 1School of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, 2School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: There is a dearth of information in the knowledge base about who the chardonnay consumer is, what their wine-consumption metrics are, what sensory characteristics they associate chardonnay with, and who influenced their perceptions. This study examines the consumer engagement with chardonnay, and contributes evidence-based research to inform future wine-business strategy. A population sample was recruited to be representative of Australian consumers. An online survey of 2,024 Australian wine consumers was conducted, 1,533 (76% of whom actually consumed chardonnay. This paper focuses only on those who consumed chardonnay. Males purchased and consumed larger quantities of chardonnay, although marginally more females consumed it. Chardonnay is considered to be characterized by full, lingering, and fruity flavors, as well as yellow color. Chardonnay is associated with dinner parties and at-home consumption. The vast majority of participants liked and had a positive perception of chardonnay. The target market for chardonnay is not only females; in fact, males appear to be the main consumers of this varietal by volume. Marketing and promotion campaigns should leverage the findings to retain current and win back other consumers. This is the first research to provide empirical explanations of consumer engagement with chardonnay, and to contribute evidence-based research in this regard.Keywords: chardonnay, consumer behavior, wine style, wine consumption, Australia

  19. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, su...

  20. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  1. Development of wine tourism in South Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Prokeš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism development and the resulting formation of regional strategic alliances in the form of clusters may lead to increasing the competitiveness of wineries in South Moravia in the southeastern part of the Czech Republic.The main research objective of this paper was to find potential for wine tourism development and creating a plan for newly formed strategic alliance coordinating services offer all wineries in the region. This study describes the potential to offer services and products of wine growing areas in South Moravia region, suitable for promotion offers wine tourism destinations and services. In principle, it is used the calculation for the establishment of the wine cluster according to Porter’s formula, and was designed by concentration coefficient of vineyards for wine cluster formation, which is based on the unique and specific conditions of the wine region of South Moravia.To achieve the objective of the study was conducted marketing research data collection and mapping current events and activities taking place in the wine-growing region of Moravia, promoting or offering specific local products and services associated with gastronomy and wine. The dynamic development of the wine category, major changes in market and consumer demand are the main causes for the formation of associations of small and medium-sized wineries. The application of the results of research was a plan for the establishment of new alliance – wine cluster, where is potential co-operation between associations VOC appellation and other entities involving suppliers, customers, research institutions and universities. The plan to create a wine tourism cluster was proposed to establish cooperation between the newly emerging associations of VOC at three sub-regions of South Moravia, in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  2. Wine Price Markup in California Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Amspacher, William

    2011-01-01

    The study quantifies the relationship between retail wine price and restaurant mark-up. Ordinary Least Squares regressions were run to estimate how restaurant mark-up responded to retail price. Separate regressions were run for white wine, red wine, and both red and white combined. Both slope and intercept coefficients for each of these regressions were highly significant and indicated the expected inverse relationship between retail price and mark-up.

  3. Wine industry logistics in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Atanasoski, Drasko

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical characteristics of logistics and logistics systems are numerous, with specific characteristics, different implications and missions. Logistics activities in the wine industry are very important. Macedonia is a large exporter of wine. In terms of export value of agricultural products in Macedonia, wine is at the first place in terms of exports of alcoholic beverages, and at the second place immediately after the tobacco. The winemaking in Macedonia is continuously increasing, e...

  4. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Biasi

    2014-01-01

    Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  5. Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from palm wine in eastern Nigeria. Comparison with other African strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Legras, J-L

    2009-05-01

    To study the yeast diversity of Nigerian palm wines by comparison with other African strains. Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were obtained from palm wine samples collected at four locations in eastern Nigeria, and characterized using different molecular techniques: internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, inter delta typing and microsatellite multilocus analysis. These techniques revealed that palm wine yeasts represent a group of closely related strains that includes other West African isolates (CBS400, NCYC110, DVPG6044). Population analysis revealed an excess of homozygote strains and an allelic richness similar to wine suggestive of local domestication. Several other African yeast strains were not connected to this group. Ghana sorghum beer strains and other African strains (DBVPG1853 and MUCL28071) displayed strikingly high relatedness with European bread, beer or wine strains, and the genome of strain MUCL30909 contained African and wine-type alleles, indicating its hybrid origin. Nigerian palm wine yeast represents a local specific yeast flora, whereas a European origin or hybrid was suspected for several other Africa isolates. This study presents the first genetic characterization of an autochthonous African palm wine yeast population and confirms the idea that human intervention has favoured yeast migration.

  6. Red wine produced from the Isabella and Ives cultivar (Vitis Labrusca: profile of volatiles and aroma descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciza Maria de Oliveira ARCANJO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the potential consumption and economic the importance that Isabella and Ives wines represent in the Brazilian consumer market as well as the scarcity of scientific data examining their quality, the objective of this study was to investigate the sensory quality and the volatiles profile of these wines. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and a total of 54 compounds were detected in red wine samples including esters (23, terpenes (12, alcohols (10, aldehydes and ketones (5 and amines (1 as well as 3 compounds belonging to other classes. Isabella and Ives red wines were sensorially characterized by 14 descriptors, through quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. The PCAs fruity descriptors were the primary contributors to the aroma profile of the analyzed wines due to the presence of ethyl acetate and esters, especially in the wine coded as QM, which exhibited the highest variety of compounds. The differences observed in the principal components analysis, might have been influenced by the grape composition of each wine. Although the wines were from the same region, each came from a different winery and was subject to unique production processes.

  7. Determination of sulphite in wines using suppressed ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Uekusa, Yuki; Sakuragawa, Akio

    2015-05-01

    Suppressed ion chromatography with the use of a conductivity detector was developed for the determination of sulphite ions in wine samples. When a mixed solution of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and acetone was used as the mobile phase, simultaneous determination of eight inorganic anions (i.e., fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulphite, phosphate, sulphate, and thiosulphate) was completed in approximately 25 min. Linearity, reproducibility, and detection limits were determined for the proposed method. In the case of sulphite detection, a linear calibration curve with a good correlation coefficient of 0.9992 was obtained from the peak height of sulphite with a relative standard deviation (n = 6) 1.48%. In addition, the detection limit of sulphite was 0.27 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Further, the developed method was applied for the determination of sulphite contained in several wine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  9. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  10. A cointegration analysis of wine stock indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Introvigne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes price patterns and long-run relationships for both fine wine and non-fine wine, with the aim to highlight price dynamics and co-movements between series, and to exploit potential diversification benefits. Data are from Liv-Ex 100 Fine Wine for fine wine, the Mediobanca Global Wine Industry Share Price for normal wine, and the MSCI World Index as a proxy of the overall stock market. Engle-Granger and Johansen tests were used to detect whether and to what extent the series co-move in the long run and which one of the variables contributes proactively to such an equilibrium by reacting to disequilibria from the long-run path. The estimates highlight that i the two wine indexes have a higher Sharpe ratio compared to the general stock market index, revealing wine stocks as a profitable investment per se, and ii the absence of cointegration among the three series and the existence of possible diversification benefits. In fact, in the long-run price do not move together and, therefore, investors may be better off by including wine stocks into investment portfolios and take advantage of diversification

  11. Investigation of Phenolic Components of Hungarian Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Márk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-two wines from the southernmost wine-producing region in Hungary(Villány were analyzed for their polyphenolic content by high performance liquidchromatography (HPLC. Our results show that wine variety or vintage year could not bedistinguished based on polyphenol content, but winery origin could be. Resveratrolconcentration is mainly dependent on variety and vintage year. The “human factor” (i.e.,winemaking style and technology seems to be more decisive for the polyphenoliccomposition of red wines than other factors, such as variety and vintage year.

  12. Trends in wine production and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lazanyi, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Historically, wine production and consumption have been at home in Europe. The most important countries mentionable are France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The European Union (EU 27) occupies a leading position on the world wine market. Globally, it accounts for 49.9% of growing areas and 39.1% of grape production, according to FAO data for the year 2006. The European Union (EU 27) produces 60.0%of wine and accounts for 55.4%of wine imports...

  13. Changes in the International Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahović, Branislav; Puškarić, Anton; Tomašević, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Knowing international market is a basis for segmentation and making right and timely marketing decisions regarding wine export. In this piece, we have analized the international wine market, and determined changes in international turnover, with largest importers and exporters for the period of 2001 - 2011. The average wine export in the world was 8,4 tons, with a growth tendency of 5,0% per year. Converted in money, the average export amounted to 22 billion US Dollars, which makes wine one o...

  14. Sample preparation methods for scanning electron microscopy of homogenized Al-Mg-Si billets: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Österreicher, Johannes Albert; Kumar, Manoj; Schiffl, Andreas; Schwarz, Sabine; Hillebrand, Daniel; Bourret, Gilles Remi

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of Mg-Si precipitates is crucial for optimizing the homogenization heat treatment of Al-Mg-Si alloys. Although sample preparation is key for high quality scanning electron microscopy imaging, most common methods lead to dealloying of Mg-Si precipitates. In this article we systematically evaluate different sample preparation methods: mechanical polishing, etching with various reagents, and electropolishing using different electrolytes. We demonstrate that the use of a nitric acid and methanol electrolyte for electropolishing a homogenized Al-Mg-Si alloy prevents the dissolution of Mg-Si precipitates, resulting in micrographs of higher quality. This preparation method is investigated in depth and the obtained scanning electron microscopy images are compared with transmission electron micrographs: the shape and size of Mg-Si precipitates appear very similar in either method. The scanning electron micrographs allow proper identification and measurement of the Mg-Si phases including needles with lengths of roughly 200 nm. These needles are β″ precipitates as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: •Secondary precipitation in homogenized 6xxx Al alloys is crucial for extrudability. •Existing sample preparation methods for SEM are improvable. •Electropolishing with nitric acid/methanol yields superior quality in SEM. •The obtained micrographs are compared to TEM micrographs.

  15. Sample preparation methods for scanning electron microscopy of homogenized Al-Mg-Si billets: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Österreicher, Johannes Albert; Kumar, Manoj [LKR Light Metals Technologies Ranshofen, Austrian Institute of Technology, Postfach 26, 5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Schiffl, Andreas [Hammerer Aluminium Industries Extrusion GmbH, Lamprechtshausener Straße 69, 5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Schwarz, Sabine [University Service Centre for Transmission Electron Microscopy, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Hillebrand, Daniel [Hammerer Aluminium Industries Extrusion GmbH, Lamprechtshausener Straße 69, 5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Bourret, Gilles Remi, E-mail: gilles.bourret@sbg.ac.at [Department of Materials Science and Physics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Straße 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    Characterization of Mg-Si precipitates is crucial for optimizing the homogenization heat treatment of Al-Mg-Si alloys. Although sample preparation is key for high quality scanning electron microscopy imaging, most common methods lead to dealloying of Mg-Si precipitates. In this article we systematically evaluate different sample preparation methods: mechanical polishing, etching with various reagents, and electropolishing using different electrolytes. We demonstrate that the use of a nitric acid and methanol electrolyte for electropolishing a homogenized Al-Mg-Si alloy prevents the dissolution of Mg-Si precipitates, resulting in micrographs of higher quality. This preparation method is investigated in depth and the obtained scanning electron microscopy images are compared with transmission electron micrographs: the shape and size of Mg-Si precipitates appear very similar in either method. The scanning electron micrographs allow proper identification and measurement of the Mg-Si phases including needles with lengths of roughly 200 nm. These needles are β″ precipitates as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: •Secondary precipitation in homogenized 6xxx Al alloys is crucial for extrudability. •Existing sample preparation methods for SEM are improvable. •Electropolishing with nitric acid/methanol yields superior quality in SEM. •The obtained micrographs are compared to TEM micrographs.

  16. Microbial communities in air and wine of a winery at two consecutive vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Fernández-González, Mónica; Arévalo, María; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-11-03

    The aim of this study was to assess, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in air and wine of a winery, in order to evaluate the possible exchange of microorganisms between them. Samples were taken in a winery located in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) during the winemaking period of two consecutive vintages (2011 and 2012). The microbial composition was determined by using both a culture-dependent method and a culture-independent method, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). In addition, genetic characterization of isolates from plates was carried out. A high diversity of species was detected in air and wine samples from both vintages. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was the predominant lactic acid bacteria in air from both vintages while Oenococcus oeni was the predominant in wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequently isolated yeast in both air and wine. Typing of O. oeni and S. cerevisiae isolates from air and wine samples showed the presence of coincident genotypes in both samples, that would confirm the exchange of microorganisms between the two environments, air and wine, and furthermore some of these genotypes were also found at samples taken at different vintages, indicating that they would remain in the winery. The results display the influence of the activity taking place in the winery and the moment of fermentation of the wines in tanks, on the microorganisms present in the air and the role of the air for the dispersal of microorganisms within the winery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Wine and Words: A Trilingual Wine Dictionary for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. van der Merwe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The South African wine industry identified the need for a special-field on-line dictionary on viticulture and oenology in Afrikaans, English and isi-Xhosa. The dictionary provides information on wine terminology as well as linguistic information on the use of such terminology. The purpose of this article is to give a description of the project. The process of compiling the dictionary is described, from the co-operation between the wine industry and lexicographers to the intended target users and the choice of languages of the dictionary. Functions of the dictionary are discussed, with reference to specific user situations, namely text production, text reception and translation. A system of labels has been designed for the dictionary and its benefit for the user is explained. In assisting the user to make an informed choice of a term, the notion of proscriptiveness has been followed in the presentation of information in the wine dictionary.

    Keywords: TRILINGUAL WINE DICTIONARY, SPECIALISED LEXICOGRAPHY, VITICULTUREAND OENOLOGY TERMS, ON-LINE DICTIONARY, TARGET USERS, USER SITUATIONS,FUNCTIONS, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION, LABELS, ENCYCLOPEDICKNOWLEDGE, LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE, PROSCRIPTION

    Opsomming: Wyn en woorde: 'n Drietalige Wynwoordeboek vir Suid-Afrika. Die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf het die behoefte aan 'n aanlynvakwoordeboek oor wynenwingerdkunde in Afrikaans, Engels en isiXhosa geïdentifiseer. Die woordeboek verskaf inligtingoor wynterminologie, sowel as taalkundige inligting oor die gebruik van sulke terminologie. Diedoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n beskrywing van die projek te gee. Die samestellingsproses van diewoordeboek word beskryf, vanaf die samewerking tussen die wynbedryf en die leksikograwe, totdie voorgestelde teikengebruikers en die keuse van die tale van die woordeboek. Funksies van diewoordeboek word bespreek, met verwysing na spesifieke gebruikersituasies, naamlik teksproduksie

  18. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for In-Situ Mars Surface Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Jerman, G. A.; Harvey, R. P.; Doloboff, I. J.; Neidholdt, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. This project is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), electron gun and optics manufacturer Applied Physics Technologies, and small vacuum system manufacturer Creare. Dr. Ralph Harvery and environmental SEM (ESEM) inventor Dr. Gerry Danilatos serve as advisors to the team. Variable pressure SEMs allow for fine (nm-scale) resolution imaging and micron-scale chemical study of materials without sample preparation (e.g., carbon or gold coating). Charging of a sample is reduced or eliminated by the gas surrounding the sample. It is this property of ESEMs that make them ideal for locations where sample preparation is not yet feasible, such as the surface of Mars. In addition, the lack of sample preparation needed here will simplify the sample acquisition process and allow caching of the samples for future complementary payload use.

  19. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  20. Quantitation of tetrabromobisphenol-A from dust sampled on consumer electronics by dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Napoli-Davis, Gina; Owens, Janel E.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant used worldwide. Despite its widespread use, there are few data concerning environmental concentrations of TBBPA. Thus, the objective of this work was to optimize an ultrasound-assisted dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method to analyze swabbed surfaces of consumer electronics to determine TBBPA concentrations. Upon sample preparation with DLLME, TBBPA was derivatized with acetic anhydride and then analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using a 13 C 12 -TBBPA internal standard to improve precision and quantitation, a recovery study was performed. At concentrations of 250–1000 ng/mL, recoveries were 104–106%. Sample preparation with solid phase extraction had comparable recoveries, although overall, improved analyte recovery and precision were achieved with DLLME. In a small survey study, TBBPA concentrations in dust collected from 100 cm 2 areas on electronic surfaces (monitor, microwave, refrigerator, and TV) were determined to range from less than the LOQ to 523 ng/mL. -- Highlights: •Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) concentrations in dust samples were determined. •Dust samples were collected from surfaces of consumer electronics. •Dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction was used to prepare samples for GC/MS. •A 13 C 12 -labeled internal standard was used to improve precision and quantitation. •TBBPA was found in dust samples at levels below LOQ to 523 ng/mL. -- This work describes the analysis of the brominated flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), from dust sampled on surfaces of consumer electronics

  1. Multiple double cross-section transmission electron microscope sample preparation of specific sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Lynne M; Mittal, Surbhi; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Cohen, Guy M; Sleight, Jeffrey W

    2011-12-01

    The ability to prepare multiple cross-section transmission electron microscope (XTEM) samples from one XTEM sample of specific sub-10 nm features was demonstrated. Sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire (NW) devices were initially cross-sectioned using a dual-beam focused ion beam system in a direction running parallel to the device channel. From this XTEM sample, both low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from six separate, specific site Si NW devices. The XTEM sample was then re-sectioned in four separate locations in a direction perpendicular to the device channel: 90° from the original XTEM sample direction. Three of the four XTEM samples were successfully sectioned in the gate region of the device. From these three samples, low- and high-resolution TEM images of the Si NW were taken and measurements of the NW diameters were obtained. This technique demonstrated the ability to obtain high-resolution TEM images in directions 90° from one another of multiple, specific sub-10 nm features that were spaced 1.1 μm apart.

  2. Determination of Fe, Mn and Pb by GFAAS in red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Zhecong; Jin Hua; Su Yulan

    2008-01-01

    A method for determination of Fe, Mn and Pb in red wine samples was developed by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric. Several different matrix modifiers were necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately in sample incineration. Red wine samples were analyzed after microwave digestion using HNO 3 . Standard addition method was used, the calibration concentration was 1 ng · ml -1 , 3 ng · ml -1 , 5 ng · ml -1 which containing 580 μg/ml KNO 3 as matrix and 0.2% HNO 3 . The correlation coefficient of the calibration line was very good within the measurement area. The recovery with red wine sample was very good at the range from 95%-107.5%. (authors)

  3. Thermodynamics of grape and wine tannin interaction with polyproline: implications for red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Falconer, Robert J; Kennedy, James A

    2010-12-08

    The astringency of red wine is largely due to the interaction between wine tannins and salivary proline-rich proteins and is known to change as wine ages. To further understand the mechanisms behind wine astringency change over time, thermodynamics of the interactions between poly(l-proline) (PLP) and grape seed and skin tannins (preveraison (PV) and commercially ripe) or Shiraz wine tannins (2 years old and 9-10 years old) was analyzed using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The nature of these interactions varied with changes to the tannin structure that are associated with maturation. The change in enthalpy associated with hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding decreased with tannin age and the stoichiometry of binding indicated that grape tannins associated with more proline residues than wine tannins, irrespective of molecular size. These results could provide an explanation for the observed change in wine astringency quality with age.

  4. The influence of climate variability on chemical composition of European wines: a regional scale study (Italy and Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbante, Carlo; Polo, Fabio; Cozzi, Giulio; Ogrinc, Nives; Turetta, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is having an increasing influence on vine phenology and grape composition, affecting vinifications, wine chemistry and the quality of productions. Wine grape cultivation provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, on a regional level and on a shorter time scale, the seasonal weather conditions modify the quality of yields determining the final properties of wine. In the present research, we studied wines from Italy and Slovenia with the purpose of differentiating them by the different vintages (from 2009 to 2012), which are supposed to be influenced by temperature and rain during each year's growing season. Specific chemical techniques were used, in particular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic mass spectrometry (IRMS), both of which are usually employed to detect wine adulterations and to establish the geographical provenance of wines. In particular, we investigated the relationship between macro- and micro-elements, Rare Earth Elements and stable isotopes [δ13C, δ18O, (D/H)I, (D/H)II]. The datasets were examined via statistical techniques to show their relation to weather conditions as well as their mutual connection. Italian and Slovenian wines were distinguished, with the exception of few samples, by both TEs and REEs results. This separation, due to different elemental compositions, may be justified as being part of two distinct environmental and geographical belongings (terroir) but also to the processes of wine production, from the harvest to the bottling, which have certainly interfered and characterized the products. In the case of Italian wines the weather conditions were evidenced with an important separation of stable isotopes which they confirmed to be very sensitive Regarding Slovenian wines, the studied regions were characterized of

  5. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content and colour of the Slovak cabernet sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are specific substances that oxidize themselves and in this way they protect other sensitive bioactive food components against destruction. At the same time, they restrict the activity of free radicals and change them to less active forms. Grapes and wine are a significant source of antioxidants in human nutrition. One of the most important group occuring in grapes and wines are polyphenols. Many of phenolic compounds have been reported to have multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral and antibacterial properties attributed mainly to their antioxidant and antiradical activity. Therefore, it is important to know the content of polyphenols and their antioxidant effects in foods and beverages. Twenty-eight Cabernet Sauvignon wine samples, originated from different Slovak vineyard regions, were analyzed using spectrophotometry for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. Determined values of antioxidant activity in observed wines were within the interval 69.0 - 84.2% inhibition of DPPH (average value was 78.8% inhibition of DPPH and total polyphenol content ranged from 1,218 to 3,444 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 2,424 mg gallic acid.L-1. Determined total anthocyanin contents were from 68.6 to 430.7 mg.L-1 (average content was 220.6 mg.L-1 and values of wine colour density ranged from 0.756 to 2.782 (average value was 1.399. The statistical evaluation of the obtained results did not confirm any linear correlations between total polyphenol content, resp. total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The correlations between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, resp. the content of total anthocyanins and wine colour density were strong. The results confirmed very strong correlations between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant

  6. Phylogenetic profile of gut microbiota in healthy adults after moderate intake of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Elvira; Muñoz-González, Irene; Jiménez, Esther; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Peláez, Carmen; Del Carmen Martínez-Cuesta, María; Requena, Teresa

    2017-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how human colonic microbiota can be modified by dietary habits. We examined the influence of moderate red wine intake on the colonic microbiota of 15 healthy volunteers, related to the high concentration of polyphenols present in this beverage. The volunteers were classified into high, moderate, and low polyphenol metabolizers (metabotypes) due to their ability to metabolize polyphenols and the results were compared with that of five control (no wine intake) subjects. We analyzed the composition, diversity, and dynamics of their fecal microbiota before and after 1 month of wine consumption. The 16S rDNA sequencing allowed detection of 2324 phylotypes, of which only 30 were found over the 0.5% of mean relative frequency, representing 84.6% of the total taxonomical assignments. The samples clustered more strongly by individuals than by wine intake or metabotypes, however an increase in diversity, after the wine intake, was observed. The results of this study suggest an increase in the global fecal microbial diversity associated to the consumption of red wine, confirm the high variability of the microbiota from different individuals, and show the stability of their singular microbiota composition to small and short-term dietary changes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  8. Intake of wine, beer, and spirits and the risk of clinical common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takkouche, Bahi; Regueira-Méndez, Carlos; García-Closas, Reina; Figueiras, Adolfo; Gestal-Otero, Juan J; Hernán, Miguel A

    2002-05-01

    To examine whether intakes of wine, beer, spirits, and total alcohol are associated with the risk of common cold, in 1998-1999 the authors analyzed data from a cohort study carried out in a population of 4,272 faculty and staff of five Spanish universities. Usual alcohol intake was assessed at baseline by means of a standardized frequency questionnaire that was validated in a random sample of the population. The authors detected 1,353 cases of common cold. Total alcohol intake and beer and spirits consumption were not related to the occurrence of common cold, whereas consumption of wine was inversely associated with the risk of common cold. When drinkers of >14 glasses of wine per week were compared with teetotalers, the relative risk was 0.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.8) after adjustment for age, sex, and faculty/staff status. The association was stronger for red wine. These results remained unaltered after adjustment for total alcohol intake and for other potential risk factors for common cold. Findings suggest that wine intake, especially red wine, may have a protective effect against common cold. Beer, spirits, and total alcohol intakes do not seem to affect the incidence of common cold.

  9. Effect of Protectants on the Fermentation Performance of Wine Yeasts Subjected to Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caridi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During alcoholic fermentation of must from dried grapes, yeasts are subjected to very high sugar concentrations, besides other environmental stresses, and they modify their metabolic behaviour giving low ethanol yield and abnormally high acetic acid production. To investigate the protective effect of catechin, inositol, and SO2 on wine yeasts, three thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, selected for wine making of must from dried grapes, and three strains of Saccharomyces selected for the production of wine, were inoculated in a sample of must at very high osmotic strength. A significant (p<0.01 or p<0.05 relationship between the addition of 100 mg/L of catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must and the change in the metabolic behaviour of the yeasts was observed. Compared to the control and depending on strain and protectant, the fermentation rate after 3 days increased up to 55 %, the ethanol content of the wines increased up to 16 %, the unitary succinic acid production increased up to 55 %, the unitary acetic acid production decreased up to 53 %, and the unitary glycerol production decreased up to 69 %. So by adding catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must it is possible to minimise the abnormal fermentation performance that wine yeasts exhibit in wine making of must from dried grapes.

  10. Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Arneborg, Nils; Toldam-Andersen, Torben B; Petersen, Mikael A; Bredie, Wender Lp

    2017-08-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia viticola, Metschnikowia fructicola and Hanseniaspora uvarum) indigenously isolated in Denmark were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars, Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines. The different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, five acids, two ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulfur compound. The use of M. viticola in sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae resulted in richer berry and fruity flavours in wines. The sensory plot showed a more clear separation among wine samples by grape cultivars compared with yeast strains. Knowledge on the influence of indigenous non-Saccharomyces strains and grape cultivars on the flavour generation contributed to producing diverse wines in cool-climate wine regions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. D-A type sensor array for differentiation and identification of white wine varieties based on specific solvent effect activated by CT-LE transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingqi; Zhang, Xin; Li, Hao; Hou, Yue; Hou, Jingdan; Li, Zhongfeng; Yang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Han, Tianyu

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we synthesize a series of compounds with electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) units. They show general solvent effect in aprotic solvents, suggesting a charge transfer (CT) process. While in protic solvents including water, ethanol and methanol, the spectra exert no polarity-dependence but a remarkable hypochromatic shift together with the fading of CT band. Dynamic analysis implies that intermolecular hydrogen bond will be formed between carboxylic acid and protic solvent, boosting another deactivation pathway that jumps off a bigger energy gap, in other words, favoring the locally excited (LE) state emission. The CT-LE transition involves variations in both absorption and emission spectra, and further poses competition with other mechanisms including activated/restricted intramolecular rotation (IR/RIR). Inspired by the cross-reactivity, we turn our attention to the development of sensor array, in order to identify white wine varieties. The differential spectral responses are recorded, generating multiple factors including absorption wavelength (λab), emission wavelength (λem), absorbance (Abs.) and emission intensity (Int.). These factors are processed with principal component analysis (PCA), creating a three-dimensional fingerprint data base for white wines. The data points in the coordinate system are clustered into 10 different groups, demonstrating a clear differentiation of all the white wines. More importantly, as our final test for whether the sensor array can identify the counterfeits, an adulterated liquor sample, which is provided by police officers, is fingerprinted on the three-dimensional diagram. Its canonical factors fall into an area distinct from the adulterated wine, indicating a clear identification.

  12. Use of solid phase microextraction to identify volatile organic compounds in brazilian wines from different grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina Morais Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian wine industry has shown significant growth in recent years and the insertion of new concepts, such as geographical indications as signs of quality, has placed Brazil in tune with the tendencies of world wine production. The aim of this work was to apply the Solid Phase Microextraction technique in combination with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to study Brazilian wines made from different grape varieties, in order to separate and identify their volatile organic compounds. These substances were identified by comparisons between the spectra obtained with those presented in the NIST library database, and by comparisons with linear retention indices and literature data. The amounts of the compounds were calculated based on the total peak areas of the chromatograms. Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and grouped into alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones and terpenes. Most of them belonged to the ester function, conferring a fruity aroma on the wines. The alcohols may have originated from the yeast metabolism, contributing to the alcoholic and floral aromas. Ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol and diethyl maleate were identified in all the varieties, except Merlot. Decanal, methyl citronellate, (E-2-hexenyl-3-methylbutyrate were only found in Merlot, while 2,3-butanediol was only present in the Tannat wines. 2-Phenylethanol was present in all varieties and is recognized as giving pleasant rose and honey attributes to wines. This study showed that the volatile profile of red wines is mainly characterized by esters and higher alcohols. The statistical analysis of the comparison of averages showed a greater amount of averages significantly different in the relative areas of Merlot wine. The Principal Component Analysis showed one grouping composed only of the Merlot wine samples, and this was probably related to the existence of the volatile organic compounds that were specifically identified in

  13. Breakdown of the independent electron picture in mesoscopic samples at low temperatures: The hunt for the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R. A.

    1998-03-01

    A variety of experiments are discussed where, at low temperatures, it appears that the non-interacting picture of electrons in a Fermi liquid description of a mesoscopic sample is breaking down. Specifically, experiments on the temperature dependence of the phase-coherence time, energy relaxation rate, spin-flip scattering time, persistent currents in normal metals and transmission through a barrier in the fractional quantum Hall regime all display low-temperature properties which can not be accounted for in the independent electron picture.

  14. Documentary Realism, Sampling Theory and Peircean Semiotics: electronic audiovisual signs (analog or digital as indexes of reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Godoy

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Documentary Realism, focusing on thephysical phenomena of transduction that take place in analog and digital audiovisual systems, herein analyzed in the light of the Sampling Theory, within the framework of Shannon and Weaver’s Information Theory. Transduction is a process by which one type of energy is transformed into another, or by which information is transcodified. Within the scope of Documentary Realism, it cannotbe claimed that electronic audiovisual signs, because of their technical digital features lead to a rupture with reality. Rather, the digital documentary, based on electronic digital cinematography, is still an index of reality.

  15. Wine, resveratrol and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; García-Parrilla, Maria C; Puertas, Belén; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2009-05-01

    Several studies have cited the Mediterranean diet as an example of healthy eating. In fact, the Mediterranean diet has become the reference diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Red wine seems to be an essential component of the diet, since moderate consumption of wine is associated with lower risk and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is also accumulating that wine helps prevent the development of certain cancers. Of all the many components of wine, resveratrol, which is a natural component specifically present in wine, has been identified as being mainly responsible for these health-promoting properties. Many valuable properties such as cardioprotective and anticarcinogenic activity have been attributed to resveratrol; however, its bioavailability is quite low. The bioactivity of metabolites derived from resveratrol, and the accumulation of resveratrol in vital organs are still under study, but there are high expectations of positive results. Other stilbene compounds are also considered in this review, despite being present in undetectable or very small quantities in wine. The present paper reviews all aspects of the health properties of wine, bioactive compounds found in wine, and their concentrations, bioavailability and possible synergistic effects.

  16. Stellenbosch Wine Route wineries: Management's perspective on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    Certain tourism-related services and facilities are perceived to contribute ... overall success of the wine industry was historically determined only by the quality ... loyalty, the building of brand awareness and higher profits from winery sales (Hall ... aspects relating to wine tourism, such as its impact on revenue, the real cost of.

  17. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  18. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  19. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  20. Laser treatment of Port-wine stains

    OpenAIRE

    Boffa, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    A state-of-the-art pulsed dye laser machine to treat port-wine stains and other vascular lesions has been available in the Malta Health Service since 1999. This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical features of port- wine stains and describes the principles of laser treatment for this condition.

  1. Determination of Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V in Brazilian red wine by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniele, Anna Paula; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: annapaula@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have been carried out for determining essential elements in foodstuffs due to important nutritional role in human body functions. Such information is crucial to any intervention in the diet of a population, thus becoming representative in the public health field. Trace elements are good indicators of wine’s origin and their concentrations can be used as criteria to ensure authenticity, quality and show that the tolerance limits established by law were respected throughout the production process. Although Brazilian wine industry is among the 15 largest in the world, analytical studies on the content of organic and inorganic compounds in wine are still small compared to other major producers. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental concentration of Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V in seven national red wine samples acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. The analytical method applied was INAA. Concentrations of the elements in wine samples showed high variation among samples. (author)

  2. Determination of Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V in Brazilian red wine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniele, Anna Paula; Maihara, Vera Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out for determining essential elements in foodstuffs due to important nutritional role in human body functions. Such information is crucial to any intervention in the diet of a population, thus becoming representative in the public health field. Trace elements are good indicators of wine’s origin and their concentrations can be used as criteria to ensure authenticity, quality and show that the tolerance limits established by law were respected throughout the production process. Although Brazilian wine industry is among the 15 largest in the world, analytical studies on the content of organic and inorganic compounds in wine are still small compared to other major producers. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental concentration of Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V in seven national red wine samples acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. The analytical method applied was INAA. Concentrations of the elements in wine samples showed high variation among samples. (author)

  3. Determination of Chinese rice wine from different wineries by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoying; Ying, Yibin; Yu, Haiyan; Xie, Lijuan; Fu, Xiaping; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Xuesong

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, 104 samples of Chinese rice wines of the same variety (Shaoxing rice wine), collected in three winery ("guyuelongshan", "pagoda" brand, "kuaijishan"), three brewed years (2002, 2004, 2004-2006) were analyzed by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy between 800 and 2500 nm. The spectral differences were studied by principal components analysis (PCA), and Classifications, according the brand, were carried out by discriminant analysis (DA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The DA model gained a total accuracy of 94.23% and when used to predict the brand of the validation set samples, a better result, correctly classified all of the three kinds of Chinese rice wine up to 100%, are obtained by PLSDA model. The work reported here is a feasibility study and requires further development with considerable samples of more different brands. Further studies are needed in order to improve the accuracy and robustness, and to extend the discrimination to other Chinese rice wine varieties or brands.

  4. Performance of flash profile and napping with and without training for describing small sensory differences in a model wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Grønbeck, Marlene Schou; Di Monaco, Rosella

    2016-01-01

    . In this study different variations of two rapid sensory methods, one based on holistic assessment – Napping, and one based on attribute evaluation – Flash Profile, were tested for the evaluation of the flavour in wine. Model wines were developed with control over the sensory differences in terms of sensory...... to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarisation with the sensory properties of the wines) improved the outcome compared to the classical Napping protocol. The classical Flash Profile protocol and its modified version including a Napping with subsequent attributes generation as the word...... generation step and limiting the number of attributes for ranking gave a similar sample space. The Napping method could best highlight qualitative sample differences, whereas the Flash Profile provided a more precise product mapping on quantitative differences between model wines....

  5. Multianalyte, high-throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the sensitive determination of fungicides and insecticides in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Gabriela; Pérez-Mayán, Leticia; Rodríguez-Cabo, Tamara; Rodríguez, Isaac; Ramil, Maria; Cela, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Evidence of pesticide transfer from grapes to wine, added to differences in the national regulations regarding the number and the maximum concentration of these species in wine, demands analytical procedures suitable for their routine control in this foodstuff. In this research, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection, are combined to obtain a sensitive and rapid procedure to determine 50 pesticides in red and white wines. Efficiency and selectivity of sample preparation are correlated with the type of sorbent, the elution solvent, and the physicochemical properties of pesticides. SPE of 2-mL wine samples followed by direct injection of the extract in the UPLC-MS/MS system provides quantification limits (LOQs) below 1 ng mL -1 for 48 out of 50 compounds, linear responses up to 200 ng mL -1 , and acceptable accuracy, employing quantification against solvent-based standards, for 45 species. A total analysis time of 10 min, including compounds separation and re-equilibration of the UPLC column, was achieved. The developed methodology was applied to 25 wines (20 conventional and 5 ecological), produced in 7 different countries. Out of 27 pesticides quantified in these wines, 12 displayed occurrence frequencies above 24%; moreover, all wines, except one of the ecological ones, contained residues from at least one pesticide.

  6. Proceedings of the FNCA 2002 workshop on application of electron accelerator. Radiation system for liquid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-10-01

    'Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) Workshop on Application of Electron Accelerator' was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Atomic Industry Forum (JAIF). It was held at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE), JAERI, Takasaki, Japan from 16 to 20 December 2002. The attendants at the workshop were consisted of 13 experts on application of electron accelerator from each of the participating countries, i.e., China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and 40 participants from Japan. A total of 18 papers including invited papers on liquid waste treatment by electron beam, reviews of the radiation systems, and designing and cost analysis of EB irradiation system were presented. The major areas of interest of FNCA countries for cooperation were identified for application of low energy electron accelerator as liquid, thin film and granules. The gas and wastewater treatments were added to the above major areas. Based on the proposal from the participating countries, discussions were carried out to re-formulate the work plan of the project for three years until FY 2004. All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. The 17 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Color stabilization of red wines. A chemical and colloidal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Puente, Victor; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2014-07-23

    The effects of cold treatment and time on CIELAB color parameters and on anthocyanin and anthocyanin-derived pigments composition have been evaluated as has been the effectiveness of either an enological tannin or a mannoprotein (M) on their stabilization. With respect to color, hue (hab) was increased in the wines treated with both enological products. Furthermore, the color changes induced by cold treatment were lessened by the addition of these two enological products, although the protective effect was higher for the wines treated with M. The pigment analysis revealed higher percentages of anthocyanin-derived pigments in tannin and M-treated samples (in both cold treated and not) in relation to control ones. The addition of the enological tannin may favor the synthesis of anthocyanin-derived pigments, which are chemically more stable than native anthocyanins, whereas M seems to stabilize anthocyanin-derived pigments from a colloidal point of view, avoiding their aggregation and further precipitation.

  8. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co 60 ) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  9. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br, E-mail: emrgutierrez@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Tecnologia em Alimentos. Dep. Roque Trevisan; Pires, Juliana A., E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  10. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  11. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  12. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  13. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may be...

  14. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits. The...

  15. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  16. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or other...

  17. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine, including...

  18. 78 FR 34565 - Modification of Mandatory Label Information for Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... for Wine AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule; Treasury... the mandatory labeling requirements for wine. The regulatory change permits alcohol content to appear... regulatory change provides greater flexibility in wine labeling, and will conform the TTB wine labeling...

  19. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or a...