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Sample records for wine grapes vitis

  1. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  2. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

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    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  3. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Anthocyanins were released from skins during the early phases of the enzymatic treatments, but were then degraded during further enzymatic treatment; flavonols underwent transformation from glycosylated (rutin) to deglycosylated (quercetin) during...

  4. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

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    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthocyanins profile of grape berries of Vitis amurensis, its hybrids and their wines.

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    Zhao, Quan; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2010-05-21

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of grapes and wine, an important attribute of their quality. Many authors have used anthocyanins profile to classify the grape cultivars and wine authenticity. The anthocyanin profiles of grape berries of Vitis amurensis, its hybrids and their wines were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results identified 17 anthocyanins in these grape cultivars, including 11 anthocyanin monoglucosides (five pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides and one acylated pyranoanthocyanin monoglucoside) and six anthocyanin diglucosides. Likewise, 15 kinds of anthocyanins were detected in wines, including six diglucosides and nine monoglucosides of anthocyanidins, in which four pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides (Petunidin-3-O-glucoside-4-acetaldehyde, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-acetaldehyde and Peonidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid) were detected. In addition, a total of 14 kinds of anthocyanins including six diglucosides and eight monoglucosides of anthocyanidins were identified in skins, in which two pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides (Peonidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-4-vinylphenol) and one acylated pyranoanthocyanin monoglucoside (Malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside-4-vinylphenol) were detected. The anthocyanins profile of grape skin of V. amurensis and its hybrids consist of the anthocyanin monoglucosides, diglucosides and pyranoanthocyanins. The wines produced resulted in a slightly different anthocyanin distribution. Pelargonidin-3,5-diglucosides was first found in the skins and wines, however, no acetyl was detected in wines. The principal component analysis results suggest that the anthocyanin profiles were helpful to classify these cultivars of V. amurensis.

  6. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

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    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  7. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

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    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  8. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

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    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  9. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

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    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effect of postharvest dehydration on the composition of pinot noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and wine.

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    Moreno, Jorge J; Cerpa-Calderón, Fiorella; Cohen, Seth D; Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael; Kennedy, James A

    2008-08-15

    This study was conducted in order to improve our understanding of how phenolics and aroma compounds change in wine grapes during postharvest dehydration. Pinot noir grapes grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon were harvested at 22.0 and 24.0°Brix. Grapes harvested at 22.0°Brix were divided into three equal lots with one lot immediately used for wine production, and the remaining two lots placed inside an air tunnel with an air speed of 1.0-1.8ms(-1), 38% relative humidity and a temperature of 22°C. The soluble solids content and weight loss were measured daily and wines were made from grapes when they reached 24.8 and 26.7°Brix. The soluble solids of grapes increased about 1°Brix per day; therefore, on the third and fourth day the berries reached the desired concentration; weight loss was 14 and 16%, respectively. Results from berry phenolic analysis indicated that per berry anthocyanin amount remained unchanged during dehydration. The composition of proanthocyanidins isolated from berries changed during dehydration. Volatile compounds in wines made from dehydrated grapes contained more terpenes and norisoprenoids (β-ionone, β-damascenone) when compared to wine made from the original fruit. Wines made from increasingly dehydrated grapes tended to resemble the composition and flavour profile of wines made from grapes left on the vine (i.e. with extended ripening). The results of this study suggest that postharvest flavour changes consistent with changes during fruit ripening can occur in grapes when harvested early and allowed to dehydrate under controlled conditions prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape cultivation for wine production at altitudes between 2,200 and 2,600 m a.s.l. started in the department of Boyaca in 1982. Quality wines are produced by the AinKarim Vineyard in Ricaurte High. Wine grapes have to possess suitable organoleptic compounds at harvest in order to guarantee quality grape must that can be converted into wine. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a suitable ratio the sources and the sinks and to guarantee production, quality and vegetative sustainability over time, conserving the equilibrium and benefiting the productive potential of the vineyard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and vegetative balance effect in the wine grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc in Sutamarchan-Boyaca, considering different pruning types (short, long, and mixed. A bifactorial, completely random statistical design was used. At the time of harvest, the fruit production and pruned wood were evaluated. The long-pruned vines showed the best behavior and the most balanced source/sink relationship,, while Sauvignon Blanc demonstrated a better productive yield. Meanwhile, the short and mixed prunings had the better values for the Ravaz index (balance between fruit production and vegetative growth, indicating that they are more suitable for the conditions of the region, allowing for sustainability during the productive cycles of the wine grapes.

  12. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Young Wines Made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grapes Treated by 24-Epibrassinolide

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    Fan Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS (Vitis vinifera L. were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz, and deionized water (control, at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC and total anthocyanin content (TAC of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  13. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

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    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  14. Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness level.

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    Hunter, Jacobus J; Volschenk, Cornelis G

    2018-05-01

    The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NS, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23, 25, 27 °Balling) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). Soluble solid/titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides; N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions. A large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorising terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L..

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    Xu Liu

    Full Text Available Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.. The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  16. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

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    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  17. Detailed characterization of proanthocyanidins in skin, seeds, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).

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    Hanlin, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Downey, Mark O

    2011-12-28

    The distribution of proanthocyanidin (PA) polymer lengths, proanthocyanidin concentration at each polymer length, and polymer composition were determined in the seed, skin, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in southeast Australia. PA was fractionated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by phloroglucinolysis and HPLC to report the degree of polymerization (DP), concentration, and composition at 11 DP values in seed and wine and 21 DP values in skin. In skin, the highest PA concentration was observed at a DP of 31 in Shiraz and 29 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing 15% of the total PA in both varieties. The distribution of seed PA had the highest concentration at a DP of 7 in Shiraz and 6 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 30% of the total PA. In the wine PA distribution, the highest concentration was observed at a DP of 11 in Shiraz and 9 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 26 and 32% of the distribution, respectively. A second peak in wine PA concentration was observed at the largest DP of 18 in Shiraz and 15 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 20% of the distribution. The composition in wine did not vary at different DP, but the proportion of epicatechin gallate varied in seed PA less than 4 DP. The proportion of epigallocatechin increased with increasing DP in skin PA. Wine PA had a DP range and composition similar to the distribution of skin PA between DP 4 and 18 suggesting that larger skin PAs are not extracted into wine. This study provides information that could be used to target the important PA fractions in grapes that need to be measured to understand (or predict) PA extraction into wine and eventual mouthfeel.

  18. Evaluation of phenolic compounds content and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wines produced from Vitis labrusca grapes

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    Daniel Braga de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in the northern Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, specifically the communes of Colombo and Almirante Tamandaré, is based mainly on the utilization of Vitis labrusca grapes var. Bordô (Ives. Total sugar content, pH, and total acidity were analyzed in red wine samples from 2007 and 2008 vintages following official methods of analysis. Moreover, total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents were analyzed by colorimetric methodologies and the antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical methodology. Phenolic compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic content of wine samples presented concentrations varying between 1582.35 and 2896.08 mg gallic acid.L-1 since the major part corresponds to flavonoid content. In these compounds' concentration range, a direct relationship between phenolic compounds content and levels of antioxidant activity was not observed. Among the identified phenolic compounds, chlorogenic, caffeic, and syringic acids were found to be the major components. Using three principal components, it was possible to explain 81.36% of total variance of the studied samples. Principal Components Analysis does not differentiate between vintages.

  19. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

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    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  20. A powerful aromatic volatile thiol, 2-furanmethanethiol, exhibiting roast coffee aroma in wines made from several Vitis vinifera grape varieties.

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    Tominaga, T; Blanchard, L; Darriet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-05-01

    The chemical compound 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM), with a strong roast coffee aroma, has been identified in sweet white wines made from the Petit manseng grape variety, and in certain red Bordeaux wines (made from the Merlot, Cabernet franc, and Cabernet sauvignon grape varieties). This was done by extracting specific volatile thiols using p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. The 2FM has also been found in toasted oak used in barrel-making. All the Petit manseng sweet white wines and some of the red Bordeaux wines analyzed contained between a few ng/L and several dozen ng/L of 2FM. Taking into account its very low perception threshold (0.4 ng/L in a model hydro alcoholic environment), 2FM could therefore contribute to the roast coffee aroma of certain wines.

  1. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

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    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  2. Application of statistical downscaling technique for the production of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in Spain

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    Gaitán Fernández, E.; García Moreno, R.; Pino Otín, M. R.; Ribalaygua Batalla, J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and soil are two of the most important limiting factors for agricultural production. Nowadays climate change has been documented in many geographical locations affecting different cropping systems. The General Circulation Models (GCM) has become important tools to simulate the more relevant aspects of the climate expected for the XXI century in the frame of climatic change. These models are able to reproduce the general features of the atmospheric dynamic but their low resolution (about 200 Km) avoids a proper simulation of lower scale meteorological effects. Downscaling techniques allow overcoming this problem by adapting the model outcomes to local scale. In this context, FIC (Fundación para la Investigación del Clima) has developed a statistical downscaling technique based on a two step analogue methods. This methodology has been broadly tested on national and international environments leading to excellent results on future climate models. In a collaboration project, this statistical downscaling technique was applied to predict future scenarios for the grape growing systems in Spain. The application of such model is very important to predict expected climate for the different growing crops, mainly for grape, where the success of different varieties are highly related to climate and soil. The model allowed the implementation of agricultural conservation practices in the crop production, detecting highly sensible areas to negative impacts produced by any modification of climate in the different regions, mainly those protected with protected designation of origin, and the definition of new production areas with optimal edaphoclimatic conditions for the different varieties.

  3. Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia) or Wine Phytochemicals Reduce Intestinal Inflammation in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Kim, Min-Hyun; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gao, Chi; Gu, Liwei

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemical extracts from muscadine grapes or wine on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to investigate cellular mechanisms. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were gavaged with muscadine grape phytochemicals (MGP) or muscadine wine phytochemicals (MWP), respectively, for 14 days. Acute colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. An additional two groups of mice served as healthy and disease controls. Results indicated that MGP or MWP significantly prevented weight loss, reduced disease activity index, and preserved colonic length compared to the colitis group (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity as well as the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in colon (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP caused down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that phytochemicals from muscadine grape or wine mitigate ulcerative colitis via attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and modulation of the NF-κB pathway.

  4. Terpene content of wine from the aromatic grape variety ‘Irsai Oliver’ (Vitis vinifera L. depends on maceration time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron Mojmir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the determination of the content of both free and bound terpenes in berries and wine of the aromatic grapevine variety ‘Irsai Oliver’. Grapes were macerated in juice for different time intervals (viz. 0; 5; 12; 24 hours and thereafter processed to wine. The objective was to map the dependence of some selected terpenes on the period of maceration. Using gas chromatography, some nine organic compounds were detected. Attention was paid to contents of linalool (3,7-dimethylokta-1,6-dien-3-ol, 2,6-dimetyl-3,7-octadiene-2,6-diol, hotrienol ([(5E-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5,7-trien-3-yl] acetate, αterpineol (2-(4-Methyl-1-cyclohex-3-enylpropan-2-ol, β-citronellol (3,7-Dimethyloct-6-en-1-ol, nerol ((Z-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, geraniol ((trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-oktadien-1-ol and epoxylinalool (2-(5-ethenyl-5-methyloxolan-2-ylpropan-2- ol: epoxylinalool 1 (trans-linalool oxide (furanoid cis-linalool oxide (furanoid and epoxylinalool 2 (trans-linalool oxide (pyranoid cis-linalool oxide (pyranoid. Some basic wine parameters (alcohol, pH, sugars and total acids were estimated as well. The terpene content in wine increased gradually with the period of maceration. The highest and the lowest amounts of terpenes were recorded after 24 hours of maceration and no maceration, respectively. The terpene glycosides content was higher than that of the aglycones. Linalool and 2,6-dimetyl-3,7-octadiene-2,6-diol were the most abundant terpenes.

  5. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  6. Impact of Clonal Variability on Phenolics and Radical Scavenging Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Study on the Recently Developed Merlot and Cabernet Franc Clones (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana; Natić, Maja; Gašić, Uroš; Jović, Sonja; Vujović, Dragan; Djordjević, Jelena Popović

    2016-01-01

    In this study, grapes and corresponding wines of Merlot /No 022, 025 and 029/ and Cabernet Franc /No 02, 010 and 012/ clones (recently developed) were evaluated regarding the total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity, aiming to better understand their quality and market potential. The nineteen individual polyphenols were quantified in studied grape samples using UHPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mother grapes and wines were used as the relevant standards. In the grape, studied characteristics were monitored at three stages of berry development: green berry, véraison and mature berry. The mature grape of clones presented high values of total phenolics (3.81–10.89 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 frozen weight), anthocyanin content (359.00–1668.18 mg malvidin-3-O-glucoside kg-1 frozen weight) and the radical scavenging activity (41.37–80.48 mmol trolox equivalent kg-1 frozen weight) depending on the clone. Grapes and wines of Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 stood out with the highest values of all three parameters. Generally, the high correlation was observed between TPC and RSA values for green berries and mature grapes, as well as for wine samples. The most abundant phenolics in both Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes were gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, catechin gallate, and rutin. Catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin gallate, typical for the ripe grape of Merlot and Cabernet Franc clones, showed significant correlation with RSA values. Concentrations of individual polyphenols varied depending on the sample being studied and berry development stages. Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 grapes showed particularly interesting attributes for the production of high quality wines. PMID:27732619

  7. Molecular characterization and technological properties of wine yeasts isolated during spontaneous fermentation of Vitis vinifera L.cv. Narince grape must grown in ancient wine making area Tokat, Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Zeynep Dilan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera L grown in Tokat and produces rich and balanced wines often with a greenish yellow tint and delicate fruity flavour. Fermentation by indigenous yeasts may produce wines with complex oenological properties that are unique to specific region. In this study yeast population during alcoholic fermentation of Narince was investigated. Yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 5.8 ITS rRNA region and sequence information for the D1/D2 domains of the 26S gene. Eight different species belonging to nine genera were identified as: Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hansenispora guilliermondii, Pichia kluyveri, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina, Lachancea thermotolerance and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis and Pichia kluyveri were identified only in the early stage of fermentation. Selected yeasts tested for their physiological traits, ethanol, SO2, temperature, pH tolerance, H2S production, killer and enzymatic activity, fermentation rate, flocculation characteristic, foam, volatile acid and volatile compounds production. Among the yeasts, one,Lachancea thermotolerance and four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain showed remarkable technological properties and results were compared with those obtained by using commercial starter culture.

  8. The influence of apical and basal defoliation on the canopy structure and biochemical composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz grapes and wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Wu, Xiwen; Needs, Sonja; Liu, Di; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Defoliation is a commonly used viticultural technique to balance the ratio between grapevine vegetation and fruit. Defoliation is conducted around the fruit zone to reduce the leaf photosynthetic area, and to increase sunlight exposure of grape bunches. Apical leaf removal is not commonly practiced, and therefore its influence on canopy structure and resultant wine aroma is not well studied. This study quantified the influences of apical and basal defoliation on canopy structure parameters using canopy cover photography and computer vision algorithms. The influence of canopy structure changes on the chemical compositions of grapes and wines was investigated over two vintages (2010-11 and 2015-16) in Yarra Valley, Australia. The Shiraz grapevines were subjected to five different treatments: no leaf removal (Ctrl); basal (TB) and apical (TD) leaf removal at veraison and intermediate ripeness, respectively. Basal leaf removal significantly reduced the leaf area index and foliage cover and increased canopy porosity, while apical leaf removal had limited influences on canopy parameters. However, the latter tended to result in lower alcohol level in the finished wine. Statistically significant increases in pH and decreases in TA was observed in shaded grapes, while no significant changes in the color profile and volatile compounds of the resultant wine were found. These results suggest that apical leaf removal is an effective method to reduce wine alcohol concentration with minimal influences on wine composition.

  9. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

    2015-03-04

    Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.

  10. Characterization of phenolic composition in Carignan noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) from six wine-growing sites in Maule Valley, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko

    2018-01-01

    Among Chilean varieties, Carignan noir has had a major resurgence due to its rediscovered wine quality potential. For this, the aim of this study was to characterize phenolic composition of grapes grown in six sites from the Maule Valley. The data showed that myricetin-3-glc and catechin were the most important flavonol and flavanol, respectively. Anthocyanin and flavonol composition was correlated with biologically effective degree days, exhibiting a relationship with grape maturity. Flavanol and hydroxycinnamic acid composition was inversely correlated to the average maximum temperature of the warmest month, showing that their synthesis is favored by cooler temperatures during the warmest month. These results have enological and viticultural interest for grape growers as vineyard site selection for this cultivar can confer differentiable attributes in terms of grape composition and quality. On the other hand, understanding the effects of climate on the synthesis of phenolic compounds may be useful for managing the vineyards with the aim of improving grape quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases, the haze-forming proteins of wine, accumulate during ripening of grape (Vitis vinifera) berries and drought stress does not affect the final levels per berry at maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, K F; Hayasaka, Y; McCarthy, M G; Waters, E J

    2000-05-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases, which are pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, were the major soluble protein components of grapes from five cultivars of Vitis vinifera. This dominance of PR proteins was apparent at berry softening (véraison) and then throughout berry development for the Muscat of Alexandria, Sultana, and Shiraz cultivars and in the berries of the Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir cultivars examined at commercial maturity. The M(r) of the major thaumatin-like protein from Muscat of Alexandria grapes was 21 272, and those of the three major chitinases from this cultivar, ChitB, ChitC, and ChitD, were 25 588, 25 410, and 25 457, respectively. The vines in the study were irrigated and showed no obvious signs of disease. Shiraz vines that had not been irrigated throughout the season were clearly water stressed, but had levels of PR proteins in the berry similar to vines that had been fully irrigated. It appears that the production of PR proteins that cause protein instability in wines by grapes may be little influenced by environmental conditions.

  12. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  13. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L. from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. F. de Sales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  14. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L.) from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sales, Nathalia F F; Silva da Costa, Leandro; Carneiro, Talita I A; Minuzzo, Daniela A; Oliveira, Felipe L; Cabral, Lourdes M C; Torres, Alexandre G; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2018-03-08

    Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  15. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r 2 = 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  17. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  18. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  1. Is solar radiation a key to good red wine grape anthocyanin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite a century of research, we still lack a concrete, mechanistic understanding of solar radiation and temperature effects on anthocyanin accumulation and composition, crucial for red wine grapes. Our aim was to elucidate the mechanistic response to microclimate of anthocyanin metabolism in Viti...

  2. Dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy and cold hardiness influence grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) susceptibility to cold injury, which is a major cause of economic loss in high latitude growing regions. The objectives of this study were to compare dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars considered more (C...

  3. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Cook Douglas R; da Silva Francisco; Nobuta Kan; Iandolino Alberto; Meyers Blake C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not req...

  4. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  5. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  6. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  7. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  8. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenbichler, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  9. Partial dehydration of 'Niagara Rosada' GRAPES ( Vitis labrusca L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial dehydration of grapes after harvest and aimed wine-making, has been shown to be a process that brings increased concentration of sugar and phenolic compounds in the must, which results in the quality of the wines produced. However, the works developed so far studied the process for temperatures up to a ...

  10. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  11. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh

    2014-07-01

    A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aroma Compounds Prevision using Artificial Neural Networks Influence of Newly Indigenous Saccharomyces SPP in White Wine Produced with Vitis Vinifera Cv Siria

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Cabrita, Maria João; Ambrósio, Cristina; Arteiro, José; Neves, José; Vicente, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Commercial yeasts strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae are frequently used in white wine production as starters in fermentation process, however, these strains can affect the wine characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of Saccharomyces spp. (var. 1, 2 and 3) on wine aroma compounds produced in microvinification assays. Microvinification assays were carried out with Vitis vinifera cv Síria grapes using the strains in study as starters. Aroma compounds ...

  13. Why are grape/fresh wine anthocyanins so simple and why is it that red wine color lasts so long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; Chassaing, S; Fougerousse, A

    2003-12-01

    Vitis vinifera red berries are characterized by anthocyanins whose chemical structures are among the simplest encountered in higher plants. On the contrary, many plants, including orchids, petunias, red cabbage, elderberries, potatoes for instance, have developed very complicated anthocyanins featuring side-chains at the available positions of the aglycone skeleton. Such pigments were shown to possess bio-physico-chemical properties not to be seen with the grape common anthocyanins. Among beverages (water, tea, beer, wine, coffee, juices, milk), red wine is the only one whose organoleptic properties improve with time and this is called ageing. The grape/fresh red wine pigments, after a few months, disappear from the wine giving birth to new pigments resulting from the wine spontaneous chemistry allowing it to remain red for many years. What are the wine pigments and why are they so stable is the purpose of this mini-review. The structural simplicity of grape anthocyanins and the long lasting colour of red wine is another French paradox; we call it French paradox II.

  14. Impact of wine technology on the variability of resveratrol and piceids in Saperavi (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Surguladze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active stilbenoids-resveratrol and its glucosides were identified in the dry bulk wines of different types made with red-grape vintage variety of Saperavi (Vitis vinifera L.: cis-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid. Red and pink wines were made by different technology: I – dry, pink, of a European type; alcoholic fermentation with natural microflora; II – dry, pink, of a European type; alcoholic fermentation with dry yeast “B2000”. III – red, dry; alcoholic fermentation with no-stem pomace and aging on it for 5 months; IV – dry, red, of a Kakhetian type; alcoholic fermentation with stem pomace with natural microflora and aging on it for 5 months; V – dry, red, of a Kakhetian type, with preliminary fermentation of cluster stems, then, alcoholic fermentation with natural microflora and aging on it for 5 months. The impact of the wine-making technology on the variability of the concentrations of these substances is proved. Kakhetian bulk wines (IV and V also differ from one another. Bulk wine-V made by the fermentation of grappa fermented in advance contains little concentration of study stilbenoids as a result of the oxidation transformations caused by the preliminary treatment. The role of grape juice, stem and seed in the localization of resveratrols and piceids in the bulk wines is identified.

  15. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...

  16. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  17. In Vitro Propagarion and Cryopreservation of Important Grape Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L. and Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape (Vitis vinifera L. is among the most important species that is cultivated almost all around the world. There are over one thousand varieties that are grown for raisin, fresh consumption and wine making purposes. The grape germplasm resources are generally maintained as whole plants under field conditions. The traditional way of germplasm preservation is very risky due to natural uncertainties. In vitro technologies can help producing healthy propagation materials free from viroids, viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, fungi, and nematodes. When combined with cryopreservation technologies in vitro preservation systems can allow safe protection and propagation of valuable Vitis genetic resources. In this study, 12 commercial cultivar and two rootstock materials were tested for the applicability of long term preservation by in vitro clonal propagation and cryopreservation techniques. Axillary shoot tips collected from newly emerging shoots were placed in Magenda boxes containing 30 g/l sucrose on MS medium and cultured in a growth chamber adjusted to 16 h ligth/25o C and 8 h dark/17o C. All grape genotypes tested responded well to this application and produced healthy root and shoots. Shoot explants from these in vitro stocks were subcultured in every three months for one year. Apical dome explants excised from in vitro grape plants were stored in liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation. Genotypes varied in their responses to cryopservation treatment. Five genotypes showed shoot or callus formation. Regenerated shoots continued to grow and produced normal shoots and roots, but no plants could be developed from calli. Flow cytometry analysis of regenerants from continuous subculture and cryopreservation did not show any chromosome number abnormalities. In vitro micropropagation is an excellent choice for a long-term conservation of grape germplasm, which allows access to actively growing plant materials without seasonal restriction. Such cultures are

  18. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  19. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  20. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  1. Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-09-17

    Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  2. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  3. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma Del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  5. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  6. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  8. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  9. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea Claudiu-Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional. Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC. Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  12. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  13. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in

  14. Evolutionary genomics of grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongfeng; Massonnet, Mélanie; Sanjak, Jaleal S; Cantu, Dario; Gaut, Brandon S

    2017-10-31

    We gathered genomic data from grapes ( Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera ), a clonally propagated perennial crop, to address three ongoing mysteries about plant domestication. The first is the duration of domestication; archaeological evidence suggests that domestication occurs over millennia, but genetic evidence indicates that it can occur rapidly. We estimated that our wild and cultivated grape samples diverged ∼22,000 years ago and that the cultivated lineage experienced a steady decline in population size ( N e ) thereafter. The long decline may reflect low-intensity management by humans before domestication. The second mystery is the identification of genes that contribute to domestication phenotypes. In cultivated grapes, we identified candidate-selected genes that function in sugar metabolism, flower development, and stress responses. In contrast, candidate-selected genes in the wild sample were limited to abiotic and biotic stress responses. A genomic region of high divergence corresponded to the sex determination region and included a candidate male sterility factor and additional genes with sex-specific expression. The third mystery concerns the cost of domestication. Annual crops accumulate putatively deleterious variants, in part due to strong domestication bottlenecks. The domestication of perennial crops differs from that of annuals in several ways, including the intensity of bottlenecks, and it is not yet clear if they accumulate deleterious variants. We found that grape accessions contained 5.2% more deleterious variants than wild individuals, and these were more often in a heterozygous state. Using forward simulations, we confirm that clonal propagation leads to the accumulation of recessive deleterious mutations but without decreasing fitness. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

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    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  16. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iandolino, Alberto; Nobuta, Kan; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R; Meyers, Blake C

    2008-05-12

    Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was approximately 49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million). Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed evidence of antisense expression not

  17. Grape and wine polymeric polyphenols: Their importance in enology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Sun, Baoshan

    2017-09-21

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of red wine, contributing to its sensory properties and antioxidant activity. Owing to the diversity and structural complexity, study of these compounds was mainly limited, during the last three decades, on their low-molecular-mass compounds or simple phenolic compounds. Only in recent years, much attention has been paid to highly polymerized polyphenols in grape and red wines. The reason for this is largely due to the development of analytical techniques, especially those of HPLC-ESI-MS, permitting the structural characterization of highly polymerized polyphenols. Furthermore, the knowledge on the biological properties of polymeric polyphenols of red wine is very limited. Grape polyphenols mainly consist of proanthocyanidins (oligomers and polymers) and anthocyanins, and low amount of other phenolics. Red wine polyphenols include both grape polyphenols and new phenolic products formed from them during winemaking process. This leads to a great diversity of new polyphenols and makes wine polyphenol composition more complex. The present paper summarizes the advances in the research of polymeric polyphenols in grape and red wine and their important role in Enology. Scientific results indicate that polymeric polyphenols, as the major polyphenols in grape and red wine, play a major role in red wine sensory properties, color stability and antioxidant activities.

  18. Impact of Plasmopara viticola infection of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes on wine composition and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Deliere, Laurent; Crachereau, Jean Christophe; Davidou, Ludivine; Sauris, Pierre; Guilbault, Pascal; Darriet, Philippe

    2018-01-15

    This work reports the identification of volatile compounds involved in the particular and atypical flavor detected in Vitis vinifera red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes infected and wilted by brown rot (Plasmopara viticola). Must made from withered grapes had green aromas while red wines were marked by intense odor reminiscent of green, herbaceous notes but also figs and cooked fruit. Thanks to GC-O and GC-MS analysis, cooked fruit notes were identified as 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone, whereas herbaceous and green aromas were identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. We show that the organoleptic impact of P. viticola is more pronounced in Merlot wines compared to Cabernet Sauvignon ones. The highest levels of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (75.3ng/L) were found in old Merlot wines made with 20% infected berries, suggesting the incidence of berry quality on the ability of a wine to age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

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    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  20. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of the UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Concord grape (Vitis labrusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn; Yuan, Xiao Xin; Murata, Jun; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanidin substrates at the 3-O-position is crucial for the red pigmentation of grape berries and wine. The gene that encodes the enzyme involved in this reaction has been cloned from Vitis labrusca cv. Concord, heterologously expressed, and the recombinant enzyme (rVL3GT) was characterized. VL3GT has 96% amino acid sequence identity with Vitis vinifera VV3GT and groups phylogenetically with several other flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferases. In vitro substrate specificity studies and kinetic analyses of rVL3GT indicate that this enzyme preferentially glucosylates cyanidin as compared with quercetin. Crude protein extracts from several Concord grape tissues were assayed for glucosyltransferase activity with cyanidin and quercetin as acceptor substrates. A comparison of the VL3GT activities toward with these substrates showed that the 3GT enzyme activity is consistent with the expression of VL3GT in these tissues and is coincident with the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in both location and developmental stages. Enzyme activities in grape mesocarp, pre-veraison exocarp, leaf, flower bud, and flower tissues glucosylated quercetin but not cyanidin at high rates, suggesting the presence of additional enzymes which are able to glucosylate the 3-O-position of flavonols with higher specificity than anthocyanidins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic diversity of a brazilian wine grape germplasm collection based on morphoagronomic traits

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    Patrícia Coelho de S. Leão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of cultivars, to quantify the variability and to estimate the genetic distances of 66 wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of the EMBRAPA Semi-Arid, in Juazeiro, BA, Brazil, through the characterization of discrete and continuous phenotypic variables. Multivariate statistics, such as, principal components, Tocher's optimization procedure, and the graphic of the distance, were efficient in grouping more similar genotypes, according to their phenotypic characteristics. There was no agreement in the formation of groups between continuous and discrete morpho-agronomic traits, when Tocher's optimization procedure was used. Discrete variables allowed the separation of Vitis vinifera and hybrids in different groups. Significant positive correlations were observed between weight, length and width of bunches, and a negative correlation between titratable acidity and TSS/TTA. The major part (84.12% of the total variation present in the original data was explained by the four principal components. The results revealed little variability between wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semi-Arid.

  2. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

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    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  3. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

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    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  4. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  5. Foliar applications of iron promote flavonoids accumulation in grape berry of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot grown in the iron deficiency soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Song, Changzheng; Chen, Haiju; Duan, Bingbing; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-07-01

    Flavonoids are important compounds for grape and wine quality. Foliar fertilization with iron compounds has been reported to have a substantial impact on grape composition in the grapevines growing in calcareous soil. However, much less is known about its real impact on flavonoid composition. In the present study, Ferric ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) was foliar applied to Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines growing in calcareous soil over two consecutive vintages in order to study its effect on grape flavonoid composition. Fe-EDDHA foliar supply tended to increase grape sugar, anthocyanin and flavonol content, decrease acid content and enhance the juice pH when compared to the control. Principal component analysis showed that the vintage also had influence on grape quality. The results suggested that Fe-EDDHA foliar application had an enhancement effect on grape secondary metabolism, and the effect increased the nutritional value of the consequent grapes and wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

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    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  7. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  8. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  9. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Bokulich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir.

  10. Whole genome comparison between table and wine grapes reveals a comprehensive catalog of structural variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Alex; Almeida, Andrea Miyasaka; Muñoz-Espinoza, Claudia; Vizoso, Paula; Travisany, Dante; Moraga, Carol; Pinto, Manuel; Hinrichsen, Patricio; Orellana, Ariel; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-01-07

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most important Mediterranean fruit crop, used to produce both wine and spirits as well as table grape and raisins. Wine and table grape cultivars represent two divergent germplasm pools with different origins and domestication history, as well as differential characteristics for berry size, cluster architecture and berry chemical profile, among others. 'Sultanina' plays a pivotal role in modern table grape breeding providing the main source of seedlessness. This cultivar is also one of the most planted for fresh consumption and raisins production. Given its importance, we sequenced it and implemented a novel strategy for the de novo assembly of its highly heterozygous genome. Our approach produced a draft genome of 466 Mb, recovering 82% of the genes present in the grapevine reference genome; in addition, we identified 240 novel genes. A large number of structural variants and SNPs were identified. Among them, 45 (21 SNPs and 24 INDELs) were experimentally confirmed in 'Sultanina' and six SNPs in other 23 table grape varieties. Transposable elements corresponded to ca. 80% of the repetitive sequences involved in structural variants and more than 2,000 genes were affected in their structure by these variants. Some of these genes are likely involved in embryo development, suggesting that they may contribute to seedlessness, a key trait for table grapes. This work produced the first structural variants and SNPs catalog for grapevine, constituting a novel and very powerful tool for genomic studies in this key fruit crop, particularly useful to support marker assisted breeding in table grapes.

  11. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Free the tannins: the role of grape pathogenesis-related proteins in limiting condensed tannin extraction during winemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape-derived condensed tannins (CT) are important to the mouthfeel of red wines, but CT concentrations in red wines produced from wild Vitis species or their hybrids are often lower than corresponding wines produced from European wine grapes (V. vinifera), potentially decreasing their utility. Thes...

  13. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

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    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.

  14. Impact of Grape Varieties on Wine Distillates Flavour

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    Mara Banović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is a phenomenon that occurrs when food and live organism mutually react during the process of consumption. Many factors influence the making of aroma of wine distillates (e.g. cognac during the technological process of distillation. It is extremely difficult to bring an objective judgement on the influence of individual factors since aroma is very subjective in its nature. The possibility of objective assessment of the influence of grape varieties on wine distillate was performed in this work using a computer in processing the results of cromatographic analyses of aroma substances. The given results were verified by sensor analyses. The achieved results have shown that mathematical model for calculating aroma chromatogram similarity can be successfully used for objective assessment of the influence of individual factors on aroma of wine distillates and that grape varieties have significant impact on aroma and the quality of wine distillates.

  15. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-02

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  17. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L.; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C.; Rosa, Alberto L.

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities. PMID:28424672

  18. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Fia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvents. The juice was dried by a spray-drying technique with the addition of arabic gum as support to obtain powder; juice and powder were characterized for antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration and profile. Phenolic acids, flavonols, flava-3-ols, procyanidins and resveratrol were detected in the juice and powder. The powder was used as anti-browning additive in white wine to test the potential re-use of the unripe grapes in the wine industry. The results indicated that the antioxidant complex from unripe grapes contributed to increasing the anti-browning capacity of white wine. Other applications, such as food and nutraceutical products development, can be considered for the antioxidant complex extracted from unripe grapes. In conclusion, the method proposed in this study may contribute to the exploitation of unripe grapes as a by-product of the winemaking process.

  19. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  20. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soural, I.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 6093-6112 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L * grape cane * stilbenes * accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) * microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) * LC-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  1. Varietal Distributions of Stilbenes in Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 11-14 ISSN 1335-2563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L. * varieties * grape canes * stilbenes * distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  2. Production of white wine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on grape pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Genisheva, Zlatina Asenova; Macedo, S.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Teixeira, J. A.; Oliveira, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    White wine was produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on grape pomace, by natural adsorption. The support, the main solid waste from the wine industry, consisted of the skins, seeds and stems. Immobilization was tested using different media, namely complex culture medium, raw grape must and diluted grape must. Grape pomace was revealed to be an appropriate support for yeast cell immobilization. Moreover, grape must was shown to be the most suitable medium as immobilized c...

  3. Bioactive polyphenols from grapes and wine emphasized with resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latruffe, Norbert; Rifler, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Grape polyphenols are abundant. They play essential roles in the plant's life, particularly in defence mechanisms. Moreover, the grape, fresh or dried, is a widely consumed fruit by humans, as are its by-products, grape juice and wine. They also contain vast and highly varied quantities of polyphenols. Like other phytophenols, grape and wine resveratrol is considered a protective micronutrient. Resveratrol is a well known antioxidant, for example, a protector of low-density lipoproteins against oxidation. Its applications are therefore highly varied. Research supports the idea that wine consumed regularly, without excess, is a natural biological product possesses preventive properties, and not only well-known properties against vascular diseases (illustrated by the so-called French paradox). At least in experimental models so far, resveratrol prevents infections, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. This review addresses whether the pro-longevity properties of resveratrol are preserved in the human species. If such is the case, it will be possible to imagine new ways of eating based on natural foods, with or without supplements, based on resveratrol. On the other hand, studies such as ours are investigating the synergies between resveratrol and some of the many polyphenols found in wine. These studies should fill in the gaps between the study of a molecule tested in isolation or in a binary system (e.g., with alcohol) and this same molecule in its biological context.

  4. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Cristiane; Franco, Fernanda Wouters; Machado, Eduarda da Rosa; Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Quatrin, Andréia; Ramos, Vitor de Miranda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Sautter, Cláudia Kaehler; Penna, Neidi Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  5. Meta-analysis of the core aroma components of grape and wine aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Ilc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  6. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  7. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Han, Jian; Liu, Chonghuai; Kibet, Korir Nicholas; Kayesh, Emrul; Shangguan, Lingfei; Li, Xiaoying; Fang, Jinggui

    2012-03-29

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs) from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72 new potential miRNAs and 34 known but non-conserved mi

  8. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (vitis amurensis Rupr. by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. Results A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Conclusions Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72

  9. Physical, rheological, functional and film properties of a novel emulsifier: Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP) from Vitis riparia Michx

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essent...

  10. Aroma Precursors in Grapes and Wine: Flavor Release during Wine Production and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Francis, I Leigh; Herderich, Markus J

    2018-03-14

    Pioneering investigations into precursors of fruity and floral flavors established the importance of terpenoid and C 13 -norisoprenoid glycosides to the flavor of aromatic wines. Nowadays flavor precursors in grapes and wine are known to be structurally diverse, encompassing glycosides, amino acid conjugates, odorless volatiles, hydroxycinnamic acids, and many others. Flavor precursors mainly originate in the grape berry but also from oak or other materials involved in winemaking. Flavors are released from precursors during crushing and subsequent production steps by enzymatic and nonenzymatic transformations, via microbial glycosidases, esterases, C-S lyases, and decarboxylases, and through acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chemical rearrangements. Flavors can also be liberated from glycosides and amino acid conjugates by oral microbiota. Hence, it is increasingly likely that flavor precursors contribute to retronasal aroma formation through in-mouth release during consumption, prompting a shift in focus from identifying aroma precursors in grapes to understanding aroma precursors present in bottled wine.

  11. Variability in the content of trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin in grape cane of seven Vitis vinifera L. varieties during a three-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Balík, J.; Soural, I.; Sotolář, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 928. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : stilbenes * Vitis vinifera L * grape cane * Moravian wine region Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  12. Diversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on the surface of Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferranti, Larissa de Souza; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Massi, Fernanda Pelisson

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins in the gra......This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins...... in the grapes were also studied. Eighty-eight samples were collected from the main grape producing states in Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul (n=30), Pernambuco (n=21), São Paulo (n=21) and Paraná (n=16). The highest average contamination level by A. section Nigri occurred on the grapes from Pernambuco (66...... and A. vadensis. Regarding mycotoxin-production capacity, 3.2% of the total A. section Nigri isolates (2042) were positive for OTA production and from A. niger "aggregate" (373) tested, 42.1% were FB2 producers. However, none of the 88 grape samples were contaminated with these mycotoxins....

  13. Epiphytic fungal community in Vitis vinifera of the Portuguese wine regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Arenas, M; Lage, O; Cunha, M; Amorim, M I

    2018-01-01

    In this work, fungi present in the grapevine's phyllosphere collected from the main demarcated wine regions of Portugal were identified, and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed. A total of 46 vine samples (leaves and berries) were collected from different parts of the country, being isolated a total of 117 fungal colonies that were identified to the genus level and sequenced in the following genetic regions: internal transcribed spacer region and 18S rRNA and β-tubulin gene. Next, a phylogenetic tree reconstruction for each genetic region was built. The isolates retrieved from environmental samples belonged to the genera Alternaria (31%), Cladosporium (21%), Penicillium (19%), Aspergillus (7%) and Epicoccum (3%). No genetic signatures of exchange of genetic material were detected, and consequently, the reconstructed phylogenetic trees allowed to distinguish between these different species/genera. In the fungal composition of the Vitis vinifera phyllosphere, several potential pathogens were identified that can be associated with decreases in crop productivity. Knowledge of fungi identification and genetic diversity is pivotal for the development of more adequate crop management strategies. Furthermore, this information will provide guidelines for a more specific and wiser use of fungicides. The knowledge on the composition of the phyllosphere microbial community is still limited, especially when fungi are concerned. These micro-organisms not only play a crucial role in crop health and productivity but also interact with the winemaking process, determining the safety and quality of grape and grape-derived products. The elucidation of the micro-organisms present in the phyllosphere will have a notorious impact on plant breeding and protection programmes and disease management strategies, allowing a better control of pesticide applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Effects of whole-wheat flour and bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Roberto KARNOPP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace, which is derived from the skin and seeds, is the residue from the production of grape juice and wine. It corresponds to up to 20% of the total volume and it contains a high level of dietary fibers and bioactive compounds. In the Brazilian market, there is no product containing grape pomace as a replacement for conventional wheat flour. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole-wheat flour and organic Bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies using response surface methodology (RSM. The regression models indicated that the addition of whole-wheat and organic grape pomace decreased (p 65% of explained data variability, except for brittleness. The sensory evaluation results revealed that no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed for the cookie samples, implying that the addition of grape pomace and whole-wheat flour did not negatively affect the preference of cookies.

  15. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the CDPK Gene Family in Grape, Vitis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Feng-Li; Hu, Yang; Gao, Yu-Rong; Ma, Yan-Fei; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2015-06-30

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play vital roles in plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and hormone signaling. Little is known about the CDPK gene family in grapevine. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the 12X grape genome (Vitis vinifera) and identified nineteen CDPK genes. Comparison of the structures of grape CDPK genes allowed us to examine their functional conservation and differentiation. Segmentally duplicated grape CDPK genes showed high structural conservation and contributed to gene family expansion. Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several grape CDPK genes occured in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grapevine and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis divided the grape CDPK genes into four groups. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the corresponding nineteen homologous CDPK genes in the Chinese wild grape (Vitis pseudoreticulata) under various conditions, including biotic stress, abiotic stress, and hormone treatments. The expression profiles derived from reverse transcription and quantitative PCR suggested that a large number of VpCDPKs responded to various stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating their versatile roles in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, we examined the subcellular localization of VpCDPKs by transiently expressing six VpCDPK-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts; this revealed high variability consistent with potential functional differences. Taken as a whole, our data provide significant insights into the evolution and function of grape CDPKs and a framework for future investigation of grape CDPK genes.

  16. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  17. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  18. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry.

  19. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have ...

  1. Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against. Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry ...

  2. Quantitative prediction of cell wall polysaccharide composition in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and apple (Malus domestica) skins from acid hydrolysis monosaccharide profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S

    2009-05-13

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported for the quantitative allocation of plant cell wall monomers into relevant structural polysaccharide elements. By this method the relative molar distribution (mol %) of the different polysaccharides in the red wine grape skins was estimated as 57-62 mol % homogalacturonan, 6.0-14 mol % cellulose, 10-11 mol % xyloglucan, 7 mol % arabinan, 4.5-5.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan I, 3.5-4.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan II, 3 mol % arabinogalactan, and 0.5-1.0 mol % mannans; the ranges indicate minor variations in the skin composition of the three different cultivars. These cell wall polysaccharides made up approximately 43-47% by weight of the skins (dry matter), the rest mainly being lignin. The predicted relative molar levels of the polysaccharide elements in the apple skins, which made up approximately 49-64% by weight of the skins (dry matter), appeared to be similar to those of the grape skins. The apple skins were estimated to be relatively richer than grape skins in arabinan, total levels 10-13 mol %, and relatively lower in mannan content, total levels contents of structural pectin elements in the plant cell wall substrates.

  3. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The Evaluation Model of Grape Wine Quality Based on Multivariate Statistical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lihui Zhou; Ruiqi Song

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish contacts of the physiochemical indexes between the Wine grapes and the Wines. Because of a wide range of physiochemical indexes, in order to more clearly reflect the contact between Wine grapes and Wines, firstly, the principal component analysis is used to select principal components and the correlation matrix is established based on the corresponding variables of principal components. And then, by stepwise regression method, the function of the rela...

  5. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co 60 ) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  6. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br, E-mail: emrgutierrez@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Tecnologia em Alimentos. Dep. Roque Trevisan; Pires, Juliana A., E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  7. 76 FR 66625 - Approval of Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... more grape variety names on wine labels and in wine advertisements. DATES: Effective Date: This final... synonyms. Many of the latter are identical letters that cite the DNA research, summarized in Notice No. 116..., TTB believes that the decision whether to include it on a wine label or in a wine advertisement is a...

  8. Production Charachteristics of Some Introduced Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jasminka Karoglan Kontić; Edi Maletić; Nikola Mirošević; Bernard Kozina; Jasmina Marić

    2000-01-01

    In order to expand the number of red grape cultivars suitable for Northern Dalmatia subregion experimental vineyard has been planted on the farm 'Bastica' PK Zadar. The large number of red grape cultivar has been introducted. Seven of them are spread in central and southern Italy (Montepulciano, Sangiovese, Malvasia nera di Lecce, Ciliegiolo, Aglianico, Cabernet sauvignon, Moscato rosa), which have similar ecological conditions as the area of Ravni Kotari. During the five years period agrobio...

  9. Volatile components of grape pomaces from different cultivars of Sicilian Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, Giuseppe; Renda, Agatino; Amico, Vincenzo; Tringali, Corrado

    2008-01-01

    The volatile components of grape pomace coming from the processing of some of the most important varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in Sicily, namely Nero d'Avola, Nerello Mascalese, Frappato and Cabernet Sauvignon, have been determined by gas-chromatography (GC) and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). According to the winemaking procedure that entails the removal of stalks before fermentation, two kinds of grape pomace are obtained. The first consists of skins, pulp residues and seeds, the proper grape pomace, which is partially used for grappa, a typical Italian spirit, and alcohol production, the second consists almost exclusively of stalks. On the whole, 38 components have been characterized in the samples of grape pomaces, with Frappato cv. showing the richest composition; instead, 88 components have been detected in the stalks of Frappato, Nero d'Avola, Nerello Mascalese and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. In order to make a comparison between the grape varieties easier, the volatile components detected in the two sets of samples (grape pomaces and stalks) have been grouped in different classes. Significant differences among varieties have been detected and statistical treatment of data is also reported. This study is part of a wider project aimed at the possible exploitation of the main agro-industrial by-products. At the same time it is one of the first reports on the volatile components of this waste material.

  10. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  11. Characterization of grape seed oil from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and characteristics of red grape seed oils (Vitis vinifera L from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain. Eight representative varieties of grape seed oils from the Spanish wine Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo and Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín and Verdejo were studied. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 13.89 to 10.18%, and the moisture was similar for all the seeds. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in all samples, representing around 78%, followed by oleic acid with a concentration close 16%, the degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 90%. β-sitosterol and α-tocopherol were the main sterol and tocopherol, reaching values of 77.31% and 3.82 mg·100 g−1 of oil, respectively. In relation to the tocotrienols, α-tocotrienol was the main tocotrienol and accounted for 13.18 mg·100 g−1 of oil.El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar la composición y características de aceites de semillas de uvas rojas (Vitis vinifera L de vinos con denominación de origen protegida (DOP de España. Ocho variedades representativas de aceites de semillas de uvas españolas Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo y Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín y Verdejo fueron estudiadas. Los contenidos en aceite de las semillas oscilaron entre 13.89 y 10.18%, la humedad fué similar para todas las semillas. El contenido en ácido linoléico fué alto en todos los aceites alcanzando un valor del 78%, seguido del ácido oléico con una concentración cercana al 16%, registrando un grado total de insaturación del 90%. b-sitosterol y α-tocoferol fué el principal esterol y tocoferol, alcanzado niveles del 77.31% y de un 3.82 mg·100 g−1 de aceite respectivamente. En relación a los tocotrienoles, α-tocotrienol fué el mayoritario con

  12. Mycotoxins in grapes and wine in Europe: Occurence, factors affecting the occurence and related toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission has established maximum levels for ochratoxin A in wine and grape products, using occurrence data up to 2001 and toxicity data up to 2006. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins in grapes and wine produced in Europe in the period

  13. Merlot grape processing technology for making wines of controlled origin at shabo terroir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Элдар Жораевич Иукуридзе

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available presents the research on the influence of technological features of processing of grapes Merlot, resulting in founding that the pre-sorting of grapes, separation of ridges, maceration, malolactic fermentation at installed in the enterprise mode allows to receive high quality wine. In view of the data it has been developed technological instruction for production of wine "Merlot Shabo"

  14. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part I: polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    Mass spectrometry, had and still has, a very important role for research and quality control in the viticulture and enology field, and its analytical power is relevant for structural studies on aroma and polyphenolic compounds. Polyphenols are responsible for the taste and color of wine, and confer astringency and structure to the beverage. The knowledge of the anthocyanic structure is very important to predict the aging attitude of wine, and to attempt to resolve problems about color stability. Moreover, polyphenols are the main compounds related to the benefits of wine consumption in the diet, because of their properties in the treatment of circulatory disorders such as capillary fragility, peripheral chronic venous insufficiency, and microangiopathy of the retina. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques are nowadays the best analytical approach to study polyphenols in grape extracts and wine, and are the most effective tool in the study of the structure of anthocyanins. The MS/MS approach is a very powerful tool that permits anthocyanin aglycone and sugar moiety characterization. LC-MS allows the characterization of complex structures of grape polyphenols, such as procyanidins, proanthocyanidins, prodelphinidins, and tannins, and provides experimental evidence for structures that were previously only hypothesized. The matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technique is suitable to determine the presence of molecules of higher molecular weight with high accuracy, and it has been applied with success to study procyanidin oligomers up to heptamers in the reflectron mode, and up to nonamers in the linear mode. The levels of resveratrol in wine, an important polyphenol well-known for its beneficial effects, have been determined by SPME and LC-MS, and the former approach led to the best results in terms of sensitivity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Determination of furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) in some wines from Italian native grapes by Gas-Chromatography-SIM/MASS spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Piombino, Paola; Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Moio, Luigi

    2005-06-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis by Selective Ion Monitoring (SIM) was applied to quantify 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) in both red and white wines obtained from some Italian cultivar of Vitis vinifera. Wines were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction performed with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113). The ion m/z 128 was used for quantification while the ion m/z 129 as qualifier. Precision, linearity and accuracy of the method resulted satisfactory. Results showed a significant variation in the concentration of furaneol in wine with grape variety. Generally, HDMF concentrations in white wines were lower than in red wines. Among white wines, Chardonnay resulted characterized by the highest concentration of HDMF. Among red wines the highest concentrations of HDMF were detected in Primitivo and Refosco varieties.

  17. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhou, Zhuo; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism. Copyright © 2015

  18. Tournament Mechanism in Wine-Grape Contracts: Evidence from a French Wine Cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    M'Hand Fares; Luis Orozco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This article analyzes the contractual relationship between a wine cooperative (winery) and its member (growers). This relationship is plagued by moral hazard and adverse selection problems in grape quality. Indeed, growers can be opportunistic since the cooperative is unable to observe: (i) their effort level due to imperfect monitoring technology; (ii) their productive abilities (types) due to adverse selection. Because the growers' vineyard practices and efforts are ...

  19. Tournament Mechanism in the Wine-Grape Contracts: Evidence from a French Wine Cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Noguera, Luis; Fares, M'hand

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the contractual relationship between a wine cooperative (winery) and its member (growers). This relationship is plagued by moral hazard and adverse selection problems in grape quality. Indeed, growers can be opportunistic since the cooperative is unable to observe: (i) their effort level due to imperfect monitoring technology; (ii) their productive abilities (types) due to adverse selection. Because the growers’ vineyard practices and efforts are one of the main determin...

  20. Gene expression analyses in individual grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries during ripening initiation reveal that pigmentation intensity is a valid indicator of developmental staging within the cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steven T; Peng, Fred Y; Nayar, Tarun; Reid, Karen E; Schlosser, James

    2008-10-01

    Asynchronous ripening of individual grape berries within clusters can lead to inconsistent organoleptic characteristics for wine making. Ripening initiation in grape berries is non-climacteric and not well understood at the molecular level. Evidence is lacking for a single master switch controlling this process, such as the established role for ethylene in climacteric fruit ripening. We used Affymetrix microarray analyses of 32 individual Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries sampled from two clusters at 50% ripening initiation. By delineating four developmental stages of ripening initiation, we demonstrate that pigmentation is a statistically significant indicator of transcriptional state during ripening initiation. We report on clustered gene expression patterns which were mined for genes annotated with signal transduction functions in order to advance regulatory network modeling of ripening initiation in grape berries. Abscisic acid has previously been demonstrated to be an important signaling component regulating ripening initiation in grapevine. We demonstrate via real-time RT-PCR analyses that up-regulation of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid gene family member, VvNCED2, in grape seed and pericarp and a putative ortholog to a reported abscisic acid receptor, VvGCR2, are correlated with ripening initiation. Our results suggest a role for these genes in abscisic acid signaling during ripening initiation.

  1. 76 FR 3573 - Proposed Addition of New Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ..., 5 growers in 5 States grow about 18 acres of the variety and the Mary Michelle Winery has made wine... Wines AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... of new names to the list of grape variety names approved for use in designating American wines. In...

  2. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  3. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R.; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable ‘peppery’ aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy

  4. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangzhen Zhang

    Full Text Available Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP. Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and

  5. Nitrogen nutrition of the grape-vine (Vitis vinifera spp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    A thorough knowledge concerning the nitrogen relationship in the grape-vine is essential in order to appreciate how different patterns of uptake, assimilation, storage and utilisation of nitrogen might be advantageous in particular environmental situations. The 15 N-isotope technique has been used to determine the uptake and distribution of nitrogen absorbed during early spring, early summer and autumn. Apart from the total N fraction, protein N and soluble N were determined as well. The utilisation of labelled N applied in the field, was determined for vineyards on heavier and lighter soils

  6. Assessment of sensitization to grape and wine allergens as possible causes of adverse reactions to wine: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Bellinghausen, Iris; Fronk, Petra; Heydenreich, Bärbel; Saloga, Joachim; Decker, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In a recently performed survey with 4000 randomly selected persons, 68 (7.2 %) of 948 respondents reported intolerance and/or allergy-like symptoms to wine. The aim of this study was to analyze whether a real sensitization to wine proteins could be confirmed by diagnostic and/or immunological settings. For this purpose, 19 subjects with self-reported intolerance to wine of the invited subjects and 10 controls without a history of intolerance participated in an allergological examination (skin prick test, ImmunoCAP for determination of specific IgE antibodies, CAST for testing basophil activation, ImmunoBlot for testing specificity of IgE-antibodies). For the allergological work-up red and white grapes, selected wines, and the purified lipid transfer protein (LTP), a known grape allergen, were used. 7 subjects showed evidence of IgE sensitization to wine or grape extracts, including one control. One participant with symptoms of intolerance showed a positive skin prick test to red grape, a positive ImmunoCAP to grape, a positive cellular antigen stimulation test (CAST) and inhibition of Western blot by removal of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD). The presented study focused on the grape protein-related IgE-mediated cause of intolerance to wine (true allergy) and not on other wine components or fining agents (other forms of intolerance). A sensitization to grape and wine proteins was observed in our cohort. In one case, this reactivity could be explained by cross-reactivity to CCD. The results of this pilot study need to be validated in greater cohorts.

  7. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on wine volatile composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Šuklje, Katja; Boss, Paul K; Jeffery, David W

    2018-09-01

    This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes. Implementation of water substitution in particular resulted in minor alterations of wine volatile composition compared to the control, and positive aroma and flavour characteristics were preserved. However, overripe sensory attributes such as 'hotness' and 'port wine' were conserved whereas they were absent in wines of similar alcohol level made from earlier harvested grapes, thereby emphasising the relevance of grape (over)maturity when producing lower alcohol wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzymatic modifications of grape skin phenolics A new look at wine maceration ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Arnous, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely used...... during the wine grape maceration to obtain high juice yield and initial extraction of flavour components, and in the case of red wines for obtaining better initial extraction of colour. Until now, this maceration has mainly been considered as an extraction step. Recent data have shown that significant...... changes of the phenolics may occur via enzyme catalyzed reactions already during the maceration. These recent findings provide a new base for understanding and promoting phenolic conversions during wine making, and may lead to new enzymatic maceration strategies and novel grape pomace valorisation...

  9. Grape marc, wine lees and deposit of the must: How to manage oenological by-products?

    OpenAIRE

    Lempereur Valérie; Penavayre Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Winemaking produces solid (grape marc) and liquid (wine lees and deposit of the must) wastes named “oenological by-products”, which, according to European regulations, must be eliminated following the environmental regulatory requirement [1]. In France, these European regulations forced wine growers, until the 2013/2014 campaign, to deliver all by-products to wine distilleries. This French obligation is known as the “prestation vinique” [2, 3]. Following the Common Market Organisation wine re...

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  11. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  12. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Saxena, S.; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. DNA damage was evaluated in acellular system using pBR322 plasmid relaxation. Grape extract was able to effectively scavenge free radicals in vitro. It could significantly prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract and type of the cultivars. (author)

  14. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations.

  15. The determination of bioactive ingredients of grape pomace (Vranac variety) for potential use in food and pharmaceutical industries

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković, Marko; Radovanović, Blaga; Anđelković-Milenković, Ana; Radovanović, Vladimir; Zarubica, Aleksandra; Stojković, Nikola; Nikolić, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Wine production generated significant quantities of waste - grape pomace (seeds, skin and stems of grapes). In these vinification by-products a significant amount of bioactive compounds such as phenol compounds can still be found. The phenol composition and radical scavenging activity of grape pomace obtained during winemaking from the red wine grape of Vranac variety (Vitis vinifera L.) were investigated to determine their usable values. Reversephase high performance liquid chromatography (R...

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Tian; Wang, Jun-Fang; Cramer, Grant; Dai, Zhan-Wu; Duan, Wei; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wu, Ben-Hong; Fan, Pei-Ge; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2012-09-28

    Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts), followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs) that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery. The results indicated HSPs, especially small HSPs

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves after exposure to ultraviolet C irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifen Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m-2 for 10 min using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape Genome Array (15,700 transcripts. A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58% probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87% probe sets and 1242 (23.55% probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold. CONCLUSIONS: UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves after exposure to ultraviolet C irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huifen; Ma, Ling; Liu, Guotian; Wang, Nian; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Lina; Dai, Zhanwu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m-2 for 10 min) using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape) Genome Array (15,700 transcripts). A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58%) probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87%) probe sets and 1242 (23.55%) probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold). UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have great implications for further studies.

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves after Exposure to Ultraviolet C Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huifen; Ma, Ling; Liu, Guotian; Wang, Nian; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Lina; Dai, Zhanwu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m−2 for 10 min) using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape) Genome Array (15,700 transcripts). A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58%) probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87%) probe sets and 1242 (23.55%) probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold). Conclusions UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have great

  20. Comparative study of diagnostic methods used for monitoring of common grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. crown gall (Agrobacterium vitis Ophel & Kerr in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja LAMOVŠEK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis causes common grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. crown gall disease that destroyed a lot of Slovenian vineyards more than a decade ago. Eighty isolates of Agrobacterium spp. collected during monitoring in 2006 were identified as A. vitis and A. tumefacies by pehA and multiplex PCR method. Tumor-inducing capacity of these strains was assessed on test plants and with PCR methods for detection of the Ti plasmid responsible for tumor induction. With VCF3/VCR3 primer pair six false negatives and no false positives were detected. The high genetic diversity of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp. strains affects the performance of molecular methods, thus biological test should be performed where results from molecular methods are doubtful.

  1. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  2. Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Arneborg, Nils; Toldam-Andersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars, Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines. RESULTS......: The different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, five acids, two ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulfur compound. The use of M. viticola...... in sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae resulted in richer berry and fruity flavours in wines. The sensory plot showed a more clear separation among wine samples by grape cultivars compared with yeast strains. CONCLUSION: Knowledge on the influence of indigenous non-Saccharomyces strains and grape...

  3. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Applications of Mass Spectrometry in the Study of Grape and Wine Polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are the principal compounds associated with health benefic effects of wine consumption and in general are characterized by antioxidant activities. Mass spectrometry is shown to play a very important role in the research of polyphenols in grape and wine and for the quality control of products. The soft ionization of LC/MS makes these techniques suitable to study the structures of polyphenols and anthocyanins in grape extracts and to characterize polyphenolic derivatives formed in w...

  5. A real-options analysis of wine grape farming in north west Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Emayenesh; Chan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a use of a real-options valuation methodology to analyse wine grape farm investment under price and yield uncertainty. Revenue levels to incentivise entry and exit were calculated for three different sizes of wine grape farms in North West Victoria. The modelling identified lower exit and higher entry triggers than indicated by conventional net present value calculation. The wide gap of estimated indeterminacy in farm investment highlights the intertwined influence of numer...

  6. Anti-atherogenic effects of a phenol-rich fraction from Brazilian red wine (Vitis labrusca L.) in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Mariana Appel; Schuldt, Elke Zuleika; Bet, Angela Cristina; DalBó, Silvia; Siqueira, Jarbas Mota; Ianssen, Carla; Abatepaulo, Fátima; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Veleirinho, Beatriz; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Moderate wine intake (i.e., 1-2 glasses of wine a day) is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of a nonalcoholic ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from a South Brazilian red wine obtained from Vitis labrusca grapes. Experiments were carried out on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice, which were subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and treated with doses of EAF (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the level of plasma lipids, the vascular reactivity, and the atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with EAF at 3 mg/kg significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL plus very low-density lipoprotein levels compared with control hypercholesterolemic mice. The treatment of mice with EAF at 3 mg/kg also preserved the vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine on isolated thoracic aorta from hypercholesterolemic LDLr⁻/⁻ mice. This result is in agreement with the degree of lipid deposit on arteries. Taken together, the results show for the first time that the lowest concentration of an EAF obtained from a red wine produced in southern Brazil significantly reduced the progression of atherosclerosis in mice.

  7. Quantification of selected aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wines from different grape maturities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    Effect of grape maturity on aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wine was investigated using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). High correlation coefficient (> 0.95) and low standard deviation (noir wines with three different grape maturities each were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that both grape maturity and growing year significantly affected the aroma composition of the final wine. Analysis of wine samples from the same vintage indicated that grape maturity could affect aroma compounds in different ways, based on their biochemical formation in the wines. For most short-chain fatty acid esters, there were no obvious trends with grape maturity, however, the concentrations of ethyl 2-methylpropanoate and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate consistently decreased with grape maturity. The decreasing trend was also observed for other esters including ethyl cinnamate, ethyl dihydroxycinnamate, and ethyl anthranilate, with the exception of ethyl vanillate, while C13 norisoprenoids, monoterpenes, and guaiacols had increasing trends with grape maturation.

  8. Determination of the polyphenol contents in Macedonian grapes and wines by standardized spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA IVANOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines and grapes contain a large array of phenolic compounds belonging to non-flavonoids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the polyphenolic contents of six commercial red and white Macedonian wines and four grape varieties. Spectrophotometric methods were applied for the determination of the total phenolics, the total flavonoids, the total anthocyanins and the total catechins. The efficiency of acetone/water (80/20 and methanol/water (80/20 solutions for the extraction of polyphenols from grape pulp, seeds and skins were compared. The best extraction efficiency was achieved using acetone/water. The obtained results showed that Macedonian grapes are rich in polyphenols, whereby the highest concentration of total phenolics was found for Vranec grapes. The analyzed wines contained high contents of polyphenol; the highest contents were found for Disan wine produced from the Vranec variety of grapes (1515 mg/L total phenolics, 1103 mg/L total flavonoids, 237 mg/L total anthocyanins and 845 mg/L total catechins. Principal component analysis was employed to check possible groupings of the studied red and white wine samples. A clear separation of white wines from red ones was observed.

  9. Patterns of genomic and phenomic diversity in wine and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapes are one of the most economically and culturally important crops worldwide and they have been bred for both winemaking and fresh consumption. Here we evaluate patterns of diversity across 33 phenotypes collected over a 17-year period from 580 table and wine grape cultivars that belong to one ...

  10. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  11. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  12. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Simonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs, obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  13. Discrimination of wine from grape cultivated in Japan, imported wine, and others by multi-elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideaki; Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Kamada, Aya; Koyama, Kazuya; Okuda, Masaki; Fukuda, Hisashi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2018-04-01

    Differences in mineral concentrations were examined among three types of wine in the Japanese market place: Japan wine, imported wine, and domestically produced wine mainly from foreign ingredients (DWF), where Japan wine has been recently defined by the National Tax Agency as domestically produced wine from grapes cultivated in Japan. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of controlling the authenticity of Japan wine. The concentrations of 18 minerals (Li, B, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba, and Pb) in 214 wine samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In general, Japan wine had a higher concentration of potassium and lower concentrations of eight elements (Li, B, Na, Si, S, Co, Sr, and Pb) as compared with the other two groups of wine. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models based on concentrations of the 18 minerals facilitated the identification of three wine groups: Japan wine, imported wine, and DWF with a 91.1% classification score and 87.9% prediction score. In addition, an LDA model for discrimination of wine from four domestic geographic origins (Yamanashi, Nagano, Hokkaido, and Yamagata Prefectures) using 18 elements gave a classification score of 93.1% and a prediction score of 76.4%. In summary, we have shown that an LDA model based on mineral concentrations is useful for distinguishing Japan wine from other wine groups, and can contribute to classification of the four main domestic wine-producing regions of Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experience economy: consuming emotions at “Grapes and Wine Region”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernanda Tonini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes tourism as a consumers good in present societies, enhanced by concepts as Experience Economy or Dreams Society. It follows a project designated as Experience Economy, with implementation at “Grapes and Wine Region”, Rio Grande do Sul State, which aims to fit local offer to new commercialization strategies in wine tourism, main local tourism  attraction.

  15. Exogenous Abscisic Acid Promotes Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Increased Expression of Flavonoid Synthesis Genes in Vitis vinifera × Vitis labrusca Table Grapes in a Subtropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Koyama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid (Vitis vinifera ×Vitis labrusca table grape cultivars grown in the subtropics often fail to accumulate sufficient anthocyanins to achieve good uniform berry color. Growers of V. vinifera table grapes in temperate regions generally use ethephon and, more recently, (S-cis-abscisic acid (S-ABA to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to determine if S-ABA applications at different timings and concentrations have an effect on anthocyanin regulatory and biosynthetic genes, pigment accumulation, and berry color of the Selection 21 cultivar, a new V. vinifera ×V. labrusca hybrid seedless grape that presents lack of red color when grown in subtropical areas. Applications of S-ABA 400 mg/L resulted in a higher accumulation of total anthocyanins and of the individual anthocyaninsanthocyanins: delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3-glucoside in the berry skin and improved the color attributes of the berries. Treatment with two applications at 7 days after véraison (DAV and 21 DAV of S-ABA 400 mg/L resulted in a higher accumulation of total anthocyanins in the skin of berries and increased the gene expression of CHI, F3H, DFR, and UFGT and of the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 transcription factors in the seedless grape cultivar.

  16. Exogenous Abscisic Acid Promotes Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Increased Expression of Flavonoid Synthesis Genes in Vitis vinifera × Vitis labrusca Table Grapes in a Subtropical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Renata; Roberto, Sergio R.; de Souza, Reginaldo T.; Borges, Wellington F. S.; Anderson, Mauri; Waterhouse, Andrew L.; Cantu, Dario; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid (Vitis vinifera ×Vitis labrusca) table grape cultivars grown in the subtropics often fail to accumulate sufficient anthocyanins to achieve good uniform berry color. Growers of V. vinifera table grapes in temperate regions generally use ethephon and, more recently, (S)-cis-abscisic acid (S-ABA) to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to determine if S-ABA applications at different timings and concentrations have an effect on anthocyanin regulatory and biosynthetic genes, pigment accumulation, and berry color of the Selection 21 cultivar, a new V. vinifera ×V. labrusca hybrid seedless grape that presents lack of red color when grown in subtropical areas. Applications of S-ABA 400 mg/L resulted in a higher accumulation of total anthocyanins and of the individual anthocyaninsanthocyanins: delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3-glucoside in the berry skin and improved the color attributes of the berries. Treatment with two applications at 7 days after véraison (DAV) and 21 DAV of S-ABA 400 mg/L resulted in a higher accumulation of total anthocyanins in the skin of berries and increased the gene expression of CHI, F3H, DFR, and UFGT and of the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 transcription factors in the seedless grape cultivar. PMID:29632542

  17. Grapes, wine and cultural identity at Serra Gaúcha (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Lavandoski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to understand the relevance of wine production at Serra Gaúcha region (Rio Grande State, Brazil and unveil the role played by grapes and wine for XIXth century Italian migrants as for their contemporary descendents. A research was conducted at Vale dos Vinhedos (Vineyards Valley,(RS, Brazil, where a strong relation between wine and tourism exists. Bibliographical research, oral history and semi- structured interviews permitted the construction of a collective subject discourse. As a result it was revealed that wine production was important at first for subsistence and also a way to promote economic growth; at present, grapes and wine are cultural identity markers with which community members present themselves to tourist and visitors. It is a case study without intention of generalizing for other wine regions in Brazil and brings a new approach to tourism and heritage relations.

  18. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  19. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  20. Molecular analysis of historical wine grape variety candidates found in Urla

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Gözde; Korkmaz, Gozde

    2007-01-01

    Urla had been an important center of viticulture and wine making due to its suitable ecology for vineyards. It is also known that there are some grape varieties endemic to this area. However, for various reasons, the viticulture in Urla started to diminish in the beginning of the twentieth century, almost getting to the point of extinction in the mid-century. As the interest for wines and wine grapes rose in the 1990s, vineyards have started to be rebuilt in this area. However, mostly foreign...

  1. Monitoring trans-Resveratrol in Grape Berry Skins During Ripening and in Corresponding Wines by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta I. Geana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is naturally present in the skin of grapes and therefore is expected to occur in grape products. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in wine as medical treatment for various disorders. In this study, berry skins of five red grape varieties were analysed at weekly intervals for trans-resveratrol production, during 2012 and 2013 harvest. The obtained wines were also evaluated. Quantification of trans resveratrol in grape skin extracts and wines was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography. Favourable viticultural climate during harvest in 2012 resulted in a higher content of trans-resveratrol. The highest trans-resveratrol content was in Pinot Noir and Feteasca Neagra grape varieties, both in berry skins and wines, while the lowest amounts were identified in Cabernet Sauvignon variety. We can conclude that there was a significant correlation between the content of trans-resveratrol in grape skins and that in the respective wine.

  2. Flavour Characters of Wines from Cool-Climate Grape Cultivars in Relation to Different Fermentation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing

    -fermentations. Such systematic studies on the flavour characters of wines can contribute to a rational development of local wine styles. The flavour characters of commercial young mono-varietal Danish white wines from the Solaris cultivar were firstly studied. Conventional descriptive sensory analysis showed that several wines...... for evaluating sensory properties of wines, different variations of Napping and Flash Profile methods were tested using model wines. It turned out that conducting Napping with panel training on either the method (training on how to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarization with the sensory...... based segregation with respected to produced wine flavour. In summary, this PhD project increased knowledge on the flavour characters of wines in relation to cool-climate grape cultivars and different fermentation approaches, as well as contributed to sensory methodology advances...

  3. Fate of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid residues in grapes and wine by GC-ITMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Schirra, Mario; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2011-06-22

    The behavior in field and the transfer from grapes to wine during winemaking of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid was studied. The residue levels found in grapes were far below the MRLs set for grapes in EU, accounting at harvest time 0.81, 0.43, and 4.23 mg/kg for iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid, respectively. The residue levels in the samples treated with boscalid may have residual problems (due to an accumulation effect) if repeated field treatments will be performed. Winemaking experiments showed a complete transfer of all pesticide from grapes to the must, while in wine the residues were low or negligible due to the adsorbing effect of lees and pomace. The clarification experiments showed a good removal of pesticide residues from the wine media, for all pesticides. The GC-ITMS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 75 to 115%, and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs) far below MRLs.

  4. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  5. Melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grape berries to increase size and synchronicity of berries and modify wine aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Song, Chang-Zheng; Yu, Yong; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2015-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out to determine the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grapes on grape berries and its wines. Two melatonin treatments of pre-veraison grape berries increased the weight of the berries by approximately 6.6%. Meanwhile, this melatonin treatment could be beneficial in the reduction of underripe and overripe fruits and in enhancing the synchronicity of the berries. In addition, there were significant differences in the volatile compound composition between the wine produced from the melatonin-treated berries and the wines made from untreated berries. The wine from melatonin-treated pre-veraison grape berries had stronger fruity, spicy, and sweet sensory properties, compared to the wines made from untreated berries. Prolonging the treatment through repeated applications can enhance these effects and under different seasonal conditions, more pronounced effects on the grape quality and wine properties can be observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of fungicide pyrimethanil in grapes, must, fermenting must and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Fernández, Luis; Sanz-Asensio, Jesús; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; López-Alonso, Miguel; Martínez-Soria, María-Teresa

    2013-06-01

    This study determined the evolution of pyrimethanil, a fungicide commonly used to control Botrytis cinerea, throughout the winemaking process in grapes, must, fermenting must and wine. Tempranillo grapevines were treated with pyrimethanil according to both good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Critical Agricultural Practices (CAP). Fermentation was carried out in an experimental winery. Grape analysis was based on an ethyl acetate extraction method. Samples from fermentation were analysed by solid phase extraction. The determination was carried out by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and additionally confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Pyrimethanil residues were at least ten times greater in grapes treated 7 days before harvest than in those treated respecting the safety period (21 days). The amount of pyrimethanil in grapes treated under GAP was below the maximum residue limit (5 mg kg(-1)). The level of pyrimethanil decreased during fermentation in both treatments. In the fermentation of grapes treated according to CAP, the pyrimethanil concentration was reduced by over 50% on the first day and then remained constant until the end of the fermentation process. For grapes treated in compliance with GAP, the amount of pyrimethanil decreased to a level below the limit of detection in the bottled wine. The described methods for grapes, must, fermenting must and wine gave good recoveries, linearity, precision and accuracy. They were also highly sensitive in avoiding matrix effects. Pyrimethanil residues found in treated grapes were higher in skin than in pulp. The amount of pyrimethanil decreased during fermentation by degradation and/or adsorption. For grapes treated according to GAP, residues disappeared in the final bottled wine. The decrease observed in the final bottled wine may be caused by diverse oenological practices and technologies such us malolactic fermentation, racking and settling. © 2012 Society of

  7. Insights into the bacterial community and its temporal succession during the fermentation of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailan ePiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapes harbor complex microbial communities. It is well known that yeasts, typically Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and bacteria, commonly the lactic acid fermenting Oenococcus oeni, work sequentially during primary and secondary wine fermentation. In addition to these main players, several microbes, often with undesirable effects on wine quality, have been found in grapes and during wine fermentation. However, still little is known about the dynamics of the microbial community during the fermentation process. In previous studies culture dependent methods were applied to detect and identify microbial organisms associated with grapes and grape products, which resulted in a picture that neglected the non-culturable fraction of the microbes. To obtain a more complete picture of how microbial communities change during grape fermentation and how different fermentation techniques might affect the microbial community composition, we employed next-generation sequencing (NGS. A better understanding of the microbial dynamics and their effect on the final product is of great importance to help winemakers produce wine styles of consistent and high quality. In this study, we focused on the bacterial community dynamics during wine vinification by amplifying and sequencing the hypervariable V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene – a phylogenetic marker gene that is ubiquitous within prokaryotes. Bacterial communities and their temporal succession was observed for communities associated with organically and conventionally produced wines. In addition, we analyzed the chemical characteristics of the grape musts during the organic and conventional fermentation process. These analyses revealed distinct bacterial population with specific temporal changes as well as different chemical profiles for the organically and conventionally produced wines. In summary these results suggest a possible correlation between the temporal succession of the bacterial population and the

  8. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  9. Associations between the sensory attributes and volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines and the volatile composition of the grapes used for their production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Ciarán G; Cox, Agnieszka; Williams, Emlyn R; Boss, Paul K

    2011-03-23

    The sensory properties of wine are influenced by the chemical composition of the grapes used to produce them. Identification of grape and wine chemical markers associated with the attributes perceived by the consumer of the wine will enable better prediction of the potential of a parcel of grapes to produce wine of a certain flavor. This study explores the relationships between Cabernet Sauvignon grape volatile composition and wine volatile profiles with the sensory properties of wines. Twenty grape samples were obtained from nine vineyard sites across three vintages and wines vinified from these parcels using controlled winemaking methods. The volatile composition of the grapes were analyzed by SBSE-GCMS, the wines were analyzed by SPME-GCMS, and these data sets were compared to that obtained from the sensory analysis of the wines. Statistical treatment of the data to account for vintage and region effects allowed underlying relationships to be seen between wine sensory attributes and wine or grape volatile components. The observed associations between grape or wine volatile compounds and wine sensory attributes has revealed target compounds and pathways whose levels may reflect the biochemical effects on grape composition by differing growth conditions during berry development and ripening. The compounds identified in this study may be useful grape or wine markers for potential wine sensory characteristics.

  10. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12

  11. Solid phase microextraction as a reliable alternative to conventional extraction techniques to evaluate the pattern of hydrolytically released components in Vitis vinifera L. grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2012-06-15

    In present research, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS), was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the commonly used liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique for the establishment of the pattern of hydrolytically released components of 7 Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties, commonly used to produce the world-famous Madeira wine. Since there is no data available on their glycosidic fractions, at a first step, two hydrolyse procedures, acid and enzymatic, were carried out using Boal grapes as matrix. Several parameters susceptible of influencing the hydrolytic process were studied. The best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified components and reproducibility, were obtained using ProZym M with b-glucosidase activity at 35°C for 42h. For the extraction of hydrolytically released components, HS-SPME technique was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the conventional extraction technique, LLE (ethyl acetate). HS-SPME using DVB/CAR/PDMS as coating fiber displayed an extraction capacity two fold higher than LLE (ethyl acetate). The hydrolyzed fraction was mainly characterized by the occurrence of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, followed by acids, esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, and volatile phenols. Concerning to terpenoids its contribution to the total hydrolyzed fraction is highest for Malvasia Cândida (23%) and Malvasia Roxa (13%), and their presence according previous studies, even at low concentration, is important from a sensorial point of view (can impart floral notes to the wines), due to their low odor threshold (μg/L). According to the obtained data by principal component analysis (PCA), the sensorial properties of Madeira wines produced by Malvasia Cândida and Malvasia Roxa could be improved by hydrolysis procedure, since their hydrolyzed fraction is mainly characterized by terpenoids (e.g. linalool, geraniol) which are responsible

  12. Major factors influencing antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity in grapes and wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Lachman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaromír Lachman, Miloslav Šulc, Katerina Faitová, Vladimír PivecDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Phenolic compounds in wines, especially in red wines, possess strong antioxidant activity, have the largest effect in decreasing atherosclerosis by both hypolipemic and antioxidant mechanisms. The long-term uptake of red wine has a positive impact on antioxidant activity (AA of blood plasma in rats in vivo and increases AA by 15%–20% compared to a control group. In the article the effect of total phenolics (TP, total anthocyanins (TA, individual anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolics contained in red grapes, musts, grape seeds and skins and wines on the AA is discussed. Significant impact of varieties, viticultural regions and locations, climate conditions and vintage has been shown. Likewise, the ways and individual stages of the vinification technology process, and storage conditions affect color, TP, TA, and AA and health aspects of produced wines. Resveratrol, another free radical scavenger mainly contained in the skins of grapes, inhibits the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Higher amounts of trans-resveratrol (RES have been found in wines from cool and wet climate regions and lesser amounts are typical for warm and dry regions. Changes in the TP content and AA affected by grape variety, vineyard location and winemaking process in white and blue varieties from different vineyards of the Czech Republic were studied. Significant differences in TP among varieties were found. Analysis of variance showed statistically high differences among red and white wines and growing locations. Wines differed significantly in TP content and AA increased significantly during the winemaking process. Statistically significant differences in AA values were found among growing areas, wines and varieties. Significant positive correlations between TP

  13. Characterization of Titratable Acids, Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activities of Wines Made from Eight Mississippi-Grown Muscadine Varieties during Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscadine grape (vitis rotundifolia) Michx.) and its wine products are becoming more acceptable due to potential health benefits associated with high concentrations of phenolic compounds. In this research, wines made from eight high-yielding muscadine grape varieties grown in Mississippi were compa...

  14. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and localization of the bilitranslocase homologue in white grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Alberto; Peresson, Carlo; Petrussa, Elisa; Braidot, Enrico; Passamonti, Sabina; Macrì, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    A homologue of the mammalian bilirubin transporter bilitranslocase (BTL) (TCDB 2.A.65.1.1), able to perform an apparent secondary active transport of flavonoids, has previously been found in carnation petals and red grape berries. In the present work, a BTL homologue was also shown in white berries from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tocai/Friulano, using anti-sequence antibodies specific for rat liver BTL. This transporter, similarly to what found in red grape, was localized in the first layers of the epidermal tissue and in the vascular bundle cells of the mesocarp. In addition, a strong immunochemical reaction was detected in the placental tissue and particularly in peripheral integuments of the seed. The protein was expressed during the last maturation stages in both skin and pulp tissues and exhibited an apparent molecular mass of c. 31 kDa. Furthermore, the transport activity of such a carrier, measured as bromosulphophthalein (BSP) uptake, was detected in berry pulp microsomes, where it was inhibited by specific anti-BTL antibodies. The BTL homologue activity exhibited higher values, for both K(m) and V(max), than those found in the red cultivar. Moreover, two non-pigmented flavonoids, such as quercetin (a flavonol) and eriodictyol (a flavanone), inhibited the uptake of BSP in an uncompetitive manner. Such results strengthen the hypothesis that this BTL homologue acts as a carrier involved also in the membrane transport of colourless flavonoids and demonstrate the presence of such a carrier in different organs and tissues.

  16. Pesticide residues in grapes from integrated production of the Slovene origin The CORRECTED TITLE is: Pesticide residues in grapes from vineyards included in integrated pest management in Slovenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Baša Česnik , Helena; Gregorčič , Ana; Čuš , Franc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Although the list of pesticides used in integrated pest management (IPM) in grape growing and their annual application rates are limited, we are still confronted with the problem of pesticide residues in grapes. The paper presents the results of pesticide monitoring in 47 samples of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) of the 2006 vintage from the vineyards included in IPM. The grape samples were analysed for the presence of 67 pesticides. Among them, 20 were allowed in IPM in ...

  17. Sour rot-damaged grapes are sources of wine spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; González, Sara; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Querol, Amparo; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2008-11-01

    Yeast species of sound and sour rot-damaged grapes were analysed during fermentation and grape ripening in the vineyard, using general and selective culture media. During 2003 and 2004 vintages, microvinifications were carried out with sound grapes to which different amounts of grapes with sour rot were added. The wine spoilage species Zygosaccharomyces bailii was only recovered during fermentations with sour rot, reaching 5.00 log CFU mL(-1) (2003) and 2.48 log CFU mL(-1) (2004) at the end of fermentation. The study of yeast populations during the sour rot ripening process (2005 vintage) showed that the veraison-damaged grapes always exhibited higher total yeast counts and a much greater diversity of species. From a total of 22 ascomycetous species, 17 were present only in damaged grapes. The most frequent species were Issatchenkia occidentalis and Zygoascus hellenicus. The spoilage species Z. bailii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus were consistently isolated exclusively from damaged grapes. This work demonstrates that one of the most dangerous wine spoilage species, Z. bailii, is strongly associated with sour rot grapes and survives during fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The use of selective media provides a more accurate characterization of grape contamination species.

  18. The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah

    2010-05-01

    The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided.

  19. First evidence of epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michäel; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-09-01

    Flavan-3-ols are units incorporating condensed tannin, which are widely present in grape and wine. They play a considerable role in wine sensory perception such as astringency, bitterness and mouth-feel. In grape and wine, the flavan-3-ols reported to date are (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin gallate and (epi)catechin glycoside. This study now shows the presence of a new flavan-3-ol epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine. A putative unknown flavan-3-ol derived from grape seed was targeted by LC-HRMS/MS. Fractionation and purification by centrifugal partition chromatography and Prep HPLC allowed us to obtain the pure new flavan-3-ol. NMR and HRMS data revealed this compound to be epicatechin-3-O-vanillate. Quantification analysis results showed that epicatechin vanillate present in grape seed and red wine in the μg/g dry seed and the μg/L concentration range, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  1. Roles of grape thaumatin-like protein and chitinase in white wine haze formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Matteo; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Neilson, Karlie A; Chan, Cherrine; Haynes, Paul A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Falconer, Robert J

    2011-01-26

    Grape chitinase was found to be the primary cause of heat-induced haze formation in white wines. Chitinase was the dominant protein in a haze induced by treating Sauvignon blanc wine at 30 °C for 22 h. In artificial wines and real wines, chitinase concentration was directly correlated to the turbidity of heat-induced haze formation (50 °C for 3 h). Sulfate was confirmed to have a role in haze formation, likely by converting soluble aggregates into larger visible haze particles. Thaumatin-like protein was detected in the insoluble fraction by SDS-PAGE analysis but had no measurable impact on turbidity. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the complex mixture of molecules in wine plays a role in thermal instability of wine proteins and contributes additional complexity to the wine haze phenomenon.

  2. Effect of salicylic acid and aloe vera gel on postharvest quality of table grapes ( Vitis Vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Peyro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of salicylic acid dipping and Aloe vera gel coating on shelf life and post harvest quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera of the cultivar Shahroudi, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete blocks design with three factors and three replicates in agricultural faculty of Islamic Azad University in 2014. The treatments were dipping in Salicylic acid (three levels of 0, 1 and 2 mmmol-1 for 15 minutes and coating with Aloe vera gel (four levels of 0, 10%, 15% and 20% w/v and measurement of traits in 1st day, 30th day and 60th day after treatment of berries. The results showed that the interaction effect of salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel application was significant on all of traits except for pH value in a way that the best and the minimum weight loss (0.09g was obtained by application of 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 20% Aloe vera gel in 1st day after treatment. The greatest amount of total soluble solids (428.43 g.100g-1 fruit juice was found in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 60th day. The highest Catalase enzyme activity (0.0013 Ua.mg-1Pro was attained in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 30th day. These results demonstrated that treatment of grape berries by salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel had positive effect on shelf life of table grapes and their postharvest quality

  3. Identification of grape and wine allergens as an endochitinase 4, a lipid-transfer protein, and a thaumatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Farioli, Laura; Pravettoni, Valerio; Ortolani, Claudio; Fortunato, Donatella; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Perono Garoffo, Lorenza; Calamari, Ambra Marianna; Brenna, Oreste; Conti, Amedeo

    2003-02-01

    Few allergic reactions to grape are reported in the literature. In some cases an association with peach and cherry allergy was observed. No IgE-mediated reactions to wine have been described, and no grape major allergens have yet been identified. We describe several severe reactions to grape or wine. We characterized the grape major allergens and tried to identify the allergen in wine. We collected documented histories of allergic reactions to grape and wine. Grape allergens were identified by means of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting and purified by means of HPLC. Using amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry, we identified the family of proteins to which the allergens belong. Cross-reactivity with peach and cherry was evaluated by means of cross-wise inhibition experiments. Eleven patients with reactions to grape and 3 with anaphylactic reactions to wine were recruited. The major allergens were an endochitinase 4A and a lipid-transfer protein (LTP) that was homologous to and cross-reactive with peach LTP. A 24-kd protein homologous to the cherry thaumatin-like allergen was a minor allergen. Endochitinase 4A is very likely the allergen in vino novello and in vino Fragolino. Grape and wine might cause severe allergic reactions in sensitive patients. The major allergens of grape are endochitinase 4A, which is also the allergen of wine, and an LTP cross-reacting with the peach major allergen.

  4. Fortification and Elevated Alcohol Concentration Affect the Concentration of Rotundone and Volatiles in Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangzhen Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotundone is a key aromatic compound for cool-climate Shiraz. This compound is produced in the skin of grape berries and extracted into wine during fermentation. This project investigated the influence of fermentation techniques on the concentration of rotundone in the resultant wine. Wine was fortified with ethanol and sucrose on the 1st and 5th days of fermentation and rotundone, volatile aroma compounds and colour were assessed in the resultant wine. The relationship between the concentration of rotundone and alcoholic strength during fermentation process was also investigated. Wine alcoholic strength and skin–wine contact time were two factors affecting rotundone extraction rate from grapes into wine. Fortification significantly enhanced rotundone extraction rate, and improved wine colour and phenolics and affects the concentration of ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, methyl nonanoate, isopentanol and phenylethyl alcohol in the resultant wine. Understanding how ethanol produced during fermentation can change the extraction of skin-bound aroma compounds and the colour and flavour of wine allows greater control of fermentation parameters to produce quality wine.

  5. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile of some red wines produced from native Turkish grape varieties (Vitis vinifera Öküzgözü, V. vinifera Boğazkere and V. vinifera Shiraz) and some red fruit wines produced from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) and black mulberry ...

  6. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Am...

  7. Peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO in grape (Vitis vinifera L. Peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO em uva (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Pieri Troiani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzimatic activity of peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO extracted from three grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L., cultivated in Marialva city, state of Paraná, was evaluated in this study. The enzymatic extracts were prepared starting from the Rubi, Borbon and Benitaka grape cultivars pulp and peel. The activity of the peroxidase was 53.00 units/100 g in the extract from the Rubi cultivar peel, and 327.00 units/100 g from the Benitaka cultivar, these values being superior to those observed in the same cultivars pulp extracts, which were 7.67 units/100 g and 44.00 units/100 g respectively. However, the result was opposite in the Borbon cultivar, with values of 141.11 units/100 g in the pulp and 11.50 units/100 g in the peel being found. The results of the polyphenoloxidase in the Borbon cultivar activity were 100.18 units/100 g in the pulp and 102.60 units/100 g in the peel, and in the Rubi and Benitaka cultivars were 60.40 units/100 g, 48.62 units/100 g in the pulp and 17.40 units/100 g, and 26.20 units/100 g in the peel, respectively. Protein determination was carried out in each extract, and the results found in the pulp and peel, respectively, were 0.56 and 0.64 mg/100 g for cultivar Benitaka, 1.38 and 6.45 mg/100 g for cultivar Rubi, and 21.38 and 5.68 mg/100 g for Borbon. The extracts were submitted to thermal treatments (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 75°C for a 1 to 10 minutes period to observe the behavior of the peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase enzymatic activity, being verified a continuous decrease of the peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities as a result of the thermal treatment. The extracts of the Rubi and Benitaka cultivars were more heat stable than the extract from the Borbon cultivar for both enzymes. However, the temperatures used were not enough for a total inactivation of the enzymes.Neste trabalho, estudou-se a atividade enzimática da peroxidase (POD e da polifenoloxidase (PPO extraídas de três cultivares de

  8. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L. berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs. Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  9. Climate Change Decouples Drought from Early Wine Grape Harvests in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the world, wine grape phenology has advanced in recent decades, in step with climate-change-induced trends in temperature - the main driver of fruit maturation - and drought. Fully understanding how climate change contributes to changes in harvest dates, however, requires analysing wine grape phenology and its relationship to climate over a longer-term context, including data predating anthropogenic interference in the climate system. Here, we investigate the climatic controls of wine grape harvest dates from 1600-2007 in France and Switzerland using historical harvest and climate data. Early harvests occur with warmer temperatures (minus 6 days per degree Centigrade) and are delayed by wet conditions (plus 0.07 days per millimeter; plus 1.68 days per PDSI (Palmer drought severity index)) during spring and summer. In recent decades (1981-2007), however, the relationship between harvest timing and drought has broken down. Historically, high summer temperatures in Western Europe, which would hasten fruit maturation, required drought conditions to generate extreme heat. The relationship between drought and temperature in this region, however, has weakened in recent decades and enhanced warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gases can generate the high temperatures needed for early harvests without drought. Our results suggest that climate change has fundamentally altered the climatic drivers of early wine grape harvests in France, with possible ramifications for viticulture management and wine quality.

  10. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo; Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P.; Carvalho, Raimundo S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  11. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  13. Structure of haze forming proteins in white wines: Vitis vinifera thaumatin-like proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Marangon

    Full Text Available Grape thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs play roles in plant-pathogen interactions and can cause protein haze in white wine unless removed prior to bottling. Different isoforms of TLPs have different hazing potential and aggregation behavior. Here we present the elucidation of the molecular structures of three grape TLPs that display different hazing potential. The three TLPs have very similar structures despite belonging to two different classes (F2/4JRU is a thaumatin-like protein while I/4L5H and H2/4MBT are VVTL1, and having different unfolding temperatures (56 vs. 62°C, with protein F2/4JRU being heat unstable and forming haze, while I/4L5H does not. These differences in properties are attributable to the conformation of a single loop and the amino acid composition of its flanking regions.

  14. Structure of Haze Forming Proteins in White Wines: Vitis vinifera Thaumatin-Like Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Matteo; Van Sluyter, Steven C.; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Menz, Robert I.

    2014-01-01

    Grape thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) play roles in plant-pathogen interactions and can cause protein haze in white wine unless removed prior to bottling. Different isoforms of TLPs have different hazing potential and aggregation behavior. Here we present the elucidation of the molecular structures of three grape TLPs that display different hazing potential. The three TLPs have very similar structures despite belonging to two different classes (F2/4JRU is a thaumatin-like protein while I/4L5H and H2/4MBT are VVTL1), and having different unfolding temperatures (56 vs. 62°C), with protein F2/4JRU being heat unstable and forming haze, while I/4L5H does not. These differences in properties are attributable to the conformation of a single loop and the amino acid composition of its flanking regions. PMID:25463627

  15. Antimutagenic Acivity of Raw Materials and By- Products from Production of Grape Wines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Kyseláková, M.; Balík, J.; Veverka, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, special (2008), s. 55-59 ISSN 1212-1800. [Quality of Moravian and Czech Wines and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/06/1757 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : wine * grape berries * polyphenolic compounds * antimutagenicity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  16. Wild Grape-Associated Yeasts as Promising Biocontrol Agents against Vitis vinifera Fungal Pathogens

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    Gustavo Cordero-Bueso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species. In particular, yeast isolation was carried out from grape berries of Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris populations, of the Eurasian area, and V. vinifera ssp vinifera cultivars from three different farming systems (organic, biodynamic, and conventional. Strains able to inhibit or slow the growth of pathogens were selected by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The most effective antagonist yeast strains were subsequently assayed for their capability to colonize the grape berries. Finally, possible modes of action, such as nutrients and space competition, iron depletion, cell wall degrading enzymes, diffusible and volatile antimicrobial compounds, and biofilm formation, were investigated as well. Two hundred and thirty-one yeast strains belonging to 26 different species were isolated; 20 of them, ascribed to eight species, showed antagonistic action against all molds. Yeasts isolated from V. vinifera ssp sylvestris were more effective (up to 50% against B. cinerea rather than those isolated from V. vinifera ssp vinifera. Six strains, all isolated from wild vines, belonging to four species (Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora clermontiae, and Pichia kluyveri revealed one or more phenotypical characteristics associated to the analyzed modes of antagonistic action.

  17. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping for fruit skin anthocyanidin in grape (vitis vinifera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Xue, R.; Lin, H.; Su, K.; Zhao, Y.; Zhendong, L.; Shi, G.; Niu, Z.; Li, K.; Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an F1 population was created by the cross 87-1*9-22. The female parent 87-1 was a black purple cultivar and the male parent was an excellent breeding line with green pericarp. the skin color separation of population and distribution, and determined the content of each individual fruit peel pigment. On the basis of the genetic map of Vitis vinifera L. We carried out the grape skin pigment content quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. The results show that the fruit color performance for continuous variation and the inheritance of fruit skin anthocyanidin content was a quantitative inheritance. The color of offspring ranges from green and black-blue and existing distribution. Using SSR and SRAP molecular markers to construct 188 female parent maps,175 male parent maps and 251 consensus maps, and the total map distance is 1047.5 cM,1100.2 cM and 1264.2 cM respectively. The result of QTL showed that there were more QTLs exist in the linkage group of 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 13, 14, 16 and 19 and in the linkage group of 3, 4, 13 and 14, we detected QTLs in the similar position with the result of the study in the year of 2011 and 2012, and based on this we will conduct the fine QTL location in the future, this result will lay a good foundation for the grape in the department of molecular assistant breeding in the future. (author)

  18. Grape marc, wine lees and deposit of the must: How to manage oenological by-products?

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    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking produces solid (grape marc and liquid (wine lees and deposit of the must wastes named “oenological by-products”, which, according to European regulations, must be eliminated following the environmental regulatory requirement [1]. In France, these European regulations forced wine growers, until the 2013/2014 campaign, to deliver all by-products to wine distilleries. This French obligation is known as the “prestation vinique” [2, 3]. Following the Common Market Organisation wine reform, a consultation was initiated by FranceAgriMer on the potential value of oenological by-products. The French Institute of Vine and Wine (IFV coordinated a national experimentation from 2010 to 2013 about recovery of by-products, with the support of members of the Technical Group: Association des Viticulteurs d'Alsace (AVA, Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC, Institut Technique des Corps Gras (ITERG, et Union Nationale des Groupements de Distillateurs d'Alcool (UNGDA. Distillation of grape marc and wine lees spreading and composting, and anaerobic digestion of grape marc were studied in order to answer the following questions: What technical feasibility? What environmental impact? What cost for winegrowers? What conformity with the regulations, including environmental regulatory obligations? [4].

  19. Fungal diversity in grape must and wine fermentation assessed by massive sequencing, quantitative PCR and DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi in grape must and during wine fermentation was investigated in this study by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Carignan and Grenache grapes were harvested from three vineyards in the Priorat region (Spain in 2012, and nine samples were selected from the grape must after crushing and during wine fermentation. From culture-dependent techniques, 362 isolates were randomly selected and identified by 5.8S-ITS-RFLP and 26S-D1/D2 sequencing. Meanwhile, genomic DNA was extracted directly from the nine samples and analyzed by qPCR, DGGE and massive sequencing. The results indicated that grape must after crushing harbored a high species richness of fungi with Aspergillus tubingensis, Aureobasidium pullulans or Starmerella bacillaris as the dominant species. As fermentation proceeded, the species richness decreased, and yeasts such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae successively occupied the must samples. The terroir characteristics of the fungus population are more related to the location of the vineyard than to grape variety. Sulfur dioxide treatment caused a low effect on yeast diversity by similarity analysis. Because of the existence of large population of fungi on grape berries, massive sequencing was more appropriate to understand the fungal community in grape must after crushing than the other techniques used in this study. Suitable target sequences and databases were necessary for accurate evaluation of the community and the identification of species by the 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons.

  20. Deployment of response surface methodology to optimise recovery of grape (Vitis vinifera) stem polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvela, Evangelia; Makris, Dimitris P; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2009-10-15

    A 2(3)-full factorial design and response surface methodology were deployed to assess some basic factors (time, % ethanol and pH) affecting profoundly the extractability of polyphenolic phytochemicals from grape (Vitis vinifera) stems. In an effort to obtain a thorough insight into the applicability of the models established, stem extracts from three different varieties were tested, by determining several indices of the polyphenolic composition, such as total polyphenol (TP), total flavanol (TFl), total flavone (TFn) and proanthocyanidin (PC) concentration. It was shown that the models generated can adequately predict the recovery levels for each polyphenol group, but the optimal conditions predicted for TP, TFl, TFn and PC recovery varied significantly. Notable differences were also seen among the different varieties. Correlation of the polyphenol indices with the antiradical activity and reducing power of the extracts indicated that the PC fraction might exert strong effects, while the influence of other groups was not apparent. Examination of the optimally obtained extracts using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the most prominent compounds were caftaric acid, flavanols and derivatives thereof, as well as dehydroflavonols and flavonols.

  1. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  2. Quantification of chitinase and thaumatin-like proteins in grape juices and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourse, D; Conreux, A; Villaume, S; Lameiras, P; Nuzillard, J-M; Jeandet, P

    2011-09-01

    Chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins are important grape proteins as they have a great influence on wine quality. The quantification of these proteins in grape juices and wines, along with their purification, is therefore crucial to study their intrinsic characteristics and the exact role they play in wines. The main isoforms of these two proteins from Chardonnay grape juice were thus purified by liquid chromatography. Two fast protein liquid chromatography (FLPC) steps allowed the fractionation and purification of the juice proteins, using cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction media. A further high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) step was used to achieve higher purity levels. Fraction assessment was achieved by mass spectrometry. Fraction purity was determined by HPLC to detect the presence of protein contaminants, and by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to detect the presence of organic contaminants. Once pure fractions of lyophilized chitinase and thaumatin-like protein were obtained, ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) calibration curves were constructed. The quantification of these proteins in different grape juice and wine samples was thus achieved for the first time with both techniques through comparison with the purified protein calibration curve. UHPLC and ELISA showed very consistent results (less than 16% deviation for both proteins) and either could be considered to provide an accurate and reliable quantification of proteins in the oenology field.

  3. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  4. Relevance of the Lin's and Host hydropedological models to predict grape yield and wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. C. Costantini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture could be greatly enhanced by the diffusion of straightforward and easy to be applied hydropedological models, able to predict the spatial variability of available soil water. The Lin's and Host hydropedological models were applied to standard soil series descriptions and hillslope position, to predict the distribution of hydrological functional units in two vineyard and their relevance for grape yield and wine quality. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (Central Italy on Sangiovese. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soil spatial variability was deeply affected by earth movement carried out before vine plantation. Six plots were selected in the different hydrological functional units of the two vineyards, that is, at summit, backslope and footslope morphological positions, to monitor soil hydrology, grape production and wine quality. Plot selection was based upon a cluster analysis of local slope, topographic wetness index (TWI, and cumulative moisture up to the root limiting layer, appreciated by means of a detailed combined geophysical survey. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, as well as yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing.

    The results demonstrated that the combined application of the two hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As correctly foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water (TSW during

  5. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (red blood cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  7. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  8. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  9. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  10. Influence of bunch morphology on quality of wines produced from clones of grape variety Prokupac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends mainly on the characteristics of the grape it is made of, and one of the attributes affecting wine composition is cluster and berry morphology. The aim of this study was to represent variability of morphological characteristics between clones of the autochthonous grape variety Prokupac and performed chemical evaluation of wines obtained from them. Total phenolic content was generally low and it ranged from 33.0 to 114.5 mg GAE/100 mL. Six main anthocyanin compounds with malvidin as the main anthocyanidin were detected. Malvidin-3-O-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin ranging from 59.8 to 101.7 μg/mL. Clones 43/5 and 43/4 are marked as those from which wines with the highest quality are obtained. According to our results clonal selection makes a significant difference in Prokupac wine quality. On the other hand, there is a poor response of wine quality parameters to variation in morphological attributes of clusters and berries (bunch weight, proportion of stem, berry and seed weight, skin, pulp and seed weight per berry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013, br. 31063 i br. 43007

  11. Efficacy of ultraviolet radiation as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Ilse N; du Toit, Maret; Krügel, Maricel

    2011-05-01

    Since sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) is associated with health risks, the wine industry endeavours to reduce SO(2) levels in wines with new innovative techniques. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-C (254 nm) as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines. A pilot-scale UV-C technology (SurePure, South Africa) consisting of an UV-C germicidal lamp (100 W output; 30 W UV-C output) was used to apply UV-C dosages ranging from 0 to 3672 J l(-1), at a constant flow rate of 4000 l h(-1) (Re > 7500). Yeasts, lactic and acetic acid bacteria were singly and co-inoculated into 20 l batches of Chenin blanc juice, Shiraz juice, Chardonnay wine and Pinotage wine, respectively. A dosage of 3672 J l(-1), resulted in an average log(10) microbial reduction of 4.97 and 4.89 in Chardonnay and Pinotage, respectively. In Chenin blanc and Shiraz juice, an average log(10) reduction of 4.48 and 4.25 was obtained, respectively. UV-C efficacy may be influenced by liquid properties such as colour and turbidity. These results had clearly indicated significant (p UV-C radiation may stabilize grape juice and wine microbiologically in conjunction with reduced SO(2) levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of two FAD2 genes from American grape (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Sun Hee; Go, Young-Sam; Jung, Sung Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi-Chung; Lee, Sukchan; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-11-10

    The synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the most abundant fatty acids in plants, begins with a reaction catalyzed by fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2; EC 1.3.1.35), also called microsomal oleate Δ12-desaturase. Since the FAD2 gene was first identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, FAD2 research has gained wide interest as the essential enzyme for synthesizing PUFA. Grapes are one of the most frequently cultivated fruits in the world, with most commercial growers cultivating Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca. Grapeseed oil contains a high proportion, 60-70% of linoleic acid (18:2). We cloned two putative FAD2 genes from V. labrusca cv. Campbell Early based on V. vinifera genome sequences. Deduced amino acid sequences of two putative genes showed that VlFAD2s show high similarity to Arabidopsis FAD2 and commonly contain six transmembrane domain, three histidine boxes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif representing the characteristics of fatty acid desaturase. Phylogenetic analyses of various plant FAD2s showed that VlFAD2-1 and VlFAD2-2 are separately grouped with constitutive and seed-type FAD2s, respectively. Southern blot showed that one or two bands are found in each lane. Because Campbell Early is a hybrid cultivar, FAD2-1 and FAD2-2 genes may exist as one copy in V. labrusca. Expression analysis in different tissues indicated that VlFAD2-1 is a constitutive gene but VlFAD2-2 is a seed-type gene. Complementation experiments of fad2-1 mutant Arabidopsis with VlFAD2-1 or VlFAD2-2 demonstrated that VlFAD2-1 and VlFAD2-2 can restore low PUFA proportion of fad2 to normal PUFA proportion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. BRAIN NEURON REGENERATION IN POST-STROKE REHABILITATION TREATMENT USING GRAPE PEEL AND SEED EXTRACT (Vitis vinifera) IN INDUCING ERK1 / 2 PATHWAY

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella Yolanda Lie; Meliantha Tandiono; Lucy Pricillia; Astrid Nandikasari Lukito; Cakra Parindra Gasmara

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims. Ischemic stroke can cause hypoxia in brain tissue and damage the neuron. The defense ability and plasticity is activated by ERK1/2 pathway. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK1/2 pathway mechanism. This research aiming to prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in anatomical and functional view. Method. This research use true experimental design with sample in this research is 20...

  14. Chemometric analysis of minerals and trace elements in Sicilian wines from two different grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potortί, Angela Giorgia; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Saitta, Marcello; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Tropea, Alessia; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2017-05-01

    Chemometric analysis are used for food authenticity evaluation, correlating botanical and geographical origins with food chemical composition. This research was carried out in order to prove that it is possible linked red wines to Nero d'Avola and Syrah cultivars of Vitis vinifera according to their mineral content, while the values of the physical and chemical parameters do not affect relevantly this discrimination. The levels of mineral elements were determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Samples from cv Nero d'Avola had the highest content of Zn, Cr, Ni, As and Cd, whereas the highest mineral concentration in cv Syrah samples was represented by K, Mg, Cu, and Sb. The research highlights that it is possible linked red wines to Nero d'Avola and Syrah cultivars of V. vinifera according to their mineral contents, adding knowledge to the determination studies of the wine botanical origin.

  15. Augmentation of chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine by incorporation of grape seeds during vinification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenuGopal, K S; Cherita, Chris; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2018-03-01

    The role of grape seed tannins on improving organoleptic properties and its involvement in color stabilization in red wine are well established. The addition of grape seeds as the source of condensed tannins in fruit wine may provide a solution for its color instability and improvement of sensory attributes. Syzgium cumini is traditionally known for its therapeutic properties. In the current study, the influence of yeasts and grape seed addition during fermentation on the chromatic, phenolic and sensory attributes of the wine was accessed. Grape seed addition improved the color characteristics of wine and increased overall phenolic composition. Analysis by HPLC revealed 6 major anthocyanins, among which 3, 5-diglucoside form of delphidin and petunidin was found to be the major components. Cluster and PLSR analysis explained the impact of seed addition on the yeasts, as well as on the perception of panelists, with bitterness and astringency as the dominating attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  17. Characterization and multivariate classification of grapes and wines of two Cabernet Sauvignon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess and characterize two clones, 169 and 685, of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and to evaluate the wine produced from these grapes. The experiment was carried out in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil, during the 2009 harvest season. During grape ripening, the evolution of physical-chemical properties, phenolic compounds, organic acids, and anthocyanins was evaluated. During grape harvest, yield components were determined for each clone. Individual and total phenolics, individual and total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for wine. The clones were also assessed regarding the duration of their phenological cycle. During ripening, the evolution of phenolic compounds and of physical-chemical parameters was similar for both clones; however, during harvest, significant differences were observed regarding yield, number of bunches per plant and berries per bunch, leaf area, and organic acid, polyphenol, and anthocyanin content. The wines produced from these clones showed significant differences regarding chemical composition. The clones showed similar phenological cycle and responses to bioclimatic parameters. Principal component analysis shows that clone 685 is strongly correlated with color characteristics, mainly monomeric anthocyanins, while clone 169 is correlated with individual phenolic compounds.

  18. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  19. PENICILLIUM STRAINS ISOLATED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN THE CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

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    Soňa Felšöciová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 10 wine producing grapes were collected from the Central Slovak region in 2011 and 2012, which involved 7 vineyards. Mycological analysis was carried out for the detection of fungi using standard media with focus on genera Penicillium. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method of direct placing of berry samples on agar plates and the endogenous mycobiota by the same method but the berry samples were first superficially sterilized. The resulting Penicillia were identified morphologically. The potentially toxigenic isolates were analysed for mycotoxin production by TLC method. In general representatives of Penicillium genus were isolated with higher frequency from the surface of the berries than from their interior. In regard to species Penicillium chrysogenum seems to be the most wide-spread in wine grape berries from the Central Slovak wine growing area because was detected more frequently than other species. In total, 546 fungal isolates belonging to 12 Penicillium species. Overall, two species were dominant: P. chrysogenum and P. expansum. Four potentially toxigenic species isolated from endogenous mycobiota were tested for their toxigenic ability. Out of 10 strains, all of them produced at least one mycotoxin. Of all 16 potentially toxigenic strains from exogenous mycobiota, 88% produced at least one mycotoxin. Therefore study concluded, that wine producing grapes seems to be risk products.

  20. Exogenous Applications of Brassinosteroids Improve Color of Red Table Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. “Redglobe” Berries

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    Alexis E. Vergara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Color and other quality parameters of “Redglobe” grape (Vitis vinifera L. berries were evaluated after treatment with brassinosteroid (BR analogs. Three BRs analogs (24-epibrassinolide, Triol, or Lactone were applied at three concentrations (0.0, 0.4, or 0.8 mg⋅L-1, at the onset of veraison. A commercial formulation (B-2000® was also applied, at a recommended rate of 0.06 mg⋅L-1. The tested BR analogs were effective improving berry color (evaluated as color index for red grapes, CIRG, increasing the levels of soluble solids and anthocyanins, and changing the types of anthocyanins present without altering other quality and yield parameters. The effects of BR analogs on color enhancement could be explained by an increase in soluble solids content and/or anthocyanin content. Treatment with 24-epibrassinolide (at 0.4 mg⋅L-1 or the commercial formulation tended to favor the production of dihydroxylated anthocyanins, which are responsible for the red and pink colors of grape berries. Results indicate that the use of BRs constitutes a potential tool in the production of table grapes. This is the first report of this enhancement effect in a productive context.

  1. Pectic-β(1,4)-galactan, extensin and arabinogalactan–protein epitopes differentiate ripening stages in wine and table grape cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John P.; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Willats, William G. T.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cell wall changes in ripening grapes (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to involve re-modelling of pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose networks. Newer experimental techniques, such as molecular probes specific for cell wall epitopes, have yet to be extensively used in grape studies. Limited general information is available on the cell wall properties that contribute to texture differences between wine and table grapes. This study evaluates whether profiling tools can detect cell wall changes in ripening grapes from commercial vineyards. Methods Standard sugar analysis and infra-red spectroscopy were used to examine the ripening stages (green, véraison and ripe) in grapes collected from Cabernet Sauvignon and Crimson Seedless vineyards. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP) analysis was performed on cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) and NaOH extracts of alcohol-insoluble residue sourced from each stage using sets of cell wall probes (mAbs and CBMs), and the datasets were analysed using multivariate software. Key Results The datasets obtained confirmed previous studies on cell wall changes known to occur during grape ripening. Probes for homogalacturonan (e.g. LM19) were enriched in the CDTA fractions of Crimson Seedless relative to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Probes for pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan (mAb LM5), extensin (mAb LM1) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs, mAb LM2) were strongly correlated with ripening. From green stage to véraison, a progressive reduction in pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan epitopes, present in both pectin-rich (CDTA) and hemicellulose-rich (NaOH) polymers, was observed. Ripening changes in AGP and extensin epitope abundance also were found during and after véraison. Conclusions Combinations of cell wall probes are able to define distinct ripening phases in grapes. Pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan epitopes decreased in abundance from green stage to véraison berries. From véraison there was an increase in abundance of

  2. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  3. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  4. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  5. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two

  6. Phenolic characterisation of red wines from different grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanzone, Martín; Zamora, Fernando; Jofré, Viviana; Assof, Mariela; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of wine and its association with the grape variety/cultivar is of paramount importance in oenology and a necessary tool for marketing. Phenolic compounds are very important quality parameters of wines because of their impact on colour, taste and health properties. The aim of the present work was to study and describe the non-flavonoid and flavonoid composition of wines from the principal red grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza (Argentina). Sixty phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids/derivatives, stilbenes, anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and dihydroflavonols, were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS). Marked quantitative differences could be seen in the phenolic profile among varieties, especially in stilbenes, acylated anthocyanins and other flavonoids. The polyphenolic content of Malbec wines was higher compared with the other red varieties. Dihydroflavonols represent a significant finding from the chemotaxonomic point of view, especially for Malbec variety. This is the first report on the individual phenolic composition of red wines from Mendoza (Argentina) and suggests that anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids exert a great influence on cultivar-based differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Natural radionuclides in grapes and wine of the Valley of Sao Francisco-PE, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Patricia B.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Honorato, Eliane V.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Farias, Emerson E. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mails: pbrandao@cnen.gov.br; fredzini@cnen.gov.br; valentim@cnen.gov.br; chazin@cnen.gov.br; emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br; Belo, Michele T.; Lira, Marcia [Instituto de Tecnologia de Pernambuco ITEP-NE, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mails: marcia@itep.br; michele@itep.br

    2007-07-01

    Wine is a widely consumed beverage around the world. Wine quality is influenced by many factors related to the specific production area: grape varieties, soil and climate, and vinicultural practices. Fruit contamination by radionuclides can result from various processes, mainly: direct deposition to fruit surfaces, absorption by the fruit skin and transport to the flesh, and deposition to soil, root uptake and transfer to fruit. For assessment studies the processes affecting the transfer of radioactivity from soil to fruits are often grouped into an aggregated parameter: the soil-to-fruit transfer factor (TF). It relates the radionuclide concentration in fruit to that in the soil. In this work, radionuclides were determined in musts and wines from three wine grape varieties: Castelao (red), Barbera (red) and Schomburguer (white), as well as in several materials in which their presence has direct or indirect influence on the final amount of these elements in wines, like soils where the vines were cultivated. Radionuclides were determined by using gamma-spectrometry with a high resolution detector (HPGe). (author)

  8. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability studies of cosmetic emulsions prepared from natural products such as wine, grape seed oil and mastic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made in this study to use diluted wine as the aqueous phase and grapeseed oil as the oil phase for the preparation of oil-in-water cosmetic emulsions. Two monovarietal wines of Hellenic origin were used in this study; a red one from Sangiovese grapes and a white one from Muscat of

  10. Red wine produced from the Isabella and Ives cultivar (Vitis Labrusca: profile of volatiles and aroma descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciza Maria de Oliveira ARCANJO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the potential consumption and economic the importance that Isabella and Ives wines represent in the Brazilian consumer market as well as the scarcity of scientific data examining their quality, the objective of this study was to investigate the sensory quality and the volatiles profile of these wines. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and a total of 54 compounds were detected in red wine samples including esters (23, terpenes (12, alcohols (10, aldehydes and ketones (5 and amines (1 as well as 3 compounds belonging to other classes. Isabella and Ives red wines were sensorially characterized by 14 descriptors, through quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. The PCAs fruity descriptors were the primary contributors to the aroma profile of the analyzed wines due to the presence of ethyl acetate and esters, especially in the wine coded as QM, which exhibited the highest variety of compounds. The differences observed in the principal components analysis, might have been influenced by the grape composition of each wine. Although the wines were from the same region, each came from a different winery and was subject to unique production processes.

  11. Combining color chart, colorimetric measurement and chemical compounds for postharvest quality of white wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollazzo, Marco; Baccelloni, Simone; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Bellincontro, Andrea

    2018-01-03

    This paper provides data for the potential use of a color chart to establish the best quality of white wine grapes destined for postharvest processing. Grechetto, Vermentino and Muscat of Alexandria white wine grape varieties were tested by sampling berries at different dates during their quality attribute evolution. A color chart and reflectance spectrocolorimeter were used in combination with analyses of total carotenoids and chlorophylls in all three varieties and of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Grechetto alone. Total carotenoids decreased from 0.85 to 0.76 µg g -1 in Grechetto berries and from 0.70 to 0.46 µg g -1 in Vermentino berries while increased from 0.70 to 0.80 µg g -1 in Muscat berries during ripening. Total chlorophylls decreased in all varieties, and a strict correlation was found between hue angle (measured by color chart or spectrocolorimeter) and chlorophyll disappearance, with R 2 ranging from 0.81 to 0.95 depending on the variety. VOCs were only measured in Grechetto grapes, and a significant increase in glycosylation was found with ripening. The concentration of different classes of VOCs exhibited a clear decrease during ripening, except for terpenoids and esters which showed a peak at the beginning. The benzenoid class reached the highest concentration, which was almost 50% of the total. Cluster analysis using Ward's method enabled the best grape quality to be identified. This experimental work highlights that a color chart is cheap and easy to use to define the right quality stage for white wine grapes. The color chart enabled the enochemical features to be matched with the VOC results for the aromatic maturity of Grechetto. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... total sugar content, ash, and CIRG index values of grape samples in comparison to that of vines irrigated with T3, T4 and T5 levels. Grape quality response to irrigation levels was altered by rootstocks and quality of grapes harvested from vines grafted on SO4 was higher compared to those from 1103P.

  13. A phylogenetic analysis of the grape genus (Vitis L.) reveals broad reticulation and concurrent diversification during neogene and quaternary climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yizhen; Schwaninger, Heidi R; Baldo, Angela M; Labate, Joanne A; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Simon, Charles J

    2013-07-05

    Grapes are one of the most economically important fruit crops. There are about 60 species in the genus Vitis. The phylogenetic relationships among these species are of keen interest for the conservation and use of this germplasm. We selected 309 accessions from 48 Vitis species,varieties, and outgroups, examined ~11 kb (~3.4 Mb total) of aligned nuclear DNA sequences from 27 unlinked genes in a phylogenetic context, and estimated divergence times based on fossil calibrations. Vitis formed a strongly supported clade. There was substantial support for species and less for the higher-level groupings (series). As estimated from extant taxa, the crown age of Vitis was 28 Ma and the divergence of subgenera (Vitis and Muscadinia) occurred at ~18 Ma. Higher clades in subgenus Vitis diverged 16 - 5 Ma with overlapping confidence intervals, and ongoing divergence formed extant species at 12 - 1.3 Ma. Several species had species-specific SNPs. NeighborNet analysis showed extensive reticulation at the core of subgenus Vitis representing the deeper nodes, with extensive reticulation radiating outward. Fitch Parsimony identified North America as the origin of the most recent common ancestor of extant Vitis species. Phylogenetic patterns suggested origination of the genus in North America, fragmentation of an ancestral range during the Miocene, formation of extant species in the late Miocene-Pleistocene, and differentiation of species in the context of Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic and climatic change. Nuclear SNPs effectively resolved relationships at and below the species level in grapes and rectified several misclassifications of accessions in the repositories. Our results challenge current higher-level classifications, reveal the abundance of genetic diversity in the genus that is potentially available for crop improvement, and provide a valuable resource for species delineation, germplasm conservation and use.

  14. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  15. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  16. CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS OF THE LABOUR ORGANIZATION IN WINE AND GRAPE INDUSTRY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana IAŢIŞIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The labour organization development in Wine and Grape Industry in the Republic of Moldova is analyzed in the paper. The paper highlights the main problems of the manpower in the Wine and Grape Industry in the country using the statistical data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics and the specific system of indiactors and methodology. The main directions and prospects of labour organization development in this domain are outlined. Investment in human capital will contribute to strengthen the skills, knowledge in general to facilitate insertion in the viticulture production and wine industry.

  17. Sorption of grape proanthocyanidins and wine polyphenols by yeasts, inactivated yeasts, and yeast cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Sieczkowski, N; Roi, S; Vernhet, A

    2015-01-21

    Inactivated yeast fractions (IYFs) can be used in enology to improve the stability and mouthfeel of red wines. However, information concerning the mechanisms involved and the impact of the IYF characteristics is scarce. Adsorption isotherms were used to investigate interactions between grape proanthocyanidin fractions (PAs) or wine polyphenols (WP) and a commercial yeast strain (Y), the inactivated yeast (IY), the yeast submitted to autolyzis and inactivation (A-IY), and the cell walls obtained by mechanical disruption (CW). High affinity isotherms and high adsorption capacities were observed for grape PAs and whole cells (Y, IY, and A-IY). Affinity and adsorbed amount were lower with wine PAs, due to chemical changes occurring during winemaking. By contrast to whole cells, grape PAs and WP adsorption on CW remained very low. This raises the issue of the part played by cell walls in the interactions between yeast and proanthocyanidins and suggests the passage of the latter through the wall pores and their interaction with the plasma membrane.

  18. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  19. Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white and red wine grape processing leftovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt, Kajetan; Klančnik, Anja; Mozetič Vodopivec, Branka; Sternad Lemut, Melita; Jug Novšak, Katja; Raspor, Peter; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-11-01

    During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities. FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white 'Zelen' and 'Sauvignon Blanc' grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces. FDSS extracts from winery by-products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  1. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  3. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  4. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  5. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of grape berries (Vitis labruscana) during cold storage upon postharvest salicylic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Han; Yuan, Xiaozhuan; Pan, Jiaojiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Ziming; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.

  6. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  7. Insights on the stilbenes in Raboso Piave grape (Vitis vinifera L.) as a consequence of postharvest vs on-vine dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; De Rosso, Mirko; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Maoz, Itay; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2018-03-01

    Grape withering is a process used to produce reinforced wines and raisins. Dehydration is usually carried out postharvest by keeping ripe grapes in special warehouses in controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air flow. Alternatively, grape clusters can be left on the vines after the canes have been pruned. In general, dehydration increases stilbenes in grape, but there are few studies on the effects of on-vine withering. The stilbene profiles of Raboso Piave grape during postharvest and on-vine dehydration were studied here. High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify 19 stilbenes, including resveratrol monomers, dimers (viniferins), oligomers and glucoside derivatives. The two dehydration methods generally had different effects on the above nutraceuticals in grape. The samples kept in warehouses revealed significant increases in Z-ω-viniferin, E-ϵ-viniferin, δ-viniferin and another resveratrol dimer which were not observed in the plants. Trans-Resveratrol increased significantly only in samples dehydrated in the warehouse at 21 °C and 60-70% RH. The findings increase knowledge of stilbene composition in grapes subjected to withering on-vine. The choice of dehydration method affects the contents of these nutraceuticals in the grape and consequently in wines. Reasonably, it could also affect other secondary metabolites important for wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. A brief introduction to multivariate methods in grape and wine analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cozzolino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available D Cozzolino1, W U Cynkar1, N Shah1, R G Dambergs2, P A Smith11The Australian Wine Research Institute, Urrbrae, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia; 2The Australian Wine Research Institute, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: Real-world systems are usually multivariate and hence usually cannot be adequately described by one selected variable without the risk of serious misrepresentation. Analyzing the effect of one variable at a time by analysis of variance techniques can give useful descriptive information, but this will not give specific information about relationships among variables and other important relationships in the entire matrix. Multivariate data analysis was developed in the late 1960s, and used by a number of research groups in analytical and physical organic chemistry due to the introduction of instrumentation giving multivariate responses for each sample analyzed. Development of such methods was also made possible by the availability of computers. Multivariate data analysis involves the use of mathematical and statistical techniques to extract information from complex data sets. The objective of this paper is to briefly describe and illustrate some multivariate data analysis methods used for grape and wine analysis.Keywords: multivariate analysis, data mining, wine, grape 

  9. Phenolic compositions of grapes and wines from cultivar cAbernet Sauvignon produced in Chile and their relationship to commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Galvez, Andrés; Obreque-Slier, Elías; López-Solís, Remigio; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2012-09-05

    The phenolic composition of wine depends on, among other factors, the grapes used to make it. In this sense, knowledge of the chemical composition of grapes and its association with the resulting wines is an important tool to determine if there is a relationship between the phenolic composition of grapes and the price that these wines obtain in the market. For this purpose, grape skins and seeds from the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon from the central region of Chile, in 2009 and 2010 vintages from two ripening points, were subjected to chemical and phenolic analyses, as were the wines made from these grapes. Grapes and the corresponding wines from three retail price wine categories, U.S. $6-8, U.S. $28-30, and U.S. $150-160, were evaluated. No differences were found across the price categories in the chemical analysis of grapes. Berry skins and wines from the higher price categories presented a higher concentration only of total tannins, and the differences in their concentrations were only among the different fractions of proanthocyanidins in the skins, seeds, and wines; there were no differences in their proportions. A seasonal effect influenced the concentrations of certain compounds in grapes and led to a decrease in the concentration of total phenols, total tannins, and total anthocyanins between sampling dates as harvesting moved toward the common commercial grape harvest in Chilean viticulture.

  10. Optimized determination of calcium in grape juice, wines, and other alcoholic beverages by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalla, Manuel; González, Maria Cruz; Cabrera, Carmen; Gimenez, Rafael; López, Maria Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the different methods of sample preparation for the determination of calcium in grape juice, wines, and other alcoholic beverages by flame atomic absorption spectrometry; results are also reported for the practical application of these methods to the analysis of commercial samples produced in Spain. The methods tested included dealcoholization, dry mineralization, and wet mineralization with heating by using different acids and/or mixtures of acids. The sensitivity, detection limit, accuracy, precision, and selectiviy of each method were established. Such research is necessary because of the better analytical indexes obtained after acid digestion of the sample, as recommended by the European Union, which advocates the direct method. In addition, although high-temperature mineralization with an HNO3-HCIO4 mixture gave the best analytical results, mineralization with nitric acid at 80 degrees C for 15 min gave the most satisfactory results in all cases, including those for wines with high levels of sugar and beverages with high alcoholic content. The results for table wines subjected to the latter treatment had an accuracy of 98.70-99.90%, a relative standard deviation of 2.46%, a detection limit of 19.0 microg/L, and a determination limit of 31.7 microg/L. The method was found to be sufficiently sensitive and selective. It was applied to the determination of Ca in grape juice, different types of wines, and beverages with high alcoholic content, all of which are produced and widely consumed in Spain. The values obtained for Ca were 90.00 +/- 20.40 mg/L in the grape juices, 82.30 +/- 23.80 mg/L in the white wines, 85.00 +/- 30.25 mg/L in the sweet wines, 84.92 +/- 23.11 mg/L in the red wines, 85.75 +/- 27.65 mg/L in the rosé wines, 9.51 +/- 6.65 mg/L in the brandies, 11.53 +/- 6.55 mg/L in the gin, 7.3 +/- 6.32 mg/L in the pacharán, and 8.41 +/- 4.85 mg/L in the anisettes. The method is therefore useful for routine analysis in the

  11. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  12. Grape yield to soil N-NO3- ratio can explain the different levels of biogenic amines in wine from two vineyards in the AOC Rioja (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Santamaría, Pilar; García-Escudero, Enrique; Peregrina, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Plant N status may affect the grape amino acid concentration, which act as precursors in the formation of biogenic amines in wine. Biogenic amines have negative effects on human health and so they reduce the wine quality. The objective of this study was to analyze, at bloom (when the vine N demand peaks) if both the available soil N and the N concentration in the leaf could explain the amino acid concentration in the must as well as the biogenic amines in wines from AOC Rioja. Two plots with cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grafted on R-110 rootstock were chosen: "La Grajera" (2,998 plants ha-1) and "Nájera" (2,849 plants ha-1), both plots with a traditional soil tillage management system and classified according to the American Soil Taxonomy as Typic Haloxerepts and Oxyaquic Xerorthent, respectively. Both soils had a pH higher than 7, a silty loam texture and organic matter values lower than 2%. The climatic conditions were described as semiarid Mediterranean according to the UNESCO aridity index. In each vineyard, three non-adjacent experimental plots with 3 rows of 30 vines each, were set out. No fertilizer was applied during the project. Each plot was sampled in 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons at bloom, analyzing the available soil N-NO3- at 0-15 and 15-45 cm depth and expressing the results in kg ha-1 by means of the bulk density of soil and the coarse elements content. Also at bloom, 30 leaves per experimental plot were collected and their N concentration was analyzed. At harvest, 200 berries were taken from each plot and the amino acid content in the musts was determined by HPLC. In addition, 100 kg of grapes from each plot were taken in order to elaborate wine according to the AOC Rioja common winemaking practices. When the winemaking process was finished, the concentration of biogenic amines in the wine (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadeverine, phenylethylamine and isoamylamine) was determined by HPLC. Our results showed

  13. OPPORTUNITIES FOR ORGANISING CLUSTERS IN THE BULGARIAN GRAPE-WINE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the development of clusters as a key element of the National Strategy for increasing the competitiveness. The role of the clusters becomes especially important at this time because SME do not have the capacity to meet EU requirements and to survive without uniting themselves. Moreover the National Strategy for Vine-wine Sector in Bulgaria stipulates the transformation of the sector in a leading one and securing a decent place of Bulgarian wines on international market which may be succeed through cluster introduction in the sector. In the paper is presented an overview of the initiatives for cluster development in the Bulgarian grape-wine sector and are disclosed the structure and role of cluster participants.

  14. Investigation of the copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Tingting; Yu, Jing; Huang, Weidong; Fang, Yulin; Zhan, Jicheng

    2018-02-15

    The copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China, were investigated. The results showed that the copper pollution status in vineyard soils, grapes and wines in the investigated area in China is under control, with only 4 surface soil (0-20cm) samples over maximum residue limits (MRL) and no grape or wine samples over MRL. Different vineyards, grape varieties, vine ages, and training systems all significantly influenced the copper contents in the vineyard soils, grape and wines. Additionally, the copper levels in the vineyard soils, grapes and wines all had some correlation. In wine samples, the copper contents ranged from 0.52 to 663μg/L, which is only approximately one percent the level found in grapes and one ten-thousandth that found in soils. Of the wine samples, red wines showed a significantly higher copper content than white wines, while in the red/white grape and soil samples, no significant differences were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study......: 300 ml/day, 38.3 g alcohol/day, female subjects: 200 ml/ day, 25.5 g alcohol/day), 2: water+red grape extract tablets ( wine-equivalent dose), 3: water+red grape extract tablets ( half dose), or 4: water+placebo tablets for a period of 4 weeks. No other sources of alcohol or anthocyanin were allowed......-triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, FVIIc, or blood pressure. Drinking wine was associated with relative body weight increments closely corresponding to the energy contributed by the alcohol component. Conclusion: Moderate red wine consumption for 4 weeks is associated with desirable changes in HDL-C and fibrinogen...

  16. Quality parameters of wine grape varieties under the influence of different vine spacing and training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tkachenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and biochemical indices, which characterize quality of white wine grape varieties Zagrey and Aromatnyi of selection of NNC «IV&W named after V. Ye. Tairov», (harvest of 2016 were determined. The field trial which includes various variants of planting density and vine training systems, made it possible to study the influence of viticulture practices on the criteria of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complex, oxidative enzyme system of grapes. Low-density plantings of Aromatnyi variety (2222 vines per ha were characterized by harvest that slightly exceeded the grapes obtained from dense plantations (4000 vines per ha in terms of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complexes. The most optimal in terms of the mass concentration of sugars, phenolic substances, polymer forms, macerating ability of must, activity of oxidizing enzyme system was cultivation of this variety on a 160 cm – high trunk. Growing grapes of Zagrey variety with vine spacing, corresponding to 4000 plants per ha, contributed to obtaining harvest with optimal parameters of carbohydrate-acid complex, low technological reserve and mass concentration of phenolic compounds, moderate macerating ability and activity of monophenol monooxygenase in must. Training vines of this variety on a 40 cm high trunk with vertical shoot positioning led to significant deterioration of grape quality due to increased content of phenolic substances and their polymer forms, high macerating capacity of must.

  17. A preliminary characterization of Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape proanthocyanidins and evaluation of their reactivity towards salivary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L; Moio, L

    2014-12-01

    The flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin composition of Aglianico seeds and skins were for the first time determined by HPLC-MS in comparison with the international grapes Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Monomers [(+)-catechin C, (-)-epicatechin EC, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, ECG] and oligomers [B1, B2, B3, B4 dimers and trimer C1] were identified and quantified in grape extracts. In order to evaluate the reactivity towards salivary proteins of model wine solutions of seeds and skins monomeric/oligomeric and polymeric fractions, the Saliva Precipitation Index (SPI) was carried out. Fractions were also analyzed for their mean degree of polymerization (mDP), percentage of galloylation (%G) and of prodelphinidin (%P) by phloroglucinolysis. Aglianico was the most effective in precipitating proteins than Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, mainly for the high percentage of galloylation of grape fractions. The mDP and the percentage of ECG in terminal units resulted to significantly contribute to the precipitation of salivary proteins by grape proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indigenous Georgian Wine-Associated Yeasts and Grape Cultivars to Edit the Wine Quality in a Precision Oenology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; Maghradze, David; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Bonello, Federica; Mezzapelle, Vito; Valdetara, Federica; Failla, Osvaldo; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi) sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F' = 0.56, I' = 0.32), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (F' = 0.49, I' = 0.27), and Cryptococcus flavescens (F' = 0.31, I' = 0.11) were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196) were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar) and Saperavi (black berry cultivar). Physical (°Brix) and microbial analyses (plate counts) were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavors, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate), 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi variety inoculated

  19. Indigenous Georgian wine-associated yeasts and grape cultivars to edit the wine quality in a precision oenology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana eVigentini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F’ = 0.56, I’ = 0.32, Hanseniaspora gulliermondii (F’ = 0.49, I’ = 0.27 and Cryptococcus flavescens (F’ = 0.31, I’ = 0.11 were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196 were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar and Saperavi (black berry cultivar. Physical (°Brix and microbial analyses (plate counts were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavours, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi

  20. A host-specific biological control of grape crown gall by Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5: its regulation and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewnum, Supaporn; Zheng, Desen; Reid, Cheryl L; Johnson, Kameka L; Gee, Jodi C; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    Nontumorigenic Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 is able to prevent crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis on grape but not on other plant species such as tobacco. Mutations in a quorum-sensing transcription factor, aviR, and in caseinolytic protease (clp) component genes clpA and clpP1 resulted in reduced or loss of biological control. All mutants were complemented; however, restoration of biological control by complemented clpA and clpP1 mutants was dependent on the copy number of vector that was used as well as timing of application of the complemented mutants to grape wounds in relation to inoculation with pathogen. Mutations in other quorum-sensing and clp genes and in a gene associated with polyketide synthesis did not affect biological control. It was determined that, although F2/5 inhibits transformation by tumorigenic A. vitis strains on grape, it does not affect growth of the pathogen in wounded grape tissue over time.

  1. Linking microbial community on grapes from two Portuguese wine regions to the biogenic amines production in musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calisto Rita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine-associated microbiota influences wine organoleptic properties. Spoilage due to undesired microorganisms and biogenic amines (BAs presence are two main constrains that must be seriously considered. In wine, BAs can originate from the grape berries or can be produced during fermentation, ageing or storage. This work aimed to understand if the high BAs levels observed in musts can have its origin in the microbial community present on grapes. The following methodologies were done: bacterial and fungal grapes communities' isolation, BAs quantification in grapes and musts and molecular amplification of the genes related to BAs production. For comparative purposes, microbial communities from grapes and musts from Douro (low BAs levels in musts and Alentejo (high BAs levels in musts were used. Higher number and diversity of bacteria were observed in Alentejo grapes comparatively to Douro ones. Filamentous fungi were predominant when compared with yeasts and the diversity was higher in Alentejo. BAs levels mainly due to putrescin were about ten times higher in grapes and musts from Alentejo. As bacteria isolated from Alentejo grapes showed a great BAs-production potential, namely putrescin, our results suggest a bacterial grape origin for the high putrescine levels found in fresh musts of this region.

  2. Physical, Rheological, Functional, and Film Properties of a Novel Emulsifier: Frost Grape Polysaccharide from Vitis riparia Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William T; Vaughn, Steven F; Byars, Jeffrey A; Selling, Gordon W; Holthaus, Derek M; Price, Neil P J

    2017-10-04

    A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essential details for the commercial adoption of this novel plant polysaccharide. FGP is capable of producing exceptionally stable emulsions when compared with the industrially ubiquitous gum arabic (GA). The FGP isolate contained a negligible amount of nitrogen (0.03%), indicating that it does not contain an associated glycoprotein, unlike GA. Solutions of FGP have a high degree of thermostability, displaying no loss in viscosity with temperature cycling and no thermal degradation when held at 90 °C. FGP is an excellent film former, producing high tensile strength films which remain intact at temperatures up to 200 °C. This work identified a number of potential food and pharmaceutical applications where FGP is significantly superior to GA.

  3. Transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) expressing polygalacturonase inhibiting protein from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and stilbene synthase from grape (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Jacobsen, H-J; de Kathen, A; de Lorenzo, G; Briviba, K; Hain, R; Ramsay, G; Kiesecker, H

    2006-11-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties Baroness (United Kingdome) and Baccara (France) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer with pGPTV binary vectors containing the bar gene in combination with two different antifungal genes coding for polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) driven by a double 35S promoter, or the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) driven by its own elicitor-inducible promoter. Transgenic lines were established and transgenes combined via conventional crossing. Resveratrol, produced by Vst1 transgenic plants, was detected using HPLC and the PGIP expression was determined in functional inhibition assays against fungal polygalacturonases. Stable inheritance of the antifungal genes in the transgenic plants was demonstrated.

  4. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an Emulsion-Forming Arabinogalactan Gum from the Stems of Native North American Grape Species Vitis riparia Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Neil P J; Vermillion, Karl E; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-08-19

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf, 55.2%) and d-galactopyranose (d-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of d-xylose (11.2%), d-mannose (3.5%), and glucuronic acid (GlcA, ∼2%), the latter linked via a galactosyl residue. Permethylation identified 3-linked Galp residues, some substituted at the 2-position with Galp or Manp, terminal Araf and Xylp, and an internal 3-substituted Araf. NMR (HSQC, TOCSY, HMBC, DOSY) identified βGalp and three αAraf spin systems, in an Araf-α1,3-Araf-α1,2-Araf-α1,2-Galp structural motif. Diffusion-ordered NMR showed that the FGP has a molecular weight of 1-10 MDa. Unlike gum arabic, the FGP does not contain a hydroxyproline-rich protein (HPRP). FGP forms stable gels at >15% w/v and at 1-12% solutions are viscous and are excellent emulsifiers of flavoring oils (grapefruit, clove, and lemongrass), giving stable emulsions for ≥72 h. Lower concentrations (0.1% w/v) were less viscous, yet still gave stable grapefruit oil/water emulsions. Hence, FGP is a β1,3-linked arabinogalactan with potential as a gum arabic replacement in the food and beverage industries.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF ETHANOL CONCENTRATION, GLYCEROL CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS OF GRAPE-MAHUA WINE TO MAXIMIZE THE QUALITY AND OVERALL ACCEPTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Black grapes (Vitis vinifera and mahua (Madhuca longfolia extract was used in 90:10 grape-mahua ratio for fermentation for 15 days and subjected to clarification using bentonite and gelatin as fining agents. Ageing was allowed for three months and studies were conducted using response surface methodology to assess the effect of ethanol, glycerol and temperature on viscosity, color, specific gravity, pH and overall acceptability. Experimental designs were conducted and 20 samples were prepared containing varying concentration of ethanol (7.55%-13.44%, glycerol (6.19-18.8g/l and temperature (5.6-22.4oC respectively. The maximum desirability of 93% was obtained for wine under the optimized conditions 13.44% ethanol, 6.19g/l glycerol and 14oC temperature, having viscosity (efflux time, 12.9 s; color absorbance, 4.61; SG, 1.0012; pH, 3.34 and overall acceptability, 8.47.

  6. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  7. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  8. Genomics Assisted Ancestry Deconvolution in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Reisch, Bruce; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Schwaninger, Heidi; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars. PMID:24244717

  9. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ψPD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison ( -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were

  10. Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthesis and transport in berries of black and white spine grapes (Vitis davidii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Fan, Xiucai; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jianfu; Sun, Haisheng; Liu, Chonghuai

    2016-01-01

    The color of berry skin is an important economic trait for grape and is essentially determined by the components and content of anthocyanins. The fruit color of Chinese wild grapes is generally black, and the profile of anthocyanins in Chinese wild grapes is significantly different from that of Vitis vinifera . However, V. davidii is the only species that possesses white berry varieties among Chinese wild grape species. Thus, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to compare the difference of transcriptional level in black and white V. davidii , in order to find some key genes that are related to anthocyanins accumulation in V. davidii . The results of anthocyanins detection revealed that 3,5- O -diglucoside anthocyanins is the predominant anthocyanins in V. davidii . It showed obvious differences from V. vinifera in the profile of the composition of anthocyanins. The transcriptome sequencing by Illumina mRNA-Seq technology generated an average of 57 million 100-base pair clean reads from each sample. Differential gene expression analysis revealed thousands of differential expression genes (DEGs) in the pairwise comparison of different fruit developmental stages between and within black and white V. davidii . After the analysis of functional category enrichment and differential expression patterns of DEGs, 46 genes were selected as the candidate genes. Some genes have been reported as being related to anthocyanins accumulation, and some genes were newly found in our study as probably being related to anthocyanins accumulation. We inferred that 3AT (VIT_03s0017g00870) played an important role in anthocyanin acylation, GST4 (VIT_04s0079g00690) and AM2 (VIT_16s0050g00910) played important roles in anthocyanins transport in V. davidii . The expression of some selected DEGs was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study investigated the transcriptomic profiles of berry skin from black and white spine grapes at three fruit developmental

  11. Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

    2011-07-15

    This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, β-damascenone, α-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the anthocyanin content of wine grapes by NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Fangfang; Ning, Jifeng; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Zhenwen; Yang, Shuqin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the capability of hyperspectral imaging in predicting anthocyanin content changes in wine grapes during ripening. One hundred twenty groups of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were collected periodically after veraison. The hyperspectral images were recorded by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm. The anthocyanin content was measured by the pH differential method. A quantitative model was developed using partial least squares regression (PLSR) or support vector regression (SVR) for calculating the anthocyanin content. The best model was obtained using SVR, yielding a coefficient of validation (P-R(2)) of 0.9414 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0046, higher than the PLSR model, which had a P-R(2) of 0.8407 and a RMSEP of 0.0129. Therefore, hyperspectral imaging can be a fast and non-destructive method for predicting the anthocyanin content of wine grapes during ripening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of two rootstocks (SO4 and 1103P) on grape quality and berry chemical composition was studied in a factorial experiment, in field grown grapevines of ... Also, total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity, pH, total sugar content, ash, juice yield and color index of red grapes (CIRG) of berry samples were determined.

  14. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  15. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  16. Relationship between hyperspectral indices, agronomic parameters and phenolic composition of Vitis vinifera cv Tempranillo grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Martínez-Fernández, José; Sánchez, Nilda; Herrero-Jiménez, Carlos M; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-09-01

    The phenolic composition of grapes is key when making decisions about harvest date and ensuring the quality of grapes. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the detailed phenolic composition of grapes and the agronomic parameters and hyperspectral indices, with the latter being measured via field radiometry techniques. Good correlations were found between phenolic composition (both anthocyanin and flavanol composition) and some hyperspectral indices related to vigor, such as the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and the SAVI (soil adjusted vegetation index). The strongest correlations were observed between the phenolic composition of grape skin at harvest time and variables measured from grapes at veraison time, as well as variables determined from grapevines at harvest time. The potential usefulness of these hyperspectral indices calculated from measurements performed directly on grapes or grapevines for estimating the anthocyanin and flavanol composition of grape skins was indicated by the high coefficients of determination (R 2 = 0.7955 and R 2 = 0.8594, respectively) as obtained by means of principal component regression. According to the results of the present study, hyperspectral indices calculated from measurements performed directly on grapes at veraison time or on grapevines at harvest time may be useful for estimating the anthocyanin and flavanol composition of grape skins. This suggests that field radiometry might provide valuable information for estimating the phenolic composition of grapes, which may prove to be very useful when establishing strategies for harvest planning. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  18. Antioxidant activity of selected stilbenoids and their bioproduction in hairy root cultures of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopo-Olazabal, Cesar; Hubstenberger, John; Nopo-Olazabal, Luis; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio

    2013-12-04

    Stilbenoids are polyphenolic phytoalexins with health-related properties in humans. Muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia ) hairy root cultures were established via Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation, and the effects of growth regulators (3-indolebutyric acid and 6-benzylaminopurine) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on stilbenoid production were studied. Twenty-one-day-old hairy root cultures were treated with 100 μM MeJA for 24 h, and then the stilbenoids were extracted from the medium and tissue with ethyl acetate and analyzed by HPLC. Resveratrol, piceid, and ε-viniferin were observed preferentially in tissue, whereas piceatannol was observed only in medium. Growth regulators did not affect the yield of stilbenoids, whereas higher levels were found upon treatment with MeJA. Stilbenoids identified in the hairy root cultures were analyzed for their radical scavenging capacity showing piceatannol and ε-viniferin as the strongest antioxidants. Muscadine grape hairy root cultures were demonstrated to be amenable systems to study stilbenoid biosynthesis and a sustainable source of these bioactive compounds.

  19. Nonspecific lipid-transfer protein genes expression in grape (Vitis sp.) cells in response to fungal elicitor treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomès, Eric; Sagot, Emeric; Gaillard, Cécile; Laquitaine, Laurent; Poinssot, Benoit; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Delrot, Serge; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre

    2003-05-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. Three cDNAs coding nsLTPs from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) were cloned by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR. The expression of nsLTP genes was investigated in 41B-rootstock grape cell suspension, in response to various defense-related signal molecules. Ergosterol (a fungi-specific sterol) and a proteinaceous elicitor purified from Botrytis cinerea strongly and rapidly induced the accumulation of nsLTP mRNAs. Jasmonic acid, cholesterol, and sitosterol also promoted nsLTPs mRNA accumulation, although to a lesser extent, whereas salicylic acid had no effect. High performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the amounts of three LTP isoforms (previously named P1, P2, and P4) were increased by ergosterol. None of the four isoforms displayed any significant antifungal properties, with the exception of the P4 isoform, which reduced Botrytis mycelium growth in vitro, but only in calcium-free medium. The results are discussed in the context of plant-pathogen interactions.

  20. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  1. Wound-healing activity of the skin of the common grape (Vitis Vinifera) variant, Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Ramdath, D Dan; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin N; Eversley, Mathew; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2010-08-01

    The common Grape L. (Vitaceae) is regarded as an important medicinal plant. European healers have suggested the use of grapevine sap, juice, and whole grape in the treatment of pain, allergic reactions, inflammation, and to promote wound healing. We evaluated grape-skin powder for its wound-healing activity using an excision wound model in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three groups of six (n = 6) each. The test group animals were treated topically with the grape-skin powder (100 mg/kg/day). The controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment respectively. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, treatment of the wounds with grape-skin powder enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (100 %). Treated animals showed significant decrease in the epithelialization period (p < 0.000) and increase in the hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05) when compared to control and the standard. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that grape-skin powder exhibits significant wound-healing potential. Increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline content, and decrease in epithelialization time in the treated animals support the use of grape-skin powder in the management of wound healing. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Boss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L−1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L−1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L−1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  3. Comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir and Japanese indigenous V. vinifera L. cv. Koshu grape berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Kayo; Honma, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is an indigenous grape cultivar that has been cultivated for more than a thousand years in Japan and one of the most important cultivars in white winemaking. To improve Koshu wine quality, it is necessary to identify the metabolites in Koshu berry. We conducted a comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Koshu and Pinot Noir berries cultivated in the same location in Japan using GC-MS/MS for fatty acids and LC-MS for glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. Koshu skins and juices contained 22 and 19 fatty acids, respectively, whereas 23 and 20 fatty acids were detected in Pinot Noir skins and juices. C22:6n3 and C24:0 contents in Koshu skins were two and three times higher than those in Pinot Noir skins. C24:0 content in Koshu juices was also higher than that in Pinot Noir juices. Forty-nine lipid components (six digalactosyldiacylglycerols, one monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, 10 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines, and 20 triglycerides) were detected in Pinot Noir and Koshu skins. Strong peaks were observed for MGDG 36:6, DGDG 36:6, PC 34:2, PC 36:5, TG 54:6, TG 54:7, and TG 54:8 in Koshu skins. The contents of 36 of the 49 lipid components were significantly higher in Pinot Noir skins than Koshu skins. Pinot Noir skins contained more lipids whose alkyl chains have more than 18 carbons than Koshu skins. Further analysis of both lipid profiles revealed that the number of double bonds in a fatty acid molecule in Pinot Noir skins and juices was significantly larger than that in Koshu skins and juices. A strong relationship exists between the heat requirement of grapevine cultivars and the level of fatty acid desaturation. C18-fatty acids were the major components in Koshu and Pinot Noir berries. The expression levels of C18-fatty acid desaturases regulated the accumulation of C18-unsaturated fatty acids in berry skins. The loss of C18:3 in Koshu berries at the end of ripening was observed. Koshu might effectively convert

  4. Comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir and Japanese indigenous V. vinifera L. cv. Koshu grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Kayo; Honma, Taro; Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is an indigenous grape cultivar that has been cultivated for more than a thousand years in Japan and one of the most important cultivars in white winemaking. To improve Koshu wine quality, it is necessary to identify the metabolites in Koshu berry. We conducted a comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Koshu and Pinot Noir berries cultivated in the same location in Japan using GC-MS/MS for fatty acids and LC-MS for glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. Koshu skins and juices contained 22 and 19 fatty acids, respectively, whereas 23 and 20 fatty acids were detected in Pinot Noir skins and juices. C22:6n3 and C24:0 contents in Koshu skins were two and three times higher than those in Pinot Noir skins. C24:0 content in Koshu juices was also higher than that in Pinot Noir juices. Forty-nine lipid components (six digalactosyldiacylglycerols, one monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, 10 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines, and 20 triglycerides) were detected in Pinot Noir and Koshu skins. Strong peaks were observed for MGDG 36:6, DGDG 36:6, PC 34:2, PC 36:5, TG 54:6, TG 54:7, and TG 54:8 in Koshu skins. The contents of 36 of the 49 lipid components were significantly higher in Pinot Noir skins than Koshu skins. Pinot Noir skins contained more lipids whose alkyl chains have more than 18 carbons than Koshu skins. Further analysis of both lipid profiles revealed that the number of double bonds in a fatty acid molecule in Pinot Noir skins and juices was significantly larger than that in Koshu skins and juices. A strong relationship exists between the heat requirement of grapevine cultivars and the level of fatty acid desaturation. C18-fatty acids were the major components in Koshu and Pinot Noir berries. The expression levels of C18-fatty acid desaturases regulated the accumulation of C18-unsaturated fatty acids in berry skins. The loss of C18:3 in Koshu berries at the end of ripening was observed. Koshu might effectively convert

  5. Changes in texture analysis parameters of wine grape berries at two ripeness stages: A study on varietal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Brillante, L.; Gaiot, F.; Lovat, L.; Giacosac, S.; Río Segade, S.; Vincenzi, S.; Torchio, F.; Rolle, L.; Tomasi, D.

    2017-01-01

    Ripening of grapes is associated with great modifications at both the chemical and physical level. The aim of this work was to describe the changes in physical-mechanical parameters associated to ripening of wine grape berries, as evaluated by texture analysis, in order to understand if these modifications are stable across cultivars, or they are cultivar-specific. Berries from 21 different cultivars were sorted by flotation in different saline solutions, separated in two ripening stages diff...

  6. Microencapsulation and storage stability of polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Navarro, Patricia; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-01-01

    Wine production wastes are an interesting source of natural polyphenols. In this work, wine wastes extracts were encapsulated through vibration nozzle microencapsulation using sodium alginate as polymer and calcium chloride as hardening reagent. An experimental design approach was used to obtain

  7. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expressio...... resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the grape infection....

  8. Detailed characterization of glycosylated sensory-active volatile phenols in smoke-exposed grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestheden, Matthew; Dennis, Eric G; Romero-Montalvo, Eduardo; DiLabio, Gino A; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2018-09-01

    The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. vines to smoke from wildland fires can alter the chemical composition of the berries, such that the resulting wine can possess a defect known as smoke-taint. This work constitutes a complete method for the analysis of simple volatile phenol glycosides (VP-glycosides) that can be elevated in berries and wine following smoke exposure. We synthesized 16 model VP-glycosides, four of which are not reported previously, to facilitate method development. Fragmentation analysis using high-resolution accurate-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the glycone and aglycone influenced the fragmentation pattern of VP-glycosides. Diagnostic fragmentation patterns for the synthesized VP-glycosides were applied to identify several VP-glycosides in smoke-exposed berries and wine. The fragmentation pattern of VP-disaccharides should facilitate the characterization of modified glycones. Putative non-VP glycosides elevated in smoke-exposed berries are demonstrated for the first time. In tandem with VP-glycosides, such compounds may contribute to the expression of smoke taint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  10. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-19

    The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of grape fruits and

  11. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed: an experimental study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppula Sushruta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic, antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and

  12. Evaluation of powdery mildew-resistance of grape germplasm and rapid amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the resistant trait in Chinese wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2014-05-09

    The resistance of wild Vitis germplasm, including Chinese and American wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Burr.) was evaluated for two consecutive years under natural conditions. Most of the Chinese and North American species displayed a resistant phenotype, whereas all of the European species were highly susceptible. The Alachua and Conquistador accessions of Vitis rotundifolia species, which originated in North America, were immune to the disease, while Baihe-35-1, one of the accessions of Vitis pseudoreticulata, showed the strongest resistance among all Chinese accessions evaluated. Three rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPW02-1756, OPO11-964, and OPY13-661, were obtained after screening 520 random primers among various germplasm, and these markers were found to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in Baihe-35-1 and in some Chinese species, but not in any European species. Analysis of F₁ and F₂ progenies of a cross between resistant Baihe-35-1 and susceptible Carignane (V. vinifera) revealed that the three RAPD markers were linked to the powdery resistant trait in Baihe-35-1 plants. Potential applications of the identified RAPD markers for gene mapping, marker-assisted selection, and breeding were investigated in 168 F₂ progenies of the same cross. Characterization of the resistant phenotype of the selected F₂ seedlings for breeding a new disease-resistant grape cultivar is in progress.

  13. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  14. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  15. Evolution of the population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from grape to wine in a spontaneous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, Christine; Erny, Claude; Demuyter, Catherine; Lollier, Marc

    2006-12-01

    To determine the grape or winery origin of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in spontaneous fermentation, musts were collected at different stages of wine-making process and fermented. First, grapes were collected in two different vineyards and crushed at the laboratory. Second, musts were collected after crushing and clarification in the cellar. Third, musts collected in the cellar were sterilized and inoculated with tartar deposit collected in the vats. The fourth fermentation was in the cellar. For the two vineyards, two hundred of S. cerevisiae clones were isolated for each of the four fermentations, driving to a library of 1600 clones. All the library was analysed by inter-delta PCR with a basic set of primers and about 20% of the library was further analysed by inter-delta PCR with an improved set of primers. Six, and more than 30 different PCR patterns were obtained from basic- and improved-PCR analysis, respectively. The amounts of each family were analysed at the different stages of wine making. Our study demonstrates that the two vineyards present different S. cerevisiae populations. Moreover the S. cerevisiae strains involved in spontaneous fermentation in the cellar originate partly from the vineyard and partly from the winery, in amounts varying with the must.

  16. Isolation and selection of yeasts from wine grape ecosystem secreting cold-active pectinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merín, María Gabriela; Mendoza, Lucía M; Farías, Marta E; Morata de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés

    2011-05-27

    The present study was undertaken with the purpose of selecting yeasts from wine grapes that are able to produce extracellular cold-active pectinases. After two consecutive selections yeast isolates were identified by pheno- and genotyping, and pectinolytic activity was preliminarily characterised at proximate winemaking conditions. Out of 1023 indigenous microorganisms isolated from grape skins of D.O. San Rafael (Mendoza, Argentina) viticulture region, 565 (55%) showed pectinolytic activity on plates and, among them, 96 (17%) were chosen in a primary selection. Ten isolates were finally selected for exhibiting the greatest activity at low temperature (12 °C) and identified as Aureobasidium pullulans. GM-R-22 strain demonstrated the highest pectinolytic activity (0.751 U/mL) at pH 3.5 and 12 °C. Yeast pectinases were constitutively produced. This study is the first report about strains of A. pullulans producing pectinases which are able to show good activity at low temperature. These pectinolytic strains could be of interest in wine production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Short-Term Intake of Red Wine and Grape Polyphenol Extract on the Human Metabolome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Fuhrmann, J.C.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Rein, D.; Peters, S.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Hollebrands, B.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Garczarek, U.

    2012-01-01

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from

  18. Can a canopy temperature-based stress index enhance water use efficiency in irrigated wine grape under arid conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancement of irrigation water use efficiency and water productivity in arid wine grape production regions is hindered by a lack of automated, real-time methods for monitoring and interpreting vine water status. A normalized, water stress index calculated from real-time vine canopy temperature meas...

  19. Influence of the matrix in bioavailability of flufenoxuron, lufenuron, pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payá, P; Mulero, J; Oliva, J; Cámara, M A; Barba, A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the in vitro bioavailablity of pesticides that regulate and inhibit the growth of insects--flufenoxuron, lufenuron, pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb--in grapes grown under good agricultural practice (GAP), while respecting the pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for critical conditions (CAP), in the most unfavorable conditions. The bioavailability of wines obtained from grapes in each assay and in standard solutions is also studied in order to establish matrix-related differences. Human gastric digestion, intestinal digestion and absorption were imitated. Porcine pepsin, porcine pancreatin, bile salts and semipermeable cellulose dialysis tubing were used. The analysis of the residues of the insecticides studied was performed by extraction with the QuEChERS method, and determination was with HPLC-MS. In all cases it was observed that the pesticides can be ordered according to their dialyzation capacity: fenoxycarb>pyriproxyfen>lufenuron>flufenoxuron. The different matrices can also be ordered according to the matrix effect they impose on the dialysis: grape>wine>standards. The highest percentages of dialyzation for grape and wine matrices are achieved for fenoxycarb (3.27%) and pyriproxifen (2.04%) in wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Innovative business cases in the South Africa table grape and wine industry's: developing the concept op empowerment entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, P.J.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on an innovative initiative taken spontaneously by producers in the supply chain of the table grapes and wine industry to empower employees. Empowerment is a fundamental force for change in doing business in South Africa and its societies, especially in

  1. Environmental factors affect the activity of biocontrol agents against ochratoxigenic Aspergillus carbonarius on wine grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Curtis, F; de Felice, D V; Ianiri, G; De Cicco, V; Castoria, R

    2012-09-17

    The influence of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the activity of three biocontrol agents-the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima LS16 and two strains of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans LS30 and AU34-2-against infection by A. carbonarius and ochratoxin A (OTA) accumulation in wine grape berries was investigated in lab-scale experiments. The presence of wounds on grape skin dramatically favored infection of berries by A. carbonarius strain A1102, since unwounded berries showed very low levels of infection at all conditions of RH and temperature tested. Artificially wounded berries pre-treated with the biocontrol agents were inoculated with the ochratoxigenic A. carbonarius strain A1102 and were incubated for 5 days at two levels of RH (60% and 100%) and three different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 °C). The three biocontrol agents were able to prevent infections at 60% RH and 20 °C. At 60% RH and 25 °C only strain AU34-2 achieved some protection on day 5, whereas at 30 °C a limited biocontrol efficacy was evident only up to day 2. At 100% RH, LS16, LS30 and AU34-2 showed effective protection of grape berries at 20 °C until the 5th day of incubation. The three biocontrol agents achieved significant protection at higher temperatures only until the 2nd day after the beginning of the experiment: all three strains at 25 °C, and only strain LS16 at 30 °C. After 5 days, the three biocontrol agents were able to significantly reduce the level of OTA in berries at all the conditions tested. This occurred even when protection from infection was not significant, except at 30 °C and 100% of RH for all the three strains, and at 25 °C and 100% of RH for strain LS16. The biocontrol agents displayed a higher rate of colonization on grape berries at 20 and 25 °C than at 30 °C. The higher value of RH (100%) appeared to increase the rate of colonization, in particular at 20 and 25 °C. Taken together, our results emphasize the significant influence of

  2. Ozone fumigation for safety and quality of wine grapes in postharvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botondi, Rinaldo; De Sanctis, Federica; Moscatelli, Niccolò; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Catelli, Cesare; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes postharvest ozone fumigation (as a method) to control microorganisms and evaluate the effect on polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and cell wall enzymes during the grape dehydration for wine production. Pignola grapes were ozone-treated (1.5 g/h) for 18 h (A=shock treatment), then dehydrated or ozone-treated (1.5 g/h) for 18 h and at 0.5 g/h for 4 h each day (B=long-term treatment) during dehydration. Treatment and dehydration were performed at 10 °C. No significant difference was found for total carotenoid, total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents after 18 h of O3 treatment. A significant decrease in phenolic and anthocyanin contents occurred during treatment B. Also carotenoids were affected by B ozone treatment. Pectin methylesterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities were higher in A-treated grapes during dehydration. Finally, ozone reduced fungi and yeasts by 50%. Shock ozone fumigation (A treatment) before dehydration can be used to reduce the microbial count during dehydration without affecting polyphenol and carotenoid contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of fining agents on the removal of some pesticides from white wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Emir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, K; Cabaroglu, T; Yilmaz, H

    2012-11-01

    The influences of fining agents (activated carbon, casein, kieselsol-gelatine, bentonite and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone) and their doses (low, middle, high) on the removal of six pesticides used in viticulture (vinclozolin, penconazole, α-endosulfan, imazalil, nuarimol and tetradifon) from white wine were investigated. The pesticides were added into white wine obtained from the Emir grape, and then the wine was clarified with the use of fining agents at low, middle and high doses. After the fining, extraction of pesticides from the wine was made by liquid-liquid extraction. Quantification and identification were performed by the multiresidual method using GC-MS and GC-ECD techniques. The effect of the fining agents on these pesticides ranged from little to large. Of the fining agents, activated carbon showed the largest effect on the removal of pesticides. The pesticide removal efficiencies of the fining agents were in the following order: activated carbon, casein, bentonite and kieselsol-gelatine. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) had the least effect on the removal of pesticides. A linear relation was not found between fining agent doses and the amount of removed pesticides. α-Endosulfan, penconazole, imazalil and tetradifon were removed by the fining agents at the highest levels. Vinclozolin and nuarimol were the pesticides least affected, except activated carbon and casein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  5. Comparison on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cabernet sauvignon and merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-07-25

    The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  6. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (Pgrape juices (PGrape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2013-12-23

    Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the

  8. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  9. Perturbation of polyamine catabolism affects grape ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Ali, Kashif; Choi, Young H; Sousa, Lisete; Verpoorte, Rob; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Fortes, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are economically the most important fruit worldwide. However, the complexity of biological events that lead to ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood, particularly the role of polyamines' catabolism. The transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data were studied during ripening of Trincadeira grapes submitted to guazatine treatment, a potent inhibitor of polyamine oxidase activity. The mRNA expression profiles of one time point (EL 38) corresponding to harvest stage was compared between mock and guazatine treatments using Affymetrix GrapeGen(®) genome array. A total of 2113 probesets (1880 unigenes) were differentially expressed between these samples. Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for EL 35 (véraison berries), EL 36 (ripe berries) and EL 38 (harvest stage berries). Metabolic profiling using HPLC and (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed increase of putrescine, proline, threonine and 1-O-ethyl-β-glucoside in guazatine treated samples. Genes involved in amino acid, carbohydrate and water transport were down-regulated in guazatine treated samples suggesting that the strong dehydrated phenotype obtained in guazatine treated samples may be due to impaired transport mechanisms. Genes involved in terpenes' metabolism were differentially expressed between guazatine and mock treated samples. Altogether, results support an important role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening namely in cell expansion and aroma development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF WINE MICROBIOTA DURING THE SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF RED GRAPES JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep its place on the wine international market, Romania should produce typical wines starting from localgrape varieties and conducting the alcoholic fermentation by starter cultures obtained from local isolated wine yeast.The present study was initiated due to the fact that there are few informations regarding the evolution of winemicrorganisms in plantations and in the fermentations process for quantitative point of view.The population dynamics of microbiota in Valea Calugareasca vineyard was analysed during the alcoholicfermentation. No yeast starter cultures had been used in order to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenousmicroorganisms population. Classical works and methods for alcoholic fermentation monitoring have been employed atthis level.At the beginning of fermentation the total number of yeasts found is doubling, while the number of bacteria is stabilizedat a value of 103 CFU/ml. During the alcoholic fermentation the yeasts become predominant (107–108 cfu/ml andcontinue the fermentation until its completion. Significant differences regarding the evolution of yeast microbiota forquantitative point of view between varieties have been recorded.

  11. Treatment with different fining agents of white musts from spoiled wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meistermann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fining agents have evolved significantly over the last twenty years. The need for winemakers to have objective references about the new products has prompted this study. The experiment consists in comparing the new fining products (charcoal, pea proteins, derivatives of chitin and composite products generally mixing PVPP + various proteins + bentonite with reference products such as casein and PVPP and with non-treated controls. Fining agents were applied during clarification of 15 different musts obtained from wine grapes affected by different degrees and types of rot: fresh and dry Botrytis cinerea rot, powdery mildew and Botrytis contaminated with other fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Basidiomycetes, giving the bunches offflavours that were earthy and resembled fresh mushrooms. This study highlights the importance of good clarification of musts. The quality of control wines, without any treatment, increases with the clarity of the must. In most experiments, clarification of the must around 50 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU can eliminate or reduce any organoleptic defects in wine without fining. Use of pectolytic enzymes may be necessary in order to reach this level of clarity. The new allergen-free fining agents have the same effectiveness as reference products such as casein and polyvinylpolypyrolidone (PVPP. Composite products are more efficient than pea protein alone and less than products including charcoal. However, the improvement of aromatic quality goes hand in hand with loss of body and persistence.

  12. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Narjara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture is created. The search for organic products – that doesn't use artificial mineral and chemical fertilizers and exploits fertility as a way of fighting diseases and pests – and biodynamic products in the agricultural production unit is understood as a kind of organism also take place in the wine industry. But knowing which producers are involved in this type of activity is still a difficult task for the community, especially due to the informality of some agents. Thus, this paper proposes to identify organic and biodynamic wine producers in southern Brazil; as well as the tools and policies which have encouraged farmers to adopt these practices. Finally, understanding the main obstacles producers find dealing with certifications mechanisms. This region was chosen for being the largest grape and wine producing in the country.

  13. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines: chromatic properties and global phenolic composition by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-09-01

    Valdeorras (the N.W. corner of Spain) wants to promote the production and marketing of new sweet wines. The present work represents the first study on sweet wines manufactured with red grapes Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera, a teinturier cultivar. Two different red sweet wines were elaborated: the first one was made with dried grapes; Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera has excellent potential to produce wines from raisined grapes; the second one, a fortified sweet wine aged in oak barrels. Different red Garnacha Tintorera-based wines (a dry base wine, GBW; a naturally sweet wine, GNSW; and a fortified sweet wine, GFSW) were characterized. Chromatic characteristics and phenolic compounds were established by spectrophotometric methods in order to assess the technology of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines. High molecular weight brown polymers, produced during the grape drying process and isolated from sweet wines by the dialysis process, were responsible for the brown colour of sweet wines. As a consequence, yellowness of sweet wines was also higher which was confirmed by colorimetric indexes. With respect to phenolic content, GFSW presented the lowest content because the maceration-alcoholic fermentation was stopped through the addition of alcohol before the diffusion of red pigments from skins to must was complete. GNSW presented the highest phenolic content due to the concentration effect resulting from evaporation of water from the grapes. Anthocyanins of sweet wines were polymerised in great extent. The percentage of polymerised tannins was sufficient to guarantee the aging process of sweet wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  15. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan-Lun; Liu, Min; Zhao, Hui; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2016-10-12

    The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  16. Exploración del efecto protector frente a radicales libres de derivados de la uva (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat en Saccharomyces cerevisiae Analysis of a putative protection against free radicals by grape derivatives (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bracesco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró un posible efecto protector del genoma por parte de un derivado de la uva (vino Tannat. Se utilizaron poblaciones celulares haploides y diploides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae como modelo eucariota. Muestras celulares se expusieron a H2O2 en medio nutriente. El ADN se analizó por densitometría láser, luego de su aislamiento y separación por electroforesis con campos pulsados. Se aplicó la distribución de Poisson para la determinación de roturas dobles. El número de roturas dobles del ADN y la frecuencia mutagénica aumentaron en función de la dosis de H2O2, disminuyendo la probabilidad de sobrevida. La combinación de H2O2 con vino Tannat aumentó significa-tivamente la probabilidad de sobrevida y disminuyó el número de roturas dobles. No se observó efecto mutagénico por el vino Tannat. Estos efectos pudieron simularse utilizando altas concentraciones de α-tocoferol. Los resultados indican que un derivado de Vitis vinifera puede, en ciertas condiciones, disminuir las dobles roturas de ADN producidas por el H2O2 e incrementar las probabilidades de sobrevida celular. Los blancos involucrados podrían ser, entre otros, componentes intracelulares de las cascadas redox y/o enzimas de reparación del ADN.The aim of this work was to analyse a possible genome protection provided by a grape derivative (Tannat wine in yeast cell populations exposed to H2O2. Haploid and diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as eukaryotic model. Cell samples were exposed to H2O2 in a nutrient medium. Chromosomal DNA was analysed after isolation and separation by pulsed field electrophoresis. Double strand breaks were determined by laser densitometry and application of Poisson distribution. Both haploid and diploid cells showed H2O2 dose dependent DNA fractionation, as well as an increase of lethal -and mutation- events. Upon combination of the Tannat wine and H2O2 a significant decrease of double strand breaks was observed, in

  17. Foaming properties of various Champagne wines depending on several parameters: grape variety, aging, protein and CO2 content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilindre, Clara; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Jeandet, Philippe; Marchal, Richard

    2010-02-15

    A comparison of the foaming parameters of various Champagne wines was undergone with two well distinct methods: (i) a classical gas-sparging method providing standardized but artificial effervescence conditions (the so-called Mosalux), and (ii) a computer assisted viewing equipment (CAVE), much closer to the real champagne tasting conditions. The latter one is the only apparatus which enables a thorough descriptive analysis of foam behavior, during the pouring process of a sparkling wine, and from the end of its pouring. Various Champagne wines elaborated from two grape varieties (Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier) and having experienced different aging-periods (15 months and 5 years) were analyzed and compared to a model sparkling wine, elaborated from a model base wine (devoid of grape colloids). The CO(2) and protein content was also investigated to discuss the foaming behavior of these wines. A significant loss of the CO(2) content during aging was observed and might be the reason for the worse foaming properties of the old champagnes, as determined with CAVE. It is worth noting that contradictory foaming parameters were obtained through the Mosalux method, which is indeed more intrusive than the CAVE, and finally far from the real champagne tasting conditions, since it requires filtration and champagne degassing prior experiment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fruit Ripes and Anthocyanin Pigments in the Skin of Grapes (Vitis spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    白石, 眞一; 渡部, 由香; Shiraishi, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yuka

    1994-01-01

    In ‘Royal’, ‘Russki Concord’ and ‘Schuyler’ grapes, anthocyanin composition was slightly changed during ripening. However, the anthocyanin composition of ‘Queen’ showed evolution. Major anthocyanin, malvidin glucoside, was appeared in the early period of ripening. Because the end product as malvidin glucoside was appeared soon, the biosynthesis of anthocyanin was rapidly proceeded to last step at an early stage of fruit color development. The anthocyanin compositions of ‘Kaiji’, ‘Koshu’, ‘Sek...

  19. Influence of gamma rays irradiation to chlorphyriphos insecticides residues in grapes (vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairul, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Simulation methods to determination of chlorphyriphos insecticides residue in grapes cause effect gamma rays, was done. Fruits of grapes soaked with chlorpyriphos insecticide solution high level concentrated (100 ppm; 200 ppm; and 300 ppm) for 3 (three minutes). The treatment of the sample was direct of extraction after soaks; extract after storage for one week after soak, and extract after soak after storage for one week after irradiation at 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy; and 1.5 kGy dose. Extraction methods using ethyl acetate solvent, and using sodium sulphate as to dryed water level in grapes, and then extractan was injected to chromatography gas use electron capture detector. The result indicated that occur of descent of chlorpyrifos residues from eachs soaked consequence at storage for one week was amount 7,55; 8,42; and 18,88% respectively, while of consequence irradiation of gamma ray at 0,5 kGy doses, will be descent of chlorpyrifos residues in amount 13,90; 19,16; and 52,79% respectively, and at 1,0 kGy doses irradiation will be descent in amount 34,45; 36,15 and 49,79%, respectively. (author)

  20. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  2. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  3. New phenolic grape skin products from Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneknopoulos, Petros; Skouroumounis, George K; Hayasaka, Yoji; Taylor, Dennis K

    2011-02-09

    Anthocyanins and their related compounds were extracted from grape skins of Pinot noir, using 50% aqueous methanol, and purified by solid phase extraction chromatography using XAD-7 resin to obtain a pigment-rich fraction. This fraction was subjected to multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC) using a quaternary solvent system consisting of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water acidified with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid (2:2:0.1-1.8:5) (v/v/v/v) in a step gradient elution to separate anthocyanin oligomers from grape anthocyanins. In the process of the characterization of the MLCCC fractions by electrospray mass spectrometry, two noncolored anthocyanin derivatives were found and characterized on the basis of their mass spectral data. As a result, these compounds have been tentatively identified as coupling products between both hydrated malvidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside, with 2-S-glutathionyl caffeoyl tartaric acid (GRP). It is therefore proposed that grape skins contain this new class of coupling product, and a possible chemical pathway for their formation is suggested.

  4. Grape microbiome as a reliable and persistent signature of field origin and environmental conditions in Cannonau wine production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mezzasalma

    Full Text Available Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments. Results suggested that microbiomes of berries collected at four different localities share a core composition characterized by Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Bacillales, and Rhodospirillales. However, any area seems to enrich berries microbiome with peculiar microbial traits. For example, berries belonging to the biodynamic vineyards of Mamoiada were rich in Bacillales typical of manure (i.e. Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, and Sporosarcina, whereas in the Santadi locality, berries showed soil bacteria such as Pasteurellales and Bacteroidales as well as Rhodospirillales and Lactobacillales which are commonly involved in wine fermentation. In the case of fungi, the most abundant taxa were Dothioraceae, Pleosporaceae, and Saccharomycodaceae, and although the proportion of these families varied among localities, they occurred ubiquitously in all vineyards. During vinification processes performed at the same wine cellar under controlled conditions and without using any yeast starter, more than 50% of bacteria groups of berries reached musts, and each locality had its own private bacteria signature, even if Saccharomyces cerevisiae represented the most abundant fungal species. This work suggests that natural berries microbiome could be influenced by pedoclimatic and anthropologic conditions (e.g., farming management, and the fruits' microorganisms persist during the fermentation process. For these reasons, a reliable wine

  5. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  6. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View

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    Fernanda Cosme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact.

  7. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cane Koteski; Zlatko Jakovlev; Dragana Soltirovska

    2016-01-01

    Wine (Latin: vinum) is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained ...

  8. Influence of processing and storage of integral grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on its physical and chemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Pinto, E P; Lucchetta, L; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-05-31

    Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process. The organic grapes were subjected to ultraviolet-type C radiation (UV-C). Experiments were performed after production and after 6 months in storage. Physicochemical analyses revealed that UV-C irradiation of organic grapes, the juice production process, and storage resulted in nutraceutical alterations. However, none of the juice concentrations were cytotoxic to HTC cells by the cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index results or were mutagenic, because the formation of micronucleated cells was not induced. In general, juice induced cell proliferation, possibly due to the presence of vitamins and sugar content (total soluble solid). The data increased the understanding of food technology and confirmed the quality and safety consumption of these juices.

  9. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-06-27

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V. quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', was focused for functional studies. Over-expression of TLP29 from grape 'Shang-24' (VqTLP29) in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced its resistance to powdery mildew and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but decreased resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, the stomatal closure immunity response to pathogen associated molecular patterns was strengthened in the transgenic lines. A comparison of the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes after infection with different pathogens indicated that VqTLP29 may be involved in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathways.

  11. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  12. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains on General Composition and Sensorial Properties of White Wines Made from Vitis vinifera cv. Albariño

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    Mar Vilanova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast strains contribute to the oenological and sensorial characteristics of the wines they produce. The present study was performed to determine the influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on the composition and sensorial properties of Albariño wine. The must obtained from Albariño grapes was inoculated with 12 different yeast strains isolated from a single winery in Galicia, Spain. Chemical and sensorial analyses were performed on the final wines, which differed depending on the yeast strain used.

  13. GRAPE MATURITY OF RHEIN RIESLING CULTIVAR AND SYNTHESIS OF ATYPICAL AGEING AROMA PRECURSORS

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    Snježana Jakobović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on forming atypical aging off-flavor in wines (UTA was revealed a significant correlation between the UTA , the concentration of 2-aminoacetophenones (AAP and the wines produced from grapes affected by stress (lack of water or nitrogen supply, wines from grapes grown in high yielding vineyards or earlier harvested grapes. The aim of this study was to explore the different grape ripeness and synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wine of white cultivar Rhine Rieslin (Vitis vinifera L.. Treatments in the research have been the two periods of the grape harvesting dates (regular and late harvesting from two different locations (Mladice and Hrnjevac. Indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. As the process of ripening was going on the concentration of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wines have been reduced regardless the year of research and vineyards positions. Wines produced from late harvested grapes have a lower possibility of the appearance of atypical aroma aging effect compared to the regular harvest.

  14. Black Aspergillus species as ochratoxin A producers in Portuguese wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Rita; Abrunhosa, Luís; Kozakiewicz, Zofia; Venâncio, Armando

    2003-11-15

    To evaluate the incidence of fungi producing ochratoxin A (OA) in Portuguese wine grapes, a survey was conducted in 11 vineyards, from four winemaking regions each with distinct climatic conditions. From setting to the harvesting period, a total of 1,650 berries were sampled by plating methods. Out of 370 aspergilli and 301 Penicillium strains isolated, 14% of the aspergilli were OA-producing strains. None of the penicillia were OA-producing strains. The black aspergilli were predominant (90%). All Aspergillus strains were tested in vitro for OA production and all were preserved in the Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM) culture collection. Most of the Aspergillus carbonarius (97%) and 4% of the Aspergillus niger aggregate strains were OA producers. Almost all ochratoxigenic strains were isolated at harvest time, mainly in the regions with a Mediterranean climate. In the vineyards sampled, the percentage of colonized berries with ochratoxigenic strains was up to 38%. The vineyards from the region with Atlantic influences, with high rainfall, exhibited the lowest occurrence of Aspergillus and ochratoxigenic strains, 0% to 10% and 0% to 2% colonized berries, respectively. Data obtained here supports the hypothesis that A. carbonarius and occasionally A. niger, are the main producers of OA in grapes. In this study, the highest incidence of these fungi occurred in vineyards with a Mediterranean climate.

  15. Phytosterols in grapes and wine, and effects of agrochemicals on their levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Antonietta; Vitalini, Sara; Burlini, Nedda; Bernasconi, Silvana; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-12-15

    To improve the knowledge on the chemical diversity and complexity of grapevine, we investigated the plant sterol content of berry and seed tissues at pre-véraison and véraison stages in 2009 and 2010. We also assessed the effects of benzothiadiazole and chitosan elicitors on content of sterols in grapes and their levels in the corresponding experimental wines. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant component in berry tissues, in both growth stages and years, with the highest amounts in the flesh and skin at pre-véraison and véraison, respectively. Stigmasterol and campesterol were present in lower concentrations in both phenological stages and vintages. During the transition from pre-véraison to véraison, phytosterols decreased in all tissues, in both years, apart from stigmasterol in seeds. In addition, the results showed that the plant activators were more effective than conventional fungicides in rising the levels of sterols, particularly β-sitosterol, both in grapes and in microvinificates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Aydın

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl₄ in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 μg ml⁻¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 μg ml⁻¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl₄ caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl₄ along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA.

  17. Chemical composition, bioactive compounds, and volatiles of six table grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Christophe; Chalot, Guillaume

    2018-02-01

    Six table grape cultivars (Centennial Seedless, Chasselas, Italia, Italia Rubi, Alphonse Lavallée, and Muscat de Hambourg) were analyzed for their levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, vitamin C and E, carotenoids, polyphenolics and volatile compounds during two successive years. Descriptive sensory analyses of the six table grape varieties were also performed. Mainly due to anthocyanins, black cultivars had the highest total phenolic contents. Alphonse Lavallée had also both the highest levels of trans-resveratrol and piceid, and Muscat de Hambourg the highest levels of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and monoterpenols, well-known key aroma compounds in Muscat varieties having also interesting pharmacological properties. This study shows that the two traditional black French cultivars, Muscat de Hambourg and Alphonse Lavallée, are particularly rich in bioactive compounds and have a great potential for human health. Finally, Muscat de Hambourg was significantly rated sweeter, juicier and more aromatic than the others cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural characterization of polysaccharides isolated from grape stalks of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Costa, Elisabete V; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Lopes, Luísa P Cruz; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2012-07-15

    The main structural polysaccharides of grape stalks are cellulose, heteroxylan, and glucan. Cellulose contributes 30.3% of grape stalk matter and has an unusually high degree of the crystallinity (75.4%). Among hemicelluloses, xylan was the most abundant one, contributing ∼12% to the weight. The heteroxylan was isolated from the corresponding peracetic holocellulose by DMSO extraction followed by precipitation in ethanol. The M(w) of heteroxylan (19.0 kDa) was assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the structure was inferred by methanolysis and methylation linkage analysis, as well as 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The heteroxylan is a partially acetylated (DS=0.49) glucuronoxylan possessing the main backbone composed by β-(1→4)-linked D-xylopyranosyl units ramified with α-(1→2)-linked 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronosyl residues (MeGlcpA) at a molar ratio 25:1. The isolated heteroxylan contained concomitant β-glucan (ca. 15%), whose structure was elucidated by methylation linkage analysis and by NMR spectroscopy. The results obtained revealed mixed β-(1→3; 1→4)-D-glucan with a molar ratio of β-(1→3)- to β-(1→4)-linked glucopyranosyl units of 1:2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the influence of white grape seed extracts as copigment sources on the anthocyanin extraction from grape skins previously classified by near infrared hyperspectral tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Jara-Palacios, María José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Heredia, Francisco José

    2017-04-15

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used to classify red grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) according to their predicted extractable total anthocyanin content (i.e. extractable total anthocyanin content determined by a hyperspectral method). Low, medium and high levels of predicted extractable total anthocyanin content were established. Then, grape skins were split into three parts and each part was macerated into a different model wine solution for a three-day period. Wine model solutions were made up with different concentration of copigments coming from white grape seeds. Aqueous supernatants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and extractable anthocyanin contents were obtained. Principal component analyses and analyses of variance were carried out with the aim of studying trends related to the extractable anthocyanin contents. Significant differences were found among grapes with different levels of predicted extractable anthocyanin contents. Moreover, no significant differences were found on the extractable anthocyanin contents using different copigment concentrations in grape skin macerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  1. Nitrogen requirements of commercial wine yeast strains during fermentation of a synthetic grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alicia; Chiva, Rosana; Sancho, Marta; Beltran, Gemma; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Guillamon, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Nitrogen deficiencies in grape musts are one of the main causes of stuck or sluggish wine fermentations. Currently, the most common method for dealing with nitrogen-deficient fermentations is adding supplementary nitrogen (usually ammonium phosphate). However, it is important to know the specific nitrogen requirement of each strain, to avoid excessive addition that can lead to microbial instability and ethyl carbamate accumulation. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of increasing nitrogen concentrations of three different nitrogen sources on growth and fermentation performance in four industrial wine yeast strains. This task was carried out using statistical modeling techniques. The strains PDM and RVA showed higher growth-rate and maximum population size and consumed nitrogen much more quickly than strains ARM and TTA. Likewise, the strains PDM and RVA were also the greatest nitrogen demanders. Thus, we can conclude that these differences in nitrogen demand positively correlated with higher growth rate and higher nitrogen uptake rate. The most direct effect of employing an adequate nitrogen concentration is the increase in biomass, which involves a higher fermentation rate. However, the impact of nitrogen on fermentation rate is not exclusively due to the increase in biomass because the strain TTA, which showed the worst growth behavior, had the best fermentation activity. Some strains may adapt a strategy whereby fewer cells with higher metabolic activity are produced. Regarding the nitrogen source used, all the strains showed the better and worse fermentation performance with arginine and ammonium, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of postharvest grape withering to optimise the aroma of the final wine: A case study on Amarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellincontro, A; Matarese, F; D'Onofrio, C; Accordini, D; Tosi, E; Mencarelli, F

    2016-12-15

    Amarone wine is different from regular dry wine due to the postharvest withering of Corvina, Corvinone and Rondinella grapes. Grapes were withered in a commercial facility with variability in terms of temperature and relative humidity (R.H.). Sugar content reached 230-240gL(-1) and 280gL(-1) at 20% and 30% mass loss, respectively. Most of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) decreased during withering but few VOCs increased during withering and we considered as markers; in Corvinone they were methylhexanoate, dimethylsuccinate, nerol, nonanoic acid, and benzyl alcohol; in Corvina, benzyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, p-cymen-8-ol, 2,3 pinanediol, 3-oxo-ionol and 3-methyl-1-pentanol, coumaran and damascenone; in Rondinella, hexanol, nonanoic acid, methyl vanillate, damascenone, 3-oxo-ionol, eugenol, p-cymen-8-ol, 2,3 pinanediol, coumaran and raspberry keton. Olfactive descriptors of the wines and the potential aroma of the combination of Corvina wine with the wines of the other two varieties at different percentages of mass loss are reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless, 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. RESULTS: Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01. Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l. The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g and fructose (15.55 g/100 g contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l, o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l, and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l, and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g-1 from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. CONCLUSIONS: Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of

  4. Integrative Inferences on Pattern Geometries of Grapes Grown under Water Stress and Their Resulting Wines.

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    Fushing Hsieh

    Full Text Available Multiple datasets of two consecutive vintages of replicated grape and wines from six different deficit irrigation regimes are characterized and compared. The process consists of four temporal-ordered signature phases: harvest field data, juice composition, wine composition before bottling and bottled wine. A new computing paradigm and an integrative inferential platform are developed for discovering phase-to-phase pattern geometries for such characterization and comparison purposes. Each phase is manifested by a distinct set of features, which are measurable upon phase-specific entities subject to the common set of irrigation regimes. Throughout the four phases, this compilation of data from irrigation regimes with subsamples is termed a space of media-nodes, on which measurements of phase-specific features were recoded. All of these collectively constitute a bipartite network of data, which is then normalized and binary coded. For these serial bipartite networks, we first quantify patterns that characterize individual phases by means of a new computing paradigm called "Data Mechanics". This computational technique extracts a coupling geometry which captures and reveals interacting dependence among and between media-nodes and feature-nodes in forms of hierarchical block sub-matrices. As one of the principal discoveries, the holistic year-factor persistently surfaces as the most inferential factor in classifying all media-nodes throughout all phases. This could be deemed either surprising in its over-arching dominance or obvious based on popular belief. We formulate and test pattern-based hypotheses that confirm such fundamental patterns. We also attempt to elucidate the driving force underlying the phase-evolution in winemaking via a newly developed partial coupling geometry, which is designed to integrate two coupling geometries. Such partial coupling geometries are confirmed to bear causal and predictive implications. All pattern inferences

  5. Immunomodulating and anti-allergic effects of Negroamaro and Koshu Vitis vinifera fermented grape marc (FGM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzulli, Giuseppe; Magrone, Thea; Vonghia, Luisa; Kaneko, Masahiro; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Kumazawa, Yoshio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols contained in FGM from Negroamaro (N) and Koshu (K) Vitis vinifera have been shown to exhibit several immunomodulating activities. For instance, mice affected by experimental colitis when administered with K-FGM showed an attenuation of the inflammatory process. In murine asthma, K-FGM reduced IgE production and eosinophil number in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. In vitro, both N- and K-FGM were able to induce T regulatory cells in terms of Foxp-3 molecule expression and release of interleukin-10. In another set of experiments both N- and K-FGM were able to balance rate of proliferation/apoptosis/necrosis of normal human peripheral lymphocytes, thus indicating the property of these compounds to maintain immune homeostatic mechanisms in the host. On the other hand, N- and K-FGM inhibited human basophil degranulation, thus, confirming our previous results obtained with rat basophilic leukemia cells. Finally, N- and K-FGM also decreased oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes.Taken together, these findings imply the potential clinical usefulness of FGM administration in inflammatory/allergic conditions, such as chronic asthma.

  6. ROOTSTOCKS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BORDÔ, ISABEL AND IAC 138-22 MÁXIMO MUST AND WINE

    OpenAIRE

    MARLON JOCIMAR RODRIGUES DA SILVA; LUCIANA TREVISAN BRUNELLI; MARA FERNANDES MOURA; JOSÉ LUIZ HERNANDES; SARITA LEONEL; MARCO ANTONIO TECCHIO

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been demonstrated that rootstocks can influence grape characteristics, but there are few data in literature about the rootstocks influence in the wine characteristics, especially in wines elaborated with Vitis labrusca or hybrid grapes. This study evaluated the influence of ‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstocks on the physicochemical characteristics of ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and ‘IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts and wines. The musts were evaluated for pH, soluble solids, total acidity and...

  7. Microencapsulation and storage stability of polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Navarro, Patricia; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-01-01

    Wine production wastes are an interesting source of natural polyphenols. In this work, wine wastes extracts were encapsulated through vibration nozzle microencapsulation using sodium alginate as polymer and calcium chloride as hardening reagent. An experimental design approach was used to obtain calcium-alginate microbeads with high polyphenol content and good morphological features. In this way, the effect of pressure, frequency, voltage and the distance to the gelling bath were optimized for two nozzles of 150 and 300 μm. Long-term stability of the microbeads was studied for 6 months taking into account different storage conditions: temperatures (4 °C and room temperature), in darkness and in presence of light, and the addition of chitosan to the gelling bath. Encapsulated polyphenols were found to be much more stable compared to free polyphenols regardless the encapsulation procedure and storage conditions. Moreover, slightly lower degradation rates were obtained when chitosan was added to the gelling bath. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of two osmoethanol tolerant yeast strain to ferment must from Tempranillo dried grapes: effect on wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lerma, N; Peinado, R A

    2011-01-31

    The must from Tempranillo dried grapes was divided into four batches to produce sweet wine. The first one was fortified with ethanol up to 12% (v/v) to avoid fermentation (traditional way). Other two batches were partially fermented with two osmoethanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (X4 and X5). The last one was fermented with native yeast by spontaneous fermentation. Wines fermented partially with the strains X4 and X5 show high volatile acidity values (above 2g/L expressed as acetic acid), and a glycerol concentration around 20 g/L. Both strains also produce high amount of carboxylic acids and therefore the wines show a high ethyl ester concentration. Aromatic series were obtained for all the wines by grouping aroma compounds according to their odor descriptors. The series of the fermented wines with higher values in relation with the control wine were fruity, sweet and fatty, emphasizing the fruity series in the samples fermented with the X4 and X5 strains. The sensorial analysis of the wine samples by a tasting panel put in evidence that the musts fermented with the osmoethanol tolerant yeasts were better valued than the rest of the wine samples. The must fermented with the X4 strain obtained the maximum score in terms of aroma and flavour. So, the use of these osmoethanol tolerant S. cerevisiae strains could be a suitable alternative to produce sweet wines from must with high sugar concentration. The wines obtained this way are chemically and organoleptically more complex than those elaborated traditionally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzyme release of phenolics from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) skins and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz; Lu, Jiang; Gu, Liwei; Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Marshall, Maurice R

    2014-08-15

    Enzyme degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides can potentially enhance the release of bioactive phenolics. The aim of this study was to evaluate various combinations of solvent and enzyme, enzyme type (cellulase, pectinase, ß-glucosidase), and hydrolysis time (1, 4, 8, 24 h) on the release of muscadine grape skin and seed phenolics, and their antioxidant activities. Results showed that pre-treated muscadine skins and seeds with enzymes decreased total phenolic yield compared with solvent (50% ethanol) alone. Enzyme release of phenolics from skins of different muscadine varieties was significantly different while release from seeds was similar. Enzyme hydrolysis was found to shorten extraction time. Most importantly, enzyme hydrolysis modified the galloylated form of polyphenols to low molecular weight phenolics, releasing phenolic acids (especially gallic acid), and enhancing antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans -caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans -caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3- O -glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  11. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  12. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  13. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  14. The influence of climate change on wine production - the case of the Touriga Nacional grape variety (Quinta dos Termos, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, João

    2017-04-01

    The regional and local climate, heavily influenced by global climate change, has strong implications for agriculture. Wine production which has specific characteristics in terms of climate and soil is undoubtedly one of the economic activities strongly influenced by climate change. Quinta dos Termos located in Beira Interior (Belmonte, Portugal) is the largest wine producer in the DOC Beira Interior region, producing premium to hiper premium wines of excellence, marketed at both national and international levels, and cultivates the vineyards according to the rules of Integrated Crop Management. Moreover, grapes are free from herbicides, pesticides or any other chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and health. These factors have contributed to the socio-economic development of the region, creating wealth, favoring employment and promoting tourism. The quality of the wines produced by Quinta dos Termos result from its terroir, given its granite region, the sun exposure, the wind protection, the atmospheric humidity and temperature, the soil water content, the mineralogical/organic composition and soil porosity. These factors favor unique conditions for the cultivation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, which is recognized by its extremely complex color and aroma, which allows the production of wines with great balance and a good ageing potential. Touriga Nacional, a red grape variety of Portuguese origin with high qualitative excellence and reputation and much appreciated worldwide, is versatile to several types of soils and resistant to high thermal amplitudes. Nevertheless, the climatic changes that has been gradually verified, the type of crop management, and in particular the reputation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, may be compromised in the long term, given that these characteristics are strongly influenced by the climate and soil. Aware of that, Quinta dos Termos has been performing a monitoring of the vineyards in terms of pedological treatment

  15. Influence of climate variability on grape production and wine quality in the Rias Baixas, north-western Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Lorenzo, Nieves; Taboada, Juan; Lorenzo, Jose

    2013-04-01

    Climate variability has an important role on grape production and wine quality. Wine grapes require a very specific set of climatic conditions; they need a mean temperature of between 12°C and 22°C during the growing season. The local and regional atmospheric changes that result from global climate change could have a significant effect on grapevine phenology, grape production and wine quality. For one of the main areas protected under the denomination of origin Rías Baixas, in Galicia, Spain, we explore the relationships among grape production, wine quality, rainfall and temperature for the period 1987 - 2005. The influence of climatic variability was analysed in terms of the relationship between the productivity of the grapevines and the main meteorological teleconnection patterns affecting the North Atlantic region. We consider three bioclimatic indices for viticultural zoning, Winkler and Huglin, and the hydrothermic index of Branas, Bernon and Levadoux. While significant trends were identified in the Winkler and Huglin indices, there were no significant trends in the Branas, Bernon and Levadoux index, for the period 1958 - 2005. In addition, we had also investigate the daily variation in atmospheric circulation through the study of the influence of circulation weather types derived using an automated daily classification. For the coming decades, using the scenario A1B evaluated by the regional climate models used in the ENSEMBLES project, the positive trends of Winkler and Huglin indices continue, while Branas, Bernon and Levadoux implies a negative trend. In all cases, these trends induce significant changes in the viticulture of the region. This work was supported by the Xunta de Galicia under Research Grant No. 10PXIB383169PR and co-financing by European Regional Development Fund (FEDER)

  16. Water activity and temperature effects on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata strains isolated from Malbec wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendes, L P; Zachetti, V G L; Pereyra, A; Morata de Ambrosini, V I; Ramirez, M L

    2017-02-01

    To study the effects of water activity (a W ; 0·99, 0·98, 0·97, 0·96 and 0·95), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C), incubation time (7-28 days), and their interactions on mycelial growth and alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) mycotoxin production on a synthetic nutrient (SN) media similar to grape composition by three strains of Alternaria alternata isolated from wine grapes from Argentina. Interacting conditions of a W , temperature and time of incubation were used to examine growth and mycotoxin production. All strains were able to grow at 0·95 a W , but maximum growth rates were obtained at 0·99 a W and 25°C. Maximum levels of AOH, AME and TA were obtained at 0·99 a W and 25°C, but high amounts of TA were also obtained at 0·96 a W and 15 or 30°C. Production of AOH and AME was favoured over TA at 25°C. TA levels were more sustained than AOH and AME. The optimum and marginal conditions for growth and mycotoxin production by A. alternata on a SN media similar to grape composition were in agreement, but certain stressful conditions for growth evaluated also promote mycotoxin production. Temperature and a W conditions that allows growth and mycotoxin production are those normally found during wine grape ripeness in the field. Therefore, efforts should be made to prevent Alternaria presence and mycotoxin production in wine grapes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. BRAIN NEURON REGENERATION IN POST-STROKE REHABILITATION TREATMENT USING GRAPE PEEL AND SEED EXTRACT (Vitis vinifera IN INDUCING ERK1 / 2 PATHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella Yolanda Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Ischemic stroke can cause hypoxia in brain tissue and damage the neuron. The defense ability and plasticity is activated by ERK1/2 pathway. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK1/2 pathway mechanism. This research aiming to prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in anatomical and functional view. Method. This research use true experimental design with sample in this research is 20 male 8-10 weeks old wistar strain rats which are induced stroke by internal and external carotid artery occlusion method. There are five groups in this research, negative control, positive control, grape peel and seed extract 50mg/KgBW, 100mg/KgBW, and 200mg/KgBW. After reassurement that rat suffer from stroke with MMP9, cylinder test and ladder rung walking test, rats are given grape peel and seed extract in variable dose to know how extract’s effect in neuron repairment. Results. The repairment is monitored from four parameters, namely cylinder test score, ladder rung walking test score, extensive infarct volume, and number of damaged neuron. Conclusion. The result is 50mg/KgBW is effective in repairing neuron. It is seen from the result of improvement in four parameters explained above.

  18. Cells-qPCR as a direct quantitative PCR method to avoid microbial DNA extractions in grape musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Santos, Verónica; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi

    2017-11-16

    A novel quantitative PCR assay called Cells-qPCR has been developed for the rapid detection and quantification of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) directly from grape must and wine that does not require DNA extraction. The assay was tested on Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Oenococcus oeni, Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans in culture media, and in white and red grape musts and wines. Standard curves were constructed from DNA and cells for the six target species in all the matrices. Good efficiencies were obtained for both when comparing DNA and cells standard curves. No reaction inhibition was observed between matrices for each species. Cells quantification was linear over a range of cell concentrations (7, 5 or 4 orders of magnitude) and detected as few as one cell per reaction in all the matrices. The developed Cells-qPCR assay is a robust, reliable, fast and specific method to detect and quantify different yeasts, LAB and AAB species in grape must and wine that avoids DNA extraction and overcomes the presence of inhibitors like polyphenols and ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  20. 1H NMR and chemometrics to characterize mature grape berries in four wine-growing areas in Bordeaux, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Giuliano E; Gaudillere, Jean-Pierre; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Lavialle, Olivier; Maucourt, Mickael; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Rolin, Dominique

    2005-08-10

    The biochemical composition of grape berries depends on the cultivar genome and is influenced by environmental conditions and growing practices, which vary according to origin and "terroir" (French word accounting for the factors of climate, soil, and cultural practices on grape and wine quality). The components currently measured to determine the potential quality of grapes for wine-making at harvest are sugars, acidity, pH, and total phenolics, referred to as "classic analysis". The aim of this work was to establish metabolic profiles using both conventional physicochemical analyses and 1H NMR spectrometry of the skin and pulp of mature berry extracts in order in four appellations situated in different locations in southern-western France (Bordeaux). Principal component analysis was applied to the physiochemical and 1H NMR data to investigate the variability of the grape composition and to characterize groups of samples. A significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulps or skins in relation to their terroir was observed. Physicochemical analyses were more discriminant than 1H NMR data, but NMR spectroscopy allowed metabolic finger-printings using identified metabolites and some still nonattributed resonances.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two cultivars of Syrian grapes Vitis vinifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Bashir, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two local table grape varieties: Baladi and Helwani. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996, when both varieties were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy in the first year. In the second year two additional doses were used 0.1 and 0.25 kGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 kGy for Baladi. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored in a refrigerated room (temperature, 1–2°C). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every 2 and 4 weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. The results have shown that gamma irradiation improved the storability of both varieties. In addition, irradiation prevented molding and prolonged the storage time. The optimum doses for improving the storability were 0.5–1.0 kGy for Helwani and 1.5–2.0 kGy for Baladi, and the storage periods can be extended by 50% using these optimal doses for both varieties

  2. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Volatile composition of Carignan noir wines from ungrafted and grafted onto País (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines from ten wine-growing sites in Maule Valley, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Garde-Cerdán, T; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Martínez-Gil, A M; Del Alamo-Sanza, M; Moreno-Simunovic, Y

    2018-02-09

    Carignan noir is one of the minor and ancient varieties from the Chilean wine scenario, which has had a resurgence due to its rediscovered oenological potential when cultivated under the conditions of the interior dryland area. Under these growing conditions Carignan noir wines stand out as fruit driven and fresh when compared to those coming from other growing areas. On the other hand, it is well known that wine aroma composition depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and winemaking. Thus, the aim of this work was to study volatile composition of wines from Carignan noir grapes coming from ungrafted and grafted onto País grapevines, in ten sites of the Maule Valley (Chile) during two consecutive vintages. Higher alcohols were the most abundant volatile compounds whereas, ethyl esters and ß-damascenone were the most odoriferous compounds according to their OAV. The dominant factor in Carignan noir wine volatile composition was season, whereas rootstock did not have a significant effect in differentiating the wines. In terms of climate, cold nights during the month prior to harvest correlated with higher linalool, α-terpineol and trans-3-hexen-1-ol content. Biologically effective degree-days index was inversely correlated with isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate content. Huglin's Heliothermal and the Average Mean Temperature of the Warmest Month indexes were inversely correlated with ethyl vanillate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate content. Site climate conditions were related to the accumulation of certain wine volatile compounds. This information may be useful for devising new Carignan noir vineyard management strategies in order to improve wine quality or to adjust site selection approaches in order to maximize grape/wine volatile composition according to wine style. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. An Sfp-type PPTase and associated polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthases in Agrobacterium vitis are essential for induction of tobacco hypersensitive response and grape necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    An Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) encoding gene F-avi5813 in Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 was found to be required for the induction of a tobacco hypersensitive response (HR) and grape necrosis. Sfp-type PPTases are post-translation modification enzymes that activate acyl-carry protein (ACP) domains in polyketide synthases (PKS) and peptidyl-carrier protein (PCP) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS). Mutagenesis of PKS and NRPS genes in A. vitis led to the identification of a PKS gene (F-avi4330) and NRPS gene (F-avi3342) that are both required for HR and necrosis. The gene immediately downstream of F-avi4330 (F-avi4329) encoding a predicted aminotransferase was also found to be required for HR and necrosis. Regulation of F-avi4330 and F-avi3342 by quorum-sensing genes avhR, aviR, and avsR and by a lysR-type regulator, lhnR, was investigated. It was determined that F-avi4330 expression is positively regulated by avhR, aviR, and lhnR and negatively regulated by avsR. F-avi3342 was found to be positively regulated by avhR, aviR, and avsR and negatively regulated by lhnR. Our results suggest that a putative hybrid peptide-polyketide metabolite synthesized by F-avi4330 and F-avi3342 is associated with induction of tobacco HR and grape necrosis. This is the first report that demonstrates that NRPS and PKS play essential roles in conferring the unique ability of A. vitis to elicit a non-host-specific HR and host-specific necrosis.

  5. Wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains display biofilm-like morphology in contact with polyphenols from grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidari, Rossana; Caridi, Andrea; Howell, Kate S

    2014-10-17

    Polyphenols are a major component of wine grapes, and contribute to color and flavor, but their influence upon yeast growth forms has not been investigated. In this work we have studied the effect of polyphenols on the ability of natural isolates of wine-related Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to form biofilms attaching to plastic surfaces, to grow as mat colonies, to invade media, and to display filamentous growth. The use of carbon- and nitrogen-rich or deficient media simulated grape juice fermentation conditions. The addition of wine polyphenols to these media affected biofilm formation, and cells exhibited a wide variety of invasiveness and mat formation ability with associated different growth and footprint patterns. Microscopic observation revealed that some strains switched to filamentous phenotypes which were able to invade media. The wide range of phenotypic expression observed could have a role in selection of strains suitable for inoculated wine fermentations and may explain the persistence of yeast strains in vineyard and winery environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  7. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The behaviour of trace elements and radionuclides in must of grapes during fermentation and usual wine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.H.; Fischer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The elements Co(II), Sr(II), Cs(I), Tl(I) and Am(III) were added as their radionuclides to the must of white grapes of one vintage and from that wine was prepared using usual wine technology. The elimination of the elements during the fermentation and as a consequence of the subsequent treatments has been determined. The decrease of the metal contents with time follows approximately an exponential function in the cases of Co, Cs, Tl and Am, whereas the Sr-content remains nearly constant. In the total balance, the following residual values were found in the final wine: Co 8.6+-0.6%, Sr 41+-4%, Cs 0.13+-0.07 resp. 0.031+-0.008%, Tl 1.3+-0.2% and Am 1.0+-0.2% of the initial value. (orig./PW) [de

  9. Enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, T L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D

    2007-06-01

    To develop a practical integrated pest management (IPM) system for the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in wine grapes, we assessed the spatial distribution of H. axyridis and developed eight sampling plans to estimate adult density or infestation level in grape clusters. We used 49 data sets collected from commercial vineyards in 2004 and 2005, in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Enumerative plans were developed using two precision levels (0.10 and 0.25); the six binomial plans reflected six unique action thresholds (3, 7, 12, 18, 22, and 31% of cluster samples infested with at least one H. axyridis). The spatial distribution of H. axyridis in wine grapes was aggregated, independent of cultivar and year, but it was more randomly distributed as mean density declined. The average sample number (ASN) for each sampling plan was determined using resampling software. For research purposes, an enumerative plan with a precision level of 0.10 (SE/X) resulted in a mean ASN of 546 clusters. For IPM applications, the enumerative plan with a precision level of 0.25 resulted in a mean ASN of 180 clusters. In contrast, the binomial plans resulted in much lower ASNs and provided high probabilities of arriving at correct "treat or no-treat" decisions, making these plans more efficient for IPM applications. For a tally threshold of one adult per cluster, the operating characteristic curves for the six action thresholds provided binomial sequential sampling plans with mean ASNs of only 19-26 clusters, and probabilities of making correct decisions between 83 and 96%. The benefits of the binomial sampling plans are discussed within the context of improving IPM programs for wine grapes.

  10. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L M; McGlynn, W; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2014-04-15

    Phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols and stilbenes (PAFFS) were isolated from whole grapes, juice, or pomace and purified using enzymatic hydrolysis. Only anthocyanin mono-glucosides and a few of the oligomers from Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) were analysed. Flavonoid-anthocyanin mono-glucosides (FA) were isolated using methanol/0.1% hydrochloric acid extraction. In addition, crude extractions of phenolic compounds from Cynthiana grape using 50% methanol, 70% methanol, 50% acetone, 0.01% pectinase, or petroleum ether were also evaluated. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to identify phenolic compounds. A method was developed for simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of both PAFFS and FA. Quantification was performed by the internal standard method using a five points regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance for each analyte. From whole grape samples nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The individual phenolic compounds content varied from 3 to 875 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For juice, twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The content varied from 0.07 to 910 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For pomace, a total of fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The content varied from 2 mg kg⁻¹ to 198 mg kg⁻¹ dry matter. Results from HPLC analysis of the samples showed that gallic acid and (+)-catechin hydrate were the major phenolic compounds in both whole grapes and pomace. Cyanidin and petunidin 3-O-glucoside were the major anthocyanin glucosides in the juice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Efficacy of the application of a coating composed of chitosan and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to control Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Nereide Serafim Timóteo; Athayde Aguiar, Ana Júlia Alves; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Veríssimo de Sales, Camila; de Melo E Silva, Silvanda; Sousa da Silva, Rosana; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CHI) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OV) in the inhibition of Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3728 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 on laboratory media and on grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) and its influence on the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days). The application of mixtures of different CHI and OV concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungi. The application of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations (CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/4 MIC; CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/2 MIC) inhibited spore germination and caused morphological changes in fungal spores and mycelia, in addition to inhibiting the growth of the assayed fungi strains in artificially infected grapes as well as the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperature. In general, the application of a coating composed of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical and physicochemical attributes, while some of their sensory attributes improved throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, R. stolonifer and A. niger in grapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine on red bordeaux and loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujou de Boubée, D; Van Leeuwen, C; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-10-01

    The 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine content in grapes and red wines was assayed by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, following vapor extraction and purification on a cation resin microcolumn. The threshold beyond which the green bell pepper character is marked in wines has been determined. From a comparison of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 50 red Bordeaux and Loire wines from different vintages and grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot) with the intensity of the green bell pepper character as perceived on tasting, the threshold value was estimated to be 15 ng/L. Statistical analysis of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 89 red Bordeaux wines showed that Cabernet wines were more commonly affected by this vegetative character. Changes in the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration as the grapes ripen are affected by the environmental and cultural conditions (soil, climate, training system, etc.). A very good correlation was shown between the breakdown of malic acid and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine as the grapes ripened, irrespective of grape variety, type of soil, or weather conditions.

  13. Physical attributes of ultisol of Brazil's northeastern semiarid under organic farming of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardenia R. Feitosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic farming of wine grapes under physical and chemical characteristics of Ultisol Brazil's northeastern semiarid region. The samples of soil were collected from the row and interrow of the farming and from the fallow area, at the depths of 0.0-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.60 m. The samples were collected at six and twelve months after the culture implementation to evaluate the state of aggregation, bulk density and total soil porosity, flocculation index and organic matter contents, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. The adoption of organic farming contributed to the soil aggregation process. The bulk density and total soil porosity did not differ significantly between the evaluations, but were within the critical limits for sandy soils. The index flocculation did not have a great influence on the aggregates formation, being this process influenced by organic matter. The period of one year was considered short to obtain conclusive results in improving the soil quality by organic farming, since there are difficulties in tropical soils in promoting significant increases in organic matter content in short time.

  14. Physical attributes of Ultisol of Brazil's northeastern semiarid under organic farming of wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Jardenia R; Mendes, Alessandra M S; Olszevski, Nelci; Cunha, Tony J F; Cortez, Jorge W; Giongo, Vanderlise

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic farming of wine grapes under physical and chemical characteristics of Ultisol Brazil's northeastern semiarid region. The samples of soil were collected from the row and interrow of the farming and from the fallow area, at the depths of 0.0-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.60 m. The samples were collected at six and twelve months after the culture implementation to evaluate the state of aggregation, bulk density and total soil porosity, flocculation index and organic matter contents, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. The adoption of organic farming contributed to the soil aggregation process. The bulk density and total soil porosity did not differ significantly between the evaluations, but were within the critical limits for sandy soils. The index flocculation did not have a great influence on the aggregates formation, being this process influenced by organic matter. The period of one year was considered short to obtain conclusive results in improving the soil quality by organic farming, since there are difficulties in tropical soils in promoting significant increases in organic matter content in short time.

  15. Preventative Disease Management and Grower Decision Making: A Case Study of California Wine-Grape Growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Kaplan, Jonathan; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2017-06-01

    Preventative disease management is challenging to farmers because it requires paying immediate costs in the hopes of returning uncertain future benefits. Understanding farmer decision making about prevention has the potential to reduce disease incidence and minimize the need for more costly postinfection practices. For example, the grapevine trunk-disease complex (esca, Botryosphaeria dieback, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback) significantly affects vineyard productivity and longevity. Given the chronic nature of the infections and inability to eradicate the fungal pathogens, the preventative practices of delayed pruning, applications of pruning-wound protectants, and double pruning (also known as prepruning) are the most effective means of management. We surveyed wine-grape growers in six regions of California on their use of these three practices. In spite of acknowledging the yield impacts of trunk diseases, a substantial number of respondents either choose not to use preventative practices or incorrectly adopted them in mature vineyards, too late in the disease cycle to be effective. Growers with more negative perceptions of cost efficacy were less likely to adopt preventative practices or were more likely to time adoption incorrectly in mature vineyards. In general, preventative management may require strong intervention in the form of policy or extension to motivate behavioral change.

  16. Indirect Field Measurement of Wine-Grape Vineyard Canopy Leaf Area Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Pierce, Lars L.; Skiles, J. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) indirect measurements were made at 12 study plots in California's Napa Valley commercial wine-grape vineyards with a LI-COR LI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA). The plots encompassed different trellis systems, biological varieties, and planting densities. LAI ranged from 0.5 - 2.25 sq m leaf area/ sq m ground area according to direct (defoliation) measurements. Indirect LAI reported by the PCA was significantly related to direct LAI (r(exp 2) = 0.78, p less than 001). However, the PCA tended to underestimate direct LAI by about a factor of two. Narrowing the instrument's conical field of view from 148 deg to 56 deg served to increase readings by approximately 30%. The PCA offers a convenient way to discern relative differences in vineyard canopy density. Calibration by direct measurement (defoliation) is recommended in cases where absolute LAI is desired. Calibration equations provided herein may be inverted to retrieve actual vineyard LAI from PCA readings.

  17. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  18. Comparison of a pectinolytic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus and a commercial enzyme preparation in the production of Ives (Vitis labrusca) grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

  19. Effects of exogenous growth regulators on cell suspension culture of yin-hong grape (vitis vinifera l.) and establishment of the optimum medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.; Feng, J.C.; Yan, W.Y.; Xiao, Y.; Jun, Y.Y

    2015-01-01

    Callus induced by stem of Yin-hong grape (Vitis vinifera L.) was used as materials and B5 medium as basic medium. The major growth parameters of cell suspension cultures with various levels of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) were investigated to provide a basis for the optimum medium of suspension cell cultures of Yin-hong grape regarding cell number, packed cell volume (PCV), dry cell weight (DCW), cell viability, and morphology. All data were analysed by of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the treatment of 6-BA and NAA would effect the cell growth dynamics, probably causing logarithmic phase in advance at higher levels of 6-BA. Different concentration of 6-BA and NAA had significant effects on cells number, PCV, DCW and viability (p<0.05), while no-significant effect was observed on the cells morphology. The optimum medium for suspension cell cultures of Yin-hong grape was identified as B5+1.5 mg/L6-BA+1.5 mg/LNAA+ 250 mg/L casein hydrolysate + 30 g/L sucrose. With the optimum medium, the maximum number of suspension cells after the logarithmic growth phase was 34.78 * 108 / mL, the highest cell viability reached 86.45%.; DCW reached 3.84 g/L and PCV reached 0.092 mL/mL after eight days cultivating. (author)

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 680) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA...... has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. The Panel considers that OPCs from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds are sufficiently characterised...... conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OPCs from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark....

  1. Effects of foliar application of inactivated yeast on the phenolic composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Agiorgitiko grapes under different irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogkou C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Charikleia Kogkou,1 Evangelia Chorti,2 Maria Kyraleou,1 Stamatina Kallithraka,1 Stefanos Koundouras,3 Gerard Logan,1 Ioannis Kanakis,4 Yorgos Kotseridis1 1Laboratory of Enology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Cooperative Winery of Nemea, Nemea, Greece; 3Laboratory of Viticulture, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Fassoulis Grapevine Nurseries, Nemea, Greece Abstract: Recent climate changes have caused the rising of average growing season temperatures leading to the advancement of vine phenological stages and to earlier harvests. This could result in the production of grapes with advanced berry sugar accumulation, but incomplete phenolic ripeness, thereby jeopardizing wine quality. This study aims to evaluate the effects of the application of a new product consisting of yeast derivatives on the phenolic maturity and composition of Agiorgitiko grapes and wines, under contrasting water conditions. The experiment was arranged as a 2×2 factorial design in a commercial vineyard situated in southern Greece, combining foliar spraying with LalVigne® Mature (two applications after veraison and an untreated control and water conditions (deficit irrigation and nonirrigated. Irrigation accelerated berry sugar accumulation, increased berry weight and anthocyanin content, and decreased skin tannin concentration. Spraying with yeast derivatives did not affect phenolic content of berry components, and it had no effect on must attributes. Foliar application of yeast derivatives resulted in a higher phenolic potential of the produced wines, only when combined with irrigation. Keywords: foliar spray, deficit irrigation, phenolic maturity, anthocyanins, tannins

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  3. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lun Ju

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  4. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  5. Yeast biodiversity from Vitis vinifera L., subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi to face up the oenological consequences of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Pujol Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the viticulture is affecting the quality of grapes and their wines. As consequence, climatic variations are producing a mismatch between technological and phenolic maturity and are affecting the microbiota's ecology, biodiversity and their metabolism in vineyard, grape, must and wine. However, there are natural resources that can help to mitigate the effects of global warming. It has been noticed that grapes from female plants of wild vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris have very appropriate characteristics to face up this problem: later maturing, high acidity, high polyphenol content,…A molecular study of 819 strains isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentations of grapes of Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris grapevines from 30 locations in northern of Spain revealed 8 different genera and 18 different species. 71,5% of the yeasts were classified as non-Saccharomycesand 28,5% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This latter specie was characterized at strain level, classifying 30 different groups, 6 of which as the majority from 2 up to 4 different locations. These findings demonstrate a wide diversity of yeast microbiota in wild grapes that will allow a yeast selection for the wine industry in a scenario of climate change.

  6. Effects of Fruit Zone Leaf Removal on the Concentrations of Phenolic and Organic Acids in Istrian Malvasia Grape Juice and Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Bubola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids, represented by hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives, are the most abundant phenolic compounds in grape juice and wine of white grapevine cultivars. The effects of fruit zone leaf removal on the concentration of hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic and organic acids of cv. Istrian Malvasia grape juice and wine are investigated in this study. Fruit zone leaf removal was applied at three different phenological stages: before blooming, at berry set and at veraison. Control treatment without leaf removal was also included. At veraison two intensities of leaf removal were applied. Phenolic and organic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Juice samples from the grapes treated at the stages before blooming and berry set had the lowest concentrations of tartaric acid and the highest concentrations of malic acid, while juices from veraison stage treatments had the lowest concentrations of malic acid and the highest concentrations of tartaric acid. Before blooming treatment significantly lowered the concentration of all hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids in grape juice in comparison with other investigated treatments, which did not affect the concentration of total hydroxycinnamic acids considerably. The concentration of hydroxybenzoic acids in grape juice was lower in veraison treatments in comparison with berry set and control treatments. The concentrations of hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic and organic acids in wine followed the same trends as observed in grape juice. It is concluded that the concentration of phenolic and organic acids in grape juice and wine of white grapevine cultivars can be managed with the timing of fruit zone leaf removal according to the desired wine style.

  7. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-10-19

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  8. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  9. Effects of resveratrol, grape juice or red wine consumption Irisin levels and fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 and uncoupoling protein gene expression modulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle de Souza Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Resveratrol and grape juice were able to increase muscle tissue FNDC5 gene expression, and high-fat diet, red wine and resveratrol, increased UCP2 gene expression in this tissue. Grape juice was capable of increasing adipose tissue UCP2 gene expression. High-fat diet, isolated or associated to beverages rich in polyphenols, have decreased FNDC5 gene expression in adipose tissue. Nevertheless, the interventions did not affect irisin levels.

  10. Climate change trends, grape production, and potential alcohol concentration in wine from the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslić, Nemanja; Zinzani, Giordano; Parpinello, Giuseppina P.; Versari, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The trend of climate change and its effect on grape production and wine composition was evaluated using a real case study of seven wineries located in the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (northern Italy), one of the most important wine producing region of Italy. This preliminary study focused on three key aspects: (i) Assessment of climate change trends by calculating bioclimatic indices over the last 61 years (from 1953 to 2013) in the Romagna Sangiovese area: significant increasing trends were found for the maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures, while a decreasing trend was found for precipitation during the growing season period (April-October). Mean growing season temperature was 18.49 °C, considered as warm days in the Romagna Sangiovese area and optimal for vegetative growth of Sangiovese, while nights during the ripening months were cold (13.66 °C). The rise of temperature shifted studied area from the temperate/warm temperate to the warm temperate-/warm grape-growing region (according to the Huglin classification). (ii) Relation between the potential alcohol content from seven wineries and the climate change from 2001 to 2012: dry spell index (DSI) and Huglin index (HI) suggested a large contribution to increasing level of potential alcohol in Sangiovese wines, whereas DSI showed higher correlation with potential alcohol respect to the HI. (iii) Relation between grape production and the climate change from 1982 to 2012: a significant increasing trend was found with little effect of the climate change trends estimated with used bioclimatic indices. Practical implication at viticultural and oenological levels is discussed.

  11. Mycobiota of Slovak wine grapes with emphasis on Aspergillus and Penicillium species in the small carpathian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak wine-growing region is divided into six viticulture areas. The largest in size and the most important over the centuries has been the Small Carpathian area (around 5800 ha of vineyards spreads in the western of Slovakia. The objectives of this study were: to gain more knowledge about mycobiota on grapes originating from Slovakia, with a focus on genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and their ability to produce mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by thin layer chromatography method. From the twelve vineyards were collected 14 samples of wine grapes (white 6, blue 8 during harvesting 2011, 2012 and 2013. Fifty wine grapes per bunch (approximately 7-8 berries per plate that showed no symptoms were randomly selected on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar medium. The plates were then incubated aerobically at 25 ±1 °C for 5 to 7 days in the dark. Of these samples were identified 22 genera. Ninety-three percent of samples were colonies by the genus Penicillium and 79% by the genus Aspergillus. During the survey, 251 isolates belonging to 14 Penicillium species (P. aurantiogriseum, P. citrinum, P. coprophylum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. glabrum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum, P. oxalicum, P. polonicum, P. purpurogenum, P. roqueforti and P. thomii and 37 isolates belonging to 7 Aspergillus species (A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. section Nigri, A. ostianus, A. parasiticus, A. versicolor and A. westerdijkiae were isolated and identified from exogenous contamination. The main occurring penicillium species of the samples were P. chrysogenum (36% Fr, followed P. crustosum (29% Fr, P. griseofulvum (21% Fr and P. expansum (21% Fr. The main occurring aspergillus species of the samples were A. section Nigri (64%. Thirteen potentially toxigenic species were tested for their toxigenic ability. It was confirmed the production of various mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1, G1, citrinin, griseofulvin, patulin, cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem

  12. Effect of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines of the north foot of Mt. Tianshan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Cheng, Guo; Duan, Liang-Liang; Jiang, Ren; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-08-15

    C6 and C9 volatiles, originated from fatty acids, are important volatiles for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes and wines. This study evaluated the influence of different training systems including Modified Vertical Shoot Positioned, (M-VSP); Fan training system with two trunks (F-TT); Fan training system with multiple trunks (F-MT) on these volatiles and the long-chain fatty acids (>C12) of grape berries and wines in the northwest of China. The expression profiles of genes from associated metabolic pathway were also analyzed. F-MT training resulted in lower vine vigor, larger yield, higher content of unsaturated fatty acids in grapes and lower C6 esters in wines in comparison with M-VSP and F-TT. M-VSP and F-TT enhanced C6 volatiles in grape berries. The concentrations of C6 volatiles were positively correlated with the expression of VvLOXA and VvHPL1. The results expanded the knowledge of the influence of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles of grapes and wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hu; Li, Xiangmin; Xiong, Ying; Pei, Ke; Nie, Lijuan; Xiong, Yonghua

    2017-02-28

    A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA) was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen) 3 2 + -doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs) were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs.

  14. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A silver nanoparticle (AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen 3 2 + -doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs.

  15. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Escott, Carlos; Loira, Iris; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; Calderon, Fernando; Benito, Santiago; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio

    2016-10-31

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed ( Vitis vinifera ) and French oak ( Quercus robur and Querrus petraea ), were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  16. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed (Vitis vinifera and French oak (Quercus robur and Querrus petraea, were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  17. Grape and wine amino acid composition from Carignan noir grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in the Maule Valley, Chile: Effects of location and rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Martínez-Gil, A M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Garde-Cerdán, T; Moreno-Simunovic, Y

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen compounds play a key role on grape and wine quality. Their composition in grapes depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and terroir, and affects fermentation kinetics and the volatile compound formation. The aim of this work was to study grape and wine amino acid composition of ungrafted or grafted onto cv. País Carignan grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in ten sites of the Maule Valley (Chile). The results showed that proline was the most abundant amino acid in grapes and wines. In general, Carignan noir grapevines grafted over País showed lower grape amino acid content respect to ungrafted vines. Cool night index (CI) was inversely correlated to several amino acids, showing that their plant synthesis or accumulation increased with lower minimum temperatures during the last month before harvest. Truquilemu (Tru) and Ciénaga de Name (Cdn) sites showed the highest concentration for several amino acids and total amino acid content in grapes, which led to a faster alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Performance of purified grape pomace as a fining agent to reduce the levels of some contaminants from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, María Dolores; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2018-03-30

    The quality of red wine depends on the absence of compounds which may affect its safety and/or stability such as ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and some metals and trace compounds. The presence of ochratoxin A in musts and wines is due to fungal contamination of the grapes and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. Biogenic amines are formed by the microbiological descarboxylation of the corresponding amino acid precursors during the fermentation or aging and storage, and, at high concentrations, they may induce adverse reactions in sensitive people. Trace elements may have both a nutritional and a toxic effect on health, but also can cause turbidity and stability problems. Their presence is affected mainly by natural factors such as soil mineral content and direct contact with tank surfaces and metallic tubing during winemaking. One of the best options to remove these compounds when present in excess in wine is fining. However, some fining agents commonly used may themselves present problems related with their allergenic properties or with their propensity to increase the protein content, which can cause turbidity problems. In an attempt to avoid such these problems, purified grape pomace was tested as a fining alternative since it has been seen to have a high capacity to reduce the astringency, turbidity and also the ochratoxin A content. The main aim of this work, therefore, was to study if this material can limit the presence of ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and metals and some trace elements in a Monastrell red wine, thus increasing the value and safety of this product.

  19. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R.; Owens, Christopher L.; Brown, Patrick J.; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity. PMID:21245334

  20. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y...

  1. Effects of fining on phenolic compounds and colour of red wine obtained with addition of increased amounts of grape solid phase in pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the effect of grape pomace enrichment in solid phase (stems and seeds on phenolic compounds and colour stability of obtained red wines, before and after use of different fining agents. Results have shown increase in total phenols and flavan-3-ols content after grape solid phase addition. On the other hand, decrease in anthocyanins content has generally been recorded in all wine samples except in wines obtained with addition of 40 g/l of seeds during maceration. Stems addition caused decrease in colour intensity while addition of seeds has increased this colour parameter. The use of four fining agents (albumin, gelatine, bentonite and PVPP has been investigated and compared, especially in terms of their influence on potential stabilization effect of grape solid phase on wine colour. Fined wines tended to have considerably lower anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol levels, especially in the case of gelatine and PVPP treatment (decrease up to 60 and 70%, respectively. In the case of chromatic parameters, used fining agents caused colour intensity decrease but it is important to emphasize that their values, after fining, are still as high as expected from red wine. This can be explained by the stabilization effect of increased flavan-3-ols content.

  2. THE IMPACT OF FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR STIMULATION PRODUCTS BOTH ON INCREASING THE RESISTANCE TO MAJOR PHYTOPATHOGENS ATTACKS, AND ON INCREASING THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WINE GRAPES HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to demonstrate the impact of fertilization and foliar stimulation products both on increasing the resistance to major phytopathogens attacks, and on increasing the quantity and quality of wine grapes harvest. Applying the foliar fertilizer products Plonvit Kali (c1, Tytanit (c2 and Optysil (c3 to vines, for a period of three years (2011/2013, in phenophases of intensive growth of shoots and grapes at approved dosages, simultaneously with pesticide treatment, not only a reduction of pathogenic fungi attack was obtained, but also and an increase of harvest without diminishing the quality of the grapes.

  3. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

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    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  4. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the quality of grape brandies

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    Vukosavljević Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape brandy is a product obtained by fermentation and distillation of crushed grapes of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera. Grape brandy quality depends on many factors such as: grapevine varieties, climate, soil, time and method of distillation, storage methods and other distillates. The grapevine variety 'Neoplanta' grown in the experimental field of the PD 'Center for Viticulture and Enology' in Niš was used in the experiment. Tests were performed in the laboratory of the Centre. Healthy grapes of harvest maturity were squashed by a stalk-removing electric crusher. Fermentation was performed in plastic containers in the presence of the indigenous microflora of wine yeasts. This paper presents the influence of pH and inorganic nitrogen added to the fermentation medium on the content of volatile components and concentrations of higher alcohols.

  5. Detection of wine grape nutrient levels using visible and near infrared 1nm spectral resolution remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; van Aardt, Jan; Bajorski, Peter; Vanden Heuvel, Justine

    2016-05-01

    The grape industry relies on regular crop assessment to aid in the day-to-day and seasonal management of their crop. More specifically, there are six key nutrients of interest to viticulturists in the growing of wine grapes, namely nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc and boron. Traditional methods of determining the levels of these nutrients are through collection and chemical analysis of petiole samples from the grape vines themselves. We collected ground-level observations of the spectra of the grape vines, using a hyperspectral spectrometer (0.4-2.5um), at the same time that petioles samples were harvested. We then interpolated the data into a consistent 1 nm spectral resolution before comparing it to the nutrient data collected. This nutrient data came from both the industry standard petiole analysis, as well as an additional leaf-level analysis. The data were collected for two different grape cultivars, both during bloom and veraison periods to provide variability, while also considering the impact of temporal/seasonal change. A narrow-band NDI (Normalized Difference Index) approach, as well as a simple ratio index, was used to determine the correlation of the reflectance data to the nutrient data. This analysis was limited to the silicon photodiode range to increase the utility of our approach for wavelength-specific cameras (via spectral filters) in a low cost drone platform. The NDI generated correlation coefficients were as high as 0.80 and 0.88 for bloom and veraison, respectively. The ratio index produced correlation coefficient results that are the same at two decimal places with 0.80 and 0.88. These results bode well for eventual non-destructive, accurate and precise assessment of vineyard nutrient status.

  6. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  7. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  9. Assessment of (poly)phenols in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems by using food/pharma industry compatible solvents and Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Teixeira, A I; Rosa, E; Barros, A I

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to analyse the effect of time (10-30 min), temperature (25-95°C), and solvents concentration (5-90%) on the extraction of total phenolics, flavonoids, ortho-diphenols, and anthocyanins as well as to assess the ABTS(+) scavenging capacity, which were considered as response variables. Values coefficients of determination (R(2)), ranging from 0.903 to 0.996, fitted for describing efficient extraction of bioactive (poly)phenols and antioxidant activity. The recorded data allowed to establish the optimal extraction conditions at 23.0 min, 95.0°C, and 57.9% of food-quality ethanol/water for Vitis vinifera L. var. 'Viosinho' (white variety), and 23.4 min, 84.2°C, and 63.8% for var. 'Touriga Nacional' (red variety). The achievement of optimal extraction conditions of phenolics from grape stems using solvents compatible with further uses in food/pharma industries demonstrated that RSM constitutes a powerful tool for deriving optimal conditions for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from grape stems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on polysaccharide and tannin content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Smith, Paul A; Hranilovic, Ana; Bindon, Keren A; Jeffery, David W

    2018-04-01

    A changing climate has led to winegrapes being harvested with increased sugar levels and at greater risk of berry shrivel. A suggested easy-to-adopt strategy to manage the associated rising wine alcohol levels is the pre-fermentative substitution of juice with either "green harvest wine" or water. Our study investigates the effects of this approach on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality attributes. Wines were also made from fruit collected at consecutive earlier harvest time points to produce wines comparable in alcohol to the substituted wines. Tannin concentrations and colour did not change significantly in the wines with modified alcohol content even at higher juice substitution rates. Differences in polysaccharide and tannin composition indicated variability in extraction dynamics according to substitution rate and type of blending component. In scenarios where berry shrivel is inevitable, the incorporation of water in particular offers much promise as part of a strategy to manage wine alcohol content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of different types of stoppers on sensorial and phenolic characteristics evolution during a bottle storage time of a white wine from Chardonnay grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Liu, Di; Li, Zheng; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Li, Jing-Ming; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study the correlation between the variation of phenolic compounds and sensory characteristics in white wine during bottle storage and to explore the compounds that affected sensory evolution. Chardonnay ( Vitis vinifera L. cv.) dry white wines were bottled under six types of stoppers and stored for 18 months. The composition of phenolic compounds was analyzed, and the sensory attributes of these wines were evaluated by professional panel. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that bottle aging period exhibited a more important effect on phenolic compound evolution than stopper type. Most of the phenolic compounds disappeared after 18 months of bottle storage, whereas the wine sensory attributes were significantly improved after 15-month of bottle aging. No strong correlation existed between the phenolic variation and the dissolved oxygen content. Wine color characteristics developed towards better quality accompanying with the reduction of detectable hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavan-3-ols, while the wine mouth-feel was related mainly to gallic acid and ferulic acid ester. This work provided some references for wine producers to select appropriate storage duration for bottled white wine.

  12. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant

  13. Effects of chilling and ABA on [3H]gibberellin A4 metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with [ 3 H]GA 4 (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10 19 becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26 0 C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free [ 3 H]GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26 0 C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble [ 3 H] metabolites formed at 26 0 C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA 12 aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with [ 3 H]GA 4 treatment at 26 0 C, reduced the uptake of [ 3 H] GA 4 but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26 0 C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs)

  14. Extração, secagem por atomização e microencapsulamento de antocianinas do bagaço da uva "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca Extraction, spray drying and microencapsulating of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca bagasse anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter neste trabalho um corante natural (antocianina, na forma de pó a partir do bagaço de uva da cultivar "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca, onde foram realizados estudos de extração e encapsulamento. Empregou-se o método de extração por imersão mediante técnica de planejamento experimental, onde as variáveis avaliadas foram pH da solução de extração (1-2, volume de etanol (100-250 mL, tempo de extração (3-7 h e temperatura de extração (15-35ºC. A concentração máxima de antocianinas totais obtidas foi de 300 mg/100 g de bagaço de uva (umidade 5% nos níveis inferiores de pH (1,0 e tempo (3 horas e superiores de temperatura (35ºC e volume de etanol (250 mL. Os extratos foram secos por atomização. A melhor condição para o encapsulamento e a secagem foi quando utilizaram-se proporções iguais de maltodextrina e goma arábica.This work had the aim of obtaining a natural pigment (anthocyanin at powder form from 'Isabel' grape bagasse (Vitis labrusca, studying the extraction and encapsulating steps one applied the method of extraction by immersion by experimental design technique, when the factors investigated were pH of the extraction solution (1-2, volume of ethanol (100-250 mL, extraction time (3-7 h and extraction temperature (15-35 °C. The maximum concentration of total anthocyanin was 300 mg/100g of grape bagasse (5% moisture at the lower levels of pH (1.0 and time (3 h, and at upper levels of temperature (35ºC and amount of ethanol (250 mL. The extracts were dried by a spray process. The best condition for encapsulating and drying was obtained when equal amounts of maltodextrin and Arabic gum were used.

  15. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols from Black Tea and Red Wine/Grape Juice Is Source-Specific and Colon-Region Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Gross, G.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Klinkenberg, M.; Vos, de Ric; Vaughan, E.E.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Possemiers, S.; Wiele, van der T.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and

  16. An evaluation of the flora adjacent to wine grape vineyards for the presence of alternative host plants of grapevine red blotch-associated virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a recently discovered virus of concern to wine grape production in North America. While the vector of this virus is unknown, other elements of virus epidemiology are essential to develop guidelines for the management of the virus as well as to assist ...

  17. Early versus late leaf removal strategies for Pinot Noir (Vitis vinifera L.): effect on colour-related phenolics in young wines following alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternad Lemut, Melita; Trost, Kajetan; Sivilotti, Paolo; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2013-12-01

    The widely adopted viticultural practice of late (véraison) leaf removal is now losing many of its advantages as a result of today's warmer vineyard conditions. With the aim of seeking a good alternative, the influence of earlier leaf removals (at pre-flowering and berry-set) on colour-related phenolics in young Pinot Noir wines was investigated in the years 2009 and 2010. Total flavonols in 2009 wines were 71 and 52% higher in case of véraison and berry-set treatments respectively as compared with untreated controls, while in 2010 the average content of flavonols was highest with pre-flowering leaf removal (75% higher than controls). The anthocyanin content in 2009 wines was 18 and 11% higher in case of véraison and berry-set treatments respectively and was favoured by early leaf removals in 2010 (50 and 43% higher in case of berry-set and pre-flowering treatments respectively) as compared with controls. Changes in hydroxycinnamic acid profiles were shown to be greatest in 2010 wines resulting from early leaf removal treatments. Promoted formation of vitisin A-like pigments in 2010 leaf removal treatments was observed during fermentation. The phenolic profiles of grapes/wines were affected by leaf removal timing, although differently in two (extremely different) seasons. Earlier leaf removal strategies showed some promising results, with good proportions mainly of flavonols and anthocyanins, retained also in young wines. Vitisins A in wines were positively affected by all leaf removals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  19. Sustainability Assessment in Wine-Grape Growing in the New World: Economic, Environmental, and Social Indicators for Agricultural Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Santiago-Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators have been used in many sustainability assessment methods, however, disagreements over a common definition and scope for the sustainability concept have led to many distinct assessment methods, which are not often directly comparable. Before developing a sustainability assessment, it is essential to: define sustainability and specify the viewpoint of the assessor, the purpose of the assessment, and the context and time frame of the assessment. This article presents a short list of indicators and a method that can be readily adopted by any agricultural business or region to assess sustainability, making any organization, region or crop qualitatively comparable. These indicators were proposed by 83 top-level executives in 14 group interviews conducted using our adapted nominal group technique (ANGT. Executives were sourced from wine-grape growing organisations from New World wine-producing countries that also owned vineyards, and they considered everyday management practices of farms. These indicators, grouped within three categories (economic, environmental, and social were ranked by their importance. The method defines qualitative indicators that, in the context of distinct wine regions or crops should be quantified to maintain their relevance and usefulness.

  20. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain

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    Eugenio Revilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain, Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA.

  2. The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Ali; Unver, Ahmet; Kara, Zeki

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Differential effects of grape ( Vitis vinifera ) skin polyphenolics on human platelet aggregation and low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Beahm, Mark R; Kuhns, Melissa A; Krueger, Christian G; Reed, Jess D; Folts, John D

    2012-06-13

    Antioxidant and antiplatelet properties of grape products are thought to be responsible for observed antiatherosclerotic effects. Diverse classes of phenolics are derived from the seed and skin (GSK) of grapes. The relative contributions of the classes of phenolics to observed properties of grape products are unknown. In this paper, GSK fractions were used to examine effects on platelet aggregation, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro, and relative binding of phenolics to LDL. GSK was separated into six fractions (fractions 1-6), and primary phenolics were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Fractions 4, 5, and 6, enriched in polygalloyl polyflavan-3-ols (PGPFs) with 3-6, 4-8, and 6-15 degrees of polymerization, respectively, inhibited platelet aggregation. Fractions 1-3, containing various amounts of oligosaccharides, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavanols, and low molecular weight PGPFs, significantly increased platelet aggregation. Fractions 4-6 were most effective in binding LDL and inhibiting LDL oxidation. Fractions 5 and 6 exhibited the greatest inhibition of platelet aggregation and LDL oxidation, suggesting that polymeric PGPFs are responsible for the beneficial effects of grape products. Conversely, phenolics in fractions 1-3 may reduce the net biological potency of the grape products and have undesirable effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  4. Changes in transcription of cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries are associated with the ripening-related increase in isopentenyladenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-09-16

    Cytokinins are known to play an important role in fruit set and early fruit growth, but their involvement in later stages of fruit development is less well understood. Recent reports of greatly increased cytokinin concentrations in the flesh of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson) and grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) have suggested that these hormones are implicated in the control of ripening-related processes. A similar pattern of isopentenyladenine (iP) accumulation was observed in the ripening fruit of several grapevine cultivars, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), suggesting a common, ripening-related role for this cytokinin. Significant differences in maximal iP concentrations between grapevine cultivars and between fruit species might reflect varying degrees of relevance or functional adaptations of this hormone in the ripening process. Grapevine orthologues of five Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) gene families involved in cytokinin metabolism and signalling were identified and analysed for their expression in developing grape berries and a range of other grapevine tissues. Members of each gene family were characterised by distinct expression profiles during berry development and in different grapevine organs, suggesting a complex regulation of cellular cytokinin activities throughout the plant. The post-veraison-specific expression of a set of biosynthesis, activation, perception and signalling genes together with a lack of expression of degradation-related genes during the ripening phase were indicative of a local control of berry iP concentrations leading to the observed accumulation of iP in ripening grapes. The transcriptional analysis of grapevine genes involved in cytokinin production, degradation and response has provided a possible explanation for the ripening-associated accumulation of iP in grapes and other fruit. The pre- and post-veraison-specific expression of

  5. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  6. Wine grape pomace flour improves blood pressure, fasting glucose and protein damage in humans: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Urquiaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is a healthy diet with positive scientific evidence of preventing chronic diseases. Bioactive components support the healthy properties of the Mediterranean diet. Antioxidants and fiber, two components of the Mediterranean diet, are key functional nutrients for healthy eating and nutrition. Wine grape pomace is a rich source of these dietary constituents and may be beneficial for human health. Our hypothesis was that the intake of red wine grape pomace flour (WGPF prepared from red wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon variety reduced the metabolic syndrome in humans. To evaluate the effect of WGPF on components of metabolic syndrome we design a 16-week longitudinal intervention study. Thirty-eight males, 30-65 years of age, with at least one component of metabolic syndrome, were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 25 or the control group (n = 13. At lunch, the intervention group was given 20 g of WGPF per day, which contained 10 g of dietary fiber, 822 mg of polyphenols and an antioxidant capacity of 7258 ORAC units. Both groups were asked to maintain their regular eating habits and lifestyles. Clinical evaluation, anthropometric measurements and biochemical blood analyses were done at the beginning and the end of the study. RESULTS: WGPF intake significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as fasting glucose levels. Plasma γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol increased and carbonyl group in plasma protein decreased in WGPT group, significantly. No significant effect was observed for waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C in and between groups. The group-dependent magnitude of the differences between the baseline and final postprandial insulin values and γ-tocopherol concentrations was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of WGPF-rich in fiber and polyphenol antioxidants, as a food supplement in a

  7. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water deficit severity during berry development alters onset of dormancy transitions in wine grape cultivar Malbec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy is a survival strategy for withstanding exposure to adverse environmental conditions. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) are often exposed to water deficits during the growing season and freezing temperatures during winter, yet the influence of water stress on dormancy has received little resea...

  9. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  10. Inhibition of Grape Crown Gall by Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 Requires Two Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and One Polyketide Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Agrobacterium vitis nontumorigenic strain F2/5 is able to inhibit crown gall disease on grapevines. The mechanism of grape tumor inhibition (GTI) by F2/5 has not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes (F-avi3342 and F-avi5730) and one polyketide synthase gene (F-avi4330) are required for GTI. Knockout of any one of them resulted in F/25 losing GTI capacity. We previously reported that F-avi3342 and F-avi4330 but not F-avi5730 are required for induction of grape tissue necrosis and tobacco hypersensitive response. F-avi5730 is predicted to encode a single modular NRPS. It is located in a cluster that is homologous to the siderophore vicibactin biosynthesis locus in Rhizobium species. Individual disruption of F-avi5730 and two immediate downstream genes, F-avi5731 and F-avi5732, all resulted in reduced siderophore production; however, only F-avi5730 was found to be required for GTI. Complemented F-avi5730 mutant (ΔF-avi5730(+)) restored a wild-type level of GTI activity. It was determined that, over time, populations of ΔF-avi4330, ΔF-avi3342, and ΔF-avi5730 at inoculated wound sites on grapevine did not differ from those of ΔF-avi5730(+) indicating that loss of GTI was not due to reduced colonization of wound sites by mutants.

  11. Fox grape cv. Bordô (Vitis labrusca L. and grapevine cv. Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in vitro under different carbohydrates, amino acids and 6-Benzylaminopurine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of sucrose and glucose, amino acids and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine levels on in vitro shoot regeneration of fox grape cv. Bordô and grapevine cv. Chardonnay. The nodal segments from micropropagated material were used as explants and half-strength MS medium as the basal medium. Sucrose and glucose at 15, 30 and 45 g.L-1 were tested as a carbon source and the supplementation of adenine, asparagine, alanine, glycine, cysteine, glutamine, arginine was tested at 40 g.L-1. The BAP levels (1 and 5 μM in solid and double-phase media were evaluated and compared with a control medium without BAP. Bordô had best in vitro growth than Chardonnay. Sucrose was a better carbohydrate source than glucose for both the cultivars. Bordô and Chardonnay had different amino acid preferences for some parameters. In conclusion, for in vitro shoot regeneration from the nodal segments, culture on solid medium with 5 μM BAP, 15 g.L-1 sucrose for Bordô and 45 g.L-1 sucrose for Chardonnay showed better results. Similarly, the supplementation of 40 g.L-1 arginine for Bordô and 40 g.L-1 arginine or glycine for Chardonnay showed better results.

  12. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.

  13. Fruit quality, nutraceutical and antimicrobial properties of 58 muscadine grape varieties (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) grown in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Zhao, Lu; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2017-01-15

    Fifty-eight muscadine grape varieties were evaluated for their fruit quality, nutraceutical, and antimicrobial properties during two growing seasons (2012 vs. 2013). Fruit quality was significantly different among muscadine grape varieties, with weight ranged from 2.93 to 22.32g, pH from 3.01 to 3.84, titratable acidity from 0.27% to 0.83%, and °Brix from 10.92 to 23.91. Total phenols for different muscadine juices varied from 0.26 to 1.28mgGA/mL, skins from 10.13 to 30.02mgGA/g DM, and seeds from 22.47 to 72.01mgGA/g DM. Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of grape juices varied from 0.97 to 6.78mmolTrolox/mL, skins from 83.59 to 221.20μmolTrolox/g DM, and seeds from 178.22 to 619.73μmolTrolox/g DM. Study demonstratedgrape seed polyphenols (MIC 54.8-60.1μg/ml) showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than skin polyphenols (MIC 70.7-80.2μg/ml). This information could be a valuable asset in the research and extension of muscadine grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rivas, Cristina; Gallardo, Beatriz; Mantecón, Ángel R; Del Álamo-Sanza, María; Manso, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. Seed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg -1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg -1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg -1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. The nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production, Cha