WorldWideScience

Sample records for wine industry electronic

  1. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of electronic noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments.

  2. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  3. Mapping of wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Віліна Пересадько; Надія Максименко; Катерина Біла

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very un...

  4. A new wine superpower? An analysis of the Chinese wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the most attractive wine markets and a hopeful wine producer in the twenty-first century. Current studies of wine in China tend to focus on the wine market but seldom analyze the domestic wine industry, which contributes approximately 70% of the total wine consumed in the country. This paper reviews the wine history and the development of wine in China and analyses the current situation and perspectives of the Chinese wine industry, considering both traditional con...

  5. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  6. Wine industry logistics in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Atanasoski, Drasko

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical characteristics of logistics and logistics systems are numerous, with specific characteristics, different implications and missions. Logistics activities in the wine industry are very important. Macedonia is a large exporter of wine. In terms of export value of agricultural products in Macedonia, wine is at the first place in terms of exports of alcoholic beverages, and at the second place immediately after the tobacco. The winemaking in Macedonia is continuously increasing, e...

  7. New wine world from China: An analysis of competitiveness of the wine industry in Ningxia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Recently, China has become a huge wine consumer market as well as being an important wine producer. China has the fifth largest global wine consumption and the largest global red wine market (OIV, 2015) with most of the wine consumed (approximately 70%-80%) being produced domestically. With the growing economy and technological advances, the Chinese domestic wine industry has seen significant development. Now, China has the second largest vineyard area (table grape and wine grape) just after ...

  8. New wine world from Asia. Development, regional comparison and opportunities for the wine industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Recently, China has become a huge wine consumer market as China had the fifth largest global wine consumption and the largest global red wine consumption in 2015 with most of the wine consumed (approximately 70%) being produced domestically. With the growing economy and technological advance, the Chinese domestic wine industry has seen significant development. The Chinese wine industry has flourished across the broad territory from the east costal area to the west desert area with distinct cl...

  9. Membrane Technologies in Wine Industry: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rayess, Youssef; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-09-09

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in wine industry such as microfiltration, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis, but also emerging processes as bipolar electrodialysis and membrane contactor. Membrane-based processes are playing a critical role in the field of separation/purification, clarification, stabilization, concentration, and de-alcoholization of wine products. They begin to be an integral part of the winemaking process. This review will provide an overview of recent developments, applications, and published literature in membrane technologies applied in wine industry.

  10. An appraisal of uncertainties in the Western Australian wine industry supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nazrul; Quaddus, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Wine is one of the significant export items of Western Australia. In 2001/2002, the State’s wine exports amounted to about A$42 million. Despite its economic importance research on the supply chain aspects of WA wine industry is rather limited. This paper presents the sources of uncertainties in WA wine supply chain based on the results of an electronic focus group study with WA wine industry stakeholders. The group identified 74 items of uncertainties, which were then grouped into 26 unique ...

  11. Applications of radiation within the wine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.J.; Moran, G.; Boreham, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to test the feasibility of taint removal in industrial wines through the use of radiation. The process used the cobalt-60 source in the McMaster University Nuclear Reactor. When wine, composed mainly of water (∼87%), alcohol (∼10%), acid (∼2%), and anthrocyanins/tannins (∼0.1%), is irradiated, water molecules are hydrolyzed generating free radicals in solution. These free radicals are oxidizing agents that will oxidize other molecules in the wine. The focus has been a specific taint introduced into 2000-2001 vintages by the Asian lady-bird beetle (Harmonia Axyridis) whose population has increased dramatically of late. This taint - thought to be a methoxy-pyrazine - is detectable by taste in 1-2 parts per trillion (ppt). Preliminary sensory evaluation has shown that radiation dramatically improves tainted wines by eliminating the lady beetle taint. Chemical tests have indicated that radiation is acting as an oxidizing agent, reducing levels of SO 2 (introduced into wines to prevent oxidation) by nearly 40-70%. Research ongoing involves the detection of the taint (the implicated methoxy-pyrazine) by mass spectrometry as a taint assessment tool, and an indicator that radiation has removed the taint

  12. The South African wine industry: Insights survey 2013

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blok, T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PwC’s 2013 South African wine industry insights survey explores some of the issues facing local wine businesses, specifically those evident from the financial results of the 2012 harvest, human resource management practices in the industry and wine...

  13. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF THE U.S. WINE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Canning, Patrick N.; Perez, Agnes C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines wine trade in the United States to assess the impact of higher energy costs on the average distance of world and U.S. regional wine shipments, or wine miles, to U.S. markets. To examine this issue we calibrate a spatial equilibrium model of the U.S. wine industry. The model accounts for (i) consumer preferences for variety, (ii) monopolistic-competition/increasing-returns in the production of differentiated wine products, and (iii) transportation costs. Wine production are...

  14. Tracing the role of endogenous carbon in denitrification using wine industry by-product as an external electron donor: Coupling isotopic tools with mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrey, R; Rodríguez-Escales, P; Soler, A; Otero, N

    2018-02-01

    Nitrate removal through enhanced biological denitrification (EBD), consisting of the inoculation of an external electron donor, is a feasible solution for the recovery of groundwater quality. In this context, liquid waste from wine industries (wine industry by-products, WIB) may be feasible for use as a reactant to enhance heterotrophic denitrification. To address the feasibility of WIB as electron donor to promote denitrification, as well as to evaluate the role of biomass as a secondary organic C source, a flow-through experiment was carried out. Chemical and isotopic characterization was performed and coupled with mathematical modeling. Complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite accumulation was successfully achieved after 10 days. Four different C/N molar ratios (7.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0) were tested. Progressive decrease of the C/N ratio reduced the remaining C in the outflow and favored biomass migration, producing significant changes in dispersivity in the reactor, which favored efficient nitrate degradation. The applied mathematical model described the general trends for nitrate, ethanol, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. This model shows how the biomass present in the system is degraded to dissolved organic C (DOC en ) and becomes the main source of DOC for a C/N ratio between 1.0 and 0. The isotopic model developed for organic and inorganic carbon also describes the general trends of δ 13 C of ethanol, DOC and DIC in the outflow water. The study of the evolution of the isotopic fractionation of organic C using a Rayleigh distillation model shows the shift in the organic carbon source from the WIB to the biomass and is in agreement with the isotopic fractionation values used to calibrate the model. Isotopic fractionations (ε) of C-ethanol and C-DOC en were -1‰ and -5‰ (model) and -3.3‰ and -4.8‰ (Rayleigh), respectively. In addition, an inverse isotopic fractionation of +10‰ was observed for

  15. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monolingual online wine dictionary commissioned by the Burgundian wine industry, offers vari- ... number of word lists, glossaries, and online wine dictionaries of varying qual- ity. ...... Kopenhagener Beiträge zur Germanistischen Linguistik 25: 5-21. ... graphical Theory with Particular Focus on Learner's Lexicography.

  16. The role of cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvariani Levani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Georgian wine industry is not fully utilized. High fragmentation of agricultural land leads to limited production that restricts farmers' access to capital resources, finances, and markets, and prevents further development of the Georgian wine industry. Grape collectors and wine makers need help to join their capital and efforts, to gain economies of scale in production and marketing by jointly accessing agricultural inputs. This study aims to identify the importance of farmer cooperatives for grape producers in the Georgian wine industry in order to overcome inefficiency in the sector. Furthermore, this research project investigates the barriers and driving forces of smallholder grape farmers or wine makers to join cooperatives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders of the Georgian wine industry in order to assess different perspectives on the importance and benefits of farmer cooperatives in the local context. The interview results permit economic analysis of transaction costs, agency theory and property rights in the context of the nascent cooperative movement in the Georgian wine industry. The interviews revealed that development of agriculture cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry is strongly dependent on both farmer enthusiasm and governmental support.1

  17. Adapting the wine industry in China to climate change: Challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Recently, China has become an exciting wine consumer market and one of the most important wine producers. China?s domestic wine industry is in the enviable position of contributing approximately 70 % of the total wine consumed with a 1.36 billion population market and the second largest world economy. Current studies of the Chinese wine industry are mostly focused on the wine market. However, global climate change, which affects the quantity, quality and distribution of wine, will have a stro...

  18. Digital wine marketing: Social media marketing for the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Natália Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry recognizes the increasingly relevant role of digital marketing as a valuable and appropriate tool to reach (adult consumers. This paper intends to trace a brief analysis about Digital Wine Marketing and Social Media Marketing contribution for the Wine Industry to increase brand awareness and sales and develop a short guidance to digital marketing as well. When consumers search for wine and wineries on internet they are bombarded with an massive volume of brand messages, meaning that delivering creative, polished content is key if a brand wants to capture people's attention. So, make a good wine is a important part of the work, but after this is necessary to give it the presentation it deserves, communicating accurately to consumers and have in mind that digital marketing activities are in a state of evolutionary development, where new trends are likely to occur rapidly and wineries have to adapt.

  19. Potential and risks in the Romanian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU1

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present descriptive paper presents some historical, geographical and institutional landmarks of the Romanian wine sector. It offers a brief analysis of the Romanian vineyard production evolution and of the national wine market conjuncture, taking into account the global context, which allows to outline Romania's place on the world wine map. Wine promotion on foreign markets must be done emphasizing indigenous varieties, that is why knowing them is essential. Highlighting the progress made by Romanian winemakers, the difficulties they face and the opportunities in the market allow us to draw conclusions which open horizons for extensive research in this industry.

  20. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  1. Toward sustainability: Development of the Ningxia wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Linhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ningxia government's key responsibilities for the grape and wine sector are sustainable economic development and natural resource management. While emerging as an industry leader in China, Ningxia has experienced many challenges, the major ones are increasing labor costs and seasonal worker shortages, production cost control, and a market dominated by domestic giants and increased imports. Ningxia government made policies to encourage the development of boutique wineries, high quality wines and wine tourism. On natural resource protection, a strict annual irrigation quota has led to the quick adoption of drip irrigation. New vineyards have been designed with a focus on mechanization. Fertilization program will be fine-tuned using the analysis of the soil and the mineral elements in leaves. Various personnel training programs have been organized every year. In summary, the potential of Ningxia wine region has already been proven, and Ningxia government will continually provide its support for the sustainable grape and wine development of the region.

  2. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  3. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginter, Michael J; Andersen, James L; Becker, John A; Belliveau, Gerald E; Eppich, Frank J; Awai, Herman T; Hanko, David J; Hughes, Bob; Jones, Douglas; Larson, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    .... area, New York State, Silicon Valley (California), Taiwan, and China. This approach provides a wide range of perspectives from which to examine the selected industry's current condition, outlook, and challenges...

  4. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  5. Wine producers’ perceptions of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...

  6. Electronics Industry Study Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belt, David; Fellows, John R; Kameru, Philip; Nazaroff, Boris-Frank A; Pauroso, Anthony; Schulz, Frederick; Ballew, Bob; Bond, Thomas; Demers, Stephy; Kirkpatrick, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a national strategy for the US electronics industry. Electronics is one of the largest industries in the US and plays a critical role in almost every aspect of national security...

  7. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  8. EMERGING BUSINESSES: THE SOUTH AFRICAN WINE INDUSTRY CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherspoon, Dave D.; Alade, Julius A.; Danley, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Emerging economies such as South Africa, only a few years out of apartheid, have been feeling the strains of socio-political change. While South Africa has experienced political reform, economic reform and access are slow to come. Currently, South Africa is the 7th largest producer of wine in the world. Although this industry is impressive, the apartheid era production practices have caused primarily the European consumers and media to be vocal about this issue. However, this concern has spre...

  9. Ningxia update: Government policy and measures for promoting a sustainable wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Linhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing wine industry in the Ningxia region of north-central China had 35,300 ha of wine grapes and 184 registered wineries as of mid-2016. Ningxia's mission is to develop a sustainable wine industry based on small-scale producers and high-quality products in order to distinguish itself from other key regions in China. Government measures over the last two years have included diversifying grape varieties, encouraging vineyard mechanization, awarding cash to medalists in renown wine competitions, subsidizing international wine cooperation and education programs, and promoting local producers through Ningxia wine centers in major Chinese cities. These efforts have significantly improved wine quality, lowered costs and raised Ningxia's image as a region. The good reputation of Ningxia wine is now spreading from the trade to general consumers.

  10. Regulatory and institutional developments in the Ontario wine and grape industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Carew,1 Wojciech J Florkowski21Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada; 2Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA, USAAbstract: The Ontario wine industry has undergone major transformative changes over the last two decades. These have corresponded to the implementation period of the Ontario Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA Act in 1999 and the launch of the Winery Strategic Plan, "Poised for Greatness," in 2002. While the Ontario wine regions have gained significant recognition in the production of premium quality wines, the industry is still dominated by a few large wine companies that produce the bulk of blended or "International Canadian Blends" (ICB, and multiple small/mid-sized firms that produce principally VQA wines. This paper analyzes how winery regulations, industry changes, institutions, and innovation have impacted the domestic production, consumption, and international trade, of premium quality wines. The results of the study highlight the regional economic impact of the wine industry in the Niagara region, the success of small/mid-sized boutique wineries producing premium quality wines for the domestic market, and the physical challenges required to improve domestic VQA wine retail distribution and bolster the international trade of wine exports. Domestic success has been attributed to the combination of natural endowments, entrepreneurial talent, established quality standards, and the adoption of improved viticulture practices.Keywords: Ontario, wine, quality standards

  11. Energy use in the wine and distilled-spirits industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-06-01

    Data were collected by a postal survey of energy consumption in wineries; six replies covering 10 wineries, that produce 65% of New Zealand's wine, were received. This information was supplemented by a detailed factory survey in one cider factory, and by a direct approach to another winery which provided data on its still operation. Data were obtained by a direct approach to the company concerned for the one distillery which consumes almost all the energy used by alcohol distilling in New Zealand. The average energy use in wine making was found to be 1.92 MJ/litre comprising 0.53 MJ/litre as electricity and 1.39 MJ/litre as boiler fuel. The alcohol distillery studied has conducted its own conservation program and reduced its energy use from 49 MJ/litre of alcohol to 33 MJ/litre of alcohol. Conservation measures are proposed for the wine industry including greater use of continuous distillation, heat recovery on batch stills, upgrading of steam and hot water reticulation systems, and improvement of the operational efficiency of refrigeration equipment. Process flow charts are presented. (MCW)

  12. What makes Napa Napa? The roots of success in the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Hira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available California is world-renowned for the ability to produce world class quality wine. At the center of this achievement is the development of Napa as a premier wine producing region. We examine the sources of Napa’s success by testing factors from leading industrial location theories against statistical and qualitative evidence. Using an unusual database of county-wide data on the wine industry to compare Napa’s success with other wine-producing regions of California, we can control for different historical factors and economic conditions that temper most comparative wine studies. Many regions in California can produce world class wine, but none enjoy the same level of returns as Napa. Path dependency and distance to markets are poor explanations for the relative success of wine regions. We find that while terroir, or natural comparative advantage, has some evidence behind it, social capital and entrepreneurship behind technological leadership are central to Napa’s competitive advantage.

  13. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynkar, Wies, E-mail: wies.cynkar@awri.com.au [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Dambergs, Robert [Australian Wine Research Institute, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  14. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cynkar, Wies; Dambergs, Robert; Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  15. The New World challenge: Performance trends in wine production in major wine-exporting countries in the 2000s and their implications for the Australian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan Fleming

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anderson, K., Nelgen, S., 2011. Global Wine Markets, 1961 to 2009: A Statistical Compendium. University of Adelaide Press, Adelaide publication of an index of revealed comparative advantage suggests that the Australian wine industry had come under increased competition from other “New World” producers in the first decade of this century. We examine this influence by comparing the transformation of winegrapes into wine volume and value in the 11 largest wine-exporting countries during the years, 2000–2009. Our focus is on the challenge issued by other New World producers from the Southern Hemisphere to Australian producers, and the continuing challenge to Old World global supremacy by New World producers and its response. Four performance measures are used this study. Two key trends are evident. First, all countries migrated to higher price points, albeit with differing degrees of success: slightly declining productivity in transforming winegrapes into wine output was overwhelmed by price/quality effects, leading to substantial gains in transforming winegrapes into wine value. Second, New World producers plus Portugal and Spain were much more successful in achieving gains in their export value proposition than they were in extracting value in their domestic markets. Results show that Australian wine producers had lost some of their competitive advantage during the 2000s as their pre-existing strategy dominated by the export of high-volume wines by large companies at low to medium price points, and their reliance on a reputation for reliable good quality for the price point was beginning to fail in the face of competition from both New World and Old World producers. Acknowledgement of this outcome has led to a good deal of introspection, and recognition of the need to promote the wine regions of Australia, based on higher-quality wines, and to select and promote quality indicators.

  16. Ningxia update: Government policy and measures for promoting a sustainable wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Linhai; Li Xueming; Cao Kailong; Ma Huiqin

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly growing wine industry in the Ningxia region of north-central China had 35,300 ha of wine grapes and 184 registered wineries as of mid-2016. Ningxia's mission is to develop a sustainable wine industry based on small-scale producers and high-quality products in order to distinguish itself from other key regions in China. Government measures over the last two years have included diversifying grape varieties, encouraging vineyard mechanization, awarding cash to medalists in renown win...

  17. Preliminary situation analysis of wine production industry in the Czech Republic since 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šperková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available External environment factors influencing Czech wine production industry went have been significantly changing in the past 20 years. Objective of this paper is to identify and describe selected external environment factors influencing this industry.Changes in the Czech Republic in 1989 significantly influenced all industries in the Czech eco­no­my, including wine production. The most significant include the transition from planned socialistic economy to the market economy, establishment of the Czech Republic (January 1, 1993, entrance European Union (May 1, 2004. For the wine production industry it brought for example opening the domestic market to competition, simplifying international trade with EU-member countries, stabilization of the area of vineyards including the ban on their extension, establishment of the Wine Fund, establishment of non-governmental organisations supporting activities of wine producers (e.g. Union of wine producers of the Czech Republic, National Wine centre, Moravín, Partnership foundation, etc. Significant changes can be found also in the field of wine-marketing and promotion of wines. Wines from the Czech Republic are sold in foreign markets and achieve awards within international trade fairs and wine exhibitions, Czech Republic organises wine trade fairs, e.g. Vinex or Wine and distilled products, Wine fund have registered the trademark „Svatomartinské víno“ (St. Martin Wine, etc. Other significant factors identified within macro-environment analysis include con­ti­nuous changes in wine production technology. Here we can expect that in the future, there will grow the use of PET bottles, which could replace the classical glass bottles, just as it happened in the soft-drinks production industry. Changes happened also in the field of legislature, and were connected with updating the law on winegrowing and wine production, change of the VAT to 19 %, cancellation of the consumption tax on wine or new titles

  18. The Case of Cruse Affair for the Bordeaux Wines (Winegate) and Its Consequences on the Burgundy Wine Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecat, Benoit; Chapuis, Claude; Brouard, Joelle; Cogan, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show how the Cruse affair known as the "Winegate" has changed the wine industry in Burgundy. Cruse, one of the major Bordeauxsellers, was caught by the Customs Office in 1973 and condemned for fraud involving 20'000 hl of Bordeaux wine. This affair has generated a loss of trust between consumers and producers and also between small wine-growers who were selling their wine to the Négociants. The objective of this study is to focus on the consequences that this affair has generated for Burgundy growers and Négociants. The method used is the analysis of historical documents (press articles and books on Bordeaux wines) to understand through a review the Cruise affair and its consequences. Under consumer but also retailer pressure, more and more winegrowers in Burgundy decided to bottle the production of their estate and sell it under their own label. To a certain extent, this new development entailed a competition with Négociants. The structure of estates moved from farm style companies to small SME's in charge of vinification, ageing, selling and exporting. Finally, some recent patents related to the wine fraud and mechanisms to create the trust in the wine chain, with specific regard to intelligent label and distribution, have been considered.

  19. Reinventing the American Wine Industry: Marketing Strategies and the Construction of Wine Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Ai

    2017-01-01

    This working paper examines the remarkable growth of wine consumption in the United States since the 1960s. The country is now the largest wine consumer in the world, exceeding the wine-producing European countries such as France and Italy, which had long dominated world markets. The paper identifies the late 1960s and 1970s as the major turning point by analyzing the role of businesses in reinventing the image of wine from a cheap and very alcoholic beverage to a sophisticated natural produc...

  20. Gradual catch up and enduring leadership in the global wine industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, Roberta

    The wine industry is an extremely interesting sector from a catch -up point of view because the latecomers in the international market have changed how wine is produced, sold and consumed and, in doing so, they have challenged the positions of incumbents. Until the end of the 1980s, the European

  1. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The specialised lexicographic treatment of oenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias. Thi...... dictionaries should not stand alone, as they could benefit from a full integration with the websites of the wine industry, and consequently transform into genuine lexicographic information tools.......Abstract: The specialised lexicographic treatment of oenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias....... This treatment also encompasses the terminological compilation of single field dictionaries describing the language and/or knowledge of wine. Lexicographically speaking, all this is but a fraction of the complete picture. Indeed, the specialised lexicography of oenology and viticulture is multifaceted and goes...

  2. Benchmarking and Self-Assessment in the Wine Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Radspieler, Anthony; Worrell, Ernst; Healy,Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-12-01

    Not all industrial facilities have the staff or theopportunity to perform a detailed audit of their operations. The lack ofknowledge of energy efficiency opportunities provides an importantbarrier to improving efficiency. Benchmarking programs in the U.S. andabroad have shown to improve knowledge of the energy performance ofindustrial facilities and buildings and to fuel energy managementpractices. Benchmarking provides a fair way to compare the energyintensity of plants, while accounting for structural differences (e.g.,the mix of products produced, climate conditions) between differentfacilities. In California, the winemaking industry is not only one of theeconomic pillars of the economy; it is also a large energy consumer, witha considerable potential for energy-efficiency improvement. LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory and Fetzer Vineyards developed the firstbenchmarking tool for the California wine industry called "BEST(Benchmarking and Energy and water Savings Tool) Winery". BEST Wineryenables a winery to compare its energy efficiency to a best practicereference winery. Besides overall performance, the tool enables the userto evaluate the impact of implementing efficiency measures. The toolfacilitates strategic planning of efficiency measures, based on theestimated impact of the measures, their costs and savings. The tool willraise awareness of current energy intensities and offer an efficient wayto evaluate the impact of future efficiency measures.

  3. Export and import activity of the wine industry: tendencies, current risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Svitlana Anatoliyivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies state of wine industry’s export-import activity, analyzes tendencies, which provide to reveal peculiar regulations andmain modern risks, which are necessary to be considered for appropriate level of the sector export capability. Export-import activity of wine industry is analyzed; capacity dynamics and market openness degree are estimated. It has been proved that redulatory impact on the winemaking and wine industry development has to be based, on the onehand, on the work with consumer, forming his national awareness of the domestic production from wine industry, and on the other hand, on the country import restructuring. Development of the wine industry state support in Ukraine, considering the world experience, is an important step to form the market of grape and its products, which is characterized with losing tendency. The revealed tendency concerning import price prevail over export, requires special measures for contraction. The main tools to fight with European wine producers for Ukrainian consumer to increase quality, creative, budgets increase for direct access to consumer via winery tasty rooms, tourists’ involvement to vineyards and productive capacities, including to the tourist routes. Therefore the main purpose is necessity for native consumer’s upbringing, wine culture growing, to teach to make considerable choice, but not a choice in favor of foreign container.

  4. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specialised lexicographic treatment ofoenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias. This treatment also encompasses the ...

  5. Stability of contracts in the Brazilian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Zylbersztajn

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of contracts between wineries and grape growers are observed in Brazil. This study addresses the concept of coordination of food chains, particularly the stability of contractual relationships. A qualitative analysis of industry-farmers contracts is presented, followed by a quantitative analysis testing transaction cost economics-based hypothesis. Scale, location, age of vineyard, and the cooperative organizational form are addressed in terms of the effect on the stability of contracts. Vertical and horizontal coordination are addressed. Data come from a sample of 139 grape-growers that supplied 10 major wineries. The results show that more stable contracts or vertical integration are characteristic of high quality wine production, where the need for strict contractual coordination is more relevant, i.e. risk of hold up losses is larger. We test the hypothesis that site specificity and quality-related specific investments are associated with more stable contractual architectures. Farmers' cooperatives present poorer performance but tend to hold more stable relationships with their members, possibly the result of adverse selection, since specialized farmers prefer to maintain contracts with investor-owned wineries, instead of farmers' cooperatives. Conclusions are presented in the final part.

  6. Wine industry market strategies. Case study: Lacerta Winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEACSU Nicoleta Andreea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine market in Romania is in constant development. More and more manufacturers appear on the market, and the competition is increasingly fierce. Although it has an area of the largest planted with vines, Romania is not distinguished among major exporters. Using EU funds made available, new manufacturers appear who developed the premium wine sector. Among the investments carried out in recent years in this sector is Lacerta Winery, an Austrian investment, which sold the first wine under the brand Lacerta in 2011.

  7. The impact of climate change on the global wine industry: Challenges & solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renée Mozell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of climate change upon the global production of winegrapes and wine. It includes a review of the literature on the cause and effects of climate change, as well as illustrations of the specific challenges global warming may bring to the production of winegrapes and wine. More importantly, this paper provides some practical solutions that industry professionals can take to mitigate and adapt to the coming change in both vineyards and wineries.

  8. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B. [Midwest Research Institute, Cary, NC (United States); Safriet, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.

  9. Analysis of selected indicators of winegrowing and wine-production industries in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with industry analysis of winegrowing and wine-production in Bulgaria and in the Czech Republic. The analysis is more focused on winegrowing and wine-production in Bulgaria with the aim to present the less known information.The annual production of wine in Bulgaria amounts for about 2 million hectoliters, being mostly proce- ssed by industrial producers, even though the area of productive vineyards is decreasing by almost 33% to the level of 100 000 hectares. Czech Republic has a lower area of vineyards than Bulgaria, and thanks to the higher yields per hectare it produces about 0.5 million hectoliters of wine. Wine consumption is also different – Czech Republic reaches about 75% of consumption in Bulgaria.Bulgaria, unlike the Czech Republic, belongs to the wine-export countries, especially focusing on exports of bottled red wine. The most important importers of Bulgarian wine – bottled and cask – are Poland, Russia, Great Britain, and Germany. The average prices of exported bottled wine oscillated around USD 1 per liter, in the monitored period. In case of the cask wine, the prices are almost 50% lower. The prices of wines imported to Bulgaria are slightly lower than prices of wines being exported from Bulgaria. Most of the wine was imported from Moldova and Macedonia, Hungary, and Poland.The wine foreign trade balance of Bulgaria and Czech Republic is active for Bulgaria, which exports about 24 thousand hectoliters of wine to the Czech Republic. Exports of Czech and Moravian wines to Bulgaria are minimal.

  10. The importance and quality of cluster governance in the Chilean wine industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.J.; Langen, de P.W.

    2006-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the issue of the governance of cooperation within the Chilean wine industry. The effects of the internationalization of this industry for the importance and the quality of governance of intra-cluster cooperation involving firms and other actors are analysed. Two

  11. Statistical process control in wine industry using control cards

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrieva, Evica; Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana; Pacemska, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on the research of the technological process of automatic filling of bottles of wine in winery in Stip, Republic of Macedonia. The statistical process control using statistical control card is created. The results and recommendations for improving the process are discussed.

  12. Treatment of wine lees on an industrial scale. [wine lees processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-24

    EtOH and tartaric acid are recovered from wine lees by compressing the lees into pellets, distillation with steam to remove alcohols followed by fractional distillation to recover EtOH, roasting and pulverization of the EtOH-free pellets to coagulate collids, and extraction of the suspension with water and mineral acid to recover tartaric acid. Mother liquors are recirculated through the tartaric acid recovery process and the residual material is dried to a protein product which is useful as fertilizer or as animal feed.

  13. A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine Cȏntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009

  14. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  15. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TO ELABORATE COMMON WHITE WINE IN MISIONES, WITH ECONOMIC EVALUATION AT INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miño Valdés, Juan Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to develop a sustainable technology on an industrial scale to produce common white wine with non viniferous grapes cultivated in Misiones. This technological project was initiated at a laboratory scale, continued in the pilot plant and industrial-scale project. It was considered as a productive unit to 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: The development of dry white wine at laboratory scale. The evaluation of process variables in the vivification. The mathematical modeling of the alcoholic fermentation in oenological conditions. The valuation of the aptitude of wines for human consumption. The establishment of a technological procedure for wine in the pilot plant. The evaluation of the pilot plant in technological procedure established. The calculation and selection of industrial equipment. The estimate of the costs and profitability of industrial technological process. It reached a technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators whose values were: net present value of 6,602,666 U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of recovery of investment to net present value of 3 years.

  17. The international electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, J; Rohm, T

    1998-01-01

    High-technology microelectronics has a major presence in countries such as China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, now the third-largest manufacturer of semiconductor chips. The migration of European, Japanese, and American companies accommodates regional markets. Low wage rates and limited enforcement of environmental regulations in developing countries also serve as incentives for the dramatic global migration of this industry. The manufacture of microelectonics products is accompanied by a high incidence of occupational illnesses, which may reflect the widespread use of toxic materials. Metals, photoactive chemicals, solvents, acids, and toxic gases are used in a wide variety of combinations and workplace settings. The industry also presents problems of radiation exposure and various occupational stressors, including some unresolved ergonomic issues. The fast-paced changes of the technology underlying this industry, as well as the stringent security precautions, have added to the difficulty of instituting proper health and safety measures. Epidemiologic studies reveal an alarming increase in spontaneous abortions among cleanroom manufacturing workers; no definitive study has yet identified its cause. Other health issues, including occupational cancer, are yet to be studied. The microelectronics industry is a good example of an industry that is exported to many areas of the world before health and safety problems are properly addressed and resolved.

  18. Quantification of Wine Mixtures with an Electronic Nose and a Human Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Cabellos, Juan M.; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an electronic nose and a human panel were used for the quantification of wines formed by binary mixtures of four white grape varieties and two varieties of red wines at different percentages (from 0 to 100% in 10% steps for the electronic nose and from 0 to 100% in 25% steps for the human panel). The wines were prepared using the traditional method with commercial yeasts. Both techniques were able to quantify the mixtures tested, but it is important to note that the technology of the electronic nose is faster, simpler, and more objective than the human panel. In addition, better results of quantification were also obtained using the electronic nose. PMID:29484296

  19. Industrial applications of electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The review of industrial applications with use of electron beams has been done. Especially the radiation technologies being developed in Poland have been shown. Industrial installations with electron accelerators as radiation source have been applied for: modification of polymers; modification of thyristors; sterilization of health care materials; radiopreservation of food and other consumer products; purification of combustion flue gases in heat and power plants. 14 refs, 6 tabs, 7 figs

  20. The entry of logistics service provider (LSP into the wine industry supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulconis François

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the wine industry supply chain (WSC organization from a social network approach, with an emphasis on the role of logistics service providers (LSP could hold in the flow monitoring. We try to understand if LSP can be a substitute to traditional actors for intermediation management. This substitution phenomenon must take account of the wine industry culture that may constitute an obstruction or an accelerator for the development of this activity. We present a conceptual model of the WSC, and we discuss the possible future role of the LSP. This paper introduces a framework contributing to understand worldwide WSC organization, mapping tools and strategies to assess the reasons of their evolution. The cultural impact is underlined in this type of industry showing it could present a boundary to market access for LSP.

  1. Industrial applications or electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial use of electron beams began in the 1950's with the crosslinking of polyethylene film and wire insulation. Today the number of electron beam Processing Systems installed for industrial applications throughout the world has grown to more than six hundred stations in over 35 countries. Total installed power is now approaching 40 megawatts (over 8 million tons of products per year). Electron beam is now utilized by many major industries including plastics, automotive, rubber goods, wire and cable, electrical insulation, semiconductor, medical, packaging, or pollution control. The principal effect of high-energy electrons is to produce ions in the materials treated, resulting in the liberation of orbital electrons. As a result, the original molecule is modified and the ree radicals combine to form new molecules with new chemical reactions or dis organisation od the DNA chains of living organisms (insects, fungus, microorganisms, etc.). (Author) 8 refs

  2. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  3. 2001 Industry Studies: Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Center, Dallas, TX Northrop Grumman Corp, Electronic Sensors & Systems, Baltimore, MD International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace...manufacturing. Many of the large-scale fabrication foundries are offshore in such countries as Taiwan, Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 5 - The largest market for...done in the US. However, more of the actual mass manufacturing of the chips are done in Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility

  4. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of high-energy radiation with organic systems produces very reactive, short-lived, ionic and free-radical species. The chemical changes brought about by these species are very useful in several systems, and are the basis of the growth of the electron processing industry. Some typical areas of the industrial use of electron accelerators are crosslinking wire and cable insulation, manufacturing heat shrink plastic items, curing coatings, and partially curing rubber products. Electron accelerators are also being considered in other areas such as sewage treatment, sterilizing medical disposables, and food irradiation. An emerging application of industrial electron accelerators is the production of advanced composites for the aerospace and other industries. Traditionally, the carbon-, aramid- and glass-fibre-reinforced composites with epoxy matrices are produced by thermal curing. However, equivalent composites with acrylated-epoxy matrices can be made by electron curing. Cost estimates suggest that electron curing could be more economical than thermal curing. Food irradiation has traditionally been an application for 60 Co γ-radiation. With the increasing demand for food irradiation in various countries, it may become necessary to use electron accelerators for this purpose. Since the dose rate during gamma and electron irradiation are generally very different, a review of the relevant work on the effect of dose rates has been done. This paper presents an overview of the industrial applications of electron accelerator for radiation processing, emphasises the electron curing of advanced composites and, briefly reviews the dose-rate effects in radiation processing of advanced composites and food irradiation. (author). 84 refs., 8 tabs

  5. STAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINIGN AN ECONOMIC WHITE WINE TO AN INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Miño Valdés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to develop a sustainable technology to produce economical white wine, industrial scale, not viniferous grapes grown in Misiones. This technological project started at laboratory scale, it continued in a pilot plant and planned to an industrial scale. It was considered as productive unit 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: the development of dry white wine at laboratory scale, the evaluation of the variables of the process in the vilification, the Mathematical modeling of alcoholic fermentation in winemaking conditions, the assessment of the fitness of wines for human consumption, the establishment of a technological process for winemaking in a pilot plant, the evaluation in pilot plant of the technological process established, the calculation and selection of industrial equipment and finally, the costs estimation and profitability of the industrial technological process. A technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators was reached whose values were 6,602,666 net present value of U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of payback a value net of three years to date.

  6. Building the electronic industry's roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    JTEC panelists found a strong consistency among the electronics firms they visited: all the firms had clear visions or roadmaps for their research and development activities and had committed resources to ensure that they achieve targeted results. The overarching vision driving Japan's electronics industry is that of achieving market success through developing appealing, high-quality, low-cost consumer goods - ahead of the competition. Specifics of the vision include improving performance, quality, and portability of consumer electronics products. Such visions help Japanese companies define in detail the roadmaps they will follow to develop new and improved electronic packaging technologies.

  7. The use of genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Dorit; Casal, Margarida

    2005-08-01

    In recent decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or for the production of biotechnological products (e.g. enzymes, pharmaceutical products) will continuously grow in the future. Numerous specialised S. cerevisiae wine strains were obtained in recent years, possessing a wide range of optimised or novel oenological properties, capable of satisfying the demanding nature of modern winemaking practise. The unlocking of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome complexities will contribute decisively to the knowledge about the genetic make-up of commercial yeast strains and will influence wine strain improvement via genetic engineering. The most relevant advances regarding the importance and implications of the use of GM yeast strains in the wine industry are discussed in this mini-review. In this work, various aspects are considered including the strategies used for the construction of strains with respect to current legislation requirements, the environmental risk evaluations concerning the deliberate release of genetically modified yeast strains, the methods for detection of recombinant DNA and protein that are currently under evaluation, and the reasons behind the critical public perception towards the application of such strains.

  8. Is there sustainable entrepreneurship in the wine industry? Exploring Sicilian wineries participating in the SOStain program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Schimmenti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and the accelerating depletion of natural resources have contributed to increase discussions about the role of private enterprises in reversing negative environmental trends. Rather than focusing on profit maximization, policy makers and consumers pressure groups expect firms to meet a triple-bottom line of economic, environmental and social value creation. Hence sustainable entrepreneurship has received recently increasing interest as a phenomenon and a research topic. More recently, the concept of sustainability has been taken seriously in the Italian wine industry. The organizational challenge for entrepreneurship is to better integrate social and environmental performance into the economic business logic. The aim of this manuscript is to illustrate, through a descriptive approach, the adaptation of the wine industry to the new scenario of sustainable entrepreneurship. To reach this goal we carried out an explorative analysis of 3 Sicilian wineries involved in the SOStain program, which aims at the improvement of sustainability in the wine industry. The findings of the analysis show the existence of sustainability-driven entrepreneurship, in which the wineries undertake to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life for the workforce, their families, the local and global community as well as future generations.

  9. An exploratory examination of philanthropy in the New Zealand, Spanish and US wine industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Forbes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study provides an insight into the concept of philanthropy and how it is applied in the context of wineries. Researchers in three nations interviewed winery owners or managers to obtain qualitative data; this data was categorised to identify common themes, similarities and differences across wineries or nations. Our findings indicate that all the wineries are undertaking philanthropic activities, ranging from donations of wine, time, cash or facilities, to organising or participating in events. These activities are primarily driven by altruistic rather than strategic motivations, and the predominant benefits achieved from philanthropy are personal satisfaction rather than financial. Although only a small number of wineries were interviewed (11, this study of philanthropy is unique as it has examined both small and large businesses operating in a single industry sector, across multiple nations. Whilst the small sample is an obvious limitation of this study, future quantitative research with a larger sample will determine the degree to which these exploratory findings can be deemed to represent the global wine industry. Keywords: Philanthropy, Wine industry, Motives, Benefits, Cross-cultural

  10. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cleland, M R

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the industrial applications of electron accelerators for modifying the physical, chemical or biological properties of materials and commercial products by treatment with ionizing radiation. Many beneficial effects can be obtained with these methods, which are known as radiation processing. The earliest practical applications occurred during the 1950s, and the business of radiation processing has been expanding since that time. The most prevalent applications are the modification of many different plastic and rubber products and the sterilization of single-use medical devices. Emerging applications are the pasteurization and preservation of foods and the treatment of toxic industrial wastes. Industrial accelerators can now provide electron energies greater than 10 MeV and average beam powers as high as 700 kW. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron beams is stimulating interest in the use of X-rays (bremsstrahlung) as an alternative to gamma rays from radioactive nuclides.

  11. Calorimetry at industrial electron accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Kovacs, A.

    1985-01-01

    Calorimetry is a convenient way to measure doses at industrial electron accelerators, where high absorbed doses (1-100 kGy) are delivered at dose rates of 102-105 Gy s-1 or even higher. Water calorimeters have been used for this purpose for several years, but recently other materials such as grap......Calorimetry is a convenient way to measure doses at industrial electron accelerators, where high absorbed doses (1-100 kGy) are delivered at dose rates of 102-105 Gy s-1 or even higher. Water calorimeters have been used for this purpose for several years, but recently other materials...

  12. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  13. Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberl, A; Coelhan, M

    2013-01-01

    Sulfites are routinely added as preservatives and antioxidants in wine production. By law, the total sulfur dioxide content in wine is restricted and therefore must be monitored. Currently, the method of choice for determining the total content of sulfur dioxide in wine is the optimised Monier-Williams method, which is time consuming and laborious. The headspace gas chromatographic method described in this study offers a fast and reliable alternative method for the detection and quantification of the sulfur dioxide content in wine. The analysis was performed using an automatic headspace injection sampler, coupled with a gas chromatograph and an electron capture detector. The method is based on the formation of gaseous sulfur dioxide subsequent to acidification and heating of the sample. In addition to free sulfur dioxide, reversibly bound sulfur dioxide in carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, was also measured with this method. A total of 20 wine samples produced using diverse grape varieties and vintages of varied provenance were analysed using the new method. For reference and comparison purposes, 10 of the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those acquired by the optimised Monier-Williams method. Overall, the results from the headspace analysis showed good correlation (R = 0.9985) when compared with the conventional method. This new method requires minimal sample preparation and is simple to perform, and the analysis can also be completed within a short period of time.

  14. Portable Electronic Tongue Based on Microsensors for the Analysis of Cava Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Escudé-Pujol, Roger; Capdevila, Fina; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel

    2016-10-27

    Cava is a quality sparkling wine produced in Spain. As a product with a designation of origin, Cava wine has to meet certain quality requirements throughout its production process; therefore, the analysis of several parameters is of great interest. In this work, a portable electronic tongue for the analysis of Cava wine is described. The system is comprised of compact and low-power-consumption electronic equipment and an array of microsensors formed by six ion-selective field effect transistors sensitive to pH, Na⁺, K⁺, Ca 2+ , Cl - , and CO₃ 2- , one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric gold microelectrodes. This system, combined with chemometric tools, has been applied to the analysis of 78 Cava wine samples. Results demonstrate that the electronic tongue is able to classify the samples according to the aging time, with a percentage of correct prediction between 80% and 96%, by using linear discriminant analysis, as well as to quantify the total acidity, pH, volumetric alcoholic degree, potassium, conductivity, glycerol, and methanol parameters, with mean relative errors between 2.3% and 6.0%, by using partial least squares regressions.

  15. Portable Electronic Tongue Based on Microsensors for the Analysis of Cava Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Giménez-Gómez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cava is a quality sparkling wine produced in Spain. As a product with a designation of origin, Cava wine has to meet certain quality requirements throughout its production process; therefore, the analysis of several parameters is of great interest. In this work, a portable electronic tongue for the analysis of Cava wine is described. The system is comprised of compact and low-power-consumption electronic equipment and an array of microsensors formed by six ion-selective field effect transistors sensitive to pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, and CO32−, one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric gold microelectrodes. This system, combined with chemometric tools, has been applied to the analysis of 78 Cava wine samples. Results demonstrate that the electronic tongue is able to classify the samples according to the aging time, with a percentage of correct prediction between 80% and 96%, by using linear discriminant analysis, as well as to quantify the total acidity, pH, volumetric alcoholic degree, potassium, conductivity, glycerol, and methanol parameters, with mean relative errors between 2.3% and 6.0%, by using partial least squares regressions.

  16. Comparing the Productive Efficiency of Cooperatives and Private Enterprises: The Portuguese Wine Industry as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Santos, J.C. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the efficiency of cooperatives and private enterprises in the Portuguese wine industry, employing data envelopment analysis (DEA). The use of DEA for the analysis of comparative efficiency within a sector is a key tool in evaluating organizational competitiveness. Competitiveness should be based on benchmarking the different types of organizations that comprise the viniculture sector. We conclude that Portuguese wine cooperatives, on average, are more efficient than their ...

  17. China’s role in global competition in the wine industry: A new contestant and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Darryl J Mitry; David E Smith; Per V Jenster

    2009-01-01

    Darryl J Mitry1,2, David E Smith2,3, Per V Jenster3,41Norwich University, Graduate School Faculty, Northfield, VT, USA; 2National University, San Diego, California, USA; 3Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4China Europe International Business School, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The producers in the wine industry are competing in an increasingly global marketplace. More specifically this article is interested in China’s wine market and the ro...

  18. Assessment of attractiveness of the wine-production industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hejmalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on evaluation of attractiveness of the wine sector in the Czech Republic and on the competitive position assessment of company Věstonické sklepy, s. r. o. using the assessment of key factors and applying the GE matrix. Wine-production can be described as very attractive, favorably developing industry with significant potential for growth and expansion. In particular, the growing popularity of wine consumption, increasing consumption and production, increasing competitiveness, introduction of new technical innovations and introduction of innovative changes in production, storage and sales, are aspects that have a positive impact on the attractiveness of the sector.The permanent trend of development and market growth represent a well-verifiable criterion that implies there still is a significant share of the untapped potential. Assessment of the competitive position indicates relatively good strategic situation of the company in the attractive environment, but it is necessary to invest considerable financial resources with an uncertain impact on maintaining the position. Main problems of the company namely include the financial situation which is specifically addressed by utilizing short-term liabilities. The company can be described as prosperous in terms of established technologies and implementation of innovative changes, human resource management, use of production and storage capacities, marketing factors, selection of the appropriate type of promotion, and contracting reliable customers.The strategy based on the position in the GE matrix suggests that the company should focus on production of quality wines and on the offer of specialties to penetrate stronger into the market and with a better competitive advantage. The company should not forget the completion of the proper functioning of the website, which should lead to an increase of the number of potential customers.

  19. Investigation of environmental radioactivity of wine cellars, watercourse and industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyorfi, Tamas, E-mail: gyorfi.tamas@ejf.hu [Eoetvoes Jozsef College (Hungary); Raics, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of the investigations was to determine activity concentration of radioactive isotopes in soil samples collected from different provinces of Hungary. Earlier studies have proved that the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration is higher than permitted in some wine cellars. To investigate the reason for this phenomenon, the activity concentration of soil samples was measured. Analyzing {sup 137}Cs isotope activity in samples collected from the area of a watercourse it was possible to determine the silting-up rate. Activity concentrations were measured for red mud originating from an industrial disaster.

  20. Investigation of environmental radioactivity of wine cellars, watercourse and industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyorfi, Tamas; Raics, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the investigations was to determine activity concentration of radioactive isotopes in soil samples collected from different provinces of Hungary. Earlier studies have proved that the 222 Rn activity concentration is higher than permitted in some wine cellars. To investigate the reason for this phenomenon, the activity concentration of soil samples was measured. Analyzing 137 Cs isotope activity in samples collected from the area of a watercourse it was possible to determine the silting-up rate. Activity concentrations were measured for red mud originating from an industrial disaster.

  1. BEST Winery Guidebook: Benchmarking and Energy and Water SavingsTool for the Wine Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Radspieler, Anthony; Healy,Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-10-15

    Not all industrial facilities have the staff or the opportunity to perform a detailed audit of their operations. The lack of knowledge of energy efficiency opportunities provides an important barrier to improving efficiency. Benchmarking has demonstrated to help energy users understand energy use and the potential for energy efficiency improvement, reducing the information barrier. In California, the wine making industry is not only one of the economic pillars of the economy; it is also a large energy consumer, with a considerable potential for energy-efficiency improvement. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Fetzer Vineyards developed an integrated benchmarking and self-assessment tool for the California wine industry called ''BEST''(Benchmarking and Energy and water Savings Tool) Winery. BEST Winery enables a winery to compare its energy efficiency to a best practice winery, accounting for differences in product mix and other characteristics of the winery. The tool enables the user to evaluate the impact of implementing energy and water efficiency measures. The tool facilitates strategic planning of efficiency measures, based on the estimated impact of the measures, their costs and savings. BEST Winery is available as a software tool in an Excel environment. This report serves as background material, documenting assumptions and information on the included energy and water efficiency measures. It also serves as a user guide for the software package.

  2. Hybrid electronic tongue based on optical and electrochemical microsensors for quality control of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Capdevila, Fina; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2010-07-01

    A multiparametric system able to classify red and white wines according to the grape varieties and for analysing some specific parameters is presented. The system, known as hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors and a colorimetric optofluidic system. The array of electrochemical sensors is composed of six ISFETs based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, an Au microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand. The optofluidic system is entirely fabricated in polymer technology and comprises a hollow structure, air mirrors, microlenses and self-alignment structures. The data obtained from these sensors has been treated with multivariate advanced tools; Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the patterning recognition and classification of wine samples, and Partial-Least Squares (PLS) regression, for quantification of several chemical and optical parameters of interest in wine quality. The results have demonstrated the utility of this system for distinguishing the samples according to the grape variety and year vintage and for quantifying several sample parameters of interest in wine quality control.

  3. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Céspedes, Francisco; Capdevila, Josefina; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Valle, Manel del

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. ► It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. ► Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. ► Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. ► Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin–Ciocalteau method and I 280 index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I 280 ) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L −1 gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  4. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prototype of industrial electrons accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, V.H.; Valdovinos, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interest and the necessity of Mexico's industry in the use of irradiation process has been increased in the last years. As examples are the irradiation of combustion gases (elimination of NO x and SO 2 ) and the polymer cross-linking between others. At present time at least twelve enterprises require immediately of them which have been contacted by electron accelerators suppliers of foreign countries. The first project step consisted in to identify the electrons accelerator type that in can be constructed in Mexico with the major number of possible equipment, instruments, components and acquisition materials local and useful for the major number of users. the characteristics of the accelerator prototype are: accelerator type transformer with multiple secondary insulated and rectifier circuits with a potential of 0.8 MV of voltage, the second step it consisted in an economic study that permitted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of its construction. (Author)

  6. Globalization, Superstars, and the Importance of Reputation: Theory and Evidence from the Wine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Mike; Tapia, Mikel; Warzynski, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    widely traded as a result of globalization. We then provide some empirical analysis of these ideas using data on prices and Robert Parker's ratings of wines. Wine prices are strongly related to ratings, and even more so for higher quality wine categories. In addition, changes in Parker ratings...... for the same wine result in large price changes. Price elasticities with respect to ratings have risen dramatically since 1993. One plausible explanation for this is the growing globalization of the fine wine market, which increases the prevalence of naive wine consumers....

  7. General Industrial Electronics. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwick, Jim; Siebert, Leo

    This curriculum guide, part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial electricity and electronics, is designed for use in teaching a course in general industrial electronics. Covered in the first half of the guide are units on the following electronic components: semiconductors, solid-state diodes, bipolar transistors, and special…

  8. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong's zero wine and beer tax policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-08-30

    Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that have driven such an unprecedented policy evolution. The research is based on an analysis of primary documents. Searches of official government documents, alcohol-related industry materials and other media reports on alcohol taxation for the period from 2000 to 2008 were systematically carried out using key terms such as "alcohol tax" and "alcohol industry". Relevant documents (97) were indexed by date and topic to undertake a chronological and thematic analysis using Nvivo8 software. Our analysis demonstrates that whereas the city's changing financial circumstances and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government's strong propensity towards economic liberalism had, in part, contributed to such dramatic transformation, the alcohol industry's lobbying tactics and influence were clearly the main drivers of the policy decision. The alcohol industry's lobbying tactics were two-fold. The first was to forge a coalition encompassing a range of catering and trade industries related to alcohol as well as industry-friendly lawmakers so that these like-minded actors could find common ground in pursuing changes to the taxation policy. The second was to deliberately promote a blend of ideas to garner support from the general public and to influence the perception of key policy makers. Our findings suggest that the success of aggressive industry lobbying coupled with the absence of robust public health advocacy was the main driving force behind the unparalleled abolition of wine and beer duties in Hong

  9. An NFC-Enabled Anti-Counterfeiting System for Wine Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yiu, Neo C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Wine counterfeiting is not a new problem, however, the situation in China has been going worse even after Hong Kong manifested itself as a wine trading and distribution center with abolishing all taxes on wine in 2008. The most basic method, printing a fake label with a subtly misspelled brand name or a slightly different logo in hopes of fooling wine consumers, has been common to other luxury-goods markets prone to counterfeiting. More ambitious counterfeiters might remove an authentic label...

  10. Innovative business cases in the South Africa table grape and wine industry's: developing the concept op empowerment entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, P.J.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on an innovative initiative taken spontaneously by producers in the supply chain of the table grapes and wine industry to empower employees. Empowerment is a fundamental force for change in doing business in South Africa and its societies, especially in

  11. Industry Study, Electronics Industry, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    not have the flexibility in their processes to quickly produce custom system-on-chips because they are optimized for high-end production. Dell ...building its semiconductor industry, Malaysia has moved in the same overall directions but has lagged a few years. Malaysia has succeeded in the backend

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of wine byproducts and their potential uses in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lomillo, Javier; González-SanJosé, M Luisa; Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, M Dolores; Muñiz-Rodríguez, Pilar

    2014-12-31

    Wine pomace (WP) is one of the agricultural byproducts that has received most attention from food scientists due to the wide range of interesting compounds that remain after the winemaking process. Different powdered products rich in phenolic compounds, with interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were obtained from WP by applying processes that are both environmentally friendly and economically affordable for the food industry. The products obtained showed high global antioxidant activities (ABTS assay), successfully delayed the onset of lipid oxidation in the Rancimat test, and showed different antimicrobial properties. Products derived from seed-free WP showed bactericidal effects against total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and inhibited Enterobacteriaceae growth completely. The product derived from whole WP presented bacteriostatic activity against the three microorganism groups tested, whereas the product obtained from grape seed promoted TAMB and LAB growth but delayed Enterobacteriaceae proliferation.

  13. Using the Overall Line Effectiveness: A Case Study in the Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Flamia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies seek to continuously improve their processes in order to provide the market with competitive products. In this scenario, manufacturing plays a key role to achieve the results, and so the need arises to establish indicators to know the actual efficiency of the production process and foster this process of continuous improvement. Based on this premise, the aim of this paper is to use an analog indicator for Overall Equipment Effectiveness, the Overall Line Effectiveness, whose structure has been modified from the original indicator to identify losses not considered by the primitive indicator. The case study was conducted in a bottling line of a wine industry, and was able to show the real process efficiency and identify opportunities for improvements in this process. Research limitations and future work opportunities were highlighted.

  14. Entrepreneurial strategies and corporate governance: Experiences from the Italian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Toma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive resource typical of family firms, critical in guarantee to family firms long lasting position of competitive advantage is familiness. In previous studies familiness has been defined to characterize the interactions between each family member, the whole family and the business. These interactions leads to systematic synergies with the potential to create competitive advantages or disadvantages for the firm. Family history and local roots can ensure the family business a competitive advantage long lasting and evolutive. Our analysis is focused on the wine industry in Italy and analyzes the case of Barone Ricasoli Spa an estate owned by the family Ricasoli since 1141. We find that the family social capital supports the processes of resources acquisition and promotes the business renewal.

  15. The renaissance of a local wine industry: The relevance of social capital for business innovation in DOQ El Priorat, Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández Aldecua

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a case study that aims to investigate whether the presence of both bridging and bonding social capital, acting together, can stimulate entrepreneurial innovation within the wine industry at a regional level. The study also investigates the manner in which both types of social capital interact to motivate such innovation. This is done through the analysis of the Catalan region of Priorat, and more specifically the entrepreneurial innovations that the region’s wine sector experienced over a twenty year period at the turn of the current millennium. The results indicate that both forms of social capital do not act in isolation, but on the contrary are jointly responsible for stimulating innovation within the wine-producing network. Keywords: Social capital, Social networks, Regional innovation, Entrepreneurs, Catalonia

  16. China’s role in global competition in the wine industry: A new contestant and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl J Mitry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Darryl J Mitry1,2, David E Smith2,3, Per V Jenster3,41Norwich University, Graduate School Faculty, Northfield, VT, USA; 2National University, San Diego, California, USA; 3Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4China Europe International Business School, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The producers in the wine industry are competing in an increasingly global marketplace. More specifically this article is interested in China’s wine market and the role of China in global competitive strategies. The phenomenal growth of the Chinese economy over the past decade has encouraged international suppliers to enter the Chinese market. International wine suppliers lust after a huge potential market in a country of over 1,300,000,000 people. Simultaneously, there has also been a significant growth of production and marketing of wines by Chinese-owned wineries. This contribution explores the implications of China’s marketplace and also China as a creative and strategic producer.Keywords: China, wine, competition

  17. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceto, Xavier [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gutierrez, Juan Manuel [Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cespedes, Francisco [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Capdevila, Josefina; Minguez, Santiago [Estacio de Viticultura i Enologia, INCAVI, Vilafranca del Penedes (Spain); Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Valle, Manel del, E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.cat [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin-Ciocalteau method and I{sub 280} index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I{sub 280}) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L{sup -1} gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  18. Electronic flight bag (EFB) : 2010 industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) systems and capabilities, as of June 2010. This document updates and replaces the April 2007 EFB Industry Review (Yeh and Chandra, 2007). As with the previous industry survey, the focu...

  19. The Oenological Potential of Hanseniaspora uvarum in Simultaneous and Sequential Co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Industrial Wine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristezza, Mariana; Tufariello, Maria; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In oenology, the utilization of mixed starter cultures composed by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is an approach of growing importance for winemakers in order to enhance sensory quality and complexity of the final product without compromising the general quality and safety of the oenological products. In fact, several non-Saccharomyces yeasts are already commercialized as oenological starter cultures to be used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while several others are the subject of various studies to evaluate their application. Our aim, in this study was to assess, for the first time, the oenological potential of H. uvarum in mixed cultures (co-inoculation) and sequential inoculation with S. cerevisiae for industrial wine production. Three previously characterized H. uvarum strains were separately used as multi-starter together with an autochthonous S. cerevisiae starter culture in lab-scale micro-vinification trials. On the basis of microbial development, fermentation kinetics and secondary compounds formation, the strain H. uvarum ITEM8795 was further selected and it was co- and sequentially inoculated, jointly with the S. cerevisiae starter, in a pilot scale wine production. The fermentation course and the quality of final product indicated that the co-inoculation was the better performing modality of inoculum. The above results were finally validated by performing an industrial scale vinification The mixed starter was able to successfully dominate the different stages of the fermentation process and the H. uvarum strain ITEM8795 contributed to increasing the wine organoleptic quality and to simultaneously reduce the volatile acidity. At the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study regarding the utilization of a selected H. uvarum strain in multi-starter inoculation with S. cerevisiae for the industrial production of a wine. In addition, we demonstrated, at an industrial scale, the importance of non-Saccharomyces in

  20. Industrial applications of electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braid, W.G. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The use of electron beam accelerators for crosslinking polyolefins for shrinking food packaging is discussed. Irradiation procedures, accelerator characteristics, and industrial operations are described

  1. Globalization and wine business: Port wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Joao; Correia, Leonida; Caldas, Jose Vaz

    2007-01-01

    In the past two decades the world has seen acceleration in the process of globalisation, affecting virtually all industries and consumers. The wine sector is no exception, witnessing increased exports and imports, decreasing consumption per capita in the producing countries, and a wave of direct foreign investment and mergers and acquisitions in the industry. Among European wine producers the Port wine can be seen as a representative case of globalisation and as a benchmark, because almost 90...

  2. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong’s zero wine and beer tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sungwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that have driven such an unprecedented policy evolution. Methods The research is based on an analysis of primary documents. Searches of official government documents, alcohol-related industry materials and other media reports on alcohol taxation for the period from 2000 to 2008 were systematically carried out using key terms such as “alcohol tax” and “alcohol industry”. Relevant documents (97 were indexed by date and topic to undertake a chronological and thematic analysis using Nvivo8 software. Results Our analysis demonstrates that whereas the city’s changing financial circumstances and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government’s strong propensity towards economic liberalism had, in part, contributed to such dramatic transformation, the alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics and influence were clearly the main drivers of the policy decision. The alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics were two-fold. The first was to forge a coalition encompassing a range of catering and trade industries related to alcohol as well as industry-friendly lawmakers so that these like-minded actors could find common ground in pursuing changes to the taxation policy. The second was to deliberately promote a blend of ideas to garner support from the general public and to influence the perception of key policy makers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the success of aggressive industry lobbying coupled with the absence of robust public health advocacy was the

  3. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong’s zero wine and beer tax policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that have driven such an unprecedented policy evolution. Methods The research is based on an analysis of primary documents. Searches of official government documents, alcohol-related industry materials and other media reports on alcohol taxation for the period from 2000 to 2008 were systematically carried out using key terms such as “alcohol tax” and “alcohol industry”. Relevant documents (97) were indexed by date and topic to undertake a chronological and thematic analysis using Nvivo8 software. Results Our analysis demonstrates that whereas the city’s changing financial circumstances and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government’s strong propensity towards economic liberalism had, in part, contributed to such dramatic transformation, the alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics and influence were clearly the main drivers of the policy decision. The alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics were two-fold. The first was to forge a coalition encompassing a range of catering and trade industries related to alcohol as well as industry-friendly lawmakers so that these like-minded actors could find common ground in pursuing changes to the taxation policy. The second was to deliberately promote a blend of ideas to garner support from the general public and to influence the perception of key policy makers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the success of aggressive industry lobbying coupled with the absence of robust public health advocacy was the main driving force behind the

  4. The industrial policy experience of the electronics industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of industrial policies to stimulate economic growth by several successful developers, latecomers have faced mixed experiences. Hence, this paper analyses the industrial policy experience of the electronics industry in Malaysia. A blend of institutions have guided technological upgrading in the industry, especially in the state of Penang. Smooth co-ordination between the state government, multinational corporations, national firms, and the federal government helped stimulate te...

  5. Heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd content in wine produced from grape cultivar Mavrud, grown in an industrially polluted region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina Angelova

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the period 1991-1993 with cv. Mavrud, grown in the region with a major industrial pollutant the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW and a region with no industrial pollutants (as a control. The heavy metal content in soil, grapes and wine was determined. Most of the heavy metals in the grapes precipitate during fermentation into the sediments, which is the reason for their significantly lower content in the wine. Water washing of grape before processing leads to about 2 time decrease in the Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd contents of wine. The pre-washing of grapes does not lead to any quality deterioration in the wine produced. The amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd in the wine from cv. Mavrud, grown in the region of the NFMW-Plovdiv, are lower than the maximum admissible levels, while the Pb content exceeds them about two times.

  6. Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S. E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com

    2004-10-01

    The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterilization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed.

  7. Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, S.

    2004-09-01

    The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterlization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed.

  8. Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.

    2004-01-01

    The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterilization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed

  9. Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith, 2016, Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p.......Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p....

  10. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T.

    2016-01-01

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca"2"+/Mg"2"+, K"+/Na"+) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  11. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska, E-mail: ewitkowskanery@ichf.edu.pl [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil)

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}/Na{sup +}) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only

  12. Wine consumers' subjective responses to wine mouthfeel and understanding of wine body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Danner, Lukas; Li, Luxing; Bossan, Hélène; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    Wine mouthfeel is considered important for wine quality by experts, while consumers understanding of mouthfeel and the role of wine body in their wine choice is unknown. One experiment determined the influence of intrinsic wine mouthfeel on consumers' wine liking and emotions, and the other, how consumers understand the term wine body. The first experiment used a 2 astringency level×2 body level experimental design. The samples were base wine with; nothing added (control), added xanthan gum (for increased body), added grape seed extract (GSE, for increased astringency), and with both added xanthan gum and GSE. The consumer taste trial (n=112) indicated that wine with increased body did not influence wine liking and emotions; while increased astringency decreased liking and elicited more intense negative emotions. The second experiment examined consumers' knowledge of wine body through an online survey (n=136). Consumers described wine body most frequently using words such as flavour, fullness, and strength. Wine body was therefore understood by consumers predominantly as a holistic multi-sensory perception of flavour. Wine flavour was indicated by consumers to be the most important factor driving purchase decisions followed by balance of flavours and wine body. It is crucial that wine professionals carefully communicate wine characteristics to consumers to prevent possible misunderstandings such as the meaning of wine body and as a result better meet consumer expectations. In future, the term body may benefit from a clearer definition for academic research as well as industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  14. Competitive advantages of firms in agro-industrial clusters: Study of wine in Brazil and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Adilene Alvares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore two cases connected to the wine productive chain, emphasizing the process of competitive advantages creation under the logic of industrial clusters. The analyzed experiences deal with agglomerations of companies, where some are already established, while others are consolidated or under expansion: The Vale dos Vinhedos (Brazil, and Valle de Casablanca (Chile. The comparative study was based on the presence of territorial resources, analyzed in categories, of which we can highlight: denomination of origin (D.O., tourism, economy, political situation and unique value. The analysis of both territories allowed the identification of similarities and potentialities, and the attachment of those with the construction of com- petitive advantages. The results show that the competitiveness of companies established on the Vale dos Vinhedos and Valle de Casablanca is determined by the competitiveness of the territory, meaning that the spaces under analysis perform a fundamental role in the process of creation of competitive advantages of the already installed companies.

  15. The electron accelerator in industry - safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirthi, K.N.

    1993-01-01

    Electron beam accelerators are being used in increasing numbers in a variety of important applications. Commercial uses include radiography, food preservation, product sterilisation and radiation processing of materials. Since most of the industrial applications involve products, some that can be treated with electrons and others that require photons, electron accelerators serve this dual purpose economically. Although industrial accelerators are now regarded as standard products, finished installations show considerable diversity, reflecting the users, needs and planning. Because of the high radiation output, proper planning regarding safety is warranted. This paper discusses the hazards, safety and planning required during design and operation of the electron beam accelerators. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig

  16. The use of lactic acid-producing, malic acid-producing, or malic acid-degrading yeast strains for acidity adjustment in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yun; Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Hua

    2014-03-01

    In an era of economic globalization, the competition among wine businesses is likely to get tougher. Biotechnological innovation permeates the entire world and intensifies the severity of the competition of the wine industry. Moreover, modern consumers preferred individualized, tailored, and healthy and top quality wine products. Consequently, these two facts induce large gaps between wine production and wine consumption. Market-orientated yeast strains are presently being selected or developed for enhancing the core competitiveness of wine enterprises. Reasonable biological acidity is critical to warrant a high-quality wine. Many wild-type acidity adjustment yeast strains have been selected all over the world. Moreover, mutation breeding, metabolic engineering, genetic engineering, and protoplast fusion methods are used to construct new acidity adjustment yeast strains to meet the demands of the market. In this paper, strategies and concepts for strain selection or improvement methods were discussed, and many examples based upon selected studies involving acidity adjustment yeast strains were reviewed. Furthermore, the development of acidity adjustment yeast strains with minimized resource inputs, improved fermentation, and enological capabilities for an environmentally friendly production of healthy, top quality wine is presented.

  17. Mass Customization in the electronics industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    American Power Conversion (APC), a company in the electronics industry, has used the principles of mass customisation to achieve major improvements in its efficiency and performance. APC sells, designs, produces, delivers, and installs large complex infrastructure systems for data centres...

  18. A Novel Framework for Adaptation in Agriculture: Lessons Learned from California's Wine Industry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    While crop yields are threatened by climate change, the management decisions of growers, including their practices to modify the microclimate experienced by the crop, can partially or even completely offset these damages. However, there have been few evaluations of adaptation on the farm scale, where managers are on the front lines of responding to global change. I will present a framework for classifying potential adaptations based on their temporal and spatial scale, their ease of implementation, and their effectiveness in altering or maintaining crop production. Applying this framework to the winegrowing industry in California, it appears that many strategies suggested in the literature for adaptation will either be of limited effectiveness, likely to be cost-prohibitive, or are not compatible with the current values of growers. However, interviews with and observations of winegrowers reveal that novel adaptations, not widely discussed in the literature, are already being employed, often by individuals in an experimental capacity and without community coordination. For example, in addition to irrigation, water is used to modify the vine microclimate for both heating (frost protection) and evaporative cooling. An analysis of responses to past environmental stresses in the wine industry revealed that growers tended to respond to stresses individually rather than collectively, except for severe, novel pests and diseases. Responses may be reactive or proactive; most proactive strategies have been short-term, in response to imminent stress. Growers tend to rely on their own experience to guide their management decisions, which may offer poor guidance under novel climate regimes. These findings highlight some of the difficulties expected in adapting to global change, as well as areas for strategic investments to enhance agricultural resilience to climate change. In particular, strategies to enhance the potential for effective proactive, collective responses could

  19. Recovering corporate memory. Wine porters’ guilds and religious traditions in pre-industrial northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Laborda-Pemán

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Lester K. Little, Indispensable immigrants: The wine porters of northern Italy and their saint, 1200-1800, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2015, 229 p., ISBN: 978071909522, £ 70.00.

  20. Sample presentation, sources of error and future perspectives on the application of vibrational spectroscopy in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Daniel

    2015-03-30

    Vibrational spectroscopy encompasses a number of techniques and methods including ultra-violet, visible, Fourier transform infrared or mid infrared, near infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The use and application of spectroscopy generates spectra containing hundreds of variables (absorbances at each wavenumbers or wavelengths), resulting in the production of large data sets representing the chemical and biochemical wine fingerprint. Multivariate data analysis techniques are then required to handle the large amount of data generated in order to interpret the spectra in a meaningful way in order to develop a specific application. This paper focuses on the developments of sample presentation and main sources of error when vibrational spectroscopy methods are applied in wine analysis. Recent and novel applications will be discussed as examples of these developments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Wine tourism : a review of the Chilean case

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has become a thriving niche in global tourism industry with successful cases like Napa Valley in the USA with 19 million visitors per year. However, there are important disparities among wine regions. The paper analyses the case of the Chilean wine tourism, which is one of the regions with less wine tourists although it is very important in global wine industry, and its reasons for its low level of development. Chilean wine industry has been developing its infrastructure in wine ...

  2. Study of the influence of micro-oxygenation and oak chip maceration on wine composition using an electronic tongue and chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, A., E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Schmidtke, L.M., E-mail: lschmidtke@csu.edu.au [National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, School of Agricultural and Wine Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Delgadillo, I. [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Legin, A. [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Scollary, G. [School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2009-05-29

    The influence of micro-oxygenation (MOX) and maceration with oak chips treatments on wine was studied on wine samples from three vintages produced in the Yarra Valley, Australia. A full factorial design was employed where two factors (MOX and oak chips treatments) had two levels and one factor (vintage) had three levels. Three replicated treatments were run for each factor's setting. Wine samples were analysed using conventional laboratory methods with respect to the phenolic wine compounds and colour attributes since the phenolic fraction of wine is most affected by both MOX and oak maceration treatments. The same wine samples were measured with an electronic tongue based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The significance of treatments and vintage effects on wine phenolic compounds was assessed using ANOVA and ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Cross-validation was used for the ASCA sub-model optimisations and permutation test for evaluations of the significance of the factors. Main effects of vintage and maceration with oak chips were found to be significant for both physicochemical and the ET data. Main effect of MOX treatment was also found significant for the physicochemical parameters. The largest effect on the phenolic composition of wine was due to its vintage, which accounted for 70% and 33% of total variance in the physicochemical and ET data respectively. The ET was calibrated with respect to the total phenolic content, colour density and hue and chemical ages 1 and 2 and could predict these parameters of wine with good precision.

  3. Study of the influence of micro-oxygenation and oak chip maceration on wine composition using an electronic tongue and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, A.; Schmidtke, L.M.; Delgadillo, I.; Legin, A.; Scollary, G.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of micro-oxygenation (MOX) and maceration with oak chips treatments on wine was studied on wine samples from three vintages produced in the Yarra Valley, Australia. A full factorial design was employed where two factors (MOX and oak chips treatments) had two levels and one factor (vintage) had three levels. Three replicated treatments were run for each factor's setting. Wine samples were analysed using conventional laboratory methods with respect to the phenolic wine compounds and colour attributes since the phenolic fraction of wine is most affected by both MOX and oak maceration treatments. The same wine samples were measured with an electronic tongue based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The significance of treatments and vintage effects on wine phenolic compounds was assessed using ANOVA and ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Cross-validation was used for the ASCA sub-model optimisations and permutation test for evaluations of the significance of the factors. Main effects of vintage and maceration with oak chips were found to be significant for both physicochemical and the ET data. Main effect of MOX treatment was also found significant for the physicochemical parameters. The largest effect on the phenolic composition of wine was due to its vintage, which accounted for 70% and 33% of total variance in the physicochemical and ET data respectively. The ET was calibrated with respect to the total phenolic content, colour density and hue and chemical ages 1 and 2 and could predict these parameters of wine with good precision.

  4. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), K(+)/Na(+)) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  5. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. β-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating Hedonic Prices for Stellenbosch wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Lutzeyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a hedonic price function for Stellenbosch wines to determine the association between market value and different characteristics of these wines. In such a hedonic price function, the price of a bottle of wine is ascribed to the implicit value of its attributes. Besides contributing to both South African and international wine pricing literature, the benefits of developing a hedonic wine pricing model extend to numerous players in the wine industry. Consumers are provided w...

  7. Superconducting analogue electronics for research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, D

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review of superconducting electronics in research and industry. Examples will show how science benefits from the development and how superconducting devices have found their way into industry and to some commercial products. Impact in terms of enabling new research in other fields (e.g. radio astronomy, medicine), in industry (certification, safety, metrology, etc) and in terms of market will be addressed. From the examples, two fields will be emphasized: superconducting detectors for astronomy and the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) employed for different applications

  8. Defence electronics industry profile, 1990-1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    The defense electronics industry profiled in this review comprises an estimated 150 Canadian companies that develop, manufacture, and repair radio and communications equipment, radars for surveillance and navigation, air traffic control systems, acoustic and infrared sensors, computers for navigation and fire control, signal processors and display units, special-purpose electronic components, and systems engineering and associated software. Canadian defense electronics companies generally serve market niches and end users of their products are limited to the military, government agencies, or commercial airlines. Geographically, the industry is concentrated in Ontario and Quebec, where about 91 percent of the industry's production and employment is found. In 1989, the estimated revenue of the industry was $2.36 billion, and exports totalled an estimated $1.4 billion. Strengths and weaknesses of the industry are discussed in terms of such factors as the relatively small size of Canadian companies, the ability of Canadian firms to access research and development opportunities and export markets in the United States, the dependence on foreign-made components, and international competition.

  9. Mass Customization in the Electronics Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how Amercian Power Conversion (APC), a company in the electronics industry, has used the principles of mass customization to achieve major improvements of its efficiency and performance. APC sells, designs, produces, delivers, and installs large complex infrastructure systems...

  10. Peer-to-peer psychological contracts in the South African wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Penfold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Very few studies examine the impact of peer relationships on the psychological contract. Research purpose: Using the backdrop of wine farm workers in the Western Cape, South Africa, the aim of our study was to explore the nature of peer relationships shaping the psychological contract. Motivation for the study: The agricultural sector of South Africa, in particular the wine farms in the Western Cape, has undergone radical change in the past decades as a result of labour legislation and changing government structures. It was therefore expected that these changes would influence the psychological contracts held by wine farm workers. Research approach, design and method: This qualitative study sampled all 24 full-time employees and 2 managers on the Constantia Hills Wine Estate in Cape Town, South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the critical incident technique in combination with a series of open questions. Main findings: Our findings showed support for the existence of peer-to-peer psychological contracts and noted the valuable influence of a suitable conduit individual on the relationship between employees and their employer. Practical and/or managerial implications: Wine farm workers in South Africa have a strong need to be consulted after a lifetime of having no voice. In addition to ensuring suitable levels of two-way communication, management must understand the inter-peer contract and the nature of the relationships sustaining it. Contribution: Whilst literature has suggested that management of the psychological contract lies firmly within the domain of the employer, our findings indicated that ensuring harmonious peer-to-peer contracts was also central to good working relationships.

  11. Industrial applications of electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam technology was first introduced in Malaysia in 1989 with the conclusion of the bilateral cooperation between the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) and Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) on Radiation Application Projects. Two electron beam accelerators with energy of 3.0 MeV and 200 keV were installed at MINT. These two accelerators pave the way for R and D to be carried out in radiation processing of polymers for cross-linking and surface curing. In 1994, another electron beam accelerator was installed in the private sector for cross-linking of home appliance wires. Since then, two more accelerators were installed in the private sector for cross-linking of heat shrinkable plastic films. Recently, a local company has acquired a low energy electron beam machine for cross-linking of plastic film. Within a period of 7 years, industrial applications of electron beam technology in Malaysia have increased significantly

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY FOR UKRAINIAN WINE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kochkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the problem of assessment the effectiveness of company’s strategy. It gives an overview of theoretical and practical foundations for development of company’s strategy. It examines the principles of innovative Blue Ocean Strategy. The Blue Ocean Strategy for Ukrainian companies on wine market is developed. It is proposed to use DPM (Direct Policy Matrix for assessment the effectiveness of company’s strategy. The paper puts forward an algorithm for evaluating the effectiveness of strategies using DPM (Direct Policy Matrix. A structured interviews with experts by personal interview using a formalized table were conducted to build DPM. DPM is drawn to demonstrate results of the research method. Expenses for implementation the Blue Ocean Strategy for Ukrainian companies is evaluated. The efficiency of the developed Blue Ocean Strategy for Ukrainian companies on wine market is calculated.

  13. Accelerators in industrial electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    High power electron beam accelerators are being used for a variety of industrial processes. Such machines can process a wide range of products at very high thruput rates and at very low unit processing costs. These industrial accelerators are now capable of producing up to 200 kW of electron beam power at 4.0 MV and 100 kW at 5.0 MV. At this writing, even larger units are contemplated. The reliability of these high power devices also makes it feasible to consider bremsstrahlung (x-ray) processing as well. In addition to the advance of accelerator technology, microprocessor control systems now provide the capability to coordinate all the operations of the irradiation facility, including the accelerator, the material handling system, the personnel safety system and various auxiliary services. Facility designs can be adapted to many different industrial processes, including use of the dual purpose electron/x-ray accelerator, to ensure satisfactory product treatment with good dose uniformity, high energy efficiency and operational safety and simplicity. In addition, equipment manufacturers like RDI are looking beyond their conventional DC accelerator technology; looking at high power 10-12 MeV linear accelerators with power levels up to 25 kW or more. These high power linear accelerators could be the ideal processing tool for many sterilization and food irradiation applications. (author)

  14. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho [Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m{sup 3}/day of wastewater from 80,000m{sup 3}/day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  15. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  16. ASPECTS REGARDING WINE PRODUCTION AND WINE SECTOR COMPETITIVENESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine sector competitiveness in Romania. Vineyards have an important share in Romanian agriculture, Romania being ranked on 11th position in the world and on 5th position in the European Union in terms of vineyards surface, while the wine industry is an important contributor to the GDP. The research method was based on analyze of wine sector evolution in the last years. The paper presents current global context of wine market at international level and focus on Romanian wine production sector and wine trade, seen in the light of competitiveness. The competitiveness of Romanian wine sector need to be related with measures that are able to increase the attractiveness of Romanian wines, both on domestic and external markets.

  17. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhebo; Xiao, Xize; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2017-10-31

    In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose) was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages-all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP) and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP). The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA), locally linear embedding (LLE) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R² = 0.9942) worked much better than PLSR.

  18. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhebo Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages—all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP. The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA, locally linear embedding (LLE and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR and support vector machine (SVM were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R2 = 0.9942 worked much better than PLSR.

  19. Wine Industry Competitiveness: A survey of the Shawnee Hills American Viticultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matthew Rendleman

    2016-06-01

    Shawnee Hill׳s AVA winery owner/operators regard increases in regional tourism, growth in the US wine market continuous innovation, unique services and processes, and flow of information from customers to have the most enhancing effects on their businesses, and that confidence/trust in Illinois state political systems, tax systems, and administrative/bureaucratic regulations were the most constraining factors. Furthermore the Shawnee Hills AVA has growing competition, yet consists of innovative winery owners. It may currently lack external financial support, but with a community focus on product differentiation, the Shawnee Hills AVA has a chance, owners believe, to capture a portion of the growing market for regional products.

  20. WinePeer - A Pre-Launch Strategic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Larry; McLeod, Kevin; Renke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    WinePeer is a mobile application that enables wine consumers to rate wines in 60 seconds for the purposes of developing an evolving taste profile with the potential to be leveraged in many different ways. This work determines the viability of WinePeer as a business venture through providing a comprehensive analysis of the external environment including the wine industry supply chain, regulatory influences and global wine industry trends. Drawing on the work of Kim and Mauborgne, this analysis...

  1. Wine tourism among Generations X and Y

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, Donald; Carlsen, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the wine tourism experience from the perspective of young adults, specifically Generation X and Y consumers. Both the wine industry and wine tourism destinations have a particular interest in learning more about these age cohorts, as wine consumption and wine-related travel have been dominated by older adults. Little research has focused on Gen X and Y and how they might become more involved. Accordingly, in this paper their motivation for taking a winery tour, level of eg...

  2. Electron Beam Scanning in Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Yves; Herer, Arnold

    1996-05-01

    Scanned electron beams are used within many industries for applications such as sterilization of medical disposables, crosslinking of wire and cables insulating jackets, polymerization and degradation of resins and biomaterials, modification of semiconductors, coloration of gemstones and glasses, removal of oxides from coal plant flue gasses, and the curing of advanced composites and other molded forms. X-rays generated from scanned electron beams make yet other applications, such as food irradiation, viable. Typical accelerators for these applications range in beam energy from 0.5MeV to 10 MeV, with beam powers between 5 to 500kW and scanning widths between 20 and 300 cm. Since precise control of dose delivery is required in many of these applications, the integration of beam characteristics, product conveyance, and beam scanning mechanisms must be well understood and optimized. Fundamental issues and some case examples are presented.

  3. The oenological potential of Hanseniaspora uvarum in simultaneous and sequential co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the industrial wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eTristezza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In oenology, the utilization of mixed starter cultures composed by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is an approach of growing importance for winemakers in order to enhance sensory quality and complexity of the final product without compromising the general quality and safety of the oenological products. In fact, several non-Saccharomyces yeasts are already commercialized as oenological starter cultures to be used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while several others are the subject of various studies to evaluate their application. Our aim, in this study was to assess, for the first time, the oenological potential of H. uvarum in mixed cultures (co-inoculation and sequential inoculation with S. cerevisiae for industrial wine production. Three previously characterized H. uvarum strains were separately used as multi-starter together with an autochthonous S. cerevisiae starter culture in lab-scale micro-vinification trials. On the basis of microbial development, fermentation kinetics and secondary compounds formation, the strain H. uvarum ITEM8795 was further selected and it was co- and sequentially inoculated, jointly with the S. cerevisiae starter, in a pilot scale wine production. The fermentation course and the quality of final product indicated that the co-inoculation was the better performing modality of inoculum. The above results were finally validated by performing an industrial scale vinification The mixed starter was able to successfully dominate the different stages of the fermentation process and the H. uvarum strain ITEM8795 contributed to increasing the wine organoleptic quality and to simultaneously reduce the volatile acidity. At the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study regarding the utilization of a selected H. uvarum strain in multi-starter inoculation with S. cerevisiae for the industrial production of a wine. In addition, we demonstrated, at an industrial scale, the importance of

  4. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, A., E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [CESAM/Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Rocha, S.M. [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Legin, A. [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C. [Madeira Chemistry Center, University of Madeira, Funchal 9000-390 (Portugal)

    2010-03-03

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  5. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, A.; Rocha, S.M.; Legin, A.; Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  6. Application of multi-way analysis to UV-visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, N. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Leardi, R. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Chemistry and Technology, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147 8 Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P., E-mail: oliveri@dictfa.unige.it [Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Chemistry and Technology, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147 8 Genoa (Italy); Hernando-Esquisabel, D.; Iniguez-Crespo, M. [Gobierno de la Rioja, Consejeria de Agricultura y Alimentacion, Estacion Enologica, Breton de los Herreros 4, 26200 Haro, La Rioja (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wine samples were analytically characterised according to their ageing process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Signals from a sensor-based electronic nose were fused with GC-MS and UV-visible data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study involved 6 periodical determinations of 20 variables on 6 different wines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-way analysis allowed to efficiently extract the maximum information from data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-way methods represent the most suitable tool for processing three-mode data. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC-MS, and colour characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation.

  7. Application of multi-way analysis to UV–visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, N.; Rodriguez-Méndez, M.L.; Leardi, R.; Oliveri, P.; Hernando-Esquisabel, D.; Iñiguez-Crespo, M.; Saja, J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wine samples were analytically characterised according to their ageing process. ► Signals from a sensor-based electronic nose were fused with GC–MS and UV–visible data. ► The study involved 6 periodical determinations of 20 variables on 6 different wines. ► Multi-way analysis allowed to efficiently extract the maximum information from data. ► Multi-way methods represent the most suitable tool for processing three-mode data. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC–MS, and colour characterisation by UV–visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation.

  8. AECL IMPELA electron beam industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrie, J.P.; Drewell, N.H.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Lawrence, C.B.; Mason, V.A.; Ungrin, J.; White, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    A family of industrial irradiators is being developed by AECL to cover an electron-beam energy range from 5 to 18 MeV at beam powers between 20 and 250 kW. The IMPELA family of irradiators is designed for push button, reliable operation. The major irradiator components are modular, allowing for later upgrades to meet increased demands in either electron or X-ray mode. Interface between the control system, irradiator availability and dose quality assurance is in conformance with the most demanding specifications. The IMPELA irradiators use a klystron-driven, standing-wave, L-band accelerator structure with direct injection from a rugged, triode electron gun. Direct control of the accelerating field during the beam pulse ensures constant output beam energy, independent of beam power. The first member of the family, the IMPELA 10/50 (10 MeV, 50 kW), is in the final stages of assembly at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The IMPELA 10/50 is constructed around a 3.25 m long, high-power-capacity accelerator structure operated at a duty factor of 5%. Beam loading exceeds 60%. The rf power is provided by a 2 MW/150 kW modulated-anode klystron protected from load mismatches by a circulator. This prototype will be used to demonstrate the reliability and dose uniformity targets of the IMPELA family. Full beam operation of the IMPELA 10/50 is scheduled for early 1989. (orig.)

  9. Wine fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fra...

  10. Use of radioisotopes in the electronic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walis, L.; Jaskolska, H.; Wronski, W.; Stverak, B.

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of applying nuclear methods in the study of high purity materials and of special technologies used in the electronic industry are described. Attention is paid to neutron activation analysis, nuclear microanalysis of thin surface layers, autoradiography and to radiotracer techniques. The most efficient applications of nuclear methods are indicated, such as the purification of materials to semiconductor grade, doping of semiconductor materials by metallurgical techniques or by diffusion and implantation, investigations of the effect of material processing on the surface purity, studies of metal-semiconductor reactions, dielectric layers, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the described methods and their sensitivities are discussed. Examples of practical work done so far are given. (author)

  11. Application of multi-way analysis to UV-visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Rodriguez-Méndez, M L; Leardi, R; Oliveri, P; Hernando-Esquisabel, D; Iñiguez-Crespo, M; de Saja, J A

    2012-03-16

    In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC-MS, and colour characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Taxation and Consumption of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Dimitris

    1983-01-01

    In this article, the impact that a sales tax might have upon wine consumption and, hence, on the wine and grape growing industries, is analysed. Implications for government revenue are also considered. It is shown that the relative responsiveness of supply and demand, rather than the level in the marketing chain at which a tax is levied, determines where the tax burden finally falls. The imposition of a tax on wine might force certain sectors of the wine and grape industries to undergo a phas...

  13. ACCOUNTING ISSUES CONCERNING THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN WINE PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren Radu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important part of the global economy. Given the gap in the literature, the problems of legislation (in particular the lack of them, the controversies related to IAS 41 standard, we considered necessary to analyze problems and the way in which it it highlighted in the economy the production process of wines with different periods of aging. In Romania, agriculture is a sector with great potential, traditionally occupying an important role in the national economic structure. Thus, by adopting the accounting regulations imposed by Order no. 1802-29 December 2014 the national legislation was aligned with the European level, this framework being closer to regulations imposed by IAS 41. However, if we take into account large areas of forest cultures, vineyards or cultures purchased using foreign investment funds and the many foreign investments in livestock farms, it is expected that in the near future it will also be necessary to consider the application of this standard in Romania.In conclusion, this study is intended as a promoter of change that must occur in accordance with the current situation, supporting the idea of harmonizing the rules in effect worldwide.

  14. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    OpenAIRE

    Radka Šperková; Jiří Duda

    2010-01-01

    Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and resta...

  15. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-01-01

    Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to deter...

  16. Integrated biovalorization of wine and olive mill by-products to produce enzymes of industrial interest and soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, R.; Ullrich, R.; García-Romera, I.; Liers, C.; Aranda, E.

    2016-11-01

    An integral and affordable strategy for the simultaneous production of lignin-modifying and carbohydrate active enzymes and organic amendment, with the aid of a saprobe fungus was developed by using olive oil and wine extraction by-products. The polyporal fungus Trametes versicolor was cultivated in soy or barley media supplemented with dry olive mill residue (DOR) as well as with grape pomace and stalks (GPS) in solid state fermentation (SSF). This strategy led to a 4-fold increase in the activity of laccase, the principal enzyme produced by SFF, in DOR-soy media as compared to controls. T. versicolor managed to secrete lignin-modifying enzymes in GPS, although no stimulative effect was observed. GPS-barley media turned out to be the appropriate medium to elicit most of the carbohydrate active enzymes. The reuse of exhausted solid by-products as amendments after fermentation was also investigated. The water soluble compound polymerization profile of fermented residues was found to correlate with the effect of phytotoxic depletion. The incubation of DOR and GPS with T. versicolor not only reduced its phytotoxicity but also stimulated the plant growth. This study provides a basis for understanding the stimulation and repression of two groups of enzymes of industrial interest in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources from by-products, possible enzyme recovery and the final reuse as soil amendments. (Author)

  17. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  18. A cointegration analysis of wine stock indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Introvigne; Emanuele Bacchiocchi; Daniela Vandone

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes price patterns and long-run relationships for both fine wine and non-fine wine, with the aim to highlight price dynamics and co-movements between series, and to exploit potential diversification benefits. Data are from Liv-Ex 100 Fine Wine for fine wine, the Mediobanca Global Wine Industry Share Price for normal wine, and the MSCI World Index as a proxy of the overall stock market. Engle-Granger and Johansen tests were used to detect whether and to what extent the series c...

  19. Impact of eight closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of two (red and rosé) wines

    OpenAIRE

    Caille, Soline; Samson, Alain; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of closure are two key factors of the shelf life of bottled wines before bringing them to market. The impact of eight closures (four screw caps, two synthetic stoppers and two technical stoppers) was evaluated on a red Merlot/Tannat wine. The results of a rosé wine are also discussed. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b*) was carried out over 538 days of storage at 20°C,...

  20. Analysis of organic acids and phenols of interest in the wine industry using Langmuir–Blodgett films based on functionalized nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Plaza, C.; García-Cabezón, C.; García-Hernández, C.; Bramorski, C.; Blanco-Val, Y.; Martín-Pedrosa, F.; Kawai, T.; Saja, J.A. de; Rodríguez-Méndez, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time functionalized NPs immobilized in LB films have been used as voltammetric sensors. • Films showed excellent electrocatalytic properties toward phenols and acids found in wines. • Improved performance is due to combination of electrocatalytic NPs with the high surface/volume of LB films. • The potential applications in the wine industry have been evidenced. - Abstract: A chemically modified electrode consisting of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of n-dodecanethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles (S DOD AuNP-LB), was investigated as a voltammetric sensor of organic and phenolic acids of interest in the wine industry. The nanostructured films demonstrated interfacial properties being able to detect the main organic acids present in grapes and wines (tartaric, malic, lactic and citric). Compared to a bare ITO electrode, the modified electrodes exhibited a shift of the reduction potential in the less positive direction and a marked enhancement in the current response. Moreover, the increased electrocatalytic properties made it possible to distinguish between the different dissociable protons of polyprotic acids. The S DOD AuNP-LB sensor was also able to provide enhanced responses toward aqueous solutions of phenolic acids commonly found in wines (caffeic and gallic acids). The presence of nanoparticles increased drastically the sensitivity toward organic acids and phenolic compounds. Limits of detection as low as 10 −6 mol L −1 were achieved. Efficient catalytic activity was also observed in mixtures of phenolic acid/tartaric in the range of pHs typically found in wines. In such mixtures, the electrode was able to provide simultaneous information about the acid and the phenol concentrations with a complete absence of interferences. The excellent sensing properties shown by these sensors could be attributed to the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles combined with the high surface to volume ratio and homogeneity

  1. Analysis of organic acids and phenols of interest in the wine industry using Langmuir–Blodgett films based on functionalized nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); García-Cabezón, C. [Department of Materials Science, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); García-Hernández, C.; Bramorski, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Blanco-Val, Y.; Martín-Pedrosa, F. [Department of Materials Science, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Kawai, T. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Rodríguez-Méndez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time functionalized NPs immobilized in LB films have been used as voltammetric sensors. • Films showed excellent electrocatalytic properties toward phenols and acids found in wines. • Improved performance is due to combination of electrocatalytic NPs with the high surface/volume of LB films. • The potential applications in the wine industry have been evidenced. - Abstract: A chemically modified electrode consisting of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of n-dodecanethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles (S{sub DOD}AuNP-LB), was investigated as a voltammetric sensor of organic and phenolic acids of interest in the wine industry. The nanostructured films demonstrated interfacial properties being able to detect the main organic acids present in grapes and wines (tartaric, malic, lactic and citric). Compared to a bare ITO electrode, the modified electrodes exhibited a shift of the reduction potential in the less positive direction and a marked enhancement in the current response. Moreover, the increased electrocatalytic properties made it possible to distinguish between the different dissociable protons of polyprotic acids. The S{sub DOD}AuNP-LB sensor was also able to provide enhanced responses toward aqueous solutions of phenolic acids commonly found in wines (caffeic and gallic acids). The presence of nanoparticles increased drastically the sensitivity toward organic acids and phenolic compounds. Limits of detection as low as 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} were achieved. Efficient catalytic activity was also observed in mixtures of phenolic acid/tartaric in the range of pHs typically found in wines. In such mixtures, the electrode was able to provide simultaneous information about the acid and the phenol concentrations with a complete absence of interferences. The excellent sensing properties shown by these sensors could be attributed to the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles combined with the high surface to volume ratio

  2. Playing the Scales: Regional Transformations and the Differentiation of Rural Space in the Chilean Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, John; Murray, Warwick E.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industrial restructuring transform rural places in complex and often contradictory ways. These involve both quantitative changes, increasing the size and scope of operation to achieve economies of scale, and qualitative shifts, sometimes leading to a shift up the quality/price scale, towards finer spatial resolution and…

  3. The Political Economy of Alternative Trade: Social and Environmental Certification in the South African Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Cheryl; Bek, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent critical analyses of the nature and impacts of social and environmental certification, the increasingly complex landscape of voluntary, industry and third-party codes and certification processes that have emerged in specific sectors is poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the potential threats posed by an…

  4. Wine fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holmberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fraud are discussed.Keywords: adulteration, counterfeit, detection

  5. Is Wine a Financial Parachute?

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Lucia; Vandone, Daniela; Peri, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between Global Wine Industry Share Price Indexes and composite stock market indexes using a Threshold Vector Error Correction Model (TVECM), aiming to investigate if investments in the wine sector play a role in determining financial risk and return to investors who include it in their portfolio. Whilst in most of the literature analyses the return of investments of fine wine, this paper places the focus to “normal” (i.e. non‐fine) wine, using data from th...

  6. Technology and application of two sets of industrial electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Degen

    2000-01-01

    The radiation industry in China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) has had a big scale, and the two sets of industrial electron accelerators play important roles. The Electron Processing System (E.P.S), which was introduced in 1987, is a powerful electron accelerator. And the 10 MeV Accelerator, which is a traveling wave linear electron accelerator, has the higher electron energy. Both of the stes are equipped the driving devices under the beam, and has made a considerable economic results. This article describes the technology and application of the two electron accelerators. (author)

  7. The impact of software growth on the electronics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genuchten, van M.J.I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Software growth has significantly impacted the computer industry and is changing many other electronics industries. It is not a question of whether intellectual property will be sold in the form of software, but which companies will do it successfully. The actions electronics companies take today

  8. Purification of waste waters in the wine industry. Depuracion de aguas residuales en la industria vinicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata-Alvarez, J.; Criville Tura, A. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the characteristic problems of winery wastewaters. The communications presented in the recently held ''International conference on winery wastewaters'' in Narbonne (France) have been taken as a basis for the discussion. This latter is structured in accordance with the kind of treatment described (biological aerobic/anaerobic and physicochemical). It is concluded that there are several and feasible technical solutions, but is necessary to tailor them to each single industry. (Author) 38 refs.

  9. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  10. Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) 2015 Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) hardware and software capabilities, including portable electronic devices (PEDs) used as EFBs, as of July 2015. This document updates and replaces the Volpe Centers previous EFB ind...

  11. Forces Shaping the Electronic Publishing Industry of the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donald T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the conventional publishing industry, and discusses a study of the electronic publishing industry and its products and processes. Discusses seven major forces affecting it--technology, economics, demographics, social trends, government policies, applications growth, and industry trends--and outlines principles to follow for success in…

  12. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses of...

  13. Teaching the Language and Culture of France through Its Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    The study of wine offers possibilities for teaching a variety of topics in the high school or college French class: geography, history, grape varieties, food-wine combinations, the art of appreciating and distinguishing wines, the wine industry, and French daily life. The development of a slide-tape presentation is described in detail. Resource…

  14. Trace analysis of multi-class pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal health wines using gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Kong, Dan-Dan; Liu, Qian-Zhen; Ma, Xin-Ping; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-02-01

    A method is described for multi-residue, high-throughput determination of trace levels of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 5 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Chinese medicinal (CM) health wines using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) based extraction method and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Several parameters were optimized to improve preparation and separation time while still maintaining high sensitivity. Validation tests of spiked samples showed good linearities for 27 pesticides (R = 0.9909-0.9996) over wide concentration ranges. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were measured at ng/L levels, 0.06-2 ng/L and 0.2-6 ng/L for OCPs and 0.02-3 ng/L and 0.06-7 ng/L for PYPs, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision tests showed variations of 0.65-9.89% for OCPs and 0.98-13.99% for PYPs, respectively. Average recoveries were in the range of 47.74-120.31%, with relative standard deviations below 20%. The developed method was then applied to analyze 80 CM wine samples. Beta-BHC (Benzene hexachloride) was the most frequently detected pesticide at concentration levels of 5.67-31.55 mg/L, followed by delta-BHC, trans-chlordane, gamma-BHC, and alpha-BHC. The validated method is simple and economical, with adequate sensitivity for trace levels of multi-class pesticides. It could be adopted by laboratories for this and other types of complex matrices analysis.

  15. Workshop on scientific and industrial applications of free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.; Perez, R.B.

    1990-05-01

    A Workshop on Scientific and Industrial Applications of Free Electron Lasers was organized to address potential uses of a Free Electron Laser in the infrared wavelength region. A total of 13 speakers from national laboratories, universities, and the industry gave seminars to an average audience of 30 persons during June 12 and 13, 1989. The areas covered were: Free Electron Laser Technology, Chemistry and Surface Science, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Condensed Matter, and Biomedical Applications, Optical Damage, and Optoelectronics

  16. Wine: the increasing risk of a highly vulnerable industry globally to natural disasters and climate change (NH Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James E.; Daniell, Trevor M.; Daniell, Katherine A.; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schäfer, Andreas M.; Kunz, Michael; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Girard, Trevor; Burford, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Globally, well over 10 trillion in economic losses and over 10 million deaths can be attributed directly to natural disaster events from floods, earthquakes, storms, volcanoes and climatic effects historically (CATDAT - Daniell et al., 2016). When looking at the most vulnerable industries to natural disasters for each dollar invested the wine industry rates very highly, thus showing the risky and vulnerable nature of the wine business. Some effects of climate change will be shifting climates so that new grape growing areas are discovered and some traditional locations will require a change of grape variety to be planted, or will unsatisfactory for quality grape production. As new grape types are developed, some other grape types will become less viable leading to a global shift relative to the current state of the industry. The wine industry has been shown to have major losses via sudden shocks such as earthquakes in Chile (2010), Christchurch (2011) and Napa (2014) and hail through Burgundy (2012-2014). Wineries are often prone to other major disasters such as flood, storms, frost, fire or disease causing structural failure of assets, and significant production losses. Natural and man-made disasters play a key role in wine industry losses, and the variability of seasonal shifts and sudden natural shocks can often play a major role in the lifecycle and indeed the lifetime of wineries. Lessons learnt from winery disasters and climate impacts in Australia, Chile, New Zealand and USA are used as well as a comparison with those in Europe and other vulnerable centralised industries, such as cheese in Italy (2012 earthquake). For various natural disasters the structural engineering issues associated with wineries are examined with respect to infrastructure such as elevated steel tanks, as well as the importance of planning for earthquakes. The potential risk mitigation solutions are often simple to implement and are cost-effective in reducing significantly the risk

  17. Wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2002-05-01

    Wine contains many phenolic substances, most of which originate in the grape berry. The phenolics have a number of important functions in wine, affecting the tastes of bitterness and astringency, especially in red wine. Second, the color of red wine is caused by phenolics. Third, the phenolics are the key wine preservative and the basis of long aging. Lastly, since phenolics oxidize readily, they are the component that suffers owing to oxidation and the substance that turns brown in wine (and other foods) when exposed to air. Wine phenolics include the non-flavonoids: hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates and the stilbenes; plus the flavonoids: flavan-3-ols, the flavonols, and the anthocyanins. While polymeric condensed tannins and pigmented tannins constitute the majority of wine phenolics, their large size precludes absorption and thus they are not likely to have many health effects (except, perhaps, in the gut). The total amount of phenols found in a glass of red wine is on the order of 200 mg versus about 40 mg in a glass of white wine.

  18. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L. from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. F. de Sales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  19. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L.) from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sales, Nathalia F F; Silva da Costa, Leandro; Carneiro, Talita I A; Minuzzo, Daniela A; Oliveira, Felipe L; Cabral, Lourdes M C; Torres, Alexandre G; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2018-03-08

    Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  20. BaccuS: A framework for sustainability in the wine industry / BaccuS : un framework pour le développement durable dans la vitiviniculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Shana Sabbado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BaccuS is a proposal of framework intended to support the internalization of sustainability principles in the wine industry, enhancing the actors' performance in this sense. The framework was built from two exploratory studies in Brazilian wine regions of Campanha Gaúcha (RS and Vale do São Francisco (BA/PE and preliminary studies which involved technical visits in three countries (France, Italy and Spain and frameworks' observations in another five (South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Chile. The BaccuS is structured on a matrix basis, with an axis corresponding to dimensions and other to guidelines, both in ascending order of complexity and development. The five sustainability dimensions (environment, economic, social, political- institutional and territorial and the four guidelines (management, articulation and cooperation, innovation and learning and sustainability are articulated by eighteen topics that represent areas to act to promote the sustainability in the wine territories. Each topic was unfolded in indicators. Additionally, ten synthesis indicators specify initiatives or programs that can be implemented to impact positively on several indicators. The BaccuS framework can be applied in several scales, in the winery or the territory.

  1. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Collins, Thomas S; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Mills, David A

    2016-06-14

    Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir Wine production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry for which microbial control and wine chemical composition are crucial aspects of quality. Terroir is an important feature of consumer appreciation and wine culture, but the many factors that contribute to terroir are nebulous. We show that grape and wine microbiota exhibit regional patterns that correlate with wine chemical composition, suggesting that the grape microbiome may influence terroir In addition to enriching our understanding of how growing region and wine properties interact, this may provide further economic incentive for agricultural and enological practices that maintain regional

  2. Comparison of the effect of 8 closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of a red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of the closure are two key factors of the shelf life of wine in bottles before bringing them to market. The impact of four screw caps, two synthetic and two technical corks was evaluated on a red wine of Merlot/Tannat. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b* was carried out during 538 days of storage at 20 °C. Two sensory analyses at 10 and 17 months completed the study. The wine was bottled with an average total oxygen content of 2 mg/L. The heterogeneity intra and inter procedure was controlled, including for the dissolved carbon dioxide content. Conclusion: Unlike closures with highest OTR, the two technical corks and the two screw caps with Saranex seal, harboring the lowest OTR, matched with the wines exhibiting a low total O2 content at equilibrium (from 4th to 18th month, with more free SO2 and less changed colour. However this OTR gradient (5 to 67 μg/d observed through the physicochemical analyses was not necessarily confirmed by both sensory analyses performed. Significance and impact of study: This study puts into perspective the impact of OTR closure on sensory characteristics evolution of wine consumed during the first two years, especially when the total oxygen at bottling exceeds 1.5 mg/L.

  3. Continuous Improvement and its Barriers in Electrical and Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Md Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous improvement is one of the core strategies for manufacturing excellent and it is considered vital in today’s business environment. Continuous improvement is an important factor in TQM implementation. However, manufacturers in Electrical and Electronic Industry is facing variety of challenges such as, time constraint, quality issue, headcount issue, human issue and competition in domestic as well as the global market. This paper presents total quality management practices in Electrical and Electronic (EE Industry. These manufacturers have to keep improving in key activities and processes to cope the challenges. Therefore, EE industry realize the importance of continuous improvement in helping the industries by setting clear goals and priorities for the area of improvement. The aims of this study are to determine the main factor in implementing continuous improvement practices, identify tools of continuous improvement that have been used and their obstacle in implementing continuous improvement practices. 200 questionnaires had been distributed to the employees in Electrical and Electronic Industry located at Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 41 questionnaires were answered which represented about 20.5% response rates. Survey result shows that teamwork and training and learning are respectively the importance factor and the most practices factor in Electrical and Electronic Industry. Most of the Electrical and Electronic Industry emphasis is on using Lean Manufacturing as the tool of continuous improvement practices. Besides that, Electrical and Electronic Industry faced the problems of lack of budget and lack of worker commitment.

  4. Analysis of organic acids and phenols of interest in the wine industry using Langmuir-Blodgett films based on functionalized nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Plaza, C; García-Cabezón, C; García-Hernández, C; Bramorski, C; Blanco-Val, Y; Martín-Pedrosa, F; Kawai, T; de Saja, J A; Rodríguez-Méndez, M L

    2015-01-01

    A chemically modified electrode consisting of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of n-dodecanethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles (SDODAuNP-LB), was investigated as a voltammetric sensor of organic and phenolic acids of interest in the wine industry. The nanostructured films demonstrated interfacial properties being able to detect the main organic acids present in grapes and wines (tartaric, malic, lactic and citric). Compared to a bare ITO electrode, the modified electrodes exhibited a shift of the reduction potential in the less positive direction and a marked enhancement in the current response. Moreover, the increased electrocatalytic properties made it possible to distinguish between the different dissociable protons of polyprotic acids. The SDODAuNP-LB sensor was also able to provide enhanced responses toward aqueous solutions of phenolic acids commonly found in wines (caffeic and gallic acids). The presence of nanoparticles increased drastically the sensitivity toward organic acids and phenolic compounds. Limits of detection as low as 10(-6) mol L(-1) were achieved. Efficient catalytic activity was also observed in mixtures of phenolic acid/tartaric in the range of pHs typically found in wines. In such mixtures, the electrode was able to provide simultaneous information about the acid and the phenol concentrations with a complete absence of interferences. The excellent sensing properties shown by these sensors could be attributed to the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles combined with the high surface to volume ratio and homogeneity provided by the LB technique used for the immobilization. Moreover, the LB technique also provided an accurate method to immobilize the gold nanoparticles giving rise to stable and reproducible sensors showing repeatability lower than 2% and reproducibility lower than 4% for all the compounds analyzed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Stability of the anthocyanins extracted from residues of the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Clemente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are highly important due to their antioxidant capacity. They are the most important among the phenolic compounds and one of the main natural dyes used in the food industry. In this research, residue of processed grapes was used to investigate the presence of anthocyanins, the possibility of their extraction from the residue, and their stability. The extraction solution consisted of 70 mL of ethanol 70% and 30 mL of HCl 0.1% at pH 2.0. The results found for the processed grapes residue was 26.20 mg.100 g-1. In order to evaluate stability, caffeic acid was added at 0.5:1 w/v; 0.8:1 w/v; and 1:1 w/v concentrations. Anthocyanins extract reached the greatest stability at 0.5:1 w/v concentration, with 82.47% color retention and a half-life period of 15 days. Therefore, the use of this organic acid as a stabilizer for anthocyanins is feasible.

  6. The relationship between product quality and transaction costs with vertical coordination in DOC Rioja wine grape industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernanez-Olmos, M.; Rossell-Martinez, J.; Espitia-Escuer, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between product quality and governance mode choice (market mode, hybrid mode or vertical integration) using the results of a survey of 187 qualified appellation of origin (DOC) Rioja wineries. By estimating a generalized ordered logit, it is concluded that wineries that produce high-quality wines are more likely to vertically integrate than are wineries that produce low-quality wines. Consistent with transaction cost economics, evidence is found that asset specificity and uncertainty are important determinants of vertical integration. Finally, the size of the winery is also an important factor that affects governance mode choice in viticulture. (Author)

  7. Comparison of the effect of 8 closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Jean-Claude; Caille, Soline; Samson, Alain; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of the closure are two key factors of the shelf life of wine in bottles before bringing them to market. The impact of four screw caps, two synthetic and two technical corks was evaluated on a red wine of Merlot/Tannat. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b*) was carried out during 538 days of storage at 20 °C. Two sensory analyses at 10 and 17 months completed the stu...

  8. Regional innovative and investment processes analysis and their impact on food-industry wine-producing enterprises development in Odessa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Svitlana Аnatoliyivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of state of winemaking sector, trends of innovative development of industrial enterprises of Ukraine and Odessa region are analyzed and based on this the characteristic patterns and main shortcomings are identified. The regional innovation and investment processes are anylyzed, the nature of its influence on development of wineries in food industry of Odessa region is identified. It is proved that the regulatory impact on development of viticulture and wine-making should focus on conditions and behavior of industry enterprises and directly or indirectly affect the efficiency of its business processes. One of management tools of socio-economic development of regions is regulation of innovation and investment processes, strict control over the use of targeted funds for program solving of region develoment priorities.

  9. The synergies of the Italian wine and tourism sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gaetano Santeramo

    2017-06-01

    We analyse the synergic relations between the domestic tourism in Italy and wine industry exploring data on flows of domestic tourism among the Italian regions and key indicators for the wine industry. The region of origin of tourists is a determining factor in the choice of destination; we also highlight the role of customer loyalty. The political implications are relevant: institutions and political actors could exploit the synergies between the tourism and the wine industries by promoting excellence in wine.

  10. Electronic data interchange in the Canadian natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfield, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of electronic data interchange (EDI) in the gas industry was discussed. EDI as a champion of costumer service and as a powerful management tool was defined, and the process of electronic information transfer was explained. EDI was then placed in the context of the business process, and its benefits in providing efficient service and product improvement were enumerated. North American Gas EDI standards, and industry initiatives were explored in detail

  11. Industrial applications of electron beam; Przemyslowe zastosowamia wiazki elektronow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The review of industrial applications with use of electron beams has been done. Especially the radiation technologies being developed in Poland have been shown. Industrial installations with electron accelerators as radiation source have been applied for: modification of polymers; modification of thyristors; sterilization of health care materials; radiopreservation of food and other consumer products; purification of combustion flue gases in heat and power plants. 14 refs, 6 tabs, 7 figs.

  12. An Overview of the Electronic Information Industry in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yang

    2009-01-01

    @@ With European,American and Japanese economies still in recession,external demand remaining weak,total revenues of China's electronic information industry witnessed a decline in the first four months of 2009,sliding 2.2 percent year-on-year,according to statistics released by China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on May 22.

  13. Some electron beam welding equipments for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, H.; Rodier, R.; Sayegh, G.

    1978-01-01

    Results of various electron beam welding equipment developed for the nuclear industry obtained from a 100 kW electron beam machine to weld thick plates made of stainless steel and reactor steel, and from some equipment with local vacuum to weld pipes onto a pipe wall. (orig.) [de

  14. Electronic commerce: wiring the coal industry for new data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Industry pundits predict that coal by wire may some day replace much of the industry`s long-distance shipping requirements and their attendant costs, but data by wire, also known as electronic commerce (EC) can today offer coal producers and customers the means to gather and send large volumes of data cheaply and quickly. EC`s major components - electronic data interchange (EDI), bar-coding, smart codes, radio frequency `D`, and the internet - can reduce costs in equipment-intensive industries such as mining. The US National Mining Association sponsored a forum to discuss these alternatives at its 1998 Electronic Commerce Summit held in Tuscon, Arizona, 18-20 May. A report is given of discussions at the forum and contacts are given for sources of EDI information.

  15. IMPELA electron accelerators for industrial radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    IMPELA electron accelerators are derived from a common basic design of rf accelerating structure which is capable of handling beams with powers from 20 to 250 kW at 5 to 18 MeV. A prototype has been built which operates at 50 kW and 10 MeV. The paper describes the major elements of the system with particular reference to features which assist in maintaining irradiation quality, simple operation and high reliability. A cost model based on the prototype is used to demonstrate the economies of scale available and the impact of local prices for utilities. (author)

  16. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lukyanchuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex avtomatization sites grape processing with bulk transportation of the latter; improving the quality and durability of wines by the processing of a wide applying wine cold and heat, as well as technical and microbiological control most powerful automation equipment; the introduction of automated production processes of continuous technical champagne, sherry wine and cognac alcohol madery; the use of complex automation auxiliary production sites (boilers, air conditioners, refrigeration unitsand other.; complex avtomatization creation of enterprises, and sites manufactory bottling wines. In the wine industry developed more sophisticated schemes of automation and devices that enable the transition to integrated production automation, will create, are indicative automated enterprise serving for laboratories to study of the main problems of automation of production processes of winemaking.

  17. Internationalization strategies of companies in the wine industry in Portugal – context, forms of action and performance.

    OpenAIRE

    VIVAS, Carla; SOUSA, António

    2012-01-01

    This research project aims to analyze the competitive environment of companies in the wine sector in Portugal and assess the implications in the development of contingent strategic guidelines and different performances.Proposes to apply the methodological framework the IKST – Integrated Key for Strategic Thought for international expansion. The research was carried out at two levels: at a preliminary level – a general characterisation was made of the companies as to their resources, and at a ...

  18. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Lukyanchuk; V. A. Khobin; V. A. Khobin

    2016-01-01

    The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex a...

  19. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  20. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  1. Communication and Industrial Electronics. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the electricity/electronics occupations cluster, this guide identifies the essentials of the communication and industrial electronics trade as recommended by the successful electrical servicemen. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  2. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    OpenAIRE

    Saltman Y; Johnson TE; Wilkinson KL; Bastian SEP

    2015-01-01

    Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and f...

  3. Power electronics applied to industrial systems and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Patin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of power electronic converters (DC / DC, DC / AC, AC / DC and AC / AC) conventionally used in industrial and transportation applications, specifically for the supply of electric machines with variable speed drop off window. From the perspective of design and sizing, this book presents the different functions encountered in a modular way for power electronics.Power Converters and Their Control details less traditional topics such as matrix converters and multilevel converters. This book also features a case study design of an industrial controller, wh

  4. Space Station - The base for tomorrow's electronic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential value of space material processing on the Space Station for the electronics industry is examined. The primary advantages of the space environment for producing high-purity semiconductors and electrooptical materials are identified as the virtual absence of gravity (suppressing buoyancy-driven convection in melts and density segregation of alloys) and the availabilty of high vacuum (with high pumping speed and heat rejection). The recent history of material development and processing technology in the electronics industry is reviewed, and the principal features of early space experiments are outlined.

  5. Development of applications for Indian industry using electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.; Khader, S.A.; Sabharwal, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the industrial applications that have been developed and demonstrated to the Indian industry using 2MeV/20kW Electron Beam accelerator at BARC-BRIT in the field of polymer modifications (crosslinking and degradation), gem stone coloration etc. Technological scale demonstration of the applications citing the benefits in terms of clean technology and better economics, encouraged three companies in private industry to set up EB facilities for the treatment of cable insulations, heat shrinkable products, diamond and gem stones during the last five years. Recent work on EB processing of automobile rubber tires is also included. (author)

  6. RoHS Compliance - Is the Global Electronics Industry Ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Head, Marieke; Hróarsson, Hallur

    2006-01-01

    RoHS is an EU directive that was proposed along with the WEEE Directive in 2002 as a part of a plan to promote extended producer responsibility within the electronics industry. Together, these two directives seek to make electrical and electronic equipment easier to manage both in terms of environmental impacts and recycling. The RoHS Directive seeks to remove lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium and two brominated flame retardants from all consumer electrical equipment. This paper dea...

  7. Power electronics applied to industrial systems and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Patin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    If the operation of electronic components switching scheme to reduce congestion and losses (in power converters in general and switching power supplies in particular), it also generates electromagnetic type of pollution in its immediate environment. Power Electronics for Industry and Transport, Volume 4 is devoted to electromagnetic compatibility. It presents the sources of disturbance and the square wave signal, spectral modeling generic perturbation. Disturbances propagation mechanisms called ""lumped"" by couplings such as a common impedance, a parasitic capacitance or a mutual and ""dis

  8. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alonso, Abel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-depth face-to-face interviews among 23 small winery operators to reveal that the scope for exploiting wine tourism on the islands has been recognized and that some wineries are either already involved in wine tourism, includ-ing as part of a wine trail, or plan to be more involved in the future. It was also discovered, that there were a number of issues that challenge the development of their wine and wine tourism industry, includ-ing competition from non-Canary Island wines and anti-drink-drive laws that are inhibit passers by to consume wine at the cellar door. Operators stressed the need to find a balance between mass tourism and the niche produce of wine. Moreover, the findings identify avenues for future research on wine tourism development in the Canary Islands.

  9. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  10. Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features.

  11. 77 FR 16671 - Labeling Imported Wines With Multistate Appellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... were suggested by domestic wine industry members. ATF decided to allow multistate appellations ``in...-2010-0007; T.D. TTB-101; Re: Notice No. 110] RIN 1513-AB58 Labeling Imported Wines With Multistate.... SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau is amending the wine labeling regulations to allow...

  12. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cane Koteski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wine (Latin: vinum is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained from other types of fruit. These wines are referred to as fruit wines, or wear a name by which the fruit is used for obtaining them (for example apple wine. Wine tourism is a type of tourism that involves visiting wineries, tasting, consumption and purchase of wine, usually directly from the manufacturer. This type of tourism includes visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants famous for special local wines, as well as organized wine tours, visits to wine festivals and other special events. Many wine regions around the world to promote this tourism because it affects very positively to the local economy. In these regions, viticulture and hospitality organizations have spent significant resources over the years for the promotion of wine tourism. Wine tourism in my country is respected, but strong growth.

  13. Stellenbosch Wine Route wineries: Management's perspective on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    Certain tourism-related services and facilities are perceived to contribute ... overall success of the wine industry was historically determined only by the quality ... loyalty, the building of brand awareness and higher profits from winery sales (Hall ... aspects relating to wine tourism, such as its impact on revenue, the real cost of.

  14. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  15. Applications in Electronics Pervading Industry, Environment and Society

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. A wide spectrum of application domains are covered, from automotive to space and from health to security, and special attention is devoted to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication, and control. The book is based on the 2014 APPLEPIES Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas covered by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean, and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green, and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and th...

  16. 2015 Applications in Electronics Pervading Industry, Environment and Society Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. It covers a broad spectrum of application domains, from automotive to space and from health to security, while devoting special attention to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication and control. The book is based on the 2015 ApplePies Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas addressed by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and the ...

  17. National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Charles

    The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

  18. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cane Koteski; Zlatko Jakovlev; Dragana Soltirovska

    2016-01-01

    Wine (Latin: vinum) is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained ...

  19. 10 MeV RF electron linac for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Electron linacs have found numerous applications in the field of radiation processing on an industrial scale. High power RF electron linacs are commonly used for food irradiation, medical sterilization, cross-linking of polymers, etc. For this purpose, the 10 MeV RF linac has been indigenously designed, developed, commissioned and is being used regularly at 3 kW beam power. This paper gives a brief description of the linac and its utilization for various applications. Safety considerations and regulatory aspects of the linac are also discussed

  20. Power electronics applied to industrial systems and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Patin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Some power electronic converters are specifically designed to power equipment under a smoothed DC voltage. Therefore, the filtering part necessarily involves the use of auxiliary passive components (inductors and capacitors). This book deals with technical aspects such as classical separation between isolated and non-isolated power supplies, and soft switching through a special converter. It addresses the problem of regulating the output voltage of the switching power supplies in terms of modeling and obtaining transfer of SMPS functions.Power Electronics for Industry and Transport, Volume 3,

  1. Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skarda, Vlad

    2017-01-01

    EuCARD-2 Workshop, 8-9 December 2016, Warsaw, Poland. Organizers: Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Germany, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. An article presents short information about EuCARD-2 Workshop “Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications”, which was held in December 2016 in Warsaw. Objectives, main topics and expected output of meeting are described. List of organizers is included.

  2. Talking About Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Adrienne

    1975-01-01

    A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is given. Experiments involving typical wine drinkers show that there is little consensus in how the words are applied to wine. Communication tasks show that the sender and receiver of messages about wine perform little better than chance. (Author/RM)

  3. Electronic fraud (cyber fraud risk in the banking industry, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewangu Dzomira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores forms of electronic fraud which are being perpetrated in the banking industry and the challenges being faced in an attempt to combat the risk. The paper is based on a descriptive study which studied the cyber fraud phenomenon using content analysis. To obtain the data questionnaires and interviews were administered to the selected informants from 22 banks. Convenience and judgemental sampling techniques were used. It was found out that most of the cited types of electronic fraud are perpetrated across the banking industry. Challenges like lack of resources (detection tools and technologies, inadequate cyber-crime laws and lack of knowledge through education and awareness were noted. It is recommended that the issue of cyber security should be addressed involving all the stakeholders so that technological systems are safeguarded from cyber-attacks

  4. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Chen; Carlos Escott; Iris Loira; Juan Manuel del Fresno; Antonio Morata; Wendu Tesfaye; Fernando Calderon; Santiago Benito; Jose Antonio Suárez-Lepe

    2016-01-01

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In th...

  5. Continuous Improvement and its Barriers in Electrical and Electronic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Md Fauzi; Yan Toh Li; Wei Chan Shiau; Aizat Ahmad Ahmad Nur; Raja Mohd Rasi Raja Zuraidah; Abdul Rahman Nor Aida; Muhd Nor Nik Hisyamudin; Hassan Mohd Fahrul; Hashim Fatan Adibah

    2017-01-01

    Continuous improvement is one of the core strategies for manufacturing excellent and it is considered vital in today’s business environment. Continuous improvement is an important factor in TQM implementation. However, manufacturers in Electrical and Electronic Industry is facing variety of challenges such as, time constraint, quality issue, headcount issue, human issue and competition in domestic as well as the global market. This paper presents total quality management practices in Electric...

  6. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fungal and enzymatic remediation of a wine lees and five wine-related distillery wastewaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strong, PJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The alcohol fermentation industry is divided into three main categories: brewing, distilling and wine manufacture. Each of these categories produces wastewaters with com- mon characteristics, such as acidic pH values and high bio- chemical oxygen demand....O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa , Pretoria 0001, South Africa 6 December 2007; accepted 12 December 2007 (2008) xxx–xxx and enzymatic remediation of a wine lees and five ..., Bioresour. e ARTICLE IN PRESS Distillery and wine...

  8. Conceptual design of industrial free electron laser using superconducting accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N. [Automatic Systems Corporation, Samara (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Paper presents conceptual design of free electron laser (FEL) complex for industrial applications. The FEL complex consists of three. FEL oscillators with the optical output spanning the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) wave-lengths ({lambda} = 0.3...20 {mu}m) and with the average output power 10 - 20 kW. The driving beam for the FELs is produced by a superconducting accelerator. The electron beam is transported to the FELs via three beam lines (125 MeV and 2 x 250 MeV). Peculiar feature of the proposed complex is a high efficiency of the. FEL oscillators, up to 20 %. This becomes possible due to the use of quasi-continuous electron beam and the use of the time-dependent undulator tapering.

  9. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  10. The supply and demand of wine-on-tap in the United States: An examination of perceptions and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Nuebling, Michaela Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the perceptions and early experiences associated with a recent trend in the United States' foodservice and wine industry: wine-on-tap. Three study populations were investigated: wine consumers, restaurant and winery professionals. Contrary to expectations driven by literature and the diffusion of other wine product innovations, American wine consumers showed interest in trying wine-on-tap, stating that the main reason for non-adoption was li...

  11. Behaviour of Millenial wine consumers in southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour when purchasing wine is the result of a complementary operation of the large number of different factors, which may include economic, geographic, social, psychological, and other. Discovering consumer preferences for wine and their buying behavior would allow the application of an appropriate marketing strategy to increase the sales of wine. Special attention was given to one of the most promising new demographic segments that likes to buy – Millennial generation. The main purpose of this research is to find out if the wine attributes of the Millennials are different from other generations in southern Serbia. Results of this research are shown that when choosing wine, the quality of wine has the biggest impact on consumers, rather than others wine attributes. The paper also asserts that, the wine industry should particularly focus on marketing to Millennial age group, as this segment has a high willingness to experiment.

  12. A cointegration analysis of wine stock indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Introvigne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes price patterns and long-run relationships for both fine wine and non-fine wine, with the aim to highlight price dynamics and co-movements between series, and to exploit potential diversification benefits. Data are from Liv-Ex 100 Fine Wine for fine wine, the Mediobanca Global Wine Industry Share Price for normal wine, and the MSCI World Index as a proxy of the overall stock market. Engle-Granger and Johansen tests were used to detect whether and to what extent the series co-move in the long run and which one of the variables contributes proactively to such an equilibrium by reacting to disequilibria from the long-run path. The estimates highlight that i the two wine indexes have a higher Sharpe ratio compared to the general stock market index, revealing wine stocks as a profitable investment per se, and ii the absence of cointegration among the three series and the existence of possible diversification benefits. In fact, in the long-run price do not move together and, therefore, investors may be better off by including wine stocks into investment portfolios and take advantage of diversification

  13. Industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Iller, E.; Tyminnski, B.; Zimek, Z; Ostapczuk, A.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology was invented many years ago. Research on the process has been carried out in Japan, USA, Germany and Poland. However, the recent fidings, based on the experiments performed at pilot plant at Electric Power Station Kaweczyn, led to developments which made process mature just at the dawn of the XXI century. The process is being implemented in the full industrial scale at Electric Power Station Pomorzany (Dolna Odra EPS Group). Other developments are reported in Japan and after Nagoya's pilot plant experiments, an industrial plant has been built in China and another one is constructed in Japan. There are remarkable differences in technological and design solutions applied in all these installations. Developments achieved at EPS Kaweczyn pilot plant and INCT laboratory unit were the basis for the project realized at EPS Pomorzan

  14. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Given a large flow rate of CRT glass ∼10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. ► The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. ► Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. ► Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. ► Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  15. An Analysis of Wine Consumption Trends and Food-Related Expenditures in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Makiko; Sakurai, Yuka; Ebihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to understand the mechanism of an upward trend in wine consumption in Japan by analysing its trend and possible correlations with food-related consumptions. Through the panel and time-series analyses of wine consumption and food-item expenditures, and of wine consumption and food-service industry sales, we investigate whether wine consumption is correlated with food westernization in Japan and whether wine is gaining its steady place in daily life of Japanese. Although not...

  16. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and flavor of foods and beverages, the addition of flavorings to wine contravenes the legal definition of wine. Given the current legislation, it is perhaps not surprising that the potential use of food additives in wine production has not been explored. This study therefore investigated Australian wine consumers' acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in food and wine production. Consumers (n=1,031 were segmented based on their self-reported wine knowledge (ie, subjective knowledge. Using these ratings, low (n=271, medium (n=528, and high (n=232 knowledge segments were identified. Consumers considered natural flavorings and colors, and additives associated with health benefits (eg, vitamins, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids, to be acceptable food additives, irrespective of their level of wine knowledge. In contrast, the use of winemaking additives, even commonly used and legally permitted additives such as tartaric acid, preservatives, oak chips, and tannins, were considered far less acceptable, particularly, by less knowledgeable consumers. Surprisingly, natural flavorings were considered more acceptable than currently used winemaking additives. Consumers were therefore asked to identify the flavors they would most prefer in white and red wines. Fruit flavors featured prominently in consumer responses, eg, lemon and apple for white wines and blackcurrant and raspberry for red wines, but vanilla and/or chocolate, ie, attributes typically

  17. 75 FR 63810 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; SICK, Inc. (Photo-Electronic Industrial Sensors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Status; SICK, Inc. (Photo- Electronic Industrial Sensors); Bloomington, MN Pursuant to its authority... to establish a special- purpose subzone at the photo-electronic industrial sensor manufacturing and... manufacturing and distribution of photo-electronic industrial sensors at the SICK, Inc., facility located in...

  18. Laser applications in the electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Kunihiko

    1999-07-01

    This paper explains current status and technological trends in laser materials processing applications in electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan. Various laser equipment based on solid state lasers or gas lasers such as excimer lasers or CO2 lasers has been developed and applied in manufacturing electronic and optoelectronic devices to meet the strong demands for advanced device manufacturing technologies for high-performance, lightweight, low power-consumption portable digital electronic appliances, cellular mobile phones, personal computers, etc. Representative applications of solid-state lasers are, opaque and clear defects repairing of photomasks for LSIs and LCDs, trimming of thick-film chip resistors and low resistance metal resistors, laser cutting and drilling of thin films for high-pin count semiconductor CSP packages, laser patterning of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells, and laser welding of electronic components such as hard-disk head suspensions, optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. Compact and highly efficient diode- pumped and Q-switched solid-state lasers in second or third harmonic operation mode are now being increasingly incorporated in various laser equipment for fine material processing. Representative applications of excimer lasers are, sub-quarter micron design-rule LSI lithography and low- temperature annealing of poly-silicon TFT LCD.

  19. Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Sueo

    2011-02-01

    Electron beam (EB) accelerators are major pieces of industrial equipment used for many commercial radiation processing applications. The industrial use of EB accelerators has a history of more than 50 years and is still growing in terms of both its economic scale and new applications. Major applications involve the modification of polymeric materials to create value-added products, such as heat-resistant wires, heat-shrinkable sheets, automobile tires, foamed plastics, battery separators and hydrogel wound dressing. The surface curing of coatings and printing inks is a growing application for low energy electron accelerators, resulting in an environmentally friendly and an energy-saving process. Recently there has been the acceptance of the use of EB accelerators in lieu of the radioactive isotope cobalt-60 as a source for sterilizing disposable medical products. Environmental protection by the use of EB accelerators is a new and important field of application. A commercial plant for the cleaning flue gases from a coal-burning power plant is in operation in Poland, employing high power EB accelerators. In Korea, a commercial plant uses EB to clean waste water from a dye factory.

  20. Electron beam application in industrial polymer processing - Review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielenz, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The various established industrial electron beam (EB) applications as related to polymers, their corresponding material and process fundamentals are discussed in this paper. The basics of nowadays most common irradiation processes, which are for continuous stranded products: Single Beam, Rotary Technique; Single Beam, Multiple Pass Technique; Dual Beam, Multiple Pass Technique; and Single Beam, Single (Multiple) Pass Technique by means of a conveyor belt or cart system for discontinuous goods are briefly addressed together with some typical examples for illustration. Some comments on the (dis)advantages and the future economic optimization potential which EB processing technologies could provide to the respective polymer processing industries are presented with respect to material, accelerator equipment and related product handling hardware. The future competitiveness of irradiation crosslinking technologies, which offer numerous advantages in comparison to conventional CV curing and silane crosslinking technologies, only can be maintained by increasing their economic attractiveness, which is: high processing speeds, high material throughput at low production costs and comparatively low capital investment of the hardware involved. Other, more sophisticated irradiation process proposals found in the literature and respective patent publications will be briefly presented, although all of which lack more or less practical evidence for industrial economic and reliable application. Finally, the authors vision of a more efficient, economical EB-process design, by combining quasi state of the art EB-equipment components with a novel beam deflection system to practically achieve a 'Dual Beam, Four Side Crossfiring Process' for continuous strand-products, will be presented. (author)

  1. Tears of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  2. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth / For Parents / Port-Wine Stains What's ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  3. Between wine consumption and wine tourism: Consumer and spatial behavior of Israeli wine tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Shor, Noa; Mansfeld, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    The development of wine tourism worldwide has been accompanied by academic research on wine tourism and wine tourists. Wine tourists and wine enthusiasts have been found to share many socio-demographic similarities. It has been found that people visiting wineries consume wine on a regular basis, have an average to high level of knowledge about wine, and visit wineries and wine-producing regions a few times a year. Their involvement with wine is apparent both from their daily consumption and f...

  4. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  5. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Bellon

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade, has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  6. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  7. Applications of selfshielded electron processors in industry 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Many new applications of the selfshielded electron processor have emerged over the past 5 years which continue to demonstrate the advantages and practical problems associated with these efficient, compact energy sources. Many of these, such as for the curing of: binders for abrasive products, binders for magnetic media, binders for textile flocking, silicone coatings for release papers, etc., offer good prospects for growth but are thusfar in limited use. With this ever broadening base of process technology, the prospects remain 'bullish' for the expanded industrial use of these new energy sources. With their unrivalled process off-licences and high throughputs, improved appreciation of their advantageous economics assures expanded application in an increasingly energy/environmentally concerned world economy(author)

  8. Quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecht, Michael; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Quality and reliability are two attributes required for all Japanese products, although the JTEC panel found these attributes to be secondary to customer cost requirements. While our Japanese hosts gave presentations on the challenges of technology, cost, and miniaturization, quality and reliability were infrequently the focus of our discussions. Quality and reliability were assumed to be sufficient to meet customer needs. Fujitsu's slogan, 'quality built-in, with cost and performance as prime consideration,' illustrates this point. Sony's definition of a next-generation product is 'one that is going to be half the size and half the price at the same performance of the existing one'. Quality and reliability are so integral to Japan's electronics industry that they need no new emphasis.

  9. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit

    2003-01-01

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  10. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit [Chulalongkorn Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-02-01

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  11. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wine consumption habits and consumer preferences between wines aged in barrels or with chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Sanjosé, María Luisa

    2011-03-30

    The use of oak wood pieces in winemaking is increasing, but the acceptance of this technique by consumers is unknown. For that reason, the main aim of this study was to measure consumers' opinion of red wines made with this new technique, their acceptance of them and their intention to purchase these wines. A preference ranking test was also carried out. A specific questionnaire was drawn up for this study and 65 frequent red wine consumers tasted four wines, two aged traditionally in barrels and two macerated with chips, and a forced choice preference test was carried out. Fifty-five per cent of respondents said that they would not buy wines made using oak chips, although most respondents would buy these wines if, after tasting them, they were as pleasant and had the same quality as the wines aged traditionally in barrels. Wines obtained with oak wood fragments were not significantly rejected either by consumers who answered the questionnaire or by consumer tasters, which could be due to the large disparity of preferences found among tasters. The results clearly indicate that producers should develop each wine taking into account the specific preferences of each consumer group. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  14. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  15. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Alexandre R.; Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F.; Silva, Francisco C.A. Da

    2015-01-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  16. Electron beam accelerator at BARC-BRIT complex - electron beam processing of materials and industrial utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khader, S.A.; Patkari, R.K.; Sharma, K.S.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the 2MeV/20kW electron beam (EB) accelerator located at BARC-BRIT complex, Vashi has been successfully utilised for non-thermal applications to develop speciality products useful for the industry. Polymer materials are exposed to high energy electrons to induce crosslinking and degradation reactions in a number of industrial products without the use of external chemicals and additives. Various EB crosslinked products viz. PE O-rings, automotive components, automobile tyres, electrical insulations, etc have been found to be much superior in quality compared to those produced conventionally. A process has been developed to enhance colours in the polished diamonds and gem stones using EB irradiation at the facility which has attracted much attention in the Indian diamond industry as a value-addition process. Recycling of polymer waste processed under EB to produce microfine PTFE powder, to reuse in automobile industry etc. has shown good potential for the industrial use. The process feasibility both in terms of economics and technology have been amply demonstrated on a technological scale by installing special conveyors at our facility for irradiating various industrial products. Around 100 km cable insulations, 1.5 million PE O-rings and more than 40000 carats of polished diamonds have been processed in our facility over a period of time on commercial scale. Encouraged with the results, Indian private entrepreneurs have set up dedicated EB machines in some of the most significant industries producing wire and cables, electrical gadgets based on polymer composites, automobile tyres and diamonds. The products are unique in properties and are in some cases, became import substitutes. The industry is now fully geared up to adapt the technology by realising the advantages viz ease in adaptability, convenient, safe and environmental-friendly nature. Encouraged by the process demonstrations, while five EB accelerators were setup and are in operation

  17. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part II: The consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo; Panighel, Annarita

    2006-01-01

    Controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. For products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. In this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, and compounds from the yeast and bacterial metabolism in wine. The presence of pesticides in wine is mainly linked to the use of dicarboxyimide fungicides on vineyard shortly before the harvest to prevent the Botrytis cinerea attack of grape. Pesticide residues are regulated at maximum residue limits in grape of low ppm levels, but significantly lower levels in wine have to be detected, and mass spectrometry offers effective and sensitive methods. Moreover, mass spectrometry represent an advantageous alternative to the radioactive-source-containing electron capture detector commonly used in GC analysis of pesticides. Analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine by LC/MS and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits to confirm the toxin presence without the use of expensive immunoaffinity columns, or time and solvent consuming sample derivatization procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is used to control heavy metals contamination in wine, and to verify the wine origin and authenticity. Isotopic ratio-mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to reveal wine watering and sugar additions, and to determine the product origin and traceability.

  18. Micro-electronics and employment in the Japanese automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the employment effects of microelectronics technological change and industrial robots in the motor vehicle industry in Japan - examines industrial processes, labour productivity, job requirements of automobile workers, effects on the subcontracting system and small scale industry, diffusion patterns and prospects, etc. Bibliography, references and statistical tables.

  19. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velden, D.P.; Mansvelt, E.P.G.; Troup, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  20. Application of electron beams irradiation in science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Razzak, M.T.; Chosdu, R.; Soebianto, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    The research and development of radiation technology in Indonesia is mainly conducted at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation of the National Atomic Energy Agency (CAIR-BATAN). During the past 10 years, the center has gained a great progress in the development of gamma irradiation techniques for industrial processing, food preservation, health care products sterilization, and waste treatment. A low energy (300 keV, 50 mA) electron beam accelerator has been installed in cooperation with IAEA/UNDP as a training and demonstration facility for wood surface coating. In spite of the advantages of radiation curing, this technique is still unacceptable in the industries due to the uneconomical reasons and inferiority of the products. The research and development using this facility is also considered expensive, due to the high cost of the liquid nitrogen consumed by the accelerator. The medium energy (2 MeV, 10 mA) accelerator has been installed recently. This is a multipurpose irradiator provided with a belt conveyer, but also designed for wire and cable irradiation. The main technical parameters have been measured under different operating conditions during its commissioning, and the nominal dose measurement has been performed using alanine polyethylene, ethanol-chlorobenzene solution, and FWT-60 film dosimeters. Research and development of polymer cross-linking and shrinkable tubes have become the concern of the accelerator application. The radiation curable polyethylene compound for the cable insulation has been formulated with a characteristic of high voltage and heat resistant. Dosimetry of spices with 0.3-0.6 g/cm 3 density and health care products of 0.2-0.3 g/cm 3 density have been carried out for the promising food preservation and radiation sterilization, energy beam on micro-organism, and surface modification of some synthetic and natural polymers are also carried out. (J.P.N.)

  1. Critical Success Factors for Electronic Commerce in Chinese Electronic Information Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Critical success factors (CSF) for electronic commerce (EC) are important for enterprises.This research discusses both assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success to help Chinese enterprises to achieve successful EC implementations. On the basis of literature review and experts survey, the research suggests some assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success. A hypothesis is proposed that leadership, strategy, management, organization, technology, customers,and suppliers factors would affect EC success. Furthermore, the research conducts an empirical study on the Chinese Electronic Information Industry to verify the hypothesis. Using factor analysis and regression analysis, the research finds out several critical factors--leadership, strategy, and organization--and critical sub-factors, such as leadership belief and organization management. These findings indicate the usefulness of this research model, especially for Chinese enterprises.

  2. Industrial assessment of radiofrequency and microwave radiations: case study at electronic manufacturing industries in Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Abdullah

    1996-01-01

    In electronic manufacturing industry, the applications of an equipment emitting radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are numerous and Increasing. It is known that exposure to RFR at sufficiently high intensity and duration can produce a variety of adverse health effects. This paper presents some results from an extensive studies in the RFR field measurements at frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. All measurements were performed inside factories located at the Penang Free Trade Zone. In this case, the factories chosen are those that manufacture the electronic components whereby the applications of RFR equipment are likely to be intensive compared to other type of industries. The measurement system used in this study are the portable spectrum-analyzer, the passive log-periodic antenna and a desktop computer for data analysis. Results from this study have indicated that the RFR exposure levels in most factories are in the range of 7.7 x 10 sup -4 - 4.31 x 10 sup -3 Wm sup -2 and 0.01 - 0. 741 Vm sup -1 for power density and electric strength measurement respectively. These ranges are at least 100 times lower compared to the RFR protection guidelines proposed by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). However, the exposure levels inside the factory are consistently 10 sup -3 - 10 sup -4 higher than the levels caused by natural sources and is about 10 sup 2 - 10 sup 6 higher than the levels measured at a distance of 30 m from a low-power output mobile phone transmitter. In the case of the health effect assessment, no sufficient evidence has been found to indicate the potential consequences resulting from excessive RFR exposure. Nonetheless, many factories surveyed are unaware of the existence of the international guidelines and codes on the safe use of radiofrequency energy even though, some measures are being taken to protect their employees against RFR

  3. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  4. Market structure, industrial organisation and technological development: the case of the Japanese electronics-based nc-machine tool industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of market structure and business organization on technological change in the automatic control machine tool industry in Japan - based on a 1982 sample survey of 40 industrial enterprises, discusses research and development trends, demand, production, subcontracting, competition, etc.; investigates the impact of electronics Innovation on small scale industry, the international division of labour and on developing countries. Bibliography and graphs.

  5. Optimal Remanufacturing Certification Contracts in the Electrical and Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While remanufacturing is highly encouraged worldwide, some original equipment manufacturers (OEMs in the electrical and electronics industry are still not willing to embrace remanufacturing, for fear of expensive investment or the cannibalization of existing products. Meanwhile, third-party remanufacturers’ (TPRs remanufactured products are developing quickly. Due to quality reasons, consumers usually have a higher preference for OEM-certified remanufactured products than uncertified ones. As such, remanufacturing certification has become a strategy that OEMs can use to benefit from product remanufacturing. Our paper focuses on the remanufacturing certification contract between an OEM and a TPR. Once certified, the TPR makes payments to the OEM. These payment terms will affect their enthusiasm for participating in remanufacturing certification. By establishing game models among an OEM, a certified TPR, and an uncertified TPR, our paper explores three certification contracts, namely, the lump-sum payment, profit-sharing payment, and piece-rate payment. We identify the conditions for the OEM and certified TPR to reach a win-win outcome. Our results show that when TPRs have a high profit margin and there is no significant difference in consumers’ preferences between certified and non-certified remanufacturing channels, the profit-sharing payment contract yields the highest profit; otherwise, the piece-rate payment contract is best for the OEM.

  6. Electron beam agrobionanotechnologies for agriculture and food industry enabled by electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Y. S.; Revina, A. A.; Souvorova, O. V.; Voropaeva, N. L.; Chekmar, D. V.; Abkhalimov, E. V.; Zavyalov, M. A.; Filippovich, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    Electron beam (EB) radiation technologies have been employed to increase efficiency of biologically active nanochips developed for agricultural plants seed pre-treatment with purpose of enhancing crop yield and productivity. Iron-containing nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized in reverse micelles following known radiation-chemical technique, have served as a multifunctional biologically active and phytosanitary substance of the chips. Porous chip carriers activation has been performed by EB ionization (doze 20kGy) of the active carbons (AC) prepared from agricultural waste and by-products: Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) straw, rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg) straw, camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) straw, wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw. Three methods, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) have been used for process control and characterization of radiation-activated and NPs-modified ACs. The results show a notable effect of ACs activation by electron beam radiation, evidenced by FeNPs-adsorption capacity increase. Studies of the impact of Fe NPs-containing nanochip technology on enhancement of seeds germination rate and seedlings vigour suggest that reported electron beam radiation treatment techniques of the ACs from selected agricultural residues may be advantageous for industrial application.

  7. Wine tourism product clubs as a way to increase wine added value: the case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Del Campo Gomis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisco José Del Campo Gomis, David López Lluch, José Miguel Sales Civera, Asunción M Agulló Torres, Margarita Brugarolas, Mollá-Bauzá, África Martínez Poveda, Fermín Camacho de los Ríos, Antonio Miguel Nogués PedregalDepartament of Agrienvironmental Economics, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Campus Universitario de Orihuela-Desamparados, Orihuela (Alicante, SpainAbstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze how the wine tourism product clubs work in Spain and their importance for Spanish wine tourism. A tourism product club is a product development partnership established and led by the tourism industry stakeholders including small- and/or medium-sized companies. The group pools its resources to develop new marketready products or to increase the value of existing ones. Lodging companies, tour operators, administrators of tourism facilities, tourist associations, government, other companies of the sector and, even, nontourist companies can participate as members of a tourism product club. Following this model, wine tourism can contribute to create a wine tourism product club. In Spain the international promotion of tourist products is carried out through the Turespaña website. The wine tourism product club, The Wine Routes of Spain, is one of the wine tourism product clubs developed by the Spanish government. It is an ambitious project that began in 2001. Nevertheless, other Spanish regions have created more wine tourism product clubs in order to develop their own wine tourism industry such as “Divinum vitae – Where the pleasues are born” created in Castilla–La Mancha in 2006.Keywords: wine, tourism, product club, Spain

  8. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villiers, André de; Alberts, Phillipus; Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  9. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  10. Enzymatic modifications of grape skin phenolics A new look at wine maceration ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Arnous, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely use...... processes in the wine industry.......Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely used...... during the wine grape maceration to obtain high juice yield and initial extraction of flavour components, and in the case of red wines for obtaining better initial extraction of colour. Until now, this maceration has mainly been considered as an extraction step. Recent data have shown that significant...

  11. Color, anthocyanin, and antioxidant characteristics of young wines produced from spine grapes (Vitis davidii Foex) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuliang; Ju, Yanlun; Ruan, Xianrui; Zhao, Xianfang; Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Xifu; Qin, Minyang; Fang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Spine grape has gained attention in the field of wine science due to its good growth characteristics. Spine grape wine has been made by local residents for a long time. However, the scientific evaluation of spine wine has not been systemically documented compared to Vitis vinifera grape wines Methods: We compared 11 spine wines from south China (W1–W11) with 7 high-quality international wines (W12–W18). The total phenolic content, the total anothcyanin content and the antioxidant activity of these wines were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, anthocyanin profiles of these wines were also documented. Results: Compared with other wines most of the spine wines had a strong red intensity with a blue hue. Malvidin-3,5-O-diglucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaroyl)-glucoside-5-glucoside appeared to be the major anthocyanins in these wines. The scavenging capacity analyses of these wines using ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC assays indicated that spine wines possessed high antioxidant properties, especially spine wine W3, W4, W6 and W8. Their high antioxidant properties were mainly related to the high levels of the total phenolic content and anthocyanins. Conclusion: These results suggested that spine wine might be considered a good wine source for the Chinese wine industry and provided useful information on the knowledge of spine grape. PMID:28804435

  12. Color, anthocyanin, and antioxidant characteristics of young wines produced from spine grapes (Vitis davidii Foex) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuliang; Ju, Yanlun; Ruan, Xianrui; Zhao, Xianfang; Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Xifu; Qin, Minyang; Fang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    Background : Spine grape has gained attention in the field of wine science due to its good growth characteristics. Spine grape wine has been made by local residents for a long time. However, the scientific evaluation of spine wine has not been systemically documented compared to Vitis vinifera grape wines Methods : We compared 11 spine wines from south China (W1-W11) with 7 high-quality international wines (W12-W18). The total phenolic content, the total anothcyanin content and the antioxidant activity of these wines were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, anthocyanin profiles of these wines were also documented. Results : Compared with other wines most of the spine wines had a strong red intensity with a blue hue. Malvidin-3,5- O -diglucoside and malvidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaroyl)-glucoside-5-glucoside appeared to be the major anthocyanins in these wines. The scavenging capacity analyses of these wines using ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC assays indicated that spine wines possessed high antioxidant properties, especially spine wine W3, W4, W6 and W8. Their high antioxidant properties were mainly related to the high levels of the total phenolic content and anthocyanins. Conclusion : These results suggested that spine wine might be considered a good wine source for the Chinese wine industry and provided useful information on the knowledge of spine grape.

  13. Sulfites and the wine metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Hemmler, Daniel; Gonsior, Michael; Li, Yan; Nikolantonaki, Maria; Aron, Alissa; Coelho, Christian; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-12-15

    In a context of societal concern about food preservation, the reduction of sulfite input plays a major role in the wine industry. To improve the understanding of the chemistry involved in the SO 2 protection, a series of bottle aged Chardonnay wines made from the same must, but with different concentrations of SO 2 added at pressing were analyzed by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF). Metabolic fingerprints from FT-ICR-MS data could discriminate wines according to the added concentration to the must but they also revealed chemistry-related differences according to the type of stopper, providing a wine metabolomics picture of the impact of distinct stopping strategies. Spearman rank correlation was applied to link the statistically modeled EEMF components (parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)) and the exact mass information from FT-ICR-MS, and thus revealing the extent of sulfur-containing compounds which could show some correlation with fluorescence fingerprints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 67663 - Labeling Imported Wines With Multistate Appellations (2008R-265P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    .... ATF-53, multistate appellations were suggested by domestic wine industry members. ATF decided to allow...-2010-0007; Notice No. 110] RIN 1513-AB58 Labeling Imported Wines With Multistate Appellations (2008R.... SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau proposes to amend the wine labeling regulations to...

  15. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular rice wine for its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. Wine is made from purple glutinous rice at home or by small cottage industries, by washing, soaking, steam-cooking, cooling and inoculation of the cooled rice with powdered rice-wine starter ( Men ). The fermentation takes place in two stages, i.e. an...

  16. WINE TOURISM IN WESTERN MOLDOVA - TO A FUTURE ALSACE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MANEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism has emerge as a form of redinamization, recovery of wine products. It was necessary such a tourism form for the wine-growing regions to assert in this tourist industry through landscapes as well as the products offered. Countries like France, Italy and Spain are already among the most definitive statement in this area, being basically those that outline the so-called Old World of the wine tourism domain. This is due to a long history of viticulture, terroir, winemaking method and cultural heritage. Romania is also on the wine countries list being part of the top ten countries according to the hierarchy made by OIV. Wine tourism started to come also in Romania, increasingly more wineries adopting wine recovery forms through tourism. It is adopting foreign models of wine tourism but keeping the local specific. Thus Moldova, the largest wine region began to adapt some wine tourism development models and this article will demonstrate whether this model is beneficial for Moldova.

  17. A Study on the Training Mode of Electronic Application-Oriented Undergraduate with Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Cheng, Lifang; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Electronic industry is an economic pillar in China. Due to the Moore's Law, the industry requires continuous development and innovation. In order to achieve these goals, the cultivation of electronic application-oriented undergraduate is essential. However, at current, the innovative educational concepts and teaching methods are lagging behind so…

  18. Industry interactions of the electronic structure research community in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbeck, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the interactions of the academic Psi-k community with industry. The evidence presented is mainly based on a semi-quantitative survey and interviews of network members. All Psi-k board, working group and advisory group members, a total of about 120 people were invited to take part in the study, and 40 people responded, representing more than 400 scientists from 33 different institutions in 12 European countries. 90% of respondents work with industry. Main industry sectors ...

  19. Industrial application of electron sources with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Belyuk, S I; Rempe, N G

    2001-01-01

    Paper contains a description, operation, design and parameters of electron sources with plasma emitters. One presents examples of application of these sources as part of automated electron-beam welding lines. Paper describes application of such sources for electron-beam deposition of composite powders. Electron-beam deposition is used to rebuild worn out part and to increase strength of new parts of machines and tools. Paper presents some examples of rebuilding part and the advantages gained in this case

  20. Integration with the Global Economy: The Case of Turkish Automobile and Consumer Electronics Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Taymaz; Kamil Yılmaz

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive case study of the Turkish automotive and the consumer electronics industries. Despite a macroeconomic environment that inhibits investment and growth, both industries have achieved remarkable output and productivity growth since the early 1990s. Although there are similarities between the performances of the two industries, there are significant differences...

  1. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  2. Relationship between wine scores and visible-near-infrared spectra of Australian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Cowey, G; Lattey, K A; Godden, P; Cynkar, W U; Dambergs, R G; Janik, L; Gishen, M

    2008-06-01

    Sensory analysis of wine involves the measurement, interpretation and understanding of human responses to the properties perceived by the senses such as sight, smell and taste. The sensory evaluation of wine is often carried out by wine judges, winemakers and technical staff, and allows characterization of the quality of the wine. However, this method is lengthy, expensive, and its results depend on panel training and the specific vocabulary used by the panel. A robust, rapid, unbiased and inexpensive method to assist in quality assessment purposes will therefore be beneficial for the modern wine industry. This study aims to investigate the relationship between sensory analysis, visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sensory properties of commercial Australian wine varieties. For the purposes of this study 118 red wine samples (Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Nebbiolo and blends) graded by a panel of experienced tasters and scored according to the Australian wine show system were scanned in transmission in the VIS and NIR range (400-2,500 nm). Partial least squares regression models were developed between the overall score given by the judges and the combined VIS-NIR spectra, using full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The results showed that NIR spectroscopy was able to predict wine quality scores in red wine samples (R = 0.61 and standard error of prediction of 0.81). The practical implication of this study is that instrumental methods such as VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used to complement sensory analysis and can facilitate the task at early stages of product development, making high-throughput screening of novel products feasible or maintaining the consistency of the product.

  3. Wine market in the United States and in the California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes wine market in the United States and in the California. The paper is focused on characteristic of winegrowing, wine-production, wine-consumption and wine export too. Export of California wine is growing and wine is exported to the EU for the first. We can expect to grow of interest of our consumers too. California wine will compete in high quality and low prices. California is the fourth largest wine producer in the world after France, Italy and Spain. It accounted for $ 643 million in wine exports in 2003 from $ 537 million in 1998. Wine grapes were grown in 46 of California’s 58 counties, covering 529000 acres in 2003. California produced 444 million gallons of wine in 1998 it is 90 percent of all U.S. wine production, making California the leading wine producing state in America. The California wine industry has an annual impact of $ 45.4 billion on the state’s economy. An important California employer, the wine industry provides 207550 full-time equivalent jobs in wineries, vineyards or other affiliated businesses throughout the state. There are at least 1294 bricks and mortar commercial wineries in California. But the wine consumption is very low in California.Because California together with South Africa and another countries that so-called New World are important producers with growing export, is very necessary to analyse these markets because they are great competitors for Czech producers. These problems solved in another foreigner markets Černíková, Žufan (2004, Duda (2004, Hrabalová (2004, Kudová (2005, Lišková (2004, Tomšík, Chládková (2005.The paper is a part of solution of the grant focused on analysis and formulation of further development of winegrowing and wine-production in the Czech Republic provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (No. QF 3276, and it is also a part of solution of the research plan of the Faculty of Business and Economics, MUAF in Brno (No. MSM 6215648904.

  4. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šperková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and restaurants. In a smaller scale it is done through internet sales, own outlets and wine auctions. According to the research of Focus agency, Marketing & Social Research, done in 2009, customers buy wine mostly in retail chains and decide on sort and quality of wine directly at the moment of purchase. Selection is based except wine quality also on the shape of the bottle, etiquette, and also cork (consumers explicitly prefer cork, and the screw top rather discourages. Certain part of customers – specifically those, who are more acquainted with wine – buy wine in special wine-shops. The research shows a decrease of direct wine-sales.When using services of independent trade organizations, producers have to control the intensity of commercial activities and knowledge of technical characteristics of products. Small wine producers, though, do not have to use this distribution channel, and can focus only on direct sales. For some small wine producers, specifically those operating in the areas with an extended possibility for wine-tourism, this channel can be more suitable and effective than using retail chains. This way of distribution does not require extensive start-up investments, it is directly dependent on producers own effort, and can be done as a supplementary activity to the main source of income.Regardless the particular choice of a distribution channel by a small wine producer it is necessary to be judged not only from the viewpoint of its advantages and

  5. The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Publishing Industry: Towards a Business Value Complementarity Framework of Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scupola, Ada

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the publishing industry and its use of information and communication technologies focuses on the way in which electronic-commerce technologies are changing and could change the publishing processes, and develops a business complementarity model of electronic publishing to maximize profitability and improve the competitive position.…

  6. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M.

    2005-01-01

    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  7. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from wine...

  8. Wine and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet.

  9. Industrial application of electron beams for grafting and vulcanization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-12-31

    The topics discussed are radiation graft polymerization; industrial application of radiation grafting - ion exchange membrane for a battery separator, ammonia adsorbent, non-flammable PE (polyethylene) foam; R and D on radiation grafting, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber.

  10. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  11. Industrial application of electron beams for grafting and vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizo Makuuchi

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are radiation graft polymerization; industrial application of radiation grafting - ion exchange membrane for a battery separator, ammonia adsorbent, non-flammable PE (polyethylene) foam; R and D on radiation grafting, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber

  12. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  13. Briefly Analyze Domestic Wine Market and the International Marketing Strategy of Changyu Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Since the great policy of reform and opening which began in 1979 has turned up, an unprecedented vigorous development opportunity was brought for our domestic wine industry. On the one hand, the increasing in personal income level has stimulated the growth of wine consumption demand, leading to a nice development prospect for domestic wine industry;on the other hand, the dramatical y decreasing in tariff of importing wine is an undoubtedly major impact to the domestic wine industry. The competition between the enterprises is almost the same as the competition of marketing ability, the success of the marketing operation wil create rich profits resources for enterprises which wil lay a good foundation for enterprises to cultivate their ability and improve the core competitive ability. This article wil briefly analyze the marketing strategy of Changyu Group which is in the leading position of Chinese wine industry and provide the certain reference value for the same industry when they develop their own marketing strategy.

  14. An overview of the biodynamic wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellini A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Castellini,1 Christine Mauracher,2 Stefania Troiano3 1Department of Agricultural Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 2Department of Management, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Venice, 3Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Abstract: The wine industry is currently shifting toward more sustainable production practices. Due to the growing globalized wine market and the increasing environmental impacts, producers have begun to pay more attention to organic and biodynamic products. Using a systematic literature review, this review aims to investigate the biodynamic production system in the viticulture and winemaking process. In particular, the review examines, 1 the biodynamic practice and its main characteristics including the certification system; 2 the biodynamic market characteristics and the recent trends, the production costs and the marketing strategies adopted by wineries; 3 the demand attributes and wine consumers’ perception on sustainable practices and “green products” such as biodynamic products; and 4 the association between the biodynamic wine chain and the environment. The review highlights the research progress in this field and reflects on the potentiality and needs of the biodynamic viticulture and wine sector. The literature clearly indicates the lack of knowledge regarding, mainly, the biodynamic farming concept and the label. Moreover, while it is clear that consumers are willing to spend more for an organic wine than for a conventional one, there are no data about the willingness to pay for biodynamic wines. Finally, the review concludes with implications and suggestions for further research. Keywords: biodynamic, viticulture, wine, environment, market analysis, consumer

  15. A role for anthocyanin in determining wine tannin concentration in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmister, Rachel L; Mazza, Marica; Baker, Nardia K; Faulkner, Peta; Downey, Mark O

    2014-01-01

    Four wines were made to investigate the effect of different anthocyanin and tannin fruit concentrations on wine phenolics and colour. Wines that were made from fruit with high anthocyanin concentration had high tannin concentrations regardless of the concentration of tannin in fruit, while wines made from fruit with low anthocyanin also had low tannin concentration. It was found that fruit anthocyanin concentration correlated with wine tannin concentration, wine colour and polymeric pigment formation. Anthocyanin concentration might be a key component for increasing tannin solubility and extraction into wine and the formation of polymeric pigments. Industry implications include managing tannin and anthocyanin fruit concentration for targeting tannin extraction and polymeric pigment formation in wine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current state and prospects of industrial application of electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviewed the low energy, medium energy, and high energy accelerators used for the industrial application of electron beams. Next, it described the absorption of electron beam energy, distribution of the absorbed dose of electron beams in a substance, and the basis of electron beam reaction. Furthermore, as the industrial application examples of electron beams, it briefly described about the reforming and curing of polymers, irradiation effect of inorganic material (characteristic control of semiconductors), and sterilization. Regarding curing, as examples using mainly low energy electron beams (300 keV or below), this paper briefly explained the manufacture of thermosensitive recording materials, electron beam cured silicone for release papers, tunnel metal interior finishing board, high gloss - high smooth paper. Finally, it looked at latest trends and prospects of electron beam generators. (A.O.)

  17. Exogenous CO2 in South American sparkling wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardelli Susiane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine production and consumption have increased significantly in the last years. With the increased demand appear the necessity to check the sparkling wine authenticity, because the practice of adding CO2 in sparkling wine is not allow. A way to control the carbonation process is through the determination of CO2 δ13C, because the sugar added during the second fermentation define the CO2 isotopic value, according to elaboration process. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between values of δ13C from still wines and sparkling wines, in order to set up limit values to exogenous carbonation control. Thirty-eight still wines elaborated by microvinification and 59 samples of commercial sparkling wines were analyzed, using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS. The most negative value of natural δ13C from still wine found was − 24.7‰, it can be to estimate that lowest values are an indicative of industrial CO2 addition. Among the commercial sparkling wine from South America evaluated in this study, 10% from the samples showed signs of carbonation. Through this research was possible to establish limits of isotopic values to determine the presence of exogenous CO2.

  18. Disaggregated export demand of Malaysia: evidence from the electronics industry

    OpenAIRE

    Koi Nyen Wong

    2008-01-01

    This study estimates the determinants of foreign demand for Malaysia's top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups from 1990 to 2001. Cointegration results indicate a unique long-run relationship between export demand for electronic products and relative prices and foreign income. Both the estimated long-run income and price elasticities of export demand are greater than 1, conforming to a pattern found in most fast-growing economies and i...

  19. DEMAND FOR MALAYSIA'S EXPORTS: EVIDENCE FROM THE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Koi Nyen Wong

    2006-01-01

    This study estimates the determinants of foreign demand for Malaysia's top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups from 1990 to 2001. Cointegration results indicate a unique long-run relationship between export demand for electronic products and relative prices and foreign income. Both the estimated long-run income and price elasticities of export demand are greater than 1, conforming to a pattern found in most fast-growing economies and i...

  20. Drying/encapsulation of red wine to produce ingredients for healthy foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmari Jasel Alvarez Gaona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of coronary disease, atherosclerosis, and platelet aggregation. Wine is very rich in antioxidant compounds because of their phenolic components. However, many people for ethnic, social or religious reasons do not consume wine. Drying/encapsulation of red wine in the presence of adequate carbohydrates leads to water and more than 99% of alcohol removal; a glassy amorphous microstructure is obtained in which the wine’s phenolic compounds are entrapped. The resulting product is a free flowing powder which could be used for the polyphenol enrichment of healthy foods and/or drink powders, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The wine industry may take advantage of the dried/encapsulated red wine using as a raw material red wines which have little commercial value for different reasons; i.e. poor quality due to raw material, unfavourable climatic conditions, or wines that suffered some alteration during the wine making process. Dry encapsulated wine may be a new alternative to red wines that cannot be sold as such for different reasons, and open new opportunities to diversify wine products.

  1. Application of electron beam to industrial wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, D.K.; Boo, J.Y.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.; Chung, W.; Choi, J.S.; Kang, H.J.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with EB irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an EB pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has been constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  2. Criterion for the selection of a system of treatment of residues and their application to the wine of the alcoholic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo M, Luis Alfonso; Fonseca, Jose Joaquin; Rodriguez, Gerardo

    1996-01-01

    The selection of a system of residues treatment should follow the criterion of the process denominated BATEA (better available and feasible technical and economical process). Because their application is difficult for not having objective parameters of evaluation, a method is presented that classifies the evaluation criterions in general and specific. For the quantification of these aspects factors like FQO are used, FCI, FTR, FD and the factor of applicability of the treatment (FAT). The method applied to the wine; allows concluding that it is the evaporation the best treatment system for this process, while other systems are not developed or it increases the recompensing rate

  3. Wine and Words: A Trilingual Wine Dictionary for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. van der Merwe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The South African wine industry identified the need for a special-field on-line dictionary on viticulture and oenology in Afrikaans, English and isi-Xhosa. The dictionary provides information on wine terminology as well as linguistic information on the use of such terminology. The purpose of this article is to give a description of the project. The process of compiling the dictionary is described, from the co-operation between the wine industry and lexicographers to the intended target users and the choice of languages of the dictionary. Functions of the dictionary are discussed, with reference to specific user situations, namely text production, text reception and translation. A system of labels has been designed for the dictionary and its benefit for the user is explained. In assisting the user to make an informed choice of a term, the notion of proscriptiveness has been followed in the presentation of information in the wine dictionary.

    Keywords: TRILINGUAL WINE DICTIONARY, SPECIALISED LEXICOGRAPHY, VITICULTUREAND OENOLOGY TERMS, ON-LINE DICTIONARY, TARGET USERS, USER SITUATIONS,FUNCTIONS, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION, LABELS, ENCYCLOPEDICKNOWLEDGE, LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE, PROSCRIPTION

    Opsomming: Wyn en woorde: 'n Drietalige Wynwoordeboek vir Suid-Afrika. Die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf het die behoefte aan 'n aanlynvakwoordeboek oor wynenwingerdkunde in Afrikaans, Engels en isiXhosa geïdentifiseer. Die woordeboek verskaf inligtingoor wynterminologie, sowel as taalkundige inligting oor die gebruik van sulke terminologie. Diedoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n beskrywing van die projek te gee. Die samestellingsproses van diewoordeboek word beskryf, vanaf die samewerking tussen die wynbedryf en die leksikograwe, totdie voorgestelde teikengebruikers en die keuse van die tale van die woordeboek. Funksies van diewoordeboek word bespreek, met verwysing na spesifieke gebruikersituasies, naamlik teksproduksie

  4. Power electronics applied to industrial systems and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Patin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics is based on the switching operating mode of semiconductor components. On this basis, the concepts of type (voltage or current) and reversibility of interconnected sources make it possible to apply a methodology for the synthesis of various types of converters. This book also focuses on the importance of packaging by reviewing the electrical representation of components’ thermal models and the currently available electronics’ cooling technologies. Modeling is discussed, as well as different technological aspects used in the engineering design of an electronic power converter, useful for obtaining satisfactory performance and reliability.

  5. Supply chain collaboration and responsiveness : a comparison between Thai automotive and electronics industries

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors that promote firms to develop supply chain collaborations (SCC) with their partners and relationships between SCC and supply chain operational performances (SCOP), using a questionnaire survey on Thai automotive and electronics industries in 2012. This paper also carries out a comparative study on these questions between the electronics and automotive industries. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions verifY that supplier evaluation and audit is a foundation fo...

  6. E-commerce within the South African electronic component distribution industry

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. This dissertation looks at E-Commerce in the South African electronic component distribution industry. With this in mind, various questions were defined and these were used to help understand the current situation, determine the future that ECommerce should have in the industry and find a mechanism to go from the current to the future situation, the questions are as follows: Has the traditional electronic component distribution channel been made obsolete by E-Commerce? What does the...

  7. An institutional approach to the history of wine in brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcante Carolina Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of wine in Brazil dates back to 1532, when Brás Cubas tried to cultivate the vine on São Paulo coast. As we can imagine, it was not a very successful venture. Later, other efforts were made by Jesuits in the seventeenth century. In 1739 Portugal prohibited the production of grapes and wine in the colony and this prohibition lasted until the Independence of Brazil in 1822. Although it is interesting to mention those fledgling efforts to produce wine in Brazil, the decisive impetus for the Brazilian wine industry only began with the Italian immigration of the late nineteenth century. These immigrants from Veneto and Trentino Alto Adige settled in the Serra Gaucha and received land from the government, for which they had to pay later. Some of today famous Brazilian wineries, like Miolo and Casa Valduga, began as small canteens initiated by Italian immigrants. These immigrants had not the intention to build a wine industry when they arrived in Brazil. The primary intention was to make wine for their own consumption provided that wine was considered as a food, a part of Italian culture and tradition, not simply an alcoholic beverage. Therefore, wine industry in Rio Grande do Sul emerged to supply a cultural demand of the Italian immigrants. A different motive can be identified in the reasons of the implementation of a wine industry in São Francisco Valley, backcountry of Northeast Brazil. We could say that the region became economically interesting since the development induced by investments in irrigation, conducted mainly by CODEVASF. Therefore, the drive for wine production in Serra Gaucha was culture, while the drive for São Francisco Valley wine industry was the business opportunities engendered by institutional policies conducted on the region. In this article, I will consider the history of wine industry in Serra Gaucha and in São Francisco Valley through the lens of Institutional Economics, initiated by Thorstein Veblen in

  8. Industrial applications or electron beams; Aplicaciones industriales de la irradiacion como servicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. I.

    2001-07-01

    Industrial use of electron beams began in the 1950's with the crosslinking of polyethylene film and wire insulation. Today the number of electron beam Processing Systems installed for industrial applications throughout the world has grown to more than six hundred stations in over 35 countries. Total installed power is now approaching 40 megawatts (over 8 million tons of products per year). Electron beam is now utilized by many major industries including plastics, automotive, rubber goods, wire and cable, electrical insulation, semiconductor, medical, packaging, or pollution control. The principal effect of high-energy electrons is to produce ions in the materials treated, resulting in the liberation of orbital electrons. As a result, the original molecule is modified and the ree radicals combine to form new molecules with new chemical reactions or dis organisation od the DNA chains of living organisms (insects, fungus, microorganisms, etc.). (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Electron beam processing in food industry - technology and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, Cl.L.; Ferradini, C.; Paquin, J.; Sadat, T.

    1985-01-01

    After nearly 40 years of research and thousands of positive experimentations, the fact that ionising radiations could be used for food preservation has been taken into account by the joint Expert Committee of the UN agencies, FAO, WHO and IAEA, who recommended this type of treatment in 1981 allowing doses up to 10 kGy. The market for irradiated food is actually small, but it could develop rapidly. National authorities who establish the regulations are becoming very active: so, in 1984, the US FDA has issued a proposed rule to regulate the commercial applications of food irradiation. It is timely to propose a MODEL that should really convince administration, food industry executives and consumers organizations that food irradiation is more than academic speculation: an industrial processing and an economical imperative. To this aim, we have defined an integrated model assembling (a) a sample product; (b) the optimal treatment conditions for this product, including a reliable dosimetry control system; and (c) a most efficient and competitive treatment unit that can suit a wide range of industrial needs. (author)

  10. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.42 Section 27.42...

  11. The need for novel model order reduction techniques in the electronics industry (Chapter 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, W.H.A.; Benner, P.; Hinze, M.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the present and future needs of the electronics industry with regard to model order reduction. The industry has always been one of the main motivating fields for the development of MOR techniques, and continues to play this role. We discuss the search for provably passive

  12. Radiation effects and hardness of semiconductor electronic devices for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, R.; Friant, A.

    1988-01-01

    After a brief review of industrial and nuclear specificity and radiation effects in electronics components (semiconductors) the need for a specific test methodology of semiconductor devices is emphasized. Some studies appropriate for nuclear industry at D. LETI/DEIN/CEN-SACLAY are related [fr

  13. Evaluating Electronic Customer Relationship Management Performance: Case Studies from Persian Automotive and Computer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Narges; Safari, Fariba; Olesen, Karin; Shahmehr, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates the influence of industry on electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM) performance. A case study approach with two cases was applied to evaluate the influence of e-CRM on customer behavioral and attitudinal loyalty along with customer pyramid. The cases covered two industries consisting of computer and automotive industries. For investigating customer behavioral loyalty and customer pyramid companies database were computed while for examining custome...

  14. Microoxidation in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, S.; Ballabio, D.; Giovanelli, G.; Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga; Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: → We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. → NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. → Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. → NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. → The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that

  16. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratti, S., E-mail: susanna.buratti@unimi.it [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ballabio, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, G. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia); Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: > We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. > NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. > Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. > NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. > The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that NIR and MIR

  17. Aplicación de una lengua electrónica voltamétrica para la clasificación de vinos y estudio de correlación con la caracterización química y sensorial Voltametric electronic tongue application to wines classification and correlation study with the chemical and sensory characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro A. Arrieta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analytical application of a novel electronic tongue based on voltammetric sensors array. This device was used in the classification of wines aged in barrels of different origins and toasting levels. Furthermore, a study of correlation between the response of the electronic tongue and the sensory and chemical characterization of samples was carried out. The results were evaluated by applying both principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The samples were clearly classified. Their distribution showed a high correspondence degree with the characteristics of the analyzed wines, it also showed similarity with the classification obtained from organoleptic analysis.

  18. Design and construction of the first Iranian powerful industrial electron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Poursaleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In This paper we will introduce the process of design and manufacturing an electron accelerator with 10MeV energy and 100kW power as the first Iranian powerful industrial electron accelerator. This accelerator designed based on modeling of one of the most powerful industrial accelerator called Rhodotron. But the design of the accelerator in a way that can be localize by relying on domestic industries. So although it looks like a Rhodotron accelerator structure but has some different in design and manufacture of components, the results are satisfactory

  19. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry. PMID:27125240

  20. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry.

  1. WINE TOURISM – A NEW IMAGE OF IAŞI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MĂNILĂ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is an emerging form of tourism who took birth in crisis due to the development of wine-growing sector in the countries of the New World (New Zealand, Australia, USA. It appeared as a means to revitalize, preservation, use of the wine industry. The great handicap faced is the existence of a very complex offer but less legible on wine product and tourism. In Romania, the Iasi county is one of the national leader in terms of recognition of the most important wine brand in the country – Cotnari. Fame and age of the Cotnari vineyard that gave also the name of the most appreciate wine of the country make of Iasi county a wine tourism destination for the lovers of wine. High quality wine, wine-growing landscape of the county, the reputation gained by national and international competitions, facilitate the development of the wine tourism based on a local scale on a complex and competitive offer with other wine-growing regions of the country.

  2. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yong Joo [Department of Biobased Materials, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Soo-Jeong [Department of Wood and Paper Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: {yields} The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. {yields} Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. {yields} Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  3. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yong Joo; Shin, Soo-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: → The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. → Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. → Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  4. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Showing excellence in mechanics, electronics and cryogenics, three industries are honoured for their contributions to the ATLAS experiment. Representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony. For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Close interaction with CERN was a key factor in the selection of each rewarded company, in addition to the high-quality products they delivered to the experiment. Alu Menziken Industrie AG, of Switzerland, was honoured for the production of 380,000 aluminium tubes for the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). As Giora Mikenberg, the Muon System Project Leader stressed, the aluminium tubes were delivered on time with an extraordinary quality and precision. Between October 2000 and Jan...

  5. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  6. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  7. Using Data Mining for Wine Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Paulo; Teixeira, Juliana; Cerdeira, António; Almeida, Fernando; Matos, Telmo; Reis, José

    Certification and quality assessment are crucial issues within the wine industry. Currently, wine quality is mostly assessed by physicochemical (e.g alcohol levels) and sensory (e.g. human expert evaluation) tests. In this paper, we propose a data mining approach to predict wine preferences that is based on easily available analytical tests at the certification step. A large dataset is considered with white vinho verde samples from the Minho region of Portugal. Wine quality is modeled under a regression approach, which preserves the order of the grades. Explanatory knowledge is given in terms of a sensitivity analysis, which measures the response changes when a given input variable is varied through its domain. Three regression techniques were applied, under a computationally efficient procedure that performs simultaneous variable and model selection and that is guided by the sensitivity analysis. The support vector machine achieved promising results, outperforming the multiple regression and neural network methods. Such model is useful for understanding how physicochemical tests affect the sensory preferences. Moreover, it can support the wine expert evaluations and ultimately improve the production.

  8. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  9. Electron microscopy and plastic deformation of industrial austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Barry

    1976-01-01

    The different mechanisms of plastic deformation observed in austenitic stainless steels are described and the role of transmission electron microscopy in the elucidation of the mechanisms is presented. At temperatures below 0,5Tm, different variants of dislocation glide are competitive: slip of perfect and partial dislocations, mechanical twinning and strain-induced phase transformations. The predominance of one or other of these mechanisms can be rationalized in terms of the temperature and composition dependence of the stacking fault energy and the thermodynamic stability of the austenite. At temperatures above 0,5Tm dislocation climb and diffusion of point defects become increasingly important and at these temperatures recovery, recrystallization and precipitation can also occur during deformation [fr

  10. Electron beam technology as a new industrial processing tool in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, K.

    1996-01-01

    Electron beam cross-linked products such as heat resistant automobile and home appliance wires, heat shrinkable tubes, sleeves, end caps for power and electronic industries, plastic packaging and semiconductors are commercially available in Malaysia and most of them are imported products. However, recently there are three newly established in-house industrial electron beam accelerators, in operation in Malaysia for cross-linking of home appliance wires and plastic packaging. Another electron beam accelerator of 3.0 MV, 90 kW is stationed in MINT which is used for research as well as for irradiation services. Research on electron beam cross-linking of natural polymer is one of the main subjects of interest. (author)

  11. Grapevine bunch rots: impacts on wine composition, quality, and potential procedures for the removal of wine faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christopher C; Blackman, John W; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2013-06-05

    Bunch rot of grape berries causes economic loss to grape and wine production worldwide. The organisms responsible are largely filamentous fungi, the most common of these being Botrytis cinerea (gray mold); however, there are a range of other fungi responsible for the rotting of grapes such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and fungi found in subtropical climates (e.g., Colletotrichum spp. (ripe rot) and Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot)). A further group more commonly associated with diseases of the vegetative tissues of the vine can also infect grape berries (e.g., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola ). The impact these fungi have on wine quality is poorly understood as are remedial practices in the winery to minimize wine faults. Compounds found in bunch rot affected grapes and wine are typically described as having mushroom, earthy odors and include geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, and fenchone. This review examines the current state of knowledge about bunch rot of grapes and how this plant disease complex affects wine chemistry. Current wine industry practices to minimize wine faults and gaps in our understanding of how grape bunch rot diseases affect wine production and quality are also identified.

  12. Electron-processing technology: A promising application for the viscose industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.; Ewing, D.; Whitehouse, R.

    1998-06-01

    In marketing its IMPELA ® line of high power, high-throughput industrial accelerators, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is working with viscose (rayon) companies world-wide to integrate electron-processing technology as part of the viscose manufacturing process. The viscose industry converts cellulose wood pulp into products such as staple fiber, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. This multibillion dollar industry is currently suffering from high production costs, and is facing increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The use of electron-treated pulp can significantly lower production costs and can provide equally significant environmental benefits. This paper describes our current understanding of the benefits of using electron-treated pulp in this process, and AECL's efforts in developing this technology.

  13. Electron beam processing of materials-R and D and industrial utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The early sixties witnessed the beginning of Electron Beam (EB) processing of materials using high-energy electrons and has emerged as a well established technology, presently being adapted by the industry. The process and the processed materials showed definite and distinct advantages/characteristics over the available conventional methods. Even though the commercial exploitation started initially in polymer modifications for better (and suitable) performance through polymerization, cross-linking, degradation and grafting, the processing fields are now diverged to sterilization of health care, food irradiation, controlled defects in semiconductor devices and semi and/or precious stones, waste water/flue gas treatment etc. The availability of electron accelerators that operate as per the requirement of the industrial needs, easy maintenance, expertise availability etc brought the EB processing industry into a multi dollar business world wide. In USA and Japan there are more than 1200 accelerators currently operative in automobile tire, wire and cable and heat shrinkable industry. Output beam powers exceeding 400 kW with electron energy ranging from few hundred keV up to 10 MeV are made available to the industry. In BARC EB processing started with the 2MeV/20 kW electron accelerator and suitable processing techniques have been developed for applications like polymer cross linking (heat resistant LDPE O-rings, wire and cable insulation), color enhancement in precious stones (diamonds) on industrial scale and polymer curing, grafting, degradation on R and D/pilot scale. The commercial success of the process enabled the private cable industry to set up accelerators at their factories. On research and development front, the accelerator is being utilized to develop new polymer blends for high temperature applications, for solid and liquid waste treatment, polypropylene grafting experiments for uranium extraction from sea water, surface curing etc. This paper gives

  14. New techniques for wine aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging of wine requires a long time therefore it can cause loss of time and money. Therefore using of new techniques for wine aging shortens the length of aging time and wines may be placed on the market more quickly. Nowadays, gamma irradiation, ultrasonic waves, AC electric field and micro-oxygenation are the new techniques for wine aging. Gamma irradiation (after fermentation is accelerated physical maturation method. Gamma irradiation, in a suitable dosage (200 Gy, is a suitable method for improving some wine defects and producing a higher taste quality in wine. The 20 kHz ultrasonic waves aged wine much more quickly than standard aging, with similar quality. The wine treated by 20 kHz ultrasonic waves had a taste equivalent to 1 year aged wine. Wine maturing with AC electric field promises novel process accelerating aging process of fresh wine when suitable conditions are applied. As a result of research, an optimum treatment (electric field 600 V/cm and duration time 3 min was identified to accelerate wine aging. Harsh and pungent raw wine become harmonious and dainty. This process is equivalent to 6 month aging in oak barrel. Microoxygenation is a very important technique used in aging wines in order to improve their characteristics. The techniques of wine tank aging imply the use of small doses of oxygen (2 ml L−1 month−1 and the addition of wood pieces of oak to the wine. Studies concerning these new techniques demonstrated that maturation of wines become more quickly than standard maturation procedures with keeping and improving the wine quality.

  15. How Sustainable are Benefits from Global Production Networks? Malaysia's Upgrading Prospects in the Electronics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Ernst

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces an operational definition of industrial upgrading (IU and documents the emergence of complex, multi-tier "networks of networks" which provide new opportunities for IU, but which also raise threshold requirements for participating in these networks. I highlight structural weaknesses of the Malaysian electronics industry that constrain its upgrading prospects; assess current policies that try to link cluster development and global network integration; discuss adjustments in...

  16. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  17. Drunken modernity: wine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Kjellgren

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tandis que le vin essaie de s’infiltrer dans le répertoire culinaire de la Chine, il s’agit plus qu’un simple processus de flux culinaires globaux du centre vers la périphérie. Le vin chinois est devenu un nouvel outil d’identification ainsi qu’un signe de la position renégociée de cette nation dans le monde. Pour ce qu’elle vaut, l’industrie vinicole sert également l’intérêt de l’État-parti en renforçant sa légitimité et en établissant son agenda politique. Dans cet article, qui rend compte de l’histoire du vin chinois ainsi que sa situation actuelle, la boisson est prise comme exemple des changements culinaires contemporains, mais surtout comme moyen d’explorer les significations et les limites sociales d’une modernité émergente distinctement chinoise. Une modernité qui dans sa volonté apparente d’absorber le nouveau et l’étranger remplace la dichotomie sino-occidentale jusque là prédominante, tout en adhérant toujours aux vieilles rengaines ‘que l’ancien serve le présent’ et ‘que l’étranger serve le chinois.’As grape wine tries to sell its way into the standard culinary repertoire of China, it is more than simply a process of a global culinary flow from the centre to the periphery. Chinese wine has become a new tool for identification as well as a sign of the nation’s renegotiated position in the world. For what it is worth, the wine industry also serves the interest of the party-state by strengthening its legitimacy and substantiating its political agenda. In this article, which reviews China’s wine history as well as the present situation, the drink is taken as an example of contemporary culinary change, but foremost as a means to explore the meanings and social limits of an emergent distinctly Chinese modernity. A modernity that in its apparent willingness to embrace the new and foreign supersedes the hitherto predominant Sino-Western dichotomy, while still adhering to the

  18. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine. Those...

  19. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  20. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made in...

  1. Wine and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenfelter, Orley; Storchmann, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the extensive literature on the impact of weather and climate on grapes and wine with the goal of describing how climate change is likely to affect their production. We start by discussing the physical impact of weather on vine phenology, berry composition and yields, and then survey the economic literature measuring the effects of temperature on wine quality, prices, costs and profits and how climate change will affect these. We also describe what ha...

  2. Yeast cell wall chitin reduces wine haze formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Thulile; Divol, Benoit; Bauer, Florian F

    2018-04-27

    Protein haze formation in bottled wines is a significant concern for the global wine industry and wine clarification before bottling is therefore a common but expensive practice. Previous studies have shown that wine yeast strains can reduce haze formation through the secretion of certain mannoproteins, but it has been suggested that other yeast-dependent haze protective mechanisms exist. On the other hand, addition of chitin has been shown to reduce haze formation, likely because grape chitinases have been shown to be the major contributors to haze. In this study, Chardonnay grape must fermented by various yeast strains resulted in wines with different protein haze levels indicating differences in haze protective capacities of the strains. The cell wall chitin levels of these strains were determined, and a strong correlation between cell wall chitin levels and haze protection capability was observed. To further evaluate the mechanism of haze protection, Escherichia coli -produced GFP-tagged grape chitinase was shown to bind efficiently to yeast cell walls in a cell wall chitin concentration-dependent manner, while commercial chitinase was removed from synthetic wine in quantities also correlated with the cell wall chitin levels of the strains. Our findings suggest a new mechanism of reducing wine haze, and propose a strategy for optimizing wine yeast strains to improve wine clarification. Importance In this study, we establish a new mechanism by which wine yeast strains can impact on the protein haze formation of wines, and demonstrate that yeast cell wall chitin binds grape chitinase in a chitin-concentration dependent manner. We also show that yeast can remove this haze-forming protein from wine. Chitin has in the past been shown to efficiently reduce wine haze formation when added to the wine in high concentration as a clarifying agent. Our data suggest that the selection of yeast strains with high levels of cell wall chitin can reduce protein haze. We also

  3. Wine tourism and sustainable environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa González San José

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a model of development in which the present actions should not compromise the future of future generations, and is linked to economic and social development which must respect the environment. Wine tourism or enotourism is a pleasant mode of tourism that combines the pleasure of wine-tasting, with cultural aspects related to the wine culture developing in wine regions over time until the present day. It can be affirmed that wine culture, and its use through wine tourism experiences, is clearly correlated to social (socially equitable, economic (economically feasible, environmental (environmentally sound and cultural aspects of the sustainability of winegrowing regions and territories.

  4. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  5. New electron beam facility for R and D and production at acsion industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, V.J.; Barnard, J.W.; Saunders, C.B.; Stepanik, T.M. E-mail: stepanik@acsion.com

    2003-08-01

    Since its incorporation in 1998, Acsion Industries Inc. has been working with clients to develop industrial uses of electron processing for improving products and manufacturing processes. Acsion has promoted this technology for sterilizing medical devices and pharmaceuticals, for treating wood pulp in the viscose/rayon process, for reducing pathogens in food and animal feed, and for curing advanced composites for the aerospace industry. As a result of significant developments in its composite curing programs, Acsion has recently made major modifications to its facility to increase its production and R and D capabilities. These modifications are described in this paper.

  6. New electron beam facility for R&D and production at acsion industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, V. J.; Barnard, J. W.; Saunders, C. B.; Stepanik, T. M.

    2003-08-01

    Since its incorporation in 1998, Acsion Industries Inc. has been working with clients to develop industrial uses of electron processing for improving products and manufacturing processes. Acsion has promoted this technology for sterilizing medical devices and pharmaceuticals, for treating wood pulp in the viscose/rayon process, for reducing pathogens in food and animal feed, and for curing advanced composites for the aerospace industry. As a result of significant developments in its composite curing programs, Acsion has recently made major modifications to its facility to increase its production and R&D capabilities. These modifications are described in this paper.

  7. Continuation of Research, Commercialization, and Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel Croucher; Rakesh Gupta; Hota GangaRao; Darran Cairns; Jinzing Wang; Xiaodong Shi; Jason Linnell; Karen Facemyer; Doug Ritchie; Jeff Tucker

    2009-09-30

    The MARCEE Project was established to understand the problems associated with electronics recycling and to develop solutions that would allow an electronics recycling industry to emerge. While not all of the activities have been funded by MARCEE, but through private investment, they would not have occurred had the MARCEE Project not been undertaken. The problems tackled and the results obtained using MARCEE funds are discussed in detail in this report.

  8. Adapting the wine producers' offers in Muntenia Oltenia to the new market trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bărbulescu Oana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of transformation that affects the world wine industry is also felt at the level of the Romanian market. The article aims to address two of the directions this market evolves in. The aim of the paper is to outline the extent to which wine cellars know and use the biodynamic cultivation and vinification techniques and to measure their willingness to practice enotourism as a wine promotion measure. After a short presentation of the general context of the Romanian wine industry and of the latest developments in this sector, the author analyzes of the results of a qualitative research carried out with seven wine producers in the Muntenia Ol tenia area. The results of the research allow sketching some proposals that are in line with the trends on the international wine market and that contribute to the increase of the sales of Romanian producers'.

  9. Sustainable Mountain Tourism: An Analysis of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s Wine Tourism and its Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudelson John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia-Herzegovina (B-H remains one of the most underdeveloped countries on the European Continent [1] yet it holds great potential as a tourist destination for outdoor adventurers, history enthusiasts, and now, wine connoisseurs. The southern part of this merged nation has always been an area of wine production, but the industry has been slow to develop into a net exporter of its wines. The author and many of the industry’s supporters believe that it would be more lucrative to follow in the footsteps of its western neighbor, Croatia, and develop the wine industry through wine tourism. Utilizing historical data, interviews, analysis of governmental statistics, review of the literature and finally a SWOT analysis, this paper suggests changes and expenditures required for Bosnia-Herzegovina to become a successful wine tourism destination. It is hoped that the suggestions made herein will direct further discussions if not actions in that direction.

  10. Wineries and wine routes as a tool for the development of agritourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dušan V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last five years, the wine production in the Republic of Serbia has had a positive trend. The structure of wine import and export indicates the need for better branding of Serbian wines to increase their visibility in the market. Today, small and family vineyards as well as wineries in the rural areas of Serbia prevail. All sorts of vines are grown there, and the products are often very high-quality wines. Representation of wineries in tourism industry is insufficiently developed and sporadic, with no clear strategy at a national and local level. Their involvement in development of tourism should be encouraged primarily through the development of wine routes. By improving hospitality facilities in wineries, all the preconditions would be met for the successful development, not only of wine industry, but also of agritourism since during their stay, tourists could try out and experience vineyard farm life at firsthand.

  11. Determination of tritium in wine and wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotarlea, Monica-Ionela; Paunescu, Niculina; Galeriu, D.; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.; Marin, G.

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive method for evaluating the tritium content in wine and wine yeast was applied to estimate tritium impact on the environment in the surrounding area of nuclear power plant Cernavoda, where the vineyards are part of representative agricultural ecosystem. Analytical procedures were developed to determine HTO in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractionating distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation followed by fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples obtained after fractional distillation were normally distilled with KMO 4 . The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine yeast samples from Mulfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  12. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulia, Danae S., E-mail: ntoulia@mail.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Anagnos, Efstathios K. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Liapis, Konstantinos S. [Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 7 Ekalis Str., Kiphissia, Athens GR-14561 (Greece); Klimentzos, Demetrios A. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  13. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doulia, Danae S.; Anagnos, Efstathios K.; Liapis, Konstantinos S.; Klimentzos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  14. [Amperometric biosensor for ethanol analysis in wines and grape must during wine fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkotova, L V; Slast'ia, E A; Zhyliakova, T A; Soldatkin, O P; Schuhmann, W; Dziadevych, S V

    2005-01-01

    The amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination based on alcohol oxidase immobilised by the method of electrochemical polymerization has been developed. The industrial screen-printed platinum electrodes were used as transducers for creation of amperometric alcohol biosensor. Optimal conditions for electrochemical deposition of an active membrane with alcohol oxidase has been determined. Biosensors are characterised by good reproducibility and operational stability with minimal detection limit of ethanol 8 x 10(-5) M. The good correlation of results for ethanol detection in wine and during wine fermentation by using the developed amperometric biosensor with the data obtained by the standard methods was shown (r = 0.995).

  15. The Construction and Realisation of Geographic Brand Rent in New Zealand Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hayward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of geographic brand rent in production and marketing of New Zealand wine. It is argued that the region of origin for fine wine is not only a recognised feature of its value but that this may be conceived as a form of brand rent and furthermore that it is measurable. The analysis uses both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches to consider grape and vineyard land prices, as well as interviews with industry informants to explore wine company strategies. Explicit use is made of the value-added chain in order to identify and situate the construction of rents and the positionality of industry actors in respect to these. The analysis highlights the quest to control different forms of brand rent that have led the restructuring of the wine industry. It also exposes countervailing pressures towards economic resilience and market vulnerability facing the fine wine industry.

  16. Design, simulation and construction of quadrupole magnets for focusing electron beam in powerful industrial electron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KH Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and simulation of quadrupole magnets and electron beam optical of that by CST Studio code has been studied. Based on simulation result the magnetic quadrupole has been done for using in beam line of first Iranian powerful electron accelerator. For making the suitable magnetic field the effects of material and core geometry and coils current variation on quadrupole magnetic field have been studied. For test of quadrupole magnet the 10 MeV beam energy and 0.5 pi mm mrad emittance of input beam has been considered. We see the electron beam through the quadrupole magnet focus in one side and defocus in other side. The optimum of distance between two quadrupole magnets for low emittance have been achieved. The simulation results have good agreement with experimental results

  17. UHF RFID tag implementation on cork substrate for wine bottle monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rima Martí, Sergi; Georgiadis, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    Wine industry is starting to deploy RFID technology for production control, logistics or innovative marketing. However, identifying wine bottles is difficult due to the unfavorable material content for the operation of the antennas. The thesis consists on the implementation of a UHF RFID tag placed on cork substrate in order to provide a feasible way of identifying wine packaged bottle. The proposed RFID tag consists on a meandered line dipole antenna, designed to be conformed so that it can ...

  18. Strain mapping for the semiconductor industry by dark-field electron holography and nanobeam electron diffraction with nm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Hartmann, Jean Michel; Carron, Veronique; Béché, Armand; Rouvière, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    There is a requirement of the semiconductor industry to measure strain in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. Here we show that dark-field electron holography and nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED) are both complementary techniques that can be used to determine the strain in these devices. We show two-dimensional strain maps acquired by dark holography and line profiles that have been acquired by NBED of recessed SiGe sources and drains with a variety of different gate lengths and Ge concentrations. We have also used dark-field electron holography to measure the evolution in strain during the silicidation process, showing that this can reduce the applied uniaxial compressive strain in the conduction channel by up to a factor of 3

  19. Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quing An; Shen, Yuan; Fan, Xue-Hui; García-Martín, Juan Francisco; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radic...

  20. Wine and Maths: Mathematical Solutions to Wine-Inspired Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, L.; Cauli, A.

    2018-01-01

    We deal with an application of partial differential equations to the correct definition of a wine cellar. We present some historical details about this problem. We also discuss how to build or renew a wine cellar, creating ideal conditions for the ageing process and improving the quality of wines. Our goal is to calculate the optimal depth…

  1. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  2. A Case Study: Implementing an Interactive Video Instruction System in Teaching Electronics and Industrial Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipe, Ron; And Others

    A study examined the development and implementation of an interactive video instruction system for teaching electronics and industrial maintenance at the University of Tennessee. The specific purposes of the study were to document unusual problems that may be encountered when this new technology is implemented, suggest corrective actions, and…

  3. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  4. Reducing NOx and SOx pollutants in an industrial units using electron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nouri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam accelerators technology has made significant progress in environmental applications in recent years. Including some environmental applications of industrial accelerators, is clearing the air from oxides of nitrogen and sulfur(NOx , SOx produced by industrial facilities. Combustion  of coal, oil, natural gas and other gases that are produced in power plant, refineries and industrial factories, produce high extent of these oxides wshich exceed the limit in most cases. Clearing by irradiation involves adding amounts of ammonia to output gases and irradiation by Electron beam accelerators. Irradiation produces radicals that interact again with  NOx , SOx  and produced the related gases. Due to the ammonia, these acids transform into ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 are precipitated by electrostatic precipitators, and are used as chemical fertilizer. Cosidering purification process of pollutant  gases by electron beam and the importance of electron accelerator in industrial plants that are polluting the environment in Iran, can be a suitable sollution for this environmental problem

  5. Consumer perceptions of organic wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IORDACHESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a study on the Romanians’ attitudes towards the organic wines. The analysis has been done in two stages – at a quantitative level and a qualitative one. The quantitative study has been done on a sample of 122 respondents – consumers and non-consumersin low percentage. The questionnaire investigated the general perception of wines, and included a dedicated section for the organic wines, addressed to the respondents aware of this product.The qualitative stage has been realized through a sensorial analysis, where three white wines and two red wines have been tasted by trained tasters. Among the five wines, one white – Chardonnay was organicwine. Both studies proved that the organic wine has a potential in Romania due to the sensorial qualities and people’s perception. However, the development of organic wine market won’t be a quick process and it will require first of all improving Romanians’ ‘organic’ culture.

  6. Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Sensory Quality of Brazilian Blueberry Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTA O. SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.

  7. Improving extreme-scale problem solving: assessing electronic brainstorming effectiveness in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Courtney C; Stevens, Susan M; Hendrickson, Stacey M L; Davidson, George S

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming to address difficult, real-world challenges. Although industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges during the course of 4 days. Employees and contractors at a national laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a real-world problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p industrial reliance on electronic problem-solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups may be more appropriate corporate problem-solving vehicles.

  8. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Higgins; Marianne McGarry Wolf; Mitchell J. Wolf

    2014-01-01

    As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine th...

  9. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  10. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  11. Effect of sequential inoculation (Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the first fermentation on the foam properties of sparkling wine (Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina-Trujillo Laura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we reported that sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the first fermentation increased the protein concentration and improved the foaming properties of a base wine. Since effervescence and foam of sparkling wines are key quality factors, the interest of this practice for sparkling wine industry is obvious. In this paper we study whether the foaming properties of the sparkling wines produced from the base wines obtained by sequential inoculation with T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae remains better than those of their controls produced from base wines fermented only with S. cerevisiae. The obtained results confirmed that sequential inoculation in the production of the base wine originated sparkling wines with significantly higher maximum heights of foam than conventional inoculation, probably because autolysis of the T. delbrueckii cells in the base wine released higher amounts of proteins, especially of the low molecular weight fraction.

  12. Fun with Singing Wine Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency…

  13. Bordeaux of Talca and Champagne of Mendoza: Appellations of Origin and identity contamination of wines in Argentina and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Alberto Lacoste; Diego Ignacio Jiménez Cabrera; Félix Maximiano Briones Quiroz; Amalia Castro San Carlos; Bibiana Marcela Rendón Zapata; José Gabriel Jeffs Munizaga

    2014-01-01

    The development of Appellations of Origin (AO) is one of the wines of outstanding wine industry in Argentina and Chile subjects. Given the strong trend towards concentration of the wine industry in these two countries, it is relevant to study the AO because they represent an appropriate mechanism to reduce the gap and enhance the possibilities of SMEs. Why AO not have developed in Argentina and Chile? This article examines the causes that inhibit the development of local AO in the regional vi...

  14. [Eulogy of wine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, I O

    1997-12-20

    In the literature the beneficial effects on health of drinking alcoholic beverages, especially red wine, is becoming increasingly more evident. We report an objective analysis of the advantages and the dangers of such a tendency. It appears that the daily consumption of red wine at moderate doses (200-400 ml a day) has real prophylactic effects. These are particularly marked in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but also for a possible cancer chemopreventive activity, in the prevention of type II diabetes, of ischemic stroke, of osteoporosis in older women, and of Alzheimer's disease. But, inasmuch as the consumption of alcoholic beverages always involves a potential danger (organic diseases, risk of dependence, alcoholism), from a medical point of view eulogy to wine is ethically indefensible. Similar effects may be obtained from a diet rich in fruits and fresh vegetables.

  15. Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Shen, Yuan; Fan, Xue-Hui; Martín, Juan Francisco García; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radicals. Spin adducts of hydroxyl free radicals were detected in DMPO aqueous solution after sonication while 1-hydroxylethyl free radical adducts were observed in ultrasound-processed red wine and model wine. The latter radical arose from ethanol oxidation via the hydroxyl radical generated by ultrasound in water, thus providing the first direct evidence of the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl free radical in red wine exposed to ultrasound. Finally, the effects of ultrasound frequency, ultrasound power, temperature and ultrasound exposure time were assessed on the intensity of 1-hydroxylethyl radical spin adducts in model wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A sniffer-camera for imaging of ethanol vaporization from wine: the effect of wine glass shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Iitani, Kenta; Wang, Xin; Kajiro, Takumi; Toma, Koji; Yano, Kazuyoshi; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-04-21

    A two-dimensional imaging system (Sniffer-camera) for visualizing the concentration distribution of ethanol vapor emitting from wine in a wine glass has been developed. This system provides image information of ethanol vapor concentration using chemiluminescence (CL) from an enzyme-immobilized mesh. This system measures ethanol vapor concentration as CL intensities from luminol reactions induced by alcohol oxidase and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. Conversion of ethanol distribution and concentration to two-dimensional CL was conducted using an enzyme-immobilized mesh containing an alcohol oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and luminol solution. The temporal changes in CL were detected using an electron multiplier (EM)-CCD camera and analyzed. We selected three types of glasses-a wine glass, a cocktail glass, and a straight glass-to determine the differences in ethanol emission caused by the shape effects of the glass. The emission measurements of ethanol vapor from wine in each glass were successfully visualized, with pixel intensity reflecting ethanol concentration. Of note, a characteristic ring shape attributed to high alcohol concentration appeared near the rim of the wine glass containing 13 °C wine. Thus, the alcohol concentration in the center of the wine glass was comparatively lower. The Sniffer-camera was demonstrated to be sufficiently useful for non-destructive ethanol measurement for the assessment of food characteristics.

  17. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  18. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample.

  19. New Zealand Winegrowers Attitudes and Behaviours towards Wine Tourism and Sustainable Winegrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Baird

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are significant economic, environmental, social, and marketing issues that exist from the supply-side perspective in response to sustainability. This study examines New Zealand winegrowers in terms of their attitudes and behaviours towards wine tourism and sustainable wine production. A national survey was conducted at the end of 2015, which was the fourth such survey to be undertaken as part of a longitudinal study of wine tourism in New Zealand. This survey drew on issues of wine and biosecurity, climate change, and eco-labelling, as well as wine tourism. These issues were examined within the context of three key drivers of sustainability: the physical aspects of sustainable wine production, the internal drivers within wine businesses for the adoption of sustainable practices, and the external regulatory aspects that govern the adoption of sustainable wine production practices. The findings indicate that there were substantial concerns with the perceived value provided by both wine tourism and sustainable winegrowing practices. These concerns exist at both the firm level and with the governing bodies that are responsible for implementing sustainable winegrowing initiatives. Unless this perception of the value of sustainability within the New Zealand wine industry is altered in the future, it appears that there will continue to be an ongoing issue as to how sustainable winegrowing initiatives are implemented.

  20. Exploring American and Italian consumer preferences for Californian and Italian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Noble, Ann Curtis; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-06-01

    To increase the market share of Californian wines in other countries, wine preferences need to be explored in potential markets. This work studied the preferences of American and Italian consumers for red wines produced in California and Italy, focusing on wines made from the same varieties in each location. Descriptive analysis and consumer preference tests were performed. Americans scored each of the Californian wines significantly higher in preference than the Italian wines. In contrast, the Italian consumer preference scores for many Italian and Californian wines overlapped. By external preference mapping of the American consumer segments, the ideal flavour of one cluster was closest to the Californian Zinfandel, Merlot and Syrah, which had the 'most balanced' flavour profiles. Another cluster of Italians also preferred the Californian wines. In addition, one Italian cluster was driven by a dislike of the leather, band-aid and medicinal aromas of the Italian Merlot and Refosco. The results provided information that can contribute to wine marketing research necessary for successfully exporting Californian red wines to Italy and vice versa. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Radiation effects on electronic equipment: a designers'/users' guide for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.E.; Garlick, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Designers'/Users' Guide to the effects of radiation on electronics is published by the Radiation Testing Service of AEA Technology. The aim of the Guide is to document the available information that we have generated and collected over some ten years whilst operating as a radiation effects and design consultancy to the nuclear power industry. We hope that this will enable workers within the industry better to understand the likely effects of radiation on the system or plant being designed and so minimise the problems that can arise. (Author)

  2. Dynamic sensory description of Rioja Alavesa red wines made by different winemaking practices by using Temporal Dominance of Sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaio, Iñaki; Meillon, Sophie; Pérez-Elortondo, Francisco J; Schlich, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    Although sensory description of wines in scientific literature is very large, there is an evident lack of studies describing wines from a dynamic approach. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of the sensations perceived in red wines from Rioja Alavesa by using Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and also to compare wines made with the two winemaking procedures used in Rioja Alavesa: carbonic maceration (CM) and destemming (DS). Ten sensory attributes were evaluated in eight wines (four CM and four DS wines) in triplicate by a panel of 16 trained assessors. Red/black berry and woody aromas were dominant firstly, whereas heat, astringent, bitter and pungent sensations were dominant later. CM wines showed higher dominance for woody, spicy, pungent and acid sensations and lower dominance for red/black berry aroma and astringency than DS wines. This study is the first to describe Rioja wines from a dynamic approach and it also provides information about the dynamic sensory differences between wines made by CM or by DS. In this sense, this work shows the usefulness of TDS to describe and differentiate wines and to provide additional information to the conventional static descriptive analysis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Botrytized wines – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magyar I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ildikó Magyar, János Soós Department of Oenology, Institute of Viticulture and Oenology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Botrytized wines are wine specialties made of overripe grapes infected by Botrytis cinerea with the form “noble rot”. Due to the particular characteristics of the noble rotted grape, these wines (eg, Tokaji Aszú, Sauternes, Trockenbeerenauslese types, etc have many characteristic features, including higher or lower residual sugar content and unique aroma composition. The technology, biochemistry, and special characteristics of botrytized wines have been researched for a long time. This review outlines the main directions of the current studies, giving a brief overview on the recent findings. Beside the traditional wine types, noble rot is increasingly utilized in making newer sweet wine styles and straw (passito wines, which generates a series of new interesting experimental results. The fungus–grape interactions during the noble rot, the induced botrytization, the microbial communities of botrytized wines, and the volatile compounds having key roles in the distinct aroma of these wine styles are being focused on in the current studies in this field. Keywords: Botrytis, noble rot, sweet wines, passito wine, aroma

  4. Who are the researchers that are collaborating with industry? an analysis of the wine sectors in Chile, South Africa and Italy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuliani, E.; Morrison, A.; Pietrobelli, C.; Rabelloti, R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on University–industry (U-I) linkages and their determinants has increased significantly in the past few years. However, there is still controversy on the key factors explaining the formation of U-I linkages, and especially related to individual researcher characteristics. This paper

  5. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  6. Outlining the influence of non-conventional yeasts in wine ageing over lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ignacio; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio; Calderón, Fernando; Benito, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, the use of innovative yeast cultures of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as alternative tools to manage the winemaking process have turned the oenology industry. Although the contribution of different yeast species to wine quality during fermentation is increasingly understood, information about their role in wine ageing over lees is really scarce. This work aims to analyse the incidence of three non-Saccharomyces yeast species of oenological interest (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) and of a commercial mannoprotein-overproducer S. cerevisiae strain compared with a conventional industrial yeast strain during wine ageing over lees. To evaluate their incidence in mouthfeel properties of wine after 4 months of ageing, the mannoprotein content of wines was evaluated, together with other wine analytic parameters, such as colour and aroma, biogenic amines and amino acids profile. Some differences among the studied parameters were observed during the study, especially regarding the mannoprotein concentration of wines. Our results suggest that the use of T. delbrueckii lees in wine ageing is a useful tool for the improvement of overall wine quality by notably increasing mannoproteins, reaching values higher than obtained using a S. cerevisiae overproducer strain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Harvesting and blending options for lower alcohol wines: a sensory and chemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Rocco; Blackman, John W; Antalick, Guillaume; Torley, Peter J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2018-01-01

    Lower alcohol wines often have a poor reputation among consumers, in part due to their unsatisfactory flavours such as reduced overall aroma intensity or herbaceous characters. The aim of this study, performed on Verdelho and Petit Verdot, was to quantify the effectiveness of a monovarietal blend in which wines made from less ripe grapes were blended with an equivalent volume of a wine vinified from riper fruit to produce wines with a lower alcohol content and desirable ripe fruit flavours. Eleven and 13 attributes, for Verdelho and Petit Verdot, respectively, were selected during sensory descriptive analysis. Intensities of perceived 'acidity', 'sweetness' and 'alcohol' attributes were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) between the blend (8.8 ± 0.1% v/v) and mature Verdelho (10.3 ± 0.1% v/v) wines, while no significant differences were found between the Petit Verdot blend (11.0 ± 0.1% v/v) and mature (12.6 ± 0.2% v/v) treatments. Volatile composition of wines was assessed using HS-SPME-GC-MS. Partial least square regression suggested relationships between sensory descriptors and chemical attributes in the wines, as well as the modifications of sensory and compositional profiles following blending. The blending practice described allowed the production of wines with lower alcohol content while retaining similar sensory profiles of the later harvested, riper fruit wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The influence of ultrasound on wine and wine materials acidity during clarification process in tubular membrane filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ponedelchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on the experimental ultrasonic installation were carried out, using industrial equipment for bottling liquids and ultrasonic apparatus "Volna-M" UZTA-1/22-OM, for clarification and filtering of table wines by tangential microfiltration using membrane ceramic filtering elements with a pore size of 0.2 micron at a pressure of 0.5-2.0 bar. Membrane ultrafiltration upon application of ultrasound of 30-40 microns amplitude and a frequency of 20 kHz ± 1.65 Hz at high filter performance and work stability changes the quantitative content of the valuable wine components slightly. But much attention to the increase of titratable acidity and pH medium due to possible degradation and esterification intensification of higher acids and alcohols was paid. At the same time more intense and rich aroma and distinct flavor with berry notes appears in wine that along with the physical- and chemical indicators helped to improve organoleptic characteristics and to increase the tasting evaluation of wines. At the same time, the content of phenolic and nitrogen compounds is reduced resulting in wines stability to protein and colloidal opacification. It became possible to refuse multiple regeneration of ceramic filter elements for the  ecovery of their performance, as well as the use of preservatives and antiseptics at a high wines bottling stability. It is shown that the filtration with the dosing of ultrasound in the wine industry allows not only reducing the cost of consumables, equipment and removing some of the traditional processes, but also providing the cold sterilization of wine materials with an increase in their quality.

  9. Degradation study of trichloroethylene and perchloric ethylene using high energy electron beam generated in industrial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, B.L.R.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Avolio, R.M.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Vieira, J.M.; Rela, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The pollution of potable water with chlorinated hydrocarbons, mainly trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloric ethylene (PCE), is seriously increasing the problem of contamination of water, specially in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies show that depuration by ionizing radiation has been considered a possible alternative to the control of water pollution, wherein the process by ionizing radiation converts TCE and PCE into approximately 100% carbon dioxide ions. Water samples containing TCE e PCE were submitted to radiation in the pilot plant installed in the industrial electron accelerator at IPEN from Radiation Dynamics, Dynamitron II, of 1,5 MeV - 25 m A, with doses varying from 2 kGy to 8 kGy, being its parameters analyzed before and after irradiation TCE and PCE concentrations were determined by the gas chromatography method by liquid-liquid extraction using a gas chromatograph, model CG 90, with an electron capture detector. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  10. Radiation Field Forming for Industrial Electron Accelerators Using Rare-Earth Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A. N.; Khankin, V. V.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Yurov, D. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes the radiation field forming system for industrial electron accelerators, which would have uniform distribution of linear charge density at the surface of an item being irradiated perpendicular to the direction of its motion. Its main element is non-linear quadrupole lens made with the use of rare-earth magnetic materials. The proposed system has a number of advantages over traditional beam scanning systems that use electromagnets, including easier product irradiation planning, lower instantaneous local dose rate, smaller size, lower cost. Provided are the calculation results for a 10 MeV industrial electron accelerator, as well as measurement results for current distribution in the prototype build based on calculations.

  11. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  12. Methods for calculating energy and current requirements for industrial electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.; Farrell, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The practical problems of determining electron beam parameters for industrial irradiation processes are discussed. To assist the radiation engineer in this task, the physical aspects of electron beam absorption are briefly described. Formulas are derived for calculating the surface dose in the treated material using the electron energy, beam current and the area thruput rate of the conveyor. For thick absorbers electron transport results are used to obtain the depth-dose distributions. From these the average dose in the material, anti D, and the beam power utilization efficiency, F/sub p/, can be found by integration over the distributions. These concepts can be used to relate the electron beam power to the mass thruput rate. Qualitatively, the thickness of the material determines the beam energy, the area thruput rate and surface dose determine the beam current while the mass thruput rate and average depth-dose determine the beam power requirements. Graphs are presented showing these relationships as a function of electron energy from 0.2 to 4.0 MeV for polystyrene. With this information, the determination of electron energy and current requirements is a relatively simple procedure

  13. LIFE CYCLE OF A WINE BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Paziuk

    2015-11-01

    then the product will cause its strong commitment and provide the expected profit. A brand contributes to an adequate instant reaction of manufacturers and distributors of products to internal and external challenges in a dynamic shift in the consumer market and increases competition. The value/ originality. Modern scientific studies increasingly gain urgency of development, existence and determination of characteristics of the brand life cycle. However, given specificity of the wine industry, the coverage of this issue in the literature requires constantly new and innovative approaches to problem-solving efficiency of the brand. The article explores and describes factors that affect the life cycle of the wine brand management that provides gain competitive advantages in certain stages and allows to extend the brand in the face of increasing competition.

  14. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  15. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  16. Port-wine stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Port-wine stain URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  17. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  18. Social media as a means to access millennial wine consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Fernández, R.; Vriesekoop, F.; Urbano, B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose \\ud The purpose of this research is to gain insights of\\ud the use of social media (SM) in the wine industry. From the theoretical viewpoint to analyze wineries’ social media segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP) to help the wine industry to improve the effectiveness of SM communication. \\ud Design/methodology/approach \\ud An observational study of Spanish wineries’ SM presence and traffic was carried out during a three-month period in 2013 and repeated in 2016. During this pe...

  19. High pressure inactivation of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Processing at 200 MPa for 3 min resulted in 5.8 log reductions. However higher pressure is recommended to achieve high throughput in the wine industry, for example >6.0 log reductions were achieved after 400 MPa for 5 s. The inactivation of B. bruxellensis is pressure and time dependent, with increased treatment time and pressure leading to increased yeast inactivation. It was also found that yeast strain had a significant effect on HPP inactivation, with AWRI 1499 being the most resistant strain. The Weibull model successfully described the HPP "Brett" inactivation. HPP is a viable alternative for the inactivation of B. bruxellensis in wine, with the potential to reduce the industry's reliance on sulphur dioxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  1. Improvement of conventional parameters of actual industrial effluent by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Silveira, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ordinary process to treat wastewater from the dye, textile, chemical, pharmaceutical and paper mill industries do not degrade easily the coloured substances and organic compounds. A study on the improvement of this treatment using high energy electron irradiation was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from the public Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 80% of wastewater from industrial sources and 20% from domestic sources. A large amount of industrial wastewater comes from chemical and textile industries, which change everyday the quality, quantity and colour these characteristics depend on for the production line of each particular industry. Samples from WTP influent and effluent were collected every 15 days and irradiated in a batch system; the delivered doses were 3.0 kGy, 4.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 8.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. For the non-irradiated and irradiated samples the following parameters were analyzed: chemical oxygen demand (COD), fixed and volatile total solids and fixed and volatile suspended solids, absorption spectrum (300-700nm) and gas chromatography. For samples from effluent irradiated with 3.0 kGy dose, the COD value presented a reduction average of 45%, and this result was fixed for higher doses, however the COD of influent sample did not show significant change for all the delivered doses

  2. Torulaspora delbrueckii for secondary fermentation in sparkling wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Laura; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2018-09-01

    In the search for the desired oenological features and flavour complexity of wines, there is growing interest in the potential use of non-Saccharomyces yeast that are naturally present in the winemaking environment. Torulaspora delbrueckii is one such yeast that has seen profitable use in mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with different grape varieties. T. delbrueckii can have positive and distinctive impacts on the overall aroma of wines, and has also been used at an industrial level. Here, T. delbrueckii was successfully used in pure and mixed secondary fermentations for sparkling wine. The two selected T. delbrueckii strains used completed the secondary fermentation 'prise de mousse' in these pure and mixed fermentations. The sparkling wines obtained with T. delbrueckii showed different aromatic compositions and sensory profiles to those of S. cerevisiae. T. delbrueckii strain DiSVA 130 showed high esters production and significantly high scores for some of the aromatic descriptors that positively influence the sensory profile of sparkling wine. Thus, the use of T. delbrueckii in pure and mixed fermentations is a suitable strategy to further develop the flavour complexity during secondary fermentation of sparkling wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective methods for polyphenols and sulphur dioxide determination in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Juan J; Hernández-Artiga, María P; Palacios-Ponce de León, Lourdes; Bellido-Milla, Dolores

    2015-09-01

    A critical review to the methods recommended by international bodies and widely used in the winery industry and research studies was performed. A Laccase biosensor was applied to the selective determination of polyphenols in wines. The biosensor response was characterised and it responds mainly to o-diphenols which are the principal polyphenols responsible for the stability and sensory qualities of wines. The spectrophotometric method to determine free and total sulphur dioxide recommended for beers was applied directly to wines. A sampling of 14 red and white wines was performed and they were analysed for biosensor polyphenol index (IBP) and sulphur dioxide concentration (SO2). The antioxidant capacity by the ABTS(+) spectrophotometric method was also determined. A correlation study was performed to elucidate the influence of the polyphenols and SO2 on the wines stability. High correlations were found between IBP and antioxidant capacity and low correlation between SO2 and antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the benefits of wine drinking a new parameter (IBP/SO2) is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Secretome of Aspergillus oryzae in Shaoxing rice wine koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Guan, Zheng-Bing; Cao, Yu; Xie, Guang-Fa; Lu, Jian

    2012-04-16

    Shaoxing rice wine is the most famous and representative Chinese rice wine. Aspergillus oryzae SU16 is used in the manufacture of koji, the Shaoxing rice wine starter culture. In the current study, a comprehensive analysis of the secretome profile of A. oryzae SU16 in Shaoxing rice wine koji was performed for the first time. The proteomic analysis for the identification of the secretory proteins was done using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry based on the annotated A. oryzae genome sequence. A total of 41 unique proteins were identified from the secretome. These proteins included 17 extracellular proteins following the classical secretory pathway, and 10 extracellular proteins putatively secreted by the non-classical secretory pathway. The present secretome profile greatly differed from previous reports on A. oryzae growing in other solid-state nutrient sources. Several new secretory or putative secretory proteins were also found. These proteomic data will significantly aid the advancement of research on the secretome of A. oryzae, especially in solid-state cultures, and in elucidating the production process mechanism of Shaoxing rice wine koji. The findings may promote the technological development and innovation of the Shaoxing rice wine industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prosumers in the wine market: An explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dressler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Winning business models increasingly build on stronger integration of clients in the world of production. Empirical evidence on such prosuming for the wine industry is lacking. A multidimensional approach and 321 interviews with wine consumers allowed to explore presuming interest with descriptive, correlation, and a two-step cluster analyses. The study results support the relevance of customer integration in the world of wine. Two clusters divide the wine consumers: prosuming interested versus prosuming reluctant consumers. Against literature based expectations, demographics or wine knowledge are less cluster determinant. Challenging wine consumer groups, especially the younger generation, can be attracted via prosuming. New client relationships can be built with loyalty and price premium opportunities in a market where these two success variables are under pressure. Despite a general openness and curiosity from the client side the interviews revealed no enthusiasm for prosuming and disclosed a segment of clients with low and limited involvement interest. Hence careful resource allocation is recommended. Prosuming needs managerial attention and a strategic approach adapting the business model to integrate interested clients.

  6. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  7. Studies of toxic metals removal in industrial wastewater after electron-beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Oxidation Process, using electron-beam, have been studied by scientific community due to its capacity to mineralize the toxic organic compound from highly reactive radical's formation. The electron-beam treatment process has been adopted by several countries for organic compounds removal and to effluents and sewers biological degradation. In this work, studies of metals removal in the simulated aqueous solutions and in the actual industrial effluents were carried out, using electron-beam treatment. The effluents samples were collected at ETE/SABESP (Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant) in Suzano, SP city. The sampling was outlined at three distinctive sites: Industrial Receiver Unit, Medium Bar, and Final Effluent. The effluents samples were irradiated using different irradiation doses (20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy). The removal behavior of metals Ca, CI, S, P, K, Al, Fe, As, Ni, Cr, Zn, Si, Co, Mn, As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb was verified. The elements determination was accomplished with the x-ray fluorescence (WD-XRFS) technique using Fundamental Parameters method and thin film samples. The elements Fe, Zn, Cr and Co presented a removal > 99% to 200 kGy of irradiation dose in industrial effluent. At the same dose, P, Al and Si presented a removal of 81.8%, 97.6% and 98.7%, respectively. Ca and S were removed more than 80% at 20 kGy and Na, CI and K did not presented any degree of removal. As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb removal was studied in the simulated aqueous solutions and industrial effluents with scavengers addition (EDTA and HCOONa). The elements As and Hg presented a removal of 92% and 99%, respectively, with HCOONa, at 500 kGy irradiation dose. The Se presented a 96.5% removal at same irradiation dose without scavengers addition. The removal of Cd and Pb did not give a significant removal, once all of the assay were carried out in the oxidant medium. (author)

  8. Determination of tritium in wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotarlea, Monica-Ionela; Paunescu Niculina; Galeriu, D; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.; Marin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical procedures were developed to determine tritium in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractioning distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation/fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples were normally distilled with K MO 4 . The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine samples from Murfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  9. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Escott, Carlos; Loira, Iris; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; Calderon, Fernando; Benito, Santiago; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio

    2016-10-31

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed ( Vitis vinifera ) and French oak ( Quercus robur and Querrus petraea ), were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  10. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed (Vitis vinifera and French oak (Quercus robur and Querrus petraea, were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  11. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  12. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  13. Performance characteristics and typical industrial applications of Selfshield electron accelerators (<300kV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaronson, J.N.; Nablo, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    Selfshielded electron accelerators have been successfully used in industry for more than ten years. One of the important advantages of these machines is their compactness for easy adaptation to conventional coating and product finishing machinery. It is equally important that these machines qualify for use under 'unrestricted' conditions as specified by OSHA. The shielding and product handling configurations which make this unrestricted designation possible for operating voltages under 300 kV are discussed. Thin film dosimetry techniques used for the determination of the machine performance parameters are discussed along with the rotary scanner techniques employed for the dose rate studies which are important in the application of the processors. Paper and wood coatings, which are important industrial applications involving electron initiated polymerization, are reviewed. The sterilization and disinfestation applications are also discussed. The increasing concern of these industries for the more effective use of energy and for compliance with more stringent pollution regulations, coupled with the novel processes this energy source makes possible, assure a bright future for this developing technology. (orig.)

  14. The geography of vine and wine industry in Brazil: Territory, culture and heritage / Géographie de la vigne et du vin Brésilien : territoire, culture et patrimoine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcade Ivanira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese started in the sixteenth century, but the colonial system did encourage neither their growth nor the establishment of territories. The organization of regions where the grape and wine formed the economic dynamic is related to the nineteenth century colonization projects, especially Italians from 1875. These regions including the Serra Gaúcha of Rio Grande do Sul and other small areas. In the twentieth century, most of these regions have had important territorial transformations, however, viticulture elements remain in culture and regional identity. In recent years, the growing of vines expanded to other regions and also in other States. The cultivation of the vine and winemaking built a brand, both for the actors and for the regional society, whose viticultural landscape distinguishes and identifies regions, and the cultural expression of the grape and wine is present in numerous material and intangible elements. The material and the intangible cultural complex of the wine-growing regions are a diverse and dynamic heritage, more concentrated in Rio Grande do Sul, which contributes to the enhancement and preservation of cultural heritage and territorial wine in this State. The wine culture valued in the actions of patrimonialization depends on the importance that give them the actors involved.

  15. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  16. Commercialization of an S-band standing-wave electron accelerator for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jin-Hyeok; Kwak, Gyeong-Il; Han, Jae-Ik; Lee, Gyu-Baek; Jeon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Bin; Lee, Gi-Yong; Kim, Young-Man; Park, Sung-Ju

    2016-09-01

    An electron accelerator system has been developed for use in industrial, as well as possible medical, applications. Based on our experiences achieved during prototype system development and various electron beam acceleration tests, we have built a stable and compact system for sales purposes. We have integrated a self-developed accelerating cavity, an E-gun pulse driver, a radio-frequency (RF) power system, a vacuum system, a cooling system, etc. into a frame with a size of 1800 × 1000 × 1500 mm3. The accelerating structure is a side-coupled standing-wave type operating in the π/2 mode (tuned to~3 GHz). The RF power is provided by using a magnetron driven by a solid-state modulator. The electron gun is a triode type with a dispenser cathode (diameter of 11 mm). The system is capable of delivering a maximum 900-W average electron beam power with tight focusing at the target. Until now, we have performed various electron beam tests and X-ray beam tests after having built the system, have completed the beam assessment for commercializations, and have been preparing full-fledged sales activity. This article reports on our system development processes and on some of our early test results for commercializations.

  17. On the effects of search attributes on price variability: An empirical investigation on quality wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seccia Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a bottle of wine is affected by the presence of attributes that are searched by consumers and can be evaluated before the purchase. The aim of the paper is to analyze the effect of some search attributes on wine price variability applying the Hedonic Price Model. It allows explaining how the price of wine varies depending on its main quality attributes. The analysis has been based on a sample of wines made in Puglia, Italian region characterized by a tradition in wine production and consumption. Data have been collected from a wine guidebook considering the years 2008–2013. The study provided a measure of the market value of some search attributes for wines produced in Puglia. Attributes as alcoholic content, age and score given by experts, influence price variability allowing wines to obtain a premium price, such as the most known Protected Designation of Origin (PDO and some Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. The name of the variety seems not to have high influence with the exception of less known and locally grown varieties. Results may be of interest for marketers and policy makers of wine industry. Managerial implications could refer to the importance of differentiation strategies aimed to market segmentation and to the pricing strategy. Policymakers could also find interesting hints about the influence of the different appellations and the importance of minor autochthonous grape varieties.

  18. Phenolic composition and mouthfeel characteristics resulting from blending Chilean red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Avilés-Gálvez, Pamela; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; López-Solís, Remigio; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2014-03-15

    The blending of wine is a common practice in winemaking to improve certain characteristics that are appreciated by consumers. The use of some cultivars may contribute phenolic compounds that modify certain characteristics in blended wines, particularly those related to mouthfeel. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Carménère, Merlot and Cabernet Franc on the phenolic composition, proanthocyanidin profile and mouthfeel characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon blends. Significant differences in chemical composition were observed among the monovarietal wines. Separation using Sep-Pak C₁₈ cartridges revealed differences in the concentration but not in the proportion of various proanthocyanidins. Blending reduced polyphenol concentration differences among the various monovarietal wines. Although no major overall differences were observed after blending the monovarietal wines, this oenological practice produced clear differences in mouthfeel characteristics in such a way that the quality of the perceived astringency was different. This study showed that the use of a particular wine variety (Cabernet Sauvignon) in a higher proportion in wine blending produced blends that were less differentiable from the monovarietal wine, owing to a suppression effect, producing an apparent standardization of the wines regarding chemical composition. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A Review of Data Mining with Big Data towards Its Applications in the Electronics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengping Lv

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining (DM with Big Data has been widely used in the lifecycle of electronic products that range from the design and production stages to the service stage. A comprehensive analysis of DM with Big Data and a review of its application in the stages of its lifecycle will not only benefit researchers to develop strong research themes and identify gaps in the field but also help practitioners for DM application system development. In this paper, a brief clarification of DM-related topics is presented first. A flowchart of DM and the main content of the flowchart steps are given in which commonly used data preparation and preprocessing approaches, DM functions and techniques, and performances indicators are summarized. Then, a comprehensive review covering 105 articles from 2007 to 2017 on DM or Big Data applications in the electronics industry is provided according to the flowchart from various points of view such as data handling, applications of DM, or Big Data at different lifecycle stages, and the software used in the applications. On this basis, a diagram of data content for different knowledge areas and a framework for DM and Big Data applications in the electronics industry are established. Finally, conclusions and future research directions are given.

  20. Treatment of textiles industrial wastewater by electron beam and biological treatment (sbr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Zulkafli Ghazali; Ting Teo Ming

    2008-08-01

    Study of treating textiles industrial wastewater with combined of electron beam and Tower Style Biological Treatment (TSB) was investigated in Korea. In this project, textiles wastewater was also treated with electron beam, but hybrid with Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The purpose of this research is to develop combined electron beam treatment with existing biological treatment facility (SBR), of textile industries in Malaysia. The objectives of this project are to determine the effective irradiation parameter for treatment and to identify effective total retention time in SBR system. To achieve the objective, samples fill in polypropyle tray were irradiated at 1 MeV, 20 mA and 1 MeV ,5 mA at doses 11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy respectively. Raw effluent and two series of irradiated effluent at 1 MeV 20 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) and 1 MeV 5 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) were then treated in SBR system. Samples were analysed at 6, 14 and 20 hrs after aeration in the SBR. The results show that, average reduction in BOD was about 2-11% after irradiated at 5 mA, and the percentage increased to 21-73% after treatment in SBR system. At 20 mA, BOD reduced to 7-29% during irradiation and the value increased to 57-87% after treatment in SBR system. (Author)

  1. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers

  2. An empirical study on critical success factors for electronic commerce in the Chinese publishing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jinghua; ZHAO Chunjun; LI Jingting

    2007-01-01

    Critical success factors for electronic commerce (e-commerce) have been a hot topic in both the academe and industry. This paper puts forward hypotheses on success factors for e-commerce of traditional companies first. Then, it conducts an empirical study on the Chinese publishing industry in order to verify the hypotheses. After testing the validity and reliability of the data, this paper verifies the hypotheses with regression analyses, and finally identifies factors impacting e-commerce success such as leadership, strategy, organization, management, IT, customers, comprehensive functions of website and customer- oriented functions. In addition, customers, strategy, IT and comprehensive functions of website are identified as the critical factors impacting e-commerce success. This research not only stimulates e-commerce research in China, but also has an instructional effect on the implementation of e-commerce so that Chinese publishing enterprises can increase the success rate of their e-commerce objectives.

  3. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  4. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Industrial applications of electron beam flue gas treatment - From laboratory to the practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    The electron beam technology for flue gas treatment (EBFGT) has been developed in Japan in the early 1980s. Later on, this process was investigated in pilot scale in the USA, Germany, Japan, Poland, Bulgaria and China. The new engineering and process solutions have been developed during the past two decades. Finally industrial plants have been constructed in Poland and China. The high efficiency of SO x and NO x removal was achieved (up to 95% for SO x and up to 70% for NO x ) and by-product is a high quality fertilizer. Since the power of accelerators applied in industrial installation is over 1 MW and requested operational availability of the plant is equal to 8500 h in year, it is a new challenge for radiation processing applications

  6. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  7. Genomic Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese Rice Wine Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. PMID:25212861

  8. Influence of Grape Berry Maturity on Juice and Base Wine Composition and Foaming Properties of Sparkling Wines from the Champagne Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin-He; Vrigneau, Céline; Salmon, Thomas; Hoang, Duc An; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Jégou, Sandrine; Marchal, Richard

    2018-06-06

    In sparkling wine cool-climate regions like Champagne, it is sometimes necessary to pick the healthy grape clusters that have a relatively low maturity level to avoid the deleterious effects of Botrytis cinerea . In such conditions, we know that classical oenological parameters (sugars, pH, total acidity) may change but there is little information concerning the impact of grape berry maturity on wine proteins and foaming properties. Therefore, healthy grapes (Chardonnay and Pinot meunier) in 2015 and 2016 were picked at different maturity levels within the range of common industrial maturity for potential alcohol content 8⁻11% v/v in the Champagne region. Base wine protein content and foamability, and oenological parameters in grape juice and their corresponding base wines, were investigated. The results showed that base wine protein contents (analyzed by the Bradford method and by electrophoresis) and foamability were higher when the grapes were riper. The Pearson’s correlation test found significant positive correlations ( r = 0.890⁻0.997, p < 0.05) between Chardonnay grape berry maturity degree (MD) and base wine foamability in both vintages. Strong correlations between MD and most of the oenological parameters in grape juice and base wine were also found for the two cultivars. Under the premise of guaranteed grape health, delaying harvest date is an oenological decision capable of improving base wine protein content and foamability.

  9. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  10. Changes in volatile composition and sensory attributes of wines during alcohol content reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Rocco; Blackman, John W; Torley, Peter J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2017-01-01

    A desirable sensory profile is a major consumer driver for wine acceptability and should be considered during the production of reduced-alcohol wines. Although various viticultural practices and microbiological approaches show promising results, separation technologies such as membrane filtration, in particular reverse osmosis and evaporative perstraction, in addition to vacuum distillation, represent the most common commercial methods used to produce reduced-alcohol wine. However, ethanol removal from wine can result in a significant loss of volatile compounds such as esters (ethyl octanoate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate) that contribute positively to the overall perceived aroma. These losses can potentially reduce the acceptability of the wine to consumers and decrease their willingness to purchase wines that have had their alcohol level reduced. The change in aroma as a result of the ethanol removal processes is influenced by a number of factors: the type of alcohol reduction process; the chemical-physical properties (volatility, hydrophobicity, steric hindrance) of the aroma compounds; the retention properties of the wine non-volatile matrix; and the ethanol level. This review identifies and summarises possible deleterious influences of the dealcoholisation process and describes best practice strategies to maintain the original wine composition. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The cycles of Argentine wine exports / Los ciclos de las exportaciones de vino argentinas

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdá Juan Manuel; Duarte y Ricardo Hernández

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the different episodes that the Argentina wine industry transited between the years 1980 to 2012, within a context of globalization of the wine-grape industry. In particular, we study the significance that some winemakers had in the process and the effect of the exchange rate and recipients of Argentine wine in the expansion of exports in recent years. The hypothesis of this article is that, from the 80 s, the winemakers observed in exports as a solution to face their most...

  12. Dynamics of vendor innovation capability: Evidence from the Electronics Manufacturing Services industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Mefford, Robert; Christoffersen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    and innovation. The first is the realization that vendor capabilities have been recognized as one of the most important factors for the success of outsourcing. The second refers to the fact that, even though innovation capability is required, vendors are still being selected, and their performance evaluated......, by traditional manufacturing capabilities, such as cost, quality, delivery, and flexibility. Taking a vendor’s perspective in outsourcing, we develop and present a conceptual framework for studying vendor innovation capability. We propose to test this framework in the Electronic Manufacturing Services Industry....

  13. A performance measurement framework for the South African bulk export wine supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Johan B. Smit; Joubert van Eeden; Frances E. van Dyk

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many participants in the South African wine industry still exhibit low supply chain maturity in the management of their supply chains. This hampers export performance and ultimately client satisfaction. The development and tracking of appropriate metrics are key steps in improving supply chain performance. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a performance measurement framework for the South African wine industry, focussing on the bulk export segment. Metho...

  14. Research, Commercialization, & Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Irwin; Rakesh Gupta; Richard Turton; GangaRao Hota; Cyril Logar; Tom Ponzurick; Buddy Graham; Walter Alcorn; Jeff Tucker

    2006-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Recycling Center for End-of-Life Electronics (MARCEE) was set up in 1999 in response to a call from Congressman Alan Mollohan, who had a strong interest in this subject. A consortium was put together which included the Polymer Alliance Zone (PAZ) of West Virginia, West Virginia University (WVU), DN American and Ecolibrium. The consortium developed a set of objectives and task plans, which included both the research issues of setting up facilities to demanufacture End-of-Life Electronics (EoLE), the economics of the demanufacturing process, and the infrastructure development necessary for a sustainable recycling industry to be established in West Virginia. This report discusses the work of the MARCEE Project Consortium from November 1999 through March 2005. While the body of the report is distributed in hard-copy form the Appendices are being distributed on CD's.

  15. Device controllers using an industrial personal computer of the PF 2.5-GeV Electron Linac at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Kakihara, Kazuhisa; Ogawa, Yujiro; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Shidara, Tetsuo; Nakahara, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    Device controllers for electron guns and slits using an industrial personal computer have been designed and installed in the Photon Factory 2.5-GeV Electron Linac at KEK. The design concept of the controllers is to realize a reliable system and good productivity of hardware and software by using an industrial personal computer and a programmable sequence controller. The device controllers have been working reliably for several years. (author)

  16. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  17. An electron beam linear scanning mode for industrial limited-angle nano-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxiang; Zeng, Li; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Lingli; Guo, Yumeng; Gong, Changcheng

    2018-01-01

    Nano-computed tomography (nano-CT), which utilizes X-rays to research the inner structure of some small objects and has been widely utilized in biomedical research, electronic technology, geology, material sciences, etc., is a high spatial resolution and non-destructive research technique. A traditional nano-CT scanning model with a very high mechanical precision and stability of object manipulator, which is difficult to reach when the scanned object is continuously rotated, is required for high resolution imaging. To reduce the scanning time and attain a stable and high resolution imaging in industrial non-destructive testing, we study an electron beam linear scanning mode of nano-CT system that can avoid mechanical vibration and object movement caused by the continuously rotated object. Furthermore, to further save the scanning time and study how small the scanning range could be considered with acceptable spatial resolution, an alternating iterative algorithm based on ℓ0 minimization is utilized to limited-angle nano-CT reconstruction problem with the electron beam linear scanning mode. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the electron beam linear scanning mode of nano-CT system.

  18. Pixelgram: an application of electron-beam lithography for the security printing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert A.

    1991-10-01

    Following the development of the Catpix I diffraction gratings structure first used on the 1988 Australian plastic DLR10 banknote and more recently on the Singapore plastic DLR50 banknote, the CSIRO Australia, Division of Materials Science & Technology has developed a new optical security and anti-counterfeiting technology known as Pixelgram (or Catpix 2). The Pixelgram, which is subject to patent, is an optically variable device based on a computerized procedure for producing an optically variable version of any given input picture, e.g., a photograph. When a Pixelgram is observed under a given source, such as a fluorescent tube, the image of the original input picture appears at particular angles of view. At other angles, the image varies in both contrast and brightness and can even appear as the photographic negative of the original input picture at some angles of view. As well as its ability to generate optically variable text and graphical images, Pixelgram has the unique capability of being able to display easily recognizable small scale optically variable images of the human face of near photographic clarity. Pixelgram optical security device master plates are produced by a technique borrowed from the microelectronics industry and known as electron beam lithography. In this technique, millions of microscopic grooves are written individually by a finely focused electron beam scanning across a glass plate coated with an electron sensitive material. On a typical Pixelgram there are approximately 2,000 million individual polygons etched into the plate by the electron beam. This corresponds to more than 10,000 megabytes of binary data. The only known electron beam lithography systems that have been able to write such large data files with the required precision are the Cambridge Instruments EBMF 10.5 and EBML 300 electron beam systems.

  19. techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to ... F. S. Adeyemo, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (fiiro), P.M.B 21023, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. C. F. Kupoluyi, Federal ... weighing scale, holding tank, refractometer and PH meter. 22.

  20. Factors Contributing to a Memorable Wine Route Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wine tourism, especially wine festivals and routes, is becoming more popular in South Africa, primarily because it gives wine cellars and wine farms greater publicity and exposure leading to increase in wine sales. The wine farmers or cellars are also expanding their product offering to involve more than just wine tasting ...

  1. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process will...

  2. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  3. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  4. Towards realization of quantitative atmospheric and industrial gas sensing using THz wave electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekawade, Aniket; Rice, Timothy E.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Mansha, Muhammad Waleed; Wu, Kefei; Hella, Mona M.; Wilke, Ingrid

    2018-06-01

    The potential of THz wave electronics for miniaturized non-intrusive sensors for atmospheric, environmental, and industrial gases is explored. A THz wave spectrometer is developed using a radio-frequency multiplier source and a Schottky-diode detector. Spectral absorption measurements were made in a gas cell within a frequency range of 220-330 GHz at room temperature and subatmospheric pressures. Measurements are reported for pure acetonitrile (CH3CN), methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH) vapors at 5 and 10 Torr and for methanol dilute in the air (0.75-3.0 mol%) at a pressure of 500 Torr. An absorbance noise floor of 10-3 was achieved for a single 10 s scan of the 220-330 GHz frequency domain. Measured absorption spectra for methanol/air agree well at collisional-broadened conditions with spectral simulations carried out using literature spectroscopic parameters. In contrast to the previous submillimeter wave research that has focused on spectral absorbance at extremely low pressures (mTorr), where transitions are in the Doppler limit, and the present study illustrates the applicability of THz electronics for gas sensing at pressures approaching those found in atmospheric and industrial environments.

  5. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees.

  6. The health benefits of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J B; Walzem, R L

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from numerous disparate populations reveal that individuals with the habit of daily moderate wine consumption enjoy significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality when compared with individuals who abstain or who drink alcohol to excess. Researchers are working to explain this observation in molecular and nutritional terms. Moderate ethanol intake from any type of beverage improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether wine, particularly red wine with its abundant content of phenolic acids and polyphenols, confers additional health benefits. Discovering the nutritional properties of wine is a challenging task, which requires that the biological actions and bioavailability of the >200 individual phenolic compounds be documented and interpreted within the societal factors that stratify wine consumption and the myriad effects of alcohol alone. Further challenge arises because the health benefits of wine address the prevention of slowly developing diseases for which validated biomarkers are rare. Thus, although the benefits of the polyphenols from fruits and vegetables are increasingly accepted, consensus on wine is developing more slowly. Scientific research has demonstrated that the molecules present in grapes and in wine alter cellular metabolism and signaling, which is consistent mechanistically with reducing arterial disease. Future research must address specific mechanisms both of alcohol and of polyphenolic action and develop biomarkers of their role in disease prevention in individuals.

  7. [Beer, wine, spirits and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M N; Sørensen, T I; Johansen, D; Becker, U; Gottschau, A; Schnohr, P; Hein, H O; Jensen, G

    2001-05-23

    A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.

  8. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  9. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  10. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine that is produced locally, organically, or sustainably are more likely to employ technology in their wine purchase decision. While disruption appears to have occurred on the supply side (number of wine applications available and the number of wine labels with a QR code, this research suggests that relatively little change is occurring on the demand side (a relatively small segment of the population—those already interested in wine—are employing the technology to aid in their purchase decision.

  11. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec. 455...

  12. Potential wine ageing during transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, wineries have to satisfy the demand of consumers who wish to drink high quality wines from countries all over the world. To fulfill this request wines have to be transported, crossing thereby great distances from the place of production to the consumer country. At the Institute of Enology of Hochschule Geisenheim University examinations with White-, Rosé- and Red-Wines of different origins which had been transported over longer distances within Europe (Portugal, France, Italy to Germany by trucks were carried out. Shipping of wines was simulated in a climatized cabinet to analyze the influence on wine quality during this way and conditions of transportation. Time and temperature profiles were based on real transport situtations which were recorded during shipping from Germany to Japan using data loggers. White, Rosé and Red wines were transported during 6 to 8 weeks and then were analytically and sensorically compared to those which were stored at a constant temperature of 15 ∘C. Besides the effect of temperature, the movements and vibrations encountered by the wines were also examined. Analytically wines were analyzed for general analytical parameters with Fourier-Transformation-Infrared-Spectroscopie (FTIR, Colour differences (Spectralphotometrie and free and total sulfuric acid with Flow-Injection-Analysis (FIA. Sensory examinations with a trained panel were performed in difference tests in form of rankings and triangular tests. Summarizing the results from the different tests it could be found that transportation had an influence on the potential ageing of wines depending on the wine matrix. Especially high and varying temperatures during transportations over a longer distance and time had negative influences on wine quality. Also the movement of wine at higher temperatures had showed a negative effect whereas transport at cool temperatures even below 0 ∘C did not influence wine characteristics. Sophisticated

  13. Reduction of organic solvent emission by industrial use of electron-beam curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haering, E.

    1982-01-01

    Most industrial finishing processes operate by the use of liquid organic coating materials drying by solvent evaporation and subsequent chemical crosslinking reactions, in many cases also releasing cleavage products. These organic emissions contribute to air pollution and therefore many countries have issued restrictions in order to protect the environment. Complementary to other modern methods for reducing this problem, radiation chemistry enables an approach by radical chain polymerization which can be induced by exposure to electron radiation. This procedure is known as electron-beam curing of coatings or the EBC process. It utilizes well-developed accelerator equipment with voltages of 150 to 400kV at a minimum energy consumption. There is no necessity to use irradiation facilities based on the decay of radioisotopes. Free radical polymerization requires unsaturated resins as pain binders and polymerizable liquid compounds (monomers) as reactive diluents. Their crosslinking yields a high molecular network, the coating, without any emission of organic solvents or cleavage products. Moreover, the radiochemical formation of the paint film occurs extremely rapidly. The technical application of EBC coatings began by coating automotive plastic parts; a little later the finishing of wood products gained more industrial use as a non-polluting and energy-saving coating technology. Application methods in coating plastic foils in combination with vacuum metallizing and the production of decorative laminating papers for furniture followed. In 1981 new EBC pilot lines were installed for curing top coats on PVC foil and also for the coating of prefinished steel wheels for automobiles. In comparison with conventional solvent-based methods the industrial EBC process results in a nearly complete reduction of organic solvent emission avoiding air pollution and saving valuable petrochemical raw materials. This paper reviews the development of EBC during the last decade. (author)

  14. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific...

  15. Investigation of industrial-scale carbon dioxide reduction using pulsed electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, G. M.; Apruzese, J. P.; Petrova, Tz. B.; Wolford, M. F. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5346 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. To help mitigate increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations, we investigate a method of carbon dioxide reduction using high-power electron beams, which can be used on an industrial scale. A series of experiments are conducted in which the reduction of CO{sub 2} is measured for different gas compositions and power deposition rates. An electron beam deposition model is applied to compute reduction rates of CO{sub 2} and energy cost for breaking a CO{sub 2} molecule in flue gas and pure carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure. For flue gas consisting of 82% N{sub 2}, 6% O{sub 2}, and 12% CO{sub 2}, the calculated energy cost is 85 eV per molecule. In order to dissociate 50% of the CO{sub 2} molecules, beam energy density deposition on the order of 20 J/cm{sup 3} is required. Electron beam irradiation of 12.6 liter gas volume containing 90% CO{sub 2} and 10% CH{sub 4} at beam energy density deposition of 4.2 J/cm{sup 3}, accumulated over 43 shots in a 20 min interval, reduced the CO{sub 2} concentration to 78%. Analogous experiments with a gas mixture containing 11.5% CO{sub 2}, 11.5% CH{sub 4}, and balance of Ar, reduced the CO{sub 2} concentration to below 11% with energy deposition 0.71 J/cm{sup 3}, accumulated over 10 shots in a 5 min interval. The experimental data and the theoretical predictions of CO{sub 2} reduction using pulsed electron beams are in agreement within the experimental error. Other techniques to enhance the removal of CO{sub 2} with pulsed electron beams are also explored, yielding new possible avenues of research.

  16. Effectiveness of chitosan against wine-related microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağder Elmaci, Simel; Gülgör, Gökşen; Tokatli, Mehmet; Erten, Hüseyin; İşci, Asli; Özçelik, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial action of chitosan against wine related microorganisms, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Oeonococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was examined in laboratory media. In order to assess the potential applicability of chitosan as a microbial control agent for wine, the effect of chitosan, applied individually and/or in combination with sulphur dioxide (SO2), on the growth of microorganisms involved in various stages of winemaking and on the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae was investigated. Of the seven wine-related microorganisms studied, S. cerevisiae exhibited the strongest resistance to antimicrobial action of chitosan in laboratory media with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) greater than 2 g/L. L. hilgardii, O. oeni and B. bruxellensis were the most susceptible to chitosan since they were completely inactivated by chitosan at 0.2 g/L. The MIC of chitosan for L. plantarum, H. uvarum and Z. bailii was 2, 0.4 and 0.4 g/L, respectively. In wine experiments, it was found that chitosan had a retarding effect on alcoholic fermentation without significantly altering the viability and the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae. With regard to non-Saccharomyces yeasts (H. uvarum and Z. bailii) involved in winemaking, the early deaths of these yeasts in mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae were not probably due to the antimicrobial action of chitosan but rather due to ethanol produced by the yeasts. The complex interactions between chitosan and wine ingredients as well as microbial interactions during wine fermentation considerably affect the efficacy of chitosan. It was concluded that chitosan was worthy of further investigation as an alternative or complementary preservative to SO2 in wine industry.

  17. Comparative study of phenolic compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon wines made in traditional and Ganimede fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bianxia; He, Fei; Yang, Lili; Chen, Feng; Reeves, Malcolm J; Li, Jingming

    2013-12-15

    Chemical profiles of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine made by two different winemaking techniques (traditional vinification and Ganimede method) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Particularly, effect of extraction on and subsequent stability of the phenolic compounds from the end of fermentation to bottling were investigated. The results showed that the total anthocyanin content was higher in the young wines produced in the Ganimede fermenter. The anthocyanin contents in these wines subsequently decreased significantly after two years of ageing. By contrast, the traditional vinification was slightly better than the Ganimede to yield the non-anthocyanin phenolics. This indicates that the Ganimede fermenter might be suitable for the production of brightly coloured red wines for early consumption, which could save time and labour cost for industrial production of highquality wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  19. Application of polymers cross-linked by electron beam irradiation to electric wire industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Eisuke

    1976-01-01

    Applications of the polymers cross-linked by electron beam irradiation to electric wire industry as an example of dully developed utilization are reviewed. The report is divided into five parts, namely 1) radiation sources and irradiation processes, 2) development of crosslinking materials, 3) accumulation of electric charge and accumulation of heat, 4) examples of application, and 5) future prospect. Such a phenomenon as discharge destruction pattern (Lichtenberg figure) must be solved, when cable insulation materials are cross-linked by electron beam irradiation. The measures for preventing the discharge destruction are required, especially when the layers of polyethylene insulation for high voltage cables are irradiated. The accumulation of heat causes the troubles in foaming, degeneration and wire running of high potential cables, when the layers of insulation are thick. Effective promoters for cross-linking must be studied to reduce the radiation dose. The irradiators capable of irradiating wires uniformly are desirable. Electron beam accelerators will be used, as far as the radiation dose of 10 or more Mrad is required for cross-linking irradiation. If the dose of one tenth or less of the above value is required, gamma-ray sources (RI) are rather easily applicable than focused strong beam. The utilization of spent nuclear fuel is desirable. (Iwakiri, K.)

  20. Emerging epidemic in a growing industry: cigarette smoking among female micro-electronics workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-P; Yen, L-L; Pan, L-Y; Chang, P-J; Cheng, T-J

    2005-03-01

    To explore the emerging tobacco epidemic in female workers in the growing micro-electronics industry of Taiwan. Workers were surveyed regarding their smoking status, sociodemographics and work characteristics. In total, 1950 female employees in two large micro-electronics companies in Taiwan completed the survey. Approximately 9.3% of the female employees were occasional or daily smokers at the time of the survey. The prevalence of smoking was higher in those aged 16-19 years (20.9%), those not married (12.9%), those with a high school education or less (11.7%), those employed by Company A (11.7%), shift workers (14.3%), and those who had been in their present employment for 1 year or less (13.6%). Results of multivariate adjusted logistic regression indicated that younger age, lower level of education, shorter periods of employment with the company and shift working were the important factors in determining cigarette smoking among the study participants. The odds ratio of being a daily smoker was similar to that of being a current smoker. Marital status was the only significant variable when comparing former smokers with current smokers. Smoking prevalence in female workers in the two micro-electronics companies studied was much higher than previous reports have suggested about female smoking prevalence in Taiwan and China. We suggest that smoking is no longer a 'male problem' in Taiwan. Future smoking cessation and prevention programmes should target young working women as well as men.

  1. Influence of Production Method on the Chemical Composition, Foaming Properties, and Quality of Australian Carbonated and Sparkling White Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Julie A; McRae, Jacqui M; Condé, Bruna C; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Nicholson, Emily L; Smith, Paul A; Howell, Kate S; Boss, Paul K; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2017-02-22

    The chemical composition (protein, polysaccharide, amino acid, and fatty acid/ethyl ester content), foaming properties, and quality of 50 Australian sparkling white wines, representing the four key production methods, that is, Méthode Traditionelle (n = 20), transfer (n = 10), Charmat (n = 10), and carbonation (n = 10), were studied. Méthode Traditionelle wines were typically rated highest in quality and were higher in alcohol and protein contents, but lower in residual sugar and total phenolics, than other sparkling wines. They also exhibited higher foam volume and stability, which might be attributable to higher protein concentrations. Bottle-fermented Méthode Traditionelle and transfer wines contained greater proportions of yeast-derived mannoproteins, whereas Charmat and carbonated wines were higher in grape-derived rhamnogalacturonans; however, total polysaccharide concentrations were not significantly different between sparkling wine styles. Free amino acids were most abundant in carbonated wines, which likely reflects production via primary fermentation only and/or the inclusion of nontraditional grape varieties. Fatty acids and their esters were not correlated with foaming properties, but octanoic and decanoic acids and their ethyl esters were present in Charmat and carbonated wines at significantly higher concentrations than in bottle-fermented wines and were negatively correlated with quality ratings. Research findings provide industry with a better understanding of the compositional factors driving the style and quality of sparkling white wine.

  2. 75 FR 81948 - Use of Various Winemaking Terms on Wine Labels and in Advertisements; Comment Period Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...In response to a request made on behalf of a wine industry association, TTB is extending for an additional 60 days the comment period prescribed in Notice No. 109, Use of Various Winemaking Terms on Wine Labels and in Advertisements; Request for Public Comment, an advance notice of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2010.

  3. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fermentation wine, produced as provided in § 24.212; (b) Heavy bodied blending wine, produced as provided in...; (f) Vinegar stock, produced as provided in § 24.217; and (g) Wines other than those in classes listed...

  4. Using the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct to Evaluate Green Supply Chain Management: An Empirical Study of Taiwan’s Computer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ching Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronics companies throughout Asia recognize the benefits of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM for gaining competitive advantage. A large majority of electronics companies in Taiwan have recently adopted the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC Code of Conduct for defining and managing their social and environmental responsibilities throughout their supply chains. We surveyed 106 Tier 1 suppliers to the Taiwanese computer industry to determine their environmental performance using the EICC Code of Conduct (EICC Code and performed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA on the 63/106 questionnaire responses collected. We test the results to determine whether differences in product type, geographic area, and supplier size correlate with different levels of environmental performance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze questionnaire data on supplier adoption to optimize the implementation of GSCM. The results suggest that characteristic classification of suppliers could be employed to enhance the efficiency of GSCM.

  5. Phenolic composition of Tempranillo wines following early defoliation of the vines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, Maria P; Ayestarán, Belén; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Garrido, Álvaro; Tardaguila, Javier

    2012-03-15

    Early defoliation is a viticultural practice aimed at crop control. So far, the impact of early leaf removal on the monomeric phenolic composition of wines has not been explored. This study examines the effects of early defoliation on the phenolic profile and content in Tempranillo wines. The influence of the defoliation method (manual vs mechanical) and the timing of leaf removal (pre-bloom vs fruit set) was investigated. Over two consecutive seasons, 2007 and 2008, the monomeric phenolic composition in Tempranillo wines was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, and 22 compounds were identified and quantified. Overall, early defoliation led to wines more intensely coloured, of higher alcohol content and with larger concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins (in 2008 only for mechanical treatments). In the absence of fungal infection, resveratrol was found to increase in wines corresponding to early defoliation treatments. The method of leaf removal seemed to be more critical than the timing of intervention, and larger effects on wine phenolic composition were observed for mechanical treatments. Early defoliation proved to be an effective technique for improving the phenolic composition of Tempranillo wines, by favouring the accumulation of hydroxycinnamics, flavonols and anthocyanins. This is an important achievement, as wine quality is often described by its colour and phenolic attributes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. ANALYSIS OF WINE SECTOR: DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Except unwelcoming and unfriendly area of agriculture, in general, Antarctica, all continents meet grape-vine, which is plant trees with the largest expansion around the globe. Wine, the wine produced extremely complex (the composition of the entering over 300 different chemical compounds has a great importance both rational human nutrition as well as increase the national income of a country cultivators, shown standing figures showing growing share while the global economy horticulture and viticulture crops in agricultural production. Thus, we can appreciate the importance of wine products both from a social and economic one. This study aims to develop a blueprint for the wine sector and to capture its evolution both globally and especially in Europe. We believe that an incursion in the analysis of wine-growing in the world and in Europe leaning on the development of wine production and consumption is particularly useful in our proof is the importance of wine in contemporary society. The study is part of a broader analysis is investigating the applicability of the marketing mix in the wine industry.

  7. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  8. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  9. Application of an e-tongue to the analysis of monovarietal and blends of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Ipatov, Andrey; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Mínguez, Santiago; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Capdevila, Fina; Domingo, Carme; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors-six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand--and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine.

  10. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Domingo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis, classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine.

  11. Construction of a genetically modified wine yeast strain expressing the Aspergillus aculeatus rhaA gene, encoding an -L-Rhamnosidase of enological interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanares, P.; Orejas, M.; Vicente Gil, J.; Graaff, de L.H.; Visser, J.; Ramon, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Aspergillus aculeatus rhaA gene encoding an alpha-L-rhamnosidase has been expressed in both laboratory and industrial wine yeast strains. Wines produced in microvinifications, conducted using a combination of the genetically modified industrial strain expressing rhaA and another strain

  12. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  13. Scale up and application of equal-channel angular extrusion for the electronics and aerospace industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrasse, Stephane; Segal, V.M.; Alford, Frank; Kardokus, Janine; Strothers, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Two areas are critical to promote equal-channel angular extrusion beyond the stage of a laboratory curiosity: (i) tool/processing design and scale up; (ii) development of new submicrometer-grained products. Both goals are pursued at Honeywell. The first case is the successful commercialization of ECAE for the production of sputtering targets from single phase alloys in the electronic industry. Blank dimensions are significantly larger than those reported in the literature. Other described applications are targeted to the increase of tensile strength, high-cycle fatigue and toughness in medium-to-heavily alloyed Al materials used in aerospace. In these alloys, the optimal properties can be reached with better understanding of the interplay between plastic deformation and precipitation mechanisms

  14. Mapping R&D within Multinational Networks: Evidence from the Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urze, Paula; Manatos, Maria João

    Based on the final results of the R&D.COM - Local R&D COMpetencies within Global Value Chains project, this paper aims at mapping the trajectories of delocalised R&D units within a multinational’s global strategy and designing the knowledge flows within the global value chain. This analysis was performed using typologies proposed in the theoretical framework, which help us to have an overview of the network. The methodology is grounded on one extended case study that involves a local R&D unit (Portugal), a foreign R&D unit (Netherlands) and the headquarters (Norway) - developed on a multinational from the electronics industry. This case is an example of a multinational company where R&D is developed mainly in the headquarters but it is also delocalised to some subsidiaries with a certain level of autonomy.

  15. Collaboration for Innovation and Sustainable Performance: Evidence of Relationship in Electro-Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Kuhl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify how collaboration for innovation relates to the sustainable performance of the electronics industry in Brazil. We used a quantitative approach, collecting data by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 112 companies. The main result indicates that the relationship between collaboration and sustainable performance is positive and significant, but of low intensity, confirming the indication from the literature. The same is noticed in checking the relationship between the collaboration and the three dimensions of sustainable performance, although no statistically significant difference was found between the degree of correlation and the three dimensions. Intervening factors such as size, age, internationalization and capital structure were also considered in verifying the relationship between collaboration for innovation and sustainable performance.

  16. An analysis of vendor innovation capability in the contract electronics manufacturing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Mefford, Robert; Christoffersen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    the contract, vendors can use different configurations of the competitive priorities of cost, quality, delivery and flexibility. The research aggregates the capabilities that influence the innovative capability of a vendor into the innovation-related capabilities (IRCs) of design, new product introduction......Limited academic research has been given to analysing the innovation capabilities of vendors in outsourcing contracts. This paper seeks to address this gap in the literature by enhancing our understanding of how the innovation capability of vendors is deployed to win, run and renew outsourcing...... contracts with their customers. Employing the resource-based view as a theoretical basis and undertaking in-depth case study analysis of three vendors in the electronic manufacturing services industry, the research shows that to achieve the outsourcing objectives of winning, running and renewing...

  17. Purification and treatment of industrial wastewater by electron beam process: it's potential and effectiveness evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ting Teo Ming; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2002-01-01

    Demand for water has grown dramatically globally. We have seen how acute is the demand for treated water in Malaysia during dry spell of late. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, globally, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industries, and the increasing use for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Electron beam treatment (E-Beam treatment) is a comparatively new method of wastewater purification. E-beam treatment is also an environment-friendly approach for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. E-beam treatment treats multi-components waste streams and does not require any hazardous chemical additives nor does it create any secondary wastes. It uses fast formation of short-lived reactive particles, which are capable of efficient decomposition of pollutants inside wastewater. This paper highlights the practical treatment of wastewater using E-Beam method that gives essential conveniences and advantages of the followings: - strongest reducing and oxidizing agents; - universality and interchangeability of redox agents; - variety of paths for pollutant conversion; - process controllability; - wide choice of equipment and technological regimes; - compatibility with conventional methods. (Author)

  18. An Analysis of Knowledge Sharing Approaches for Emerging-technology-based Strategic Alliances in Electronic Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ju; LI Yong-jian

    2006-01-01

    Emerging technologies are now initiating new industries and transforming old ones with tremendous power. They are different games compared with established technologies with distinctive characteristics of knowledge management in knowledge-based and technological-innovation-based competition. How to obtain knowledge advantage and enhance competences by knowledge sharing for emerging-technology-based strategic alliances (ETBSA) is what we concern in this paper. On the basis of our previous work on emerging technologies'distinctive attributes, we counter the wide spread presumption that the primary purpose of strategic alliances is knowledge acquiring by means of learning. We offers new insight into the knowledge sharing approaches of ETBSAs - the knowledge integrating approach by which each member firm integrates its partner's complementary knowledge base into the products and services and maintains its own knowledge specialization at the same time. So that ETBSAs should plan and practice their knowledge sharing strategies from the angle of knowledge integrating rather than knowledge acquiring. A four-dimensional framework is developed to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these two knowledge sharing approaches. Some cases in electronic industry are introduced to illustrate our point of view.

  19. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  20. Drivers of high-involvement consumers' intention to buy PDO wines: Valpolicella PDO case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitello, Roberta; Agnoli, Lara; Begalli, Diego

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates whether different sensory profiles of wines belonging to the same Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are perceived as different products by consumers. It identifies the drivers of consumers' intention to buy preferred wines. Descriptive sensory analysis, consumer tests and consumer interviews were conducted to reach research aims. To perform the consumer tests and interviews, 443 consumers participated in the survey. The tasted wines comprised five samples representative of Valpolicella PDO wine. Analysis of variance tests, principal component analysis and linear and logit regressions were employed to verify the research hypotheses. The results demonstrated: (1) different sensory profiles exist within the Valpolicella PDO wine; (2) these sensory profiles result in consumers having the perception of diversified products; (3) the perception of differences was less marked for consumers than for trained assessors due to the different weight attributed to visual, aroma and the taste/mouthfeel hedonic dimensions; and (4) consumers' liking, as well as general perceptions, attitudes, preferences, wine knowledge and experience, contribute to consumers' intentions to buy more than the socio-demographic characteristics of consumers. The analysis of the drivers of consumers' intention to buy certain PDO wines provides new marketing insights into the roles of intrinsic quality, preferences and consumers' subjective characteristics in market segmentation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Wine evolution and spatial distribution of oxygen during storage in high-density polyethylene tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Alamo-Sanza, María; Laurie, V Felipe; Nevares, Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Porous plastic tanks are permeable to oxygen due to the nature of the polymers with which they are manufactured. In the wine industry, these types of tanks are used mainly for storing wine surpluses. Lately, their use in combination with oak pieces has also been proposed as an alternative to mimic traditional barrel ageing. In this study, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in a wine-like model solution, and the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of high-density polyethylene tanks (HDPE), was analysed by means of a non-invasive opto-luminescence detector. Also, the chemical and sensory evolution of red wine, treated with oak pieces, and stored in HDPE tanks was examined and compared against traditional oak barrel ageing. The average OTR calculated for these tanks was within the commonly accepted amounts reported for new barrels. With regards to wine evolution, a number of compositional and sensory differences were observed between the wines aged in oak barrels and those stored in HDPE tanks with oak barrel alternatives. The use of HDPE tanks in combination with oak wood alternatives is a viable alternative too for ageing wine. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Stuck fermentation: development of a synthetic stuck wine and study of a restart procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonnave, Pierre; Sanchez, Isabelle; Moine, Virginie; Dequin, Sylvie; Galeote, Virginie

    2013-05-15

    Stuck fermentation is a major problem in winemaking, resulting in large losses in the wine industry. Specific starter yeasts are used to restart stuck fermentations in conditions determined essentially on the basis of empirical know-how. We have developed a model synthetic stuck wine and an industrial process-based procedure for restarting fermentations, for studies of the conditions required to restart stuck fermentations. We used a basic medium containing 13.5% v/v ethanol and 16 g/L fructose, pH 3.3, to test the effect of various nutrients (vitamins, amino acids, minerals, oligoelements), with the aim of developing a representative and discriminative stuck fermentation model. Cell growth appeared to be a key factor for the efficient restarting of stuck fermentations. Micronutrients, such as vitamins, also strongly affected the efficiency of the restart procedure. For the validation of this medium, we compared the performances of three wine yeast strains in the synthetic stuck fermentation and three naturally stuck wine fermentations. Strain performance was ranked similar in the synthetic medium and in the "Malbec" and "Sauvignon" natural stuck wines. However, two strains were ranked differently in the "Gros Manseng" stuck wine. Nutrient content seemed to be a crucial factor in fermentation restart conditions, generating differences between yeast strains. However, the specific sensitivity of yeast strains to the composition of the wine may also have had an effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The cycles of Argentine wine exports / Los ciclos de las exportaciones de vino argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdá Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the different episodes that the Argentina wine industry transited between the years 1980 to 2012, within a context of globalization of the wine-grape industry. In particular, we study the significance that some winemakers had in the process and the effect of the exchange rate and recipients of Argentine wine in the expansion of exports in recent years. The hypothesis of this article is that, from the 80 s, the winemakers observed in exports as a solution to face their most important crisis. This required a transformation of the industry to produce quality wines that could be sold on the international market. Thus, winemakers added to a century-old winemaking tradition new practices and strategies. On the other hand, over 30 years, various macroeconomic policies affect the overall industry growth, especially in exports. On balance, in this paper we propose to show that the growth of exports of Argentine wine was a sinuous and different path to the literature has been found for the “new world” exporters countries. The data was obtained from Instituto Nancional de Vitivinícultura (INV, Bolsa de Comercio de Mendoza and International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV as well as interviews collected on primary and secondary sources.

  4. Status of control systems for industrial electron accelerators at EBC, Kharghar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Arvind; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaurav, P.S.; Sharma, Vijay; Chawla, A.S.; Sethi, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is setting up two industrial electron accelerators at the Electron Beam Center (EBC) Kharghar. These are a 10 MeV, 10 KW beam power RF linac and a 30 KW, DC, Dynamitron type of machine. The present status of the control systems of these accelerators are presented. Some novel features in the design of the control system include (a) the software and hardware of the control system has been designed such that the same package can be used for the two widely different machines. Thus the control system developed can be used for any new accelerator also by reformatting the built in data base (b) an attempt is being made towards push button operation to minimize the need for machine operators. This is achieved by a sequential start-up and shut down procedure with appropriate time lags built into the software. The PC based centralized control system has been tested and now gives automated operation of the 22 sub-systems of the linac and operating experience of the system for the last one year has been achieved. Similarly, the control system of the 3 MeV DC machine having about 20 subsystems are in the final stage of commissioning and testing. (author)

  5. Electron beam induced purification of dilute off gases from industrial processes and automobile tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Maetzing, H.

    1993-01-01

    The electron beam process has proved to be an efficient method for the removal of inorganic pollutants from flue gas. Since it simulates natural processes which occur in the atmospheric photochemistry, it appeared attractive to investigate the potential of the e-beam process to clean off-gases which contain hydrocarbon and inorganic trace components. Such emissions arise from industrial processes and from automobile tunnels. Commercial solvents were vaporized in air and irradiated with energetic electrons (300 keV). CO, CO 2 and aerosol particles were found as products and were determined quantitatively. The aerosol particles can be collected by a gravel bed filter and can be removed by combustion or biological degradation. From experiments and model calculations it was found that the e-beam process is a very economic tool to remove hydrocarbons from large off-gas volumes at initial concentrations of 50-100 mg C/m 3 , and that NO x can be removed very efficiently from tunnel off-gas. (author)

  6. The Japan Home-health Apparatus Industrial Association: investigation of home-use electronic sphygmomanometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, O; Terada, H; Niwano, K; Nakanishi, T; Kanai, M; Miyawaki, Y; Souma, T; Tanaka, T; Kusunoki, T

    2001-12-01

    The Japanese Home-health Apparatus Industrial Association is an official independent organization comprising ten departments. That concerned with home electronic sphygmomanometers, which has seven participants from different Japanese manufacturers, has already undertaken and is currently involved in various activities related to voluntary standards for performance validation and quality assurance. Because Japanese companies form a large proportion of manufacturers, these activities are important in terms of autonomic regulation. Although many improvements have been made to home electronic sphygmomanometers, some problems still remain unresolved, especially in terms of measurement reliability and easy operation by lay people. Another aspect of the department's work relates to making proposals on major validation standards, such as those of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, the British Hypertension Society and Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN). Clinical validation should be discussed in order to define a more accurate standard method of measurement using auscultation and more appropriate criteria that are unaffected by primary blood pressure variation.

  7. Coupled-Multiplier Accelerator Produces High-Power Electron Beams for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatridge, M.; McIntyre, P.; Roberson, S.; Sattarov, A.; Thomas, E.; Meitzler, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The coupled multiplier is a new approach to efficient generation of MeV d.c. power for accelerator applications. High voltage is produced by a series of modules, each of which consists of a high-power alternator, step-up transformer, and 3-phase multiplier circuit. The alternators are connected mechanically along a rotating shaft, and connected by insulating flexible couplers. This approach differs from all previous d.c. technologies in that power is delivered to the various stages of the system mechanically, rather than through capacitive or inductive electrical coupling. For this reason the capital cost depends linearly on required voltage and power, rather than quadratically as with conventional technologies. The CM technology enables multiple electron beams to be driven within a common supply and insulating housing. MeV electron beam is extremely effective in decomposing organic contaminants in water. A 1 MeV, 100 kW industrial accelerator using the CM technology has been built and is being installed for treatment of wastewater at a petrochemical plant

  8. Geographical and Occupational Mobility of Workers in the Aircraft and Electronics Industries, Regional Trade Union Seminar (Paris, 21st-22nd September, 1966). Final Report and Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The trade unions in the European aerospace and electronics industries have become concerned with the sweeping and rapid economic and technical changes taking place in the industries. This seminar enabled trade union representatives from Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom aerospace industry and the electronics sector working…

  9. Measuring protection of aromatic wine thiols from oxidation by competitive reactions vs wine preservatives with ortho-quinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolantonaki, Maria; Magiatis, Prokopios; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2014-11-15

    Quinones are central intermediates in wine oxidation that can degrade the quality of wine by reactions with varietal thiols, such as 3-sulfanylhexanol, decreasing desirable aroma. Protection by wine preservatives (sulphur dioxide, glutathione, ascorbic acid and model tannin, phloroglucinol) was assessed by competitive sacrificial reactions with 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone, quantifying products and ratios by HPLC-UV-MS. Regioselectivity was assessed by product isolation and identification by NMR spectroscopy. Nucleophilic addition reactions compete with two electron reduction of quinones by sulphur dioxide or ascorbic acid, and both routes serve as effective quenching pathways, but minor secondary products from coupled redox reactions between the products and reactants are also observed. The wine preservatives were all highly reactive and thus all very protective against 3-sulfanylhexanol loss to the quinone, but showed only additive antioxidant effects. Confirmation of these reaction rates and pathways in wine is needed to assess the actual protective action of each tested preservative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conducting wine marketing research with impact in China: Guidelines for design, execution and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cohen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China is the fastest growing wine market, but conducting research there is fraught with a variety of issues. This article explores some of the issues the authors have dealt with in conducting wine marketing research in China over the last five years. We discuss issues with the design of research to focus on important issues for both academics and the industry. We relate the key problems in gaining proper translation and useful sampling procedures. Finally, we provide some guidelines for communicating results effectively to different members of the wine trade.

  11. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Picture 30 : representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony

  13. Chemical analysis of wine conservation agents and their impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esipov A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article provides the analysis of used conservation agents in the wine industry and the research about their impact on human's health. Sulfur dioxide and potassium sorbate are often used in the food industry and winery. This research shows which dose is potentially a threat to human's health. According to the norms of the Customs Union – the permissible dose of sulfites in wine is 300 mg/l. In this amount for healthy people, the E220 additive does not pose a threat. According to the research, the safest wines, with the minimum amount of conservation agents are "organic" wines, the content of sulfur dioxide in them is from 10 mg/l to 120 mg/l.

  14. Unraveling the enzymatic basis of wine flavorome: a phylo-functional study of wine related yeast species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eBelda

    2016-01-01

    -Saccharomyces yeast species have on wine quality, understanding intra and interspecific enzymatic odds and, therefore, aiming to predict the most suitable application for the current non-Saccharomyces strains, as well as the potential future applications of new strains. This work therefore contributes to a better understanding of the concept of wine microbiome and its potential consequences for wine quality, as well as to the knowledge of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for their use in the wine industry.

  15. Exploring mouthfeel in model wines: Sensory-to-instrumental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Laura; Sarkar, Anwesha; Bryant, Michael G; Beadling, Andrew R; Bartolomé, Begoña; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2017-12-01

    Wine creates a group of oral-tactile stimulations not related to taste or aroma, such as astringency or fullness; better known as mouthfeel. During wine consumption, mouthfeel is affected by ethanol content, phenolic compounds and their interactions with the oral components. Mouthfeel arises through changes in the salivary film when wine is consumed. In order to understand the role of each wine component, eight different model wines with/without ethanol (8%), glycerol (10g/L) and commercial tannins (1g/L) were described using a trained panel. Descriptive analysis techniques were used to train the panel and measure the intensity of the mouthfeel attributes. Alongside, the suitability of different instrumental techniques (rheology, particle size, tribology and microstructure, using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)) to measure wine mouthfeel sensation was investigated. Panelists discriminated samples based on their tactile-related components (ethanol, glycerol and tannins) at the levels found naturally in wine. Higher scores were found for all sensory attributes in the samples containing ethanol. Sensory astringency was associated mainly with the addition of tannins to the wine model and glycerol did not seem to play a discriminating role at the levels found in red wines. Visual viscosity was correlated with instrumental viscosity (R=0.815, p=0.014). Hydrodynamic diameter of saliva showed an increase in presence of tannins (almost 2.5-3-folds). However, presence of ethanol or glycerol decreased hydrodynamic diameter. These results were related with the sensory astringency and earthiness as well as with the formation of nano-complexes as observed by TEM. Rheologically, the most viscous samples were those containing glycerol or tannins. Tribology results showed that at a boundary lubrication regime, differences in traction coefficient lubrication were due by the presence of glycerol. However, no differences in traction coefficients were observed in presence

  16. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  17. Implementation of electron and deuteron accelerators in medicine, science and industry in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigrinov, S.; Salnikov, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Research in the field of radiation chemistry, studying the peculiarities of interaction of ionizing irradiation with polymer materials, application of studying for production of medicinal preparations, sterilization of medical products and so on was started in Belarus in the late 60s on the basis of Co-60 source, 400 kCi and are being continued from 1993 with using linear electron accelerator installed at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute. The nominal average beam power is 10 kW with electron energy 10 MeV. The accelerators are equipped with a conveyer with the regulator velocity. The electron scheme for the conveyer's control is applied to carry boxes with the sizes of 45x75 cm 2 to the electron accelerator with the velocity from 0.5 cm/s up to 5.0 cm/s. This industrial type facility allows to carry out investigations not only in the field of radiation chemistry, but also in medicine, industry and agriculture. Till today the only facility in Belarus where the radiation treatment of foodstuffs, medical herbs, sterilization of different types of medical devices, pharmaceuticals and raw materials, wound dressing, some food products are performed in a commercial scale. The Ministry of Health of the Republic has given permission for radiation treatment of the following food products: lactose, egg powder, spices, gelatin, meat of poultry, medical herbs. For radiation sterilization of medical devices and for radiation treatment of solid pharmaceuticals the dose 25 kGy was specified by the National State Authority.The project 'The Pilot-Scale Production of Hydrogel Dressings for Medical Purposes' (BYE/8/003) was approved within the framework of TC Program IAEA for 2001-2002 and was started in January. The project will be performed using electron accelerator. In the practice of radiation treatment EGS4 computer code is used to calculate the absorbed dose distribution in the boxes with the products to be irradiated. In 1998 the Institute

  18. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  19. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free of...

  20. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized by...