WorldWideScience

Sample records for wine grape production

  1. Aroma Precursors in Grapes and Wine: Flavor Release during Wine Production and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Francis, I Leigh; Herderich, Markus J

    2018-03-14

    Pioneering investigations into precursors of fruity and floral flavors established the importance of terpenoid and C 13 -norisoprenoid glycosides to the flavor of aromatic wines. Nowadays flavor precursors in grapes and wine are known to be structurally diverse, encompassing glycosides, amino acid conjugates, odorless volatiles, hydroxycinnamic acids, and many others. Flavor precursors mainly originate in the grape berry but also from oak or other materials involved in winemaking. Flavors are released from precursors during crushing and subsequent production steps by enzymatic and nonenzymatic transformations, via microbial glycosidases, esterases, C-S lyases, and decarboxylases, and through acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chemical rearrangements. Flavors can also be liberated from glycosides and amino acid conjugates by oral microbiota. Hence, it is increasingly likely that flavor precursors contribute to retronasal aroma formation through in-mouth release during consumption, prompting a shift in focus from identifying aroma precursors in grapes to understanding aroma precursors present in bottled wine.

  2. Pesticide residues in grapes, wine, and their processing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A

    2000-04-01

    In this review the results obtained in the 1990s from research on the behavior of pesticide residues on grapes, from treatment to harvest, and their fate in drying, wine-making, and alcoholic beverage processing are reported. The fungicide residues on grapes (cyproconazole, hexaconazole, kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, penconazole, tetraconazole, and triadimenol), the application rates of which were of a few tens of grams per hectare, were very low after treatment and were not detectable at harvest. Pyrimethanil residues were constant up to harvest, whereas fluazinam, cyprodinil, mepanipyrim, azoxystrobin, and fludioxonil showed different disappearance rates (t(1/2) = 4.3, 12, 12.8, 15.2, and 24 days, respectively). The decay rate of the organophosphorus insecticides was very fast with t(1/2) ranging between 0.97 and 3.84 days. The drying process determined a fruit concentration of 4 times. Despite this, the residue levels of benalaxyl, phosalone, metalaxyl, and procymidone on sun-dried grapes equalled those on the fresh grape, whereas they were higher for iprodione (1.6 times) and lower for vinclozolin and dimethoate (one-third and one-fifth, respectively). In the oven-drying process, benalaxyl, metalaxyl, and vinclozolin showed the same residue value in the fresh and dried fruit, whereas iprodione and procymidone resides were lower in raisins than in the fresh fruit. The wine-making process begins with the pressing of grapes. From this moment onward, because the pesticide on the grape surface comes into contact with the must, it is in a biphasic system, made up of a liquid phase (the must) and a solid phase (cake and lees), and will be apportioned between the two phases. The new fungicides have shown no effect on alcoholic or malolactic fermentation. In some cases the presence of pesticides has also stimulated the yeasts, especially Kloeckera apiculata, to produce more alcohol. After fermentation, pesticide residues in wine were always smaller than those on the

  3. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  4. Antimutagenic Acivity of Raw Materials and By- Products from Production of Grape Wines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Kyseláková, M.; Balík, J.; Veverka, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, special (2008), s. 55-59 ISSN 1212-1800. [Quality of Moravian and Czech Wines and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/06/1757 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : wine * grape berries * polyphenolic compounds * antimutagenicity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  5. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic characterization of wines by grape varieties and production areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ki Myong; van den Berg, Frans; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Park, Won-Mok; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2008-09-10

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the metabolic differences in wines produced from different grape varieties and different regions. A significant separation among wines from Campbell Early, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Shiraz grapes was observed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The metabolites contributing to the separation were assigned to be 2,3-butanediol, lactate, acetate, proline, succinate, malate, glycerol, tartarate, glucose, and phenolic compounds by PCA and PLS-DA loading plots. Wines produced from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes harvested in the continental areas of Australia, France, and California were also separated. PLS-DA loading plots revealed that the level of proline in Californian Cabernet Sauvignon wines was higher than that in Australian and French Cabernet Sauvignon, Australian Shiraz, and Korean Campbell Early wines, showing that the chemical composition of the grape berries varies with the variety and growing area. This study highlights the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics with multivariate statistical data sets in determining wine quality and product origin.

  6. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  7. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  8. The influence of climate change on wine production - the case of the Touriga Nacional grape variety (Quinta dos Termos, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, João

    2017-04-01

    The regional and local climate, heavily influenced by global climate change, has strong implications for agriculture. Wine production which has specific characteristics in terms of climate and soil is undoubtedly one of the economic activities strongly influenced by climate change. Quinta dos Termos located in Beira Interior (Belmonte, Portugal) is the largest wine producer in the DOC Beira Interior region, producing premium to hiper premium wines of excellence, marketed at both national and international levels, and cultivates the vineyards according to the rules of Integrated Crop Management. Moreover, grapes are free from herbicides, pesticides or any other chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and health. These factors have contributed to the socio-economic development of the region, creating wealth, favoring employment and promoting tourism. The quality of the wines produced by Quinta dos Termos result from its terroir, given its granite region, the sun exposure, the wind protection, the atmospheric humidity and temperature, the soil water content, the mineralogical/organic composition and soil porosity. These factors favor unique conditions for the cultivation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, which is recognized by its extremely complex color and aroma, which allows the production of wines with great balance and a good ageing potential. Touriga Nacional, a red grape variety of Portuguese origin with high qualitative excellence and reputation and much appreciated worldwide, is versatile to several types of soils and resistant to high thermal amplitudes. Nevertheless, the climatic changes that has been gradually verified, the type of crop management, and in particular the reputation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, may be compromised in the long term, given that these characteristics are strongly influenced by the climate and soil. Aware of that, Quinta dos Termos has been performing a monitoring of the vineyards in terms of pedological treatment

  9. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Collins, Thomas S; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Mills, David A

    2016-06-14

    Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir Wine production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry for which microbial control and wine chemical composition are crucial aspects of quality. Terroir is an important feature of consumer appreciation and wine culture, but the many factors that contribute to terroir are nebulous. We show that grape and wine microbiota exhibit regional patterns that correlate with wine chemical composition, suggesting that the grape microbiome may influence terroir In addition to enriching our understanding of how growing region and wine properties interact, this may provide further economic incentive for agricultural and enological practices that maintain regional

  10. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Cristiane; Franco, Fernanda Wouters; Machado, Eduarda da Rosa; Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Quatrin, Andréia; Ramos, Vitor de Miranda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Sautter, Cláudia Kaehler; Penna, Neidi Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  11. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Copetti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes (Vitis labrusca in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays. Furthermore, juice inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  12. Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rivas, Cristina; Gallardo, Beatriz; Mantecón, Ángel R; Del Álamo-Sanza, María; Manso, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. Seed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg -1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg -1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg -1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. The nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Climate change trends, grape production, and potential alcohol concentration in wine from the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslić, Nemanja; Zinzani, Giordano; Parpinello, Giuseppina P.; Versari, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The trend of climate change and its effect on grape production and wine composition was evaluated using a real case study of seven wineries located in the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (northern Italy), one of the most important wine producing region of Italy. This preliminary study focused on three key aspects: (i) Assessment of climate change trends by calculating bioclimatic indices over the last 61 years (from 1953 to 2013) in the Romagna Sangiovese area: significant increasing trends were found for the maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures, while a decreasing trend was found for precipitation during the growing season period (April-October). Mean growing season temperature was 18.49 °C, considered as warm days in the Romagna Sangiovese area and optimal for vegetative growth of Sangiovese, while nights during the ripening months were cold (13.66 °C). The rise of temperature shifted studied area from the temperate/warm temperate to the warm temperate-/warm grape-growing region (according to the Huglin classification). (ii) Relation between the potential alcohol content from seven wineries and the climate change from 2001 to 2012: dry spell index (DSI) and Huglin index (HI) suggested a large contribution to increasing level of potential alcohol in Sangiovese wines, whereas DSI showed higher correlation with potential alcohol respect to the HI. (iii) Relation between grape production and the climate change from 1982 to 2012: a significant increasing trend was found with little effect of the climate change trends estimated with used bioclimatic indices. Practical implication at viticultural and oenological levels is discussed.

  14. Associations between the sensory attributes and volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines and the volatile composition of the grapes used for their production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Ciarán G; Cox, Agnieszka; Williams, Emlyn R; Boss, Paul K

    2011-03-23

    The sensory properties of wine are influenced by the chemical composition of the grapes used to produce them. Identification of grape and wine chemical markers associated with the attributes perceived by the consumer of the wine will enable better prediction of the potential of a parcel of grapes to produce wine of a certain flavor. This study explores the relationships between Cabernet Sauvignon grape volatile composition and wine volatile profiles with the sensory properties of wines. Twenty grape samples were obtained from nine vineyard sites across three vintages and wines vinified from these parcels using controlled winemaking methods. The volatile composition of the grapes were analyzed by SBSE-GCMS, the wines were analyzed by SPME-GCMS, and these data sets were compared to that obtained from the sensory analysis of the wines. Statistical treatment of the data to account for vintage and region effects allowed underlying relationships to be seen between wine sensory attributes and wine or grape volatile components. The observed associations between grape or wine volatile compounds and wine sensory attributes has revealed target compounds and pathways whose levels may reflect the biochemical effects on grape composition by differing growth conditions during berry development and ripening. The compounds identified in this study may be useful grape or wine markers for potential wine sensory characteristics.

  15. Stability studies of cosmetic emulsions prepared from natural products such as wine, grape seed oil and mastic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made in this study to use diluted wine as the aqueous phase and grapeseed oil as the oil phase for the preparation of oil-in-water cosmetic emulsions. Two monovarietal wines of Hellenic origin were used in this study; a red one from Sangiovese grapes and a white one from Muscat of

  16. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  17. De novo production of six key grape aroma monoterpenes by a geraniol synthase-engineered S. cerevisiae wine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Ester; Rico, Juan; Gil, José Vicente; Orejas, Margarita

    2015-09-16

    Monoterpenes are important contributors to grape and wine aroma. Moreover, certain monoterpenes have been shown to display health benefits with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer or hypotensive properties amongst others. The aim of this study was to construct self-aromatizing wine yeasts to overproduce de novo these plant metabolites in wines. Expression of the Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) geraniol synthase (GES) gene in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain substantially changed the terpene profile of wine produced from a non-aromatic grape variety. Under microvinification conditions, and without compromising other fermentative traits, the recombinant yeast excreted geraniol de novo at an amount (~750 μg/L) well exceeding (>10-fold) its threshold for olfactory perception and also exceeding the quantities present in wines obtained from highly aromatic Muscat grapes. Interestingly, geraniol was further metabolized by yeast enzymes to additional monoterpenes and esters: citronellol, linalool, nerol, citronellyl acetate and geranyl acetate, resulting in a total monoterpene concentration (~1,558 μg/L) 230-fold greater than that of the control. We also found that monoterpene profiles of wines derived from mixed fermentations were found to be determined by the composition of the initial yeast inocula suggesting the feasibility of producing 'à la carte' wines having predetermined monoterpene contents. Geraniol synthase-engineered yeasts demonstrate potential in the development of monoterpene enhanced wines.

  18. THE IMPACT OF FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR STIMULATION PRODUCTS BOTH ON INCREASING THE RESISTANCE TO MAJOR PHYTOPATHOGENS ATTACKS, AND ON INCREASING THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WINE GRAPES HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to demonstrate the impact of fertilization and foliar stimulation products both on increasing the resistance to major phytopathogens attacks, and on increasing the quantity and quality of wine grapes harvest. Applying the foliar fertilizer products Plonvit Kali (c1, Tytanit (c2 and Optysil (c3 to vines, for a period of three years (2011/2013, in phenophases of intensive growth of shoots and grapes at approved dosages, simultaneously with pesticide treatment, not only a reduction of pathogenic fungi attack was obtained, but also and an increase of harvest without diminishing the quality of the grapes.

  19. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  20. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  1. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  2. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  3. Soil Types Effect on Grape and Wine Composition in Helan Mountain Area of Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types—aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  4. Application of statistical downscaling technique for the production of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán Fernández, E.; García Moreno, R.; Pino Otín, M. R.; Ribalaygua Batalla, J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and soil are two of the most important limiting factors for agricultural production. Nowadays climate change has been documented in many geographical locations affecting different cropping systems. The General Circulation Models (GCM) has become important tools to simulate the more relevant aspects of the climate expected for the XXI century in the frame of climatic change. These models are able to reproduce the general features of the atmospheric dynamic but their low resolution (about 200 Km) avoids a proper simulation of lower scale meteorological effects. Downscaling techniques allow overcoming this problem by adapting the model outcomes to local scale. In this context, FIC (Fundación para la Investigación del Clima) has developed a statistical downscaling technique based on a two step analogue methods. This methodology has been broadly tested on national and international environments leading to excellent results on future climate models. In a collaboration project, this statistical downscaling technique was applied to predict future scenarios for the grape growing systems in Spain. The application of such model is very important to predict expected climate for the different growing crops, mainly for grape, where the success of different varieties are highly related to climate and soil. The model allowed the implementation of agricultural conservation practices in the crop production, detecting highly sensible areas to negative impacts produced by any modification of climate in the different regions, mainly those protected with protected designation of origin, and the definition of new production areas with optimal edaphoclimatic conditions for the different varieties.

  5. Mycotoxins in grapes and wine in Europe: Occurence, factors affecting the occurence and related toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission has established maximum levels for ochratoxin A in wine and grape products, using occurrence data up to 2001 and toxicity data up to 2006. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins in grapes and wine produced in Europe in the period

  6. Cycle, productivity and must chemical characteristics of varieties of white wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Mara Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate five varieties of white grapes destined to winemaking, grafted on the two main rootstocks used in viticulture in São Paulo, Brazil, 'IAC 766 Campinas' and 'IAC 572 Jales'. The experiment was performed on the experimental area of Centro APTA de Frutas in the Jundiaí city, São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plot with five replications, the plots represented by varieties and subplots by rootstocks. We evaluated the number of days to budding (NDB, number of days to flowering (NDF and number of days to maturation (NDM, productivity (Prod (ton.ha−1, content of soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA and maturation index (MI. There was no difference between rootstocks, and there was interaction among rootstocks and varieties for SS and TA. The varieties did not show significant differences for yield, but there was a significant difference for the other variables. We can concluded that among the assessed varieties on both rootstocks, in Jundiaí / SP, the variety SR 501-17 distinguished itself due to its precocity, productivity and chemical quality of the must.

  7. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

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    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  8. The effect of grape ripening stage on red wine color

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    Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and chromatic characteristics of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell harvested at six different degree of ripeness (from August 16 to October 24, 2002 and that of the wines obtained from these grapes have been studied. The grape anthocyanins content (mg/kg of berry fresh weight was maximum in those grapes harvested on September 11 and 16 (804.1 and 822.6 mg/kg, respectively and decreased for grapes harvested in October. However, the results showed that the grapes with the highest anthocyanin concentration did not lead to the highest colored wines. The wines elaborated from grapes harvested on October 16 (671.9 mg of anthocyanins per kg of berry fresh weight had the best chromatic characteristics and better withstood aging in the bottle; the extent of cell wall degradation in overly matured grapes probably facilitated the extraction of phenolic compounds from skins. However, the chromatic quality of wines made from grapes harvested one week later (October 24, the most mature grapes was lower than that from October 16, with lower color intensity (13%lower in the wine elaborated from grapes harvested in October 24 and a percentage of yellow color 6 % higher in this wine.

  9. Evolution of anthocyanin profile from grape to wine

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    Margherita Squadrito

    2010-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Only in varieties in which the anthocyanin profile of grapes is characterized by low percentages of di-oxygenated side-ring forms is it possible to gain information about the varietal origin of a young wine by comparing the profiles of both grape and wine. However, great care is required.

  10. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co 60 ) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  11. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br, E-mail: emrgutierrez@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Tecnologia em Alimentos. Dep. Roque Trevisan; Pires, Juliana A., E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  12. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  13. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.

  14. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  15. Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape cultivation for wine production at altitudes between 2,200 and 2,600 m a.s.l. started in the department of Boyaca in 1982. Quality wines are produced by the AinKarim Vineyard in Ricaurte High. Wine grapes have to possess suitable organoleptic compounds at harvest in order to guarantee quality grape must that can be converted into wine. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a suitable ratio the sources and the sinks and to guarantee production, quality and vegetative sustainability over time, conserving the equilibrium and benefiting the productive potential of the vineyard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and vegetative balance effect in the wine grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc in Sutamarchan-Boyaca, considering different pruning types (short, long, and mixed. A bifactorial, completely random statistical design was used. At the time of harvest, the fruit production and pruned wood were evaluated. The long-pruned vines showed the best behavior and the most balanced source/sink relationship,, while Sauvignon Blanc demonstrated a better productive yield. Meanwhile, the short and mixed prunings had the better values for the Ravaz index (balance between fruit production and vegetative growth, indicating that they are more suitable for the conditions of the region, allowing for sustainability during the productive cycles of the wine grapes.

  16. The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah

    2010-05-01

    The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided.

  17. Effect of postharvest dehydration on the composition of pinot noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge J; Cerpa-Calderón, Fiorella; Cohen, Seth D; Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael; Kennedy, James A

    2008-08-15

    This study was conducted in order to improve our understanding of how phenolics and aroma compounds change in wine grapes during postharvest dehydration. Pinot noir grapes grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon were harvested at 22.0 and 24.0°Brix. Grapes harvested at 22.0°Brix were divided into three equal lots with one lot immediately used for wine production, and the remaining two lots placed inside an air tunnel with an air speed of 1.0-1.8ms(-1), 38% relative humidity and a temperature of 22°C. The soluble solids content and weight loss were measured daily and wines were made from grapes when they reached 24.8 and 26.7°Brix. The soluble solids of grapes increased about 1°Brix per day; therefore, on the third and fourth day the berries reached the desired concentration; weight loss was 14 and 16%, respectively. Results from berry phenolic analysis indicated that per berry anthocyanin amount remained unchanged during dehydration. The composition of proanthocyanidins isolated from berries changed during dehydration. Volatile compounds in wines made from dehydrated grapes contained more terpenes and norisoprenoids (β-ionone, β-damascenone) when compared to wine made from the original fruit. Wines made from increasingly dehydrated grapes tended to resemble the composition and flavour profile of wines made from grapes left on the vine (i.e. with extended ripening). The results of this study suggest that postharvest flavour changes consistent with changes during fruit ripening can occur in grapes when harvested early and allowed to dehydrate under controlled conditions prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Grapes, wine and cultural identity at Serra Gaúcha (RS, Brazil

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    Joice Lavandoski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to understand the relevance of wine production at Serra Gaúcha region (Rio Grande State, Brazil and unveil the role played by grapes and wine for XIXth century Italian migrants as for their contemporary descendents. A research was conducted at Vale dos Vinhedos (Vineyards Valley,(RS, Brazil, where a strong relation between wine and tourism exists. Bibliographical research, oral history and semi- structured interviews permitted the construction of a collective subject discourse. As a result it was revealed that wine production was important at first for subsistence and also a way to promote economic growth; at present, grapes and wine are cultural identity markers with which community members present themselves to tourist and visitors. It is a case study without intention of generalizing for other wine regions in Brazil and brings a new approach to tourism and heritage relations.

  19. The relationship between product quality and transaction costs with vertical coordination in DOC Rioja wine grape industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernanez-Olmos, M.; Rossell-Martinez, J.; Espitia-Escuer, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between product quality and governance mode choice (market mode, hybrid mode or vertical integration) using the results of a survey of 187 qualified appellation of origin (DOC) Rioja wineries. By estimating a generalized ordered logit, it is concluded that wineries that produce high-quality wines are more likely to vertically integrate than are wineries that produce low-quality wines. Consistent with transaction cost economics, evidence is found that asset specificity and uncertainty are important determinants of vertical integration. Finally, the size of the winery is also an important factor that affects governance mode choice in viticulture. (Author)

  20. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania SOMMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin risk in the grape product chain is primarily due to ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in wine and dried vine fruits. Aspergillus carbonarius and the A. niger group are the main agents of Aspergillus bunch rot of grape, and they, especially A. carbonarius, are responsible for OTA contamination worldwide. Fumonisin B2 (FB2 represents an additional potential mycotoxin risk in the grape-wine product chain and A. niger/A. awamori were recently reported as the FB2 producers in grapes. A deeper understanding of the species diversity of black Aspergilli, together with specific knowledge of their ecology and epidemiology, can help to predict their occurrence. From this perspective several studies have been done regarding prevention and control of black Aspergilli and reduction of mycotoxin risk at all stages, from vineyard management to wine-making procedures. In this review a comprehensive overview of all these aspects is presented.

  1. Rapid determination of flavonoids and phenolic acids in grape juices and wines by RP-HPLC/DAD: Method validation and characterization of commercial products of the new Brazilian varieties of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Carla Valéria da Silva; Miskinis, Gabriela Aquino; de Souza, Marcelo Eduardo Alves Olinda; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Lima, Marcos Dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    A method for rapid determination of phenolic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), using a new column of faster resolution was validated and used to characterize commercial products produced with new grape Brazilian varieties of Northeast of Brazil. The in vitro antioxidant activity was also measured. The method showed linearity (R>0.9995), good precision (CV%<2.78), recovery (91.8-105.1%) and limits of detection (0.04-0.85mgL -1 ) and quantification (0.04-1.41mgL -1 ) according to other methods previously published with the difference of a run time of only 25min. The results obtained in the characterization of the samples differed for juices and wines from other world regions, mainly because of the high values of (-)-epigallocatechin and trans-caftaric acid. The products analyzed showed high antioxidant activity, especially the wine samples with values higher than those from wines of different regions of the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  3. Economic characteristics of grape production in South Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in Serbia has a long tradition. Serbia has great potentials for the production of grape and wine, but they are at a low level of utilization. Grape production in Serbia takes place on only 25,000 ha with an average annual production of 285,571 t of grapes with variations according to year. The vineyards and wine production are in a significant decline, while the main bearers of production are small family households or individual producers. The research presented in this paper is the economic characteristics of grapes production in the region of South Banat, Vršac wine-growing region, which occupies 81.2% of the total vineyard area in this part of AP Vojvodina.

  4. Biodiversity of wine grapes: less than we thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe Editor of the International Journal of Wine Research has had a long-standing interest in the genetics of wine grape varieties. Two publications, in particular, piqued the interest from both the scientific and consumer point of view. Cabernet Sauvignon is the offspring of a chance cross-pollination of Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc in western France several centuries ago.

  5. Flavour Characters of Wines from Cool-Climate Grape Cultivars in Relation to Different Fermentation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing

    -climate grape cultivars have been grown. However there is little knowledge on the flavour properties and potential of Danish wines. The overall aim of this project was to investigate the sensory characters and chemical composition of wines from different cool-climate grape cultivars and co-fermentations...... caused by inadequate sulphite management, which resulted in accelerated aging, oxidation and/or spontaneous malolactic fermentation. These findings indicated that producers in Denmark should be more cautious in their use and management of sulphite in wine making. To develop a rapid methodology...... for evaluating sensory properties of wines, different variations of Napping and Flash Profile methods were tested using model wines. It turned out that conducting Napping with panel training on either the method (training on how to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarization with the sensory...

  6. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  7. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Paul; Pearce, Anthony; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily; Dennis, Eric; Jeffery, David

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl est...

  8. Thermodynamics of grape and wine tannin interaction with polyproline: implications for red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Falconer, Robert J; Kennedy, James A

    2010-12-08

    The astringency of red wine is largely due to the interaction between wine tannins and salivary proline-rich proteins and is known to change as wine ages. To further understand the mechanisms behind wine astringency change over time, thermodynamics of the interactions between poly(l-proline) (PLP) and grape seed and skin tannins (preveraison (PV) and commercially ripe) or Shiraz wine tannins (2 years old and 9-10 years old) was analyzed using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The nature of these interactions varied with changes to the tannin structure that are associated with maturation. The change in enthalpy associated with hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding decreased with tannin age and the stoichiometry of binding indicated that grape tannins associated with more proline residues than wine tannins, irrespective of molecular size. These results could provide an explanation for the observed change in wine astringency quality with age.

  9. Trends in wine production and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lazanyi, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Historically, wine production and consumption have been at home in Europe. The most important countries mentionable are France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The European Union (EU 27) occupies a leading position on the world wine market. Globally, it accounts for 49.9% of growing areas and 39.1% of grape production, according to FAO data for the year 2006. The European Union (EU 27) produces 60.0%of wine and accounts for 55.4%of wine imports...

  10. Chemical composition and technological characteristics of wines from red grape varieties, selected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haygarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical analysis of grapes and technological characterization of wines from red varieties Storgoziya, Kaylashky rubin, Trapezitza, Rubin and Bouquet, created by the method of intraspecific and interspecific hybridization at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven, Bulgaria were made. The technological maturity of the grapes as raw material for producing quality red wines was determined. Rubin variety was with the highest sugar content - 3 23.10±0.73 %, titratable acids - 6.18±0.34 g/dm and pH 3.40±0.71. The other varieties were with optimal condition for the production of red wines in terms of sugars and titratable acids. The chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of the experimental wine samples were established. The ethyl alcohol content in the produced wines was in the range from 12.33±0.23 vol. % (Bouquet to 13.31±0.34 vol. % (Kaylashky rubin. The content of titratable acids was in 3 3 the range of 5.33±0.43 g/dm (Trapezitza up to 6.88±0.21 g/dm (Kaylashky rubin. There were no significant differences in the analyzed indicators and taste evaluation between experimental wines and wine of Vitis vinifera – Pinot noir grape variety used as control sample

  11. THE CONTENT OF OCHRATOXIN A IN MOLDAVIAN WINE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Găină

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this work is studying the content of ochratoxin A (OTA in grapes, grape juice, and wine. This is an analysis of their origin, the conditions of contamination and ways decontamination, toxiconogenes mushrooms, toxicity, world and European regulations. It was estimated the methods of detection of mycotoxins in wine products. It has examined the contents of OTA in the Moldavian juice/wine from different varietals at different stages of winemaking and obtained by different proceeds winemaking.

  12. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triska, J.; Houska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  13. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.

  14. Impact of Grape Varieties on Wine Distillates Flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Banović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is a phenomenon that occurrs when food and live organism mutually react during the process of consumption. Many factors influence the making of aroma of wine distillates (e.g. cognac during the technological process of distillation. It is extremely difficult to bring an objective judgement on the influence of individual factors since aroma is very subjective in its nature. The possibility of objective assessment of the influence of grape varieties on wine distillate was performed in this work using a computer in processing the results of cromatographic analyses of aroma substances. The given results were verified by sensor analyses. The achieved results have shown that mathematical model for calculating aroma chromatogram similarity can be successfully used for objective assessment of the influence of individual factors on aroma of wine distillates and that grape varieties have significant impact on aroma and the quality of wine distillates.

  15. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cane Koteski; Zlatko Jakovlev; Dragana Soltirovska

    2016-01-01

    Wine (Latin: vinum) is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained ...

  16. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two

  17. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  18. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  19. THE GRAPES AND WINE MARKET IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: TRENDS AND INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion CERTAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine products were and are symbolizing both the agriculture and economy of Moldova. Until the 90s of last century the main consumer of our drinks was the Russian Federative Republic. On its markets we sold more than four fifths of wines from grapes and more than 90 percent of sparkling wine. After the approval of the Declaration of Independence (August 27, 1991, our country has made considerable efforts to reform the national economy, to transition from centrally managed economy to a market economy that - and allows the manufacturer to direct activities according to demand and primarily domestic market. The request of grapes and grape products on the domestic market rules according to our traditions and previous practice and must be covered entirely by the local production. The national market for vine products is characterized by excessive fluctuations generated by the dynamics of production of grapes and processed products thereof, price volatility, increased competition, etc. Grapes and grape products obtained in Moldova exceed the domestic market demand and our country is doomed to commercial relations with other countries and/or groups of countries. The emergence of new socio-economic system open to the world triggered the joint efforts of the international community's own produced undoubtedly important changes not only in shape, but also background in trade flows and wine grapes. The European Union has been and remains an important actor of major interest to us. The signing and ratification in 2014 of the Association Agreement between Moldova and the European Union will definitely contribute to increase the sales in the Common Market of the European Union, but our country is required to know the trade policies of the EU and should adjust its national trade policy to the EU requirements. In the paper the authors reflect on the grapes and grape products market, studying the import and export of such products, seek practical

  20. Some advances in the knowledge of grape, wine and distillates chemistry as achieved by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2005-06-01

    Mass spectrometry plays a very important role in acquiring knowledge of the chemistry of grape and its derivative products. By liquid mass spectrometry, anthocyanins of grape were studied, and in hybrid grape extracts, delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin and malvidin 3-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-diglucosides were found. A semiquantitative procedure to estimate the amounts and percentages of monoglucoside and diglucoside anthocyanins without chromatography was developed. By gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), aroma compounds of grape, wine and the distillate Italian grappa were studied, and molecular structures characterized. The representative aroma profile of Muscat grape was characterized by 23 terpenols, present in both free and bonded form, and direct correlation between aroma and genetic profile permitted to distinguish between different Muscat grape varieties. Aroma of Italian grappa resulted from and was characterized by several compounds linked to the grape variety, such as vitispiranes, terpenols, ethyl cinnamate, salicylic esters, benzaldehyde and farnesol. Synthesis of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBOA) derivatives and GC/MS analysis resulted in a sensitive and selective method to study carbonyl compounds at the low levels occurring in wine.

  1. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan

    OpenAIRE

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Poncet-Legrand, Celine; Sieczkowski, N.; Vernhet, Aude

    2016-01-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored b...

  2. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  3. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Borislav Miličević; Mara Banović; Srećko Tomas; Sanja Radeka; Đordano Peršurić; Igor Lukić

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples) were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Mu...

  4. Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jacobus J; Volschenk, Cornelis G

    2018-05-01

    The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NS, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23, 25, 27 °Balling) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). Soluble solid/titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides; N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions. A large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorising terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Relevance of the Lin's and Host hydropedological models to predict grape yield and wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. C. Costantini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture could be greatly enhanced by the diffusion of straightforward and easy to be applied hydropedological models, able to predict the spatial variability of available soil water. The Lin's and Host hydropedological models were applied to standard soil series descriptions and hillslope position, to predict the distribution of hydrological functional units in two vineyard and their relevance for grape yield and wine quality. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (Central Italy on Sangiovese. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soil spatial variability was deeply affected by earth movement carried out before vine plantation. Six plots were selected in the different hydrological functional units of the two vineyards, that is, at summit, backslope and footslope morphological positions, to monitor soil hydrology, grape production and wine quality. Plot selection was based upon a cluster analysis of local slope, topographic wetness index (TWI, and cumulative moisture up to the root limiting layer, appreciated by means of a detailed combined geophysical survey. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, as well as yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing.

    The results demonstrated that the combined application of the two hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As correctly foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water (TSW during

  6. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  7. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle. PMID:25942487

  8. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  9. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  10. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yin-zhuo; Zou, Wan; Ma, Wen-rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine. PMID:29565999

  11. Volatile sulphur compounds in wines related to yeast metabolism and nitrogen composition of grape musts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, N.; Mendesa, F.; Pereira, O.; Pinho, P. Guedes de

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen compounds in grape musts on the content of sulphur compounds of wines was studied. Different vinifications were performed with the addition of methionine (20 mg l−1) and/or cysteine (40 mg l−1) to grape musts before alcoholic fermentation. Six grape musts, with different nitrogen composition, from cultivars of the ‘Vinhos Verdes’ Region, in Portugal, were used. Addition of methionine to grape musts enhanced the content of wines in 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, ...

  12. NATURAL MICROFLORA OF WINE GRAPE BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts and bacterial species on grapes has been investigated in vineyards worldwide. For winemaking are very important three groups of microorganisms. First two includes acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria; they live and grow normally on grape surface. The third group includes more than 20 detectable genera of yeasts. There are three principal genera found on grapes Hanseniaspora uvarum (Kloeckera apiculata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Candida pulcherrima, and Candida stellata or new descripted Candida zemplinina. Aim of this study was investigate of number of three major groups of microorganisms which are important for grapes and winemaking. The number of bacteria on Acetobacter agar (AA ranged from 1.76 log CFU/mL to 2.80 log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria were counted on MRS agar and the number of detectable colonies ranged from 0.48 log CFU/mL to 2.06 log CFU/mL. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA was used for cultivation of yeast and the number of yeasts ranged from 2.47 log CFU/mL to 2.76 log CFU/mL. For identification of yeast species were used different types of agar media with acid base indicator bromocresol green. Identified 10 yeasts species includes to genus: Candida, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Candida, Debaromyces, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces. We identified only few bacterial species includes to genus Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Gluconobacter and Acetobacter.

  13. Enzymatic modifications of grape skin phenolics A new look at wine maceration ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Arnous, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely use...... processes in the wine industry.......Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely used...... during the wine grape maceration to obtain high juice yield and initial extraction of flavour components, and in the case of red wines for obtaining better initial extraction of colour. Until now, this maceration has mainly been considered as an extraction step. Recent data have shown that significant...

  14. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  15. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  16. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  17. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above

  18. Natural radionuclides in grapes and wine of the Valley of Sao Francisco-PE, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Patricia B.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Honorato, Eliane V.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Farias, Emerson E. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mails: pbrandao@cnen.gov.br; fredzini@cnen.gov.br; valentim@cnen.gov.br; chazin@cnen.gov.br; emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br; Belo, Michele T.; Lira, Marcia [Instituto de Tecnologia de Pernambuco ITEP-NE, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mails: marcia@itep.br; michele@itep.br

    2007-07-01

    Wine is a widely consumed beverage around the world. Wine quality is influenced by many factors related to the specific production area: grape varieties, soil and climate, and vinicultural practices. Fruit contamination by radionuclides can result from various processes, mainly: direct deposition to fruit surfaces, absorption by the fruit skin and transport to the flesh, and deposition to soil, root uptake and transfer to fruit. For assessment studies the processes affecting the transfer of radioactivity from soil to fruits are often grouped into an aggregated parameter: the soil-to-fruit transfer factor (TF). It relates the radionuclide concentration in fruit to that in the soil. In this work, radionuclides were determined in musts and wines from three wine grape varieties: Castelao (red), Barbera (red) and Schomburguer (white), as well as in several materials in which their presence has direct or indirect influence on the final amount of these elements in wines, like soils where the vines were cultivated. Radionuclides were determined by using gamma-spectrometry with a high resolution detector (HPGe). (author)

  19. Natural radionuclides in grapes and wine of the Valley of Sao Francisco-PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Patricia B.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Honorato, Eliane V.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Farias, Emerson E.; fredzini@cnen.gov.br; valentim@cnen.gov.br; Belo, Michele T.; Lira, Marcia

    2007-01-01

    Wine is a widely consumed beverage around the world. Wine quality is influenced by many factors related to the specific production area: grape varieties, soil and climate, and vinicultural practices. Fruit contamination by radionuclides can result from various processes, mainly: direct deposition to fruit surfaces, absorption by the fruit skin and transport to the flesh, and deposition to soil, root uptake and transfer to fruit. For assessment studies the processes affecting the transfer of radioactivity from soil to fruits are often grouped into an aggregated parameter: the soil-to-fruit transfer factor (TF). It relates the radionuclide concentration in fruit to that in the soil. In this work, radionuclides were determined in musts and wines from three wine grape varieties: Castelao (red), Barbera (red) and Schomburguer (white), as well as in several materials in which their presence has direct or indirect influence on the final amount of these elements in wines, like soils where the vines were cultivated. Radionuclides were determined by using gamma-spectrometry with a high resolution detector (HPGe). (author)

  20. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part I: polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    Mass spectrometry, had and still has, a very important role for research and quality control in the viticulture and enology field, and its analytical power is relevant for structural studies on aroma and polyphenolic compounds. Polyphenols are responsible for the taste and color of wine, and confer astringency and structure to the beverage. The knowledge of the anthocyanic structure is very important to predict the aging attitude of wine, and to attempt to resolve problems about color stability. Moreover, polyphenols are the main compounds related to the benefits of wine consumption in the diet, because of their properties in the treatment of circulatory disorders such as capillary fragility, peripheral chronic venous insufficiency, and microangiopathy of the retina. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques are nowadays the best analytical approach to study polyphenols in grape extracts and wine, and are the most effective tool in the study of the structure of anthocyanins. The MS/MS approach is a very powerful tool that permits anthocyanin aglycone and sugar moiety characterization. LC-MS allows the characterization of complex structures of grape polyphenols, such as procyanidins, proanthocyanidins, prodelphinidins, and tannins, and provides experimental evidence for structures that were previously only hypothesized. The matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technique is suitable to determine the presence of molecules of higher molecular weight with high accuracy, and it has been applied with success to study procyanidin oligomers up to heptamers in the reflectron mode, and up to nonamers in the linear mode. The levels of resveratrol in wine, an important polyphenol well-known for its beneficial effects, have been determined by SPME and LC-MS, and the former approach led to the best results in terms of sensitivity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part II: The consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo; Panighel, Annarita

    2006-01-01

    Controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. For products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. In this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, and compounds from the yeast and bacterial metabolism in wine. The presence of pesticides in wine is mainly linked to the use of dicarboxyimide fungicides on vineyard shortly before the harvest to prevent the Botrytis cinerea attack of grape. Pesticide residues are regulated at maximum residue limits in grape of low ppm levels, but significantly lower levels in wine have to be detected, and mass spectrometry offers effective and sensitive methods. Moreover, mass spectrometry represent an advantageous alternative to the radioactive-source-containing electron capture detector commonly used in GC analysis of pesticides. Analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine by LC/MS and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits to confirm the toxin presence without the use of expensive immunoaffinity columns, or time and solvent consuming sample derivatization procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is used to control heavy metals contamination in wine, and to verify the wine origin and authenticity. Isotopic ratio-mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to reveal wine watering and sugar additions, and to determine the product origin and traceability.

  3. Can a canopy temperature-based stress index enhance water use efficiency in irrigated wine grape under arid conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancement of irrigation water use efficiency and water productivity in arid wine grape production regions is hindered by a lack of automated, real-time methods for monitoring and interpreting vine water status. A normalized, water stress index calculated from real-time vine canopy temperature meas...

  4. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek) with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher) with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon). Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m). The percentage of productive shoots is more than...

  5. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  6. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Buica, Astrid; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2017-05-24

    Phenolic compounds are of crucial importance for red wine color and mouthfeel attributes. A large number of enzymatic and chemical reactions involving phenolic compounds take place during winemaking and aging. Despite the large number of published analytical methods for phenolic analyses, the values obtained may vary considerably. In addition, the existing scientific knowledge needs to be updated, but also critically evaluated and simplified for newcomers and wine industry partners. The most used and widely cited spectrophotometric methods for grape and wine phenolic analysis were identified through a bibliometric search using the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database accessed through the Web of Science (WOS) platform from Thompson Reuters. The selection of spectrophotometry was based on its ease of use as a routine analytical technique. On the basis of the number of citations, as well as the advantages and disadvantages reported, the modified Somers assay appears as a multistep, simple, and robust procedure that provides a good estimation of the state of the anthocyanins equilibria. Precipitation methods for total tannin levels have also been identified as preferred protocols for these types of compounds. Good reported correlations between methods (methylcellulose precipitable vs bovine serum albumin) and between these and perceived red wine astringency, in combination with the adaptation to high-throughput format, make them suitable for routine analysis. The bovine serum albumin tannin assay also allows for the estimation of the anthocyanins content with the measurement of small and large polymeric pigments. Finally, the measurement of wine color using the CIELab space approach is also suggested as the protocol of choice as it provides good insight into the wine's color properties.

  7. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  8. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  9. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Boss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L−1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L−1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L−1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  10. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-04-29

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  11. Determinations of adaptation level of wine grape varieties in terms of climatic data in wine growing regions of turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateş Fadime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine grapes are adapted to a wide range of climate; the best production occurs in regions that meet certain specific climatic conditions. Temperatures during the growing season can affect grape quality and viability. Beneficial climatic conditions will improve the wine's quality. In this study it is aimed that to determine suitable wine grape varieties for the cultivation in some areas of Southeastern Anatolia Region, Eastern Anatolia, Central Anatolia Region, Central Black Sea Region, Aegean Region and Marmara Region in Turkey with related to climate requirements. For this reason, long-term climatic data were collected by meteorological stations including, Diyarbakır (Çermik, Çüngüş, Central-Elazığ, Nevşehir (Central and Ürgüp, Ankara (Kalecik Tokat (Central, Erbaa, Niksar, İzmir (Seferihisar, Menderes, Urla ve Denizli (Çal ve Güney, Çanakkale (Bozcaada, Bayramiç, Tekirdağ. In this study heliotermic and hdyrothermic indices were calculated and evaluated for appropriate viticultural practice in this region. It was found that Boğazkere and Öküzgözü in Southeastern Anatolia Region and Eastern Anatolia Region; Kalecik Karası, Dimrit and Narince in Central Anatolia Region and Emir in Central Black Sea Region; Bornova Misketi, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Alicante Bouschet, Carignane, Kalecik Karası, Merlot, Öküzgözü, Çal Karası, Boğazkere, Sultani Çekirdeksiz in Aegean Region; Karasakız,Karalahana, Vasilaki, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Alicante Bouschet, Semillion, Cinsaut, Yapıncak, Gamay, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon can be adapted and grown well in terms of climatic conditions in Marmara Region respectively.

  12. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on wine volatile composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Šuklje, Katja; Boss, Paul K; Jeffery, David W

    2018-09-01

    This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes. Implementation of water substitution in particular resulted in minor alterations of wine volatile composition compared to the control, and positive aroma and flavour characteristics were preserved. However, overripe sensory attributes such as 'hotness' and 'port wine' were conserved whereas they were absent in wines of similar alcohol level made from earlier harvested grapes, thereby emphasising the relevance of grape (over)maturity when producing lower alcohol wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  14. Statistical modelling of fine red wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing wine is a very important economic activity in the province of San Juan in Argentina; it is therefore most important to predict production regarding the quantity of raw material needed. This work was aimed at obtaining a model relating kilograms of crushed grape to the litres of wine so produced. Such model will be used for predicting precise future values and confidence intervals for determined quantities of crushed grapes. Data from a vineyard in the province of San Juan was thus used in this work. The sampling coefficient of correlation was calculated and a dispersion diagram was then constructed; this indicated a li- neal relationship between the litres of wine obtained and the kilograms of crushed grape. Two lineal models were then adopted and variance analysis was carried out because the data came from normal populations having the same variance. The most appropriate model was obtained from this analysis; it was validated with experimental values, a good approach being obtained.

  15. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r 2 = 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  17. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from wine...

  19. A real-options analysis of wine grape farming in north west Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Emayenesh; Chan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a use of a real-options valuation methodology to analyse wine grape farm investment under price and yield uncertainty. Revenue levels to incentivise entry and exit were calculated for three different sizes of wine grape farms in North West Victoria. The modelling identified lower exit and higher entry triggers than indicated by conventional net present value calculation. The wide gap of estimated indeterminacy in farm investment highlights the intertwined influence of numer...

  20. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  1. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  2. Optimization of the HS-SPME-GC/MS technique for determining volatile compounds in red wines made from Isabel grapes (Vitis labrusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciza Maria de Oliveira ARCANJO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBrazilian wine production is characterized by Vitis labrusca grape varieties, especially the economically important Isabel cultivar, with over 80% of its production destined for table wine production. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate the conditions for extracting volatile compounds from wine with the solid-phase microextraction technique, using the response surface method. Based on the response surface analysis, it can be concluded that the central point values maximize the process of extracting volatile compounds from wine, i.e., an equilibrium time of 15 minutes, an extraction time of 35 minutes, and an extraction temperature of 30 °C. Esters were the most numerous compounds found under these extraction conditions, indicating that wines made from Isabel cultivar grapes are characterized by compounds that confer a fruity aroma; this finding corroborates the scientific literature.

  3. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenbichler, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  4. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  5. Impact of Temperature Anomalies Associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole Events on Wine Grape Maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2016-12-01

    Annual grapevine growth and development are intimately linked with growing season weather conditions. Shifts in circulation patterns resulting from atmospheric teleconnections to changes in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events can alter seasonal weather across Australia. Both ENSO and IOD events tend to peak in austral spring, when vine and berry development is especially critical and susceptible to damage. To investigate the impacts of ENSO and IOD events on the Australian wine grape growing sector, historical gridded climate data and annual vineyard grape maturity data from a variety of wine growing regions was collected and analysed. The greatest impacts on grape maturity were found when La Niña and IOD positive events occurred in tandem. During these events, significantly dry and hot conditions persist throughout the wine grape growing season, suggesting that the IOD overrides the ENSO signal. These conditions lead to a rapid, compressed growing season, which can cause logistical complications during harvest and impact grape and wine quality. Warming of equatorial SSTs in the Indian Ocean are likely to enhance the amplitude of IOD positive events, which has serious implications for wine grape production in Australia, highlighting the importance of this research.

  6. Characterization of microbial metabolism of Syrah grape products in an in vitro colon model using targeted and non-targeted analytical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Aura, Anna-Marja; Mattila, Ismo; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Cheynier, Veronique; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Bes, Magali; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Guyot, Sylvain; Orešič, Matej

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Syrah red grapes are used in the production of tannin-rich red wines. Tannins are high molecular weight molecules, proanthocyanidins (PAs), and poorly absorbed in the upper intestine. In this study, gut microbial metabolism of Syrah grape phenolic compounds was investigated. Methods Syrah grape pericarp was subjected to an enzymatic in vitro digestion model, and red wine and grape skin PA fraction were prepared. Microbial conversion was screened using an in vitro colon model with faec...

  7. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  8. Discrimination of wine from grape cultivated in Japan, imported wine, and others by multi-elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideaki; Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Kamada, Aya; Koyama, Kazuya; Okuda, Masaki; Fukuda, Hisashi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2018-04-01

    Differences in mineral concentrations were examined among three types of wine in the Japanese market place: Japan wine, imported wine, and domestically produced wine mainly from foreign ingredients (DWF), where Japan wine has been recently defined by the National Tax Agency as domestically produced wine from grapes cultivated in Japan. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of controlling the authenticity of Japan wine. The concentrations of 18 minerals (Li, B, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba, and Pb) in 214 wine samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In general, Japan wine had a higher concentration of potassium and lower concentrations of eight elements (Li, B, Na, Si, S, Co, Sr, and Pb) as compared with the other two groups of wine. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models based on concentrations of the 18 minerals facilitated the identification of three wine groups: Japan wine, imported wine, and DWF with a 91.1% classification score and 87.9% prediction score. In addition, an LDA model for discrimination of wine from four domestic geographic origins (Yamanashi, Nagano, Hokkaido, and Yamagata Prefectures) using 18 elements gave a classification score of 93.1% and a prediction score of 76.4%. In summary, we have shown that an LDA model based on mineral concentrations is useful for distinguishing Japan wine from other wine groups, and can contribute to classification of the four main domestic wine-producing regions of Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Color, anthocyanin, and antioxidant characteristics of young wines produced from spine grapes (Vitis davidii Foex) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuliang; Ju, Yanlun; Ruan, Xianrui; Zhao, Xianfang; Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Xifu; Qin, Minyang; Fang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Spine grape has gained attention in the field of wine science due to its good growth characteristics. Spine grape wine has been made by local residents for a long time. However, the scientific evaluation of spine wine has not been systemically documented compared to Vitis vinifera grape wines Methods: We compared 11 spine wines from south China (W1–W11) with 7 high-quality international wines (W12–W18). The total phenolic content, the total anothcyanin content and the antioxidant activity of these wines were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, anthocyanin profiles of these wines were also documented. Results: Compared with other wines most of the spine wines had a strong red intensity with a blue hue. Malvidin-3,5-O-diglucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaroyl)-glucoside-5-glucoside appeared to be the major anthocyanins in these wines. The scavenging capacity analyses of these wines using ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC assays indicated that spine wines possessed high antioxidant properties, especially spine wine W3, W4, W6 and W8. Their high antioxidant properties were mainly related to the high levels of the total phenolic content and anthocyanins. Conclusion: These results suggested that spine wine might be considered a good wine source for the Chinese wine industry and provided useful information on the knowledge of spine grape. PMID:28804435

  10. Color, anthocyanin, and antioxidant characteristics of young wines produced from spine grapes (Vitis davidii Foex) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuliang; Ju, Yanlun; Ruan, Xianrui; Zhao, Xianfang; Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Xifu; Qin, Minyang; Fang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    Background : Spine grape has gained attention in the field of wine science due to its good growth characteristics. Spine grape wine has been made by local residents for a long time. However, the scientific evaluation of spine wine has not been systemically documented compared to Vitis vinifera grape wines Methods : We compared 11 spine wines from south China (W1-W11) with 7 high-quality international wines (W12-W18). The total phenolic content, the total anothcyanin content and the antioxidant activity of these wines were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, anthocyanin profiles of these wines were also documented. Results : Compared with other wines most of the spine wines had a strong red intensity with a blue hue. Malvidin-3,5- O -diglucoside and malvidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaroyl)-glucoside-5-glucoside appeared to be the major anthocyanins in these wines. The scavenging capacity analyses of these wines using ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC assays indicated that spine wines possessed high antioxidant properties, especially spine wine W3, W4, W6 and W8. Their high antioxidant properties were mainly related to the high levels of the total phenolic content and anthocyanins. Conclusion : These results suggested that spine wine might be considered a good wine source for the Chinese wine industry and provided useful information on the knowledge of spine grape.

  11. Treatment with different fining agents of white musts from spoiled wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meistermann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fining agents have evolved significantly over the last twenty years. The need for winemakers to have objective references about the new products has prompted this study. The experiment consists in comparing the new fining products (charcoal, pea proteins, derivatives of chitin and composite products generally mixing PVPP + various proteins + bentonite with reference products such as casein and PVPP and with non-treated controls. Fining agents were applied during clarification of 15 different musts obtained from wine grapes affected by different degrees and types of rot: fresh and dry Botrytis cinerea rot, powdery mildew and Botrytis contaminated with other fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Basidiomycetes, giving the bunches offflavours that were earthy and resembled fresh mushrooms. This study highlights the importance of good clarification of musts. The quality of control wines, without any treatment, increases with the clarity of the must. In most experiments, clarification of the must around 50 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU can eliminate or reduce any organoleptic defects in wine without fining. Use of pectolytic enzymes may be necessary in order to reach this level of clarity. The new allergen-free fining agents have the same effectiveness as reference products such as casein and polyvinylpolypyrolidone (PVPP. Composite products are more efficient than pea protein alone and less than products including charcoal. However, the improvement of aromatic quality goes hand in hand with loss of body and persistence.

  12. Effect of grape juice press fractioning on polysaccharide and oligosaccharide compositions of Pinot meunier and Chardonnay Champagne base wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégou, Sandrine; Hoang, Duc An; Salmon, Thomas; Williams, Pascale; Oluwa, Solomen; Vrigneau, Céline; Doco, Thierry; Marchal, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Press fractioning is an important step in the production of sparkling base wines to segregate the grape juices with different qualities. Grape juice fractions were collected during the pressing cycle at industrial and laboratory scales. The Pinot meunier and Chardonnay Champagne base wines obtained from the free-run juice and the squeezed juices exhibited strong differences from the beginning to the last step of pressing cycle for numerous enological parameters. Significant changes in polysaccharide (PS) and oligosaccharide (OS) base wine composition and concentration were found as the pressing cycle progressed. During the pressing cycle, the total PS concentration decreased by 31% (from 244 to 167mg/L) and 32% (from 201 to 136mg/L) in the Pinot meunier and Chardonnay wines respectively. The wine OS amounts varied between 97 and 139mg/L. The polysaccharide rich in arabinose and galactose (39-54%) and mannoproteins (38-55%) were the major PS in the base wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohidul Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US treatment, light-emitting diode (LED, ultra violet (UV irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

  14. Potential health benefits from the flavonoids in grape products on vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folts, John D

    2002-01-01

    In the dog, monkey, a nd human we have shown that 5 ml/kg of red wine or 5-10 ml/kg of purple grape juice but not orange or grapefruit juice inhibits platelet activity, and protects against epinephrine activation of platelets. Red wine and purple grape juice enhances platelet and endothelial production of nitric oxide (Fitzpatrick et al., 1993, Parker et al., 2000). This is thought to be one of the mechanisms whereby purple grape juice significantly improved endothelial function in 15 patients with coronary artery disease. The consumption of purple grape juice by the patients also offered increased protection against LDL cholesterol oxidation, even though all the patients were also taking another antioxidant vitamin E, 400 IU/day. The number of people and animals in these studies was small; however, each one acted as their own control as measurements were made in each before, and then after consumption of red wine or purple grape juice. Thus these studies are thought to be significant. We feel that the results of these studies are encouraging and justify further research on larger numbers of subjects. This suggests that the flavonoids in purple grape juice and red wine may inhibit the initiation of atherosclerosis by one or more of the mechanisms described above. It will take years to fully characterize the potential benefits of daily consumption of red wine or purple grape juice for maintaining a healthy heart. Based on the existing evidence of antiplatelet and antioxidant benefits and improved endothelial function from red wine and purple grape juice, it seems reasonable to suggest that moderate amounts of red wine or purple grape juice be included among the 5-7 daily servings of fruits and vegetables per day as recommended by the American Heart Association to help reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  15. Integrative Inferences on Pattern Geometries of Grapes Grown under Water Stress and Their Resulting Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Fushing; Hsueh, Chih-Hsin; Heitkamp, Constantin; Matthews, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Multiple datasets of two consecutive vintages of replicated grape and wines from six different deficit irrigation regimes are characterized and compared. The process consists of four temporal-ordered signature phases: harvest field data, juice composition, wine composition before bottling and bottled wine. A new computing paradigm and an integrative inferential platform are developed for discovering phase-to-phase pattern geometries for such characterization and comparison purposes. Each phas...

  16. Exergy analysis of wine production: Red wine production process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genc, Mahmut; Genc, Seda; Goksungur, Yekta

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Red wine production process was studied thermodynamically by exergy analysis method. • The first study on exergetic analysis of a red wine production process. • Energetic and exergetic efficiencies are calculated as 57.2 and 41.8%, respectively. • Cumulative exergy loss is computed as 2692.51 kW for 1 kg/s grape. • Specific exergy loss is found as 5080.20 kW/kg wine. - Abstract: This paper performs exergy analysis of a red wine production line and defines the exergy destruction rates to assess the system performance in terms of sustainability. A model study with necessary data is chosen for the calculations. The total exergy destruction rate of the overall system was determined to be 344.08 kW while the greatest destruction rate of the exergy in the whole system occurred in the open fermenter (333.6 kW). The system thermal efficiency was obtained to be 57.2% while the exergy efficiency was calculated as 41.8%. The total exergy destruction rate of the overall system increases with the increase both in the grape flow rate and the reference temperature when the reference pressure is assumed as 101.325 kPa. Furthermore, the chemical exergy of streams was found much higher than the physical exergy for each stream. The exergy results were illustrated through the Grassmann diagram. Furthermore, cumulative exergy loss and specific exergy loss values were determined as 2692.51 kW/1 kg/s grape processed and 5080.20 kW/kg wine, respectively.

  17. Determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ribeiro de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the three viticultural regions of the Azores. Iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and manganese by graphite furnace atomic absorption. The concentrations of the four elements differed in soils of the three regions; there was no difference in the concentration in grapes, whereas significant differences were observed for the wines as regards the amounts of iron, manganese and zinc. The concentrations of these four elements in wine correspond with the mean values observed for other European regions.

  18. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  19. Fate of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid residues in grapes and wine by GC-ITMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Schirra, Mario; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2011-06-22

    The behavior in field and the transfer from grapes to wine during winemaking of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid was studied. The residue levels found in grapes were far below the MRLs set for grapes in EU, accounting at harvest time 0.81, 0.43, and 4.23 mg/kg for iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid, respectively. The residue levels in the samples treated with boscalid may have residual problems (due to an accumulation effect) if repeated field treatments will be performed. Winemaking experiments showed a complete transfer of all pesticide from grapes to the must, while in wine the residues were low or negligible due to the adsorbing effect of lees and pomace. The clarification experiments showed a good removal of pesticide residues from the wine media, for all pesticides. The GC-ITMS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 75 to 115%, and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs) far below MRLs.

  20. Influence of Grape Berry Maturity on Juice and Base Wine Composition and Foaming Properties of Sparkling Wines from the Champagne Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin-He; Vrigneau, Céline; Salmon, Thomas; Hoang, Duc An; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Jégou, Sandrine; Marchal, Richard

    2018-06-06

    In sparkling wine cool-climate regions like Champagne, it is sometimes necessary to pick the healthy grape clusters that have a relatively low maturity level to avoid the deleterious effects of Botrytis cinerea . In such conditions, we know that classical oenological parameters (sugars, pH, total acidity) may change but there is little information concerning the impact of grape berry maturity on wine proteins and foaming properties. Therefore, healthy grapes (Chardonnay and Pinot meunier) in 2015 and 2016 were picked at different maturity levels within the range of common industrial maturity for potential alcohol content 8⁻11% v/v in the Champagne region. Base wine protein content and foamability, and oenological parameters in grape juice and their corresponding base wines, were investigated. The results showed that base wine protein contents (analyzed by the Bradford method and by electrophoresis) and foamability were higher when the grapes were riper. The Pearson’s correlation test found significant positive correlations ( r = 0.890⁻0.997, p < 0.05) between Chardonnay grape berry maturity degree (MD) and base wine foamability in both vintages. Strong correlations between MD and most of the oenological parameters in grape juice and base wine were also found for the two cultivars. Under the premise of guaranteed grape health, delaying harvest date is an oenological decision capable of improving base wine protein content and foamability.

  1. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  2. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Narjara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture is created. The search for organic products – that doesn't use artificial mineral and chemical fertilizers and exploits fertility as a way of fighting diseases and pests – and biodynamic products in the agricultural production unit is understood as a kind of organism also take place in the wine industry. But knowing which producers are involved in this type of activity is still a difficult task for the community, especially due to the informality of some agents. Thus, this paper proposes to identify organic and biodynamic wine producers in southern Brazil; as well as the tools and policies which have encouraged farmers to adopt these practices. Finally, understanding the main obstacles producers find dealing with certifications mechanisms. This region was chosen for being the largest grape and wine producing in the country.

  3. Application of Wine Pomace seeds as finning agent during production of red wines and its effects over colour parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During production of wines are used different fining agents with animal origin for preventing later presipitation and reducing harshenss of wines. Even these positive properties they may cause some allergic reactions in consumers with allergic predispositons. Due to health concern wine pomace seeds could be a new alternative as fining agent with plant origin. In this study were evaluated preliminary effects of seeds over wine qulity expecially wine colour. As the next stage will be considered thier health effects. Grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. “Cabernet Sauvignon” were manually harvested at optimum maturity (25∘Brix and transported to the Experimental Winery at the Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Wine production were done according to the accepted wine production procedures with exeption of SO2 (it was not added. Obtained grape seeds flour (drying and milling were used as fining agent with different values (2/4/6/8/10 gram/100 ml. In all wines basic wine chemical parameters and some spesific colour parameters were determined %D280, %D420, %D520, %D620, CD: Colour density, CI: Colour intensity, T: Tint value, dA %: Proportion of red colour produced by flavylium cations , %Y: Proportion of yellow colour, % R: Proportion of red colour and % B: Proportion of blue colour. The results demonstrated the possibility of using wine pomace grape seeds as fining agent. Concidering colour parametrs of obtianed wines the best results were deterrmined with 8 g/100 ml application. Futher studies are needed in order to evaluate other wine parameters.

  4. First evidence of epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michäel; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-09-01

    Flavan-3-ols are units incorporating condensed tannin, which are widely present in grape and wine. They play a considerable role in wine sensory perception such as astringency, bitterness and mouth-feel. In grape and wine, the flavan-3-ols reported to date are (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin gallate and (epi)catechin glycoside. This study now shows the presence of a new flavan-3-ol epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine. A putative unknown flavan-3-ol derived from grape seed was targeted by LC-HRMS/MS. Fractionation and purification by centrifugal partition chromatography and Prep HPLC allowed us to obtain the pure new flavan-3-ol. NMR and HRMS data revealed this compound to be epicatechin-3-O-vanillate. Quantification analysis results showed that epicatechin vanillate present in grape seed and red wine in the μg/g dry seed and the μg/L concentration range, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  6. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  7. Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Arneborg, Nils; Toldam-Andersen, Torben B; Petersen, Mikael A; Bredie, Wender Lp

    2017-08-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia viticola, Metschnikowia fructicola and Hanseniaspora uvarum) indigenously isolated in Denmark were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars, Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines. The different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, five acids, two ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulfur compound. The use of M. viticola in sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae resulted in richer berry and fruity flavours in wines. The sensory plot showed a more clear separation among wine samples by grape cultivars compared with yeast strains. Knowledge on the influence of indigenous non-Saccharomyces strains and grape cultivars on the flavour generation contributed to producing diverse wines in cool-climate wine regions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Ozone fumigation for safety and quality of wine grapes in postharvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botondi, Rinaldo; De Sanctis, Federica; Moscatelli, Niccolò; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Catelli, Cesare; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes postharvest ozone fumigation (as a method) to control microorganisms and evaluate the effect on polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and cell wall enzymes during the grape dehydration for wine production. Pignola grapes were ozone-treated (1.5 g/h) for 18 h (A=shock treatment), then dehydrated or ozone-treated (1.5 g/h) for 18 h and at 0.5 g/h for 4 h each day (B=long-term treatment) during dehydration. Treatment and dehydration were performed at 10 °C. No significant difference was found for total carotenoid, total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents after 18 h of O3 treatment. A significant decrease in phenolic and anthocyanin contents occurred during treatment B. Also carotenoids were affected by B ozone treatment. Pectin methylesterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities were higher in A-treated grapes during dehydration. Finally, ozone reduced fungi and yeasts by 50%. Shock ozone fumigation (A treatment) before dehydration can be used to reduce the microbial count during dehydration without affecting polyphenol and carotenoid contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of green cover crops on vine productivity and on grape and wine composition. For two growing seasons, evaluations were done for three intercrops, two managements of the cover crops, and for a control treatment with weeds controlled by herbicides and mowing. A vineyard of 'Cabernet Sauvignon', located at 1,130 m altitude in a Haplumbrept soil, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil was used. Intercropping was done with a succession of the cover crops moha

  10. Use of solid phase microextraction to identify volatile organic compounds in brazilian wines from different grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina Morais Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian wine industry has shown significant growth in recent years and the insertion of new concepts, such as geographical indications as signs of quality, has placed Brazil in tune with the tendencies of world wine production. The aim of this work was to apply the Solid Phase Microextraction technique in combination with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to study Brazilian wines made from different grape varieties, in order to separate and identify their volatile organic compounds. These substances were identified by comparisons between the spectra obtained with those presented in the NIST library database, and by comparisons with linear retention indices and literature data. The amounts of the compounds were calculated based on the total peak areas of the chromatograms. Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and grouped into alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones and terpenes. Most of them belonged to the ester function, conferring a fruity aroma on the wines. The alcohols may have originated from the yeast metabolism, contributing to the alcoholic and floral aromas. Ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol and diethyl maleate were identified in all the varieties, except Merlot. Decanal, methyl citronellate, (E-2-hexenyl-3-methylbutyrate were only found in Merlot, while 2,3-butanediol was only present in the Tannat wines. 2-Phenylethanol was present in all varieties and is recognized as giving pleasant rose and honey attributes to wines. This study showed that the volatile profile of red wines is mainly characterized by esters and higher alcohols. The statistical analysis of the comparison of averages showed a greater amount of averages significantly different in the relative areas of Merlot wine. The Principal Component Analysis showed one grouping composed only of the Merlot wine samples, and this was probably related to the existence of the volatile organic compounds that were specifically identified in

  11. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made in...

  12. High value co-products from wine byproducts (II): polyphenols and antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The by-products of the grape/wine industry have recently attracted considerable interest as important sources of high-value antioxidants. these can be extracted from stems, such as resveratrol,and from grape pomace which contains polyphenols, procyanidin and antrocyanins. (Author)

  13. Effect of cofermentation of grape varieties on aroma profiles of la mancha red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carpintero, Eva Gómez; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Gómez Gallego, Manuel A; González-Viñas, Miguel A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of winemaking using blends of red grape varieties cultivated in La Mancha region (Spain) on the aroma profile of wines was researched by chemical characterization. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction using dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, respectively, as solvents in elution and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free and bound volatile compounds were analyzed in Cencibel, Bobal, and Moravia Agria monovarietal wines, and in 3 wines obtained with the blending of grapes: Cencibel (50%) + Bobal (50%); Cencibel (50%) + Moravía Agria (50%); Cencibel (33%) + Bobal (33%) + Moravía Agria (33%). Aroma compounds were studied in terms of odor activity values (OAVs). Ninety free aroma compounds and sixty-five bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified. The odor activity values for the different compounds were classified into 7 odorant series. The fruity and sweet series contributed most strongly to the aroma profile of all wines, independently of the winemaking technique used. In general, co-winemaking wines present a more complex chemical profile than monovarietal wines. Practical Application: Some grape varieties could benefit from this process with the presence of other varieties that might have an excess of aroma compounds. In this study, the wines were elaborated by blending different grape varieties together; this process implies co-maceration and co-fermentation steps. The co-winemaking technique could benefit from additional molecules provided by the other varieties, which results in a more complex formation than in the case of monovarietal wines. This technique provides a viable alternative to traditional winemaking methods for improving and enhancing the sensory profile of elaborated wines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia) or Wine Phytochemicals Reduce Intestinal Inflammation in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Kim, Min-Hyun; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gao, Chi; Gu, Liwei

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemical extracts from muscadine grapes or wine on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to investigate cellular mechanisms. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were gavaged with muscadine grape phytochemicals (MGP) or muscadine wine phytochemicals (MWP), respectively, for 14 days. Acute colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. An additional two groups of mice served as healthy and disease controls. Results indicated that MGP or MWP significantly prevented weight loss, reduced disease activity index, and preserved colonic length compared to the colitis group (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity as well as the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in colon (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP caused down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that phytochemicals from muscadine grape or wine mitigate ulcerative colitis via attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and modulation of the NF-κB pathway.

  15. 134Cs foliar contamination of vine: translocation to grapes and transfer to wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, F.; Anguissola Scotti, I.; Montruccoli, M.; Silva, S.

    1996-01-01

    Grape vines growing in pots placed in open field were contaminated by sprinkling an aqueous solution of carrier free 134 Cs. Activity was determined in acini and must at the ripening stage. Interception and Translocation Factors (TLF) were quantified. They strictly depend on the state of growth of the crop. Wine was produced by a laboratory process and analysed as to radiocesium. Transfer parameters, F r and P e , were calculated to predict radiocesium concentration in wine: it is 0.6 times the activity found in grapes. The leaf fruit translocation seems to be the dominant process in the contamination of acini when compared to direct deposition. (author)

  16. Differentiation of wines according to grape variety and geographical origin based on volatiles profiling using SPME-MS and SPME-GC/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Angelika; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2016-12-15

    Among methods to detect wine adulteration, profiling volatiles is one with a great potential regarding robustness, analysis time and abundance of information for subsequent data treatment. Volatile fraction fingerprinting by solid-phase microextraction with direct analysis by mass spectrometry without compounds separation (SPME-MS) was used for differentiation of white as well as red wines. The aim was to differentiate between varieties used for wine production and to also differentiate wines by country of origin. The results obtained were compared to SPME-GC/MS analysis in which compounds were resolved by gas chromatography. For both approaches the same type of statistical procedure was used to compare samples: principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). White wines (38) and red wines (41) representing different grape varieties and various regions of origin were analysed. SPME-MS proved to be advantageous in use due to better discrimination and higher sample throughput. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Viticulture microzoning: a functional approach aiming to grape and wine qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at the farm scale, strongly rooted on hydropedology and aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production. The physics of our approach is defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models which applies physically-based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solves soil-plant water status. This study (ZOVISA project) was conducted in a farm devoted to high quality wines production (Aglianico DOC), located in South Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano-AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two Homogenous Zones (HZs) were identified; in each one of those a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional Homogeneous Zones (fHzs). In these last, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). Eventually this experiment has proved the usefulness of the physical based approach also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  18. Climate Change Decouples Drought from Early Wine Grape Harvests in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the world, wine grape phenology has advanced in recent decades, in step with climate-change-induced trends in temperature - the main driver of fruit maturation - and drought. Fully understanding how climate change contributes to changes in harvest dates, however, requires analysing wine grape phenology and its relationship to climate over a longer-term context, including data predating anthropogenic interference in the climate system. Here, we investigate the climatic controls of wine grape harvest dates from 1600-2007 in France and Switzerland using historical harvest and climate data. Early harvests occur with warmer temperatures (minus 6 days per degree Centigrade) and are delayed by wet conditions (plus 0.07 days per millimeter; plus 1.68 days per PDSI (Palmer drought severity index)) during spring and summer. In recent decades (1981-2007), however, the relationship between harvest timing and drought has broken down. Historically, high summer temperatures in Western Europe, which would hasten fruit maturation, required drought conditions to generate extreme heat. The relationship between drought and temperature in this region, however, has weakened in recent decades and enhanced warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gases can generate the high temperatures needed for early harvests without drought. Our results suggest that climate change has fundamentally altered the climatic drivers of early wine grape harvests in France, with possible ramifications for viticulture management and wine quality.

  19. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cane Koteski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wine (Latin: vinum is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained from other types of fruit. These wines are referred to as fruit wines, or wear a name by which the fruit is used for obtaining them (for example apple wine. Wine tourism is a type of tourism that involves visiting wineries, tasting, consumption and purchase of wine, usually directly from the manufacturer. This type of tourism includes visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants famous for special local wines, as well as organized wine tours, visits to wine festivals and other special events. Many wine regions around the world to promote this tourism because it affects very positively to the local economy. In these regions, viticulture and hospitality organizations have spent significant resources over the years for the promotion of wine tourism. Wine tourism in my country is respected, but strong growth.

  20. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microoxidation in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects. PMID:24348447

  3. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer's attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  4. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella ePagliarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e. a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g. odor, taste, flavor and mouthfeel sensations and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter and mouthfeel (astringent sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.

  5. Detailed characterization of proanthocyanidins in skin, seeds, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlin, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Downey, Mark O

    2011-12-28

    The distribution of proanthocyanidin (PA) polymer lengths, proanthocyanidin concentration at each polymer length, and polymer composition were determined in the seed, skin, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in southeast Australia. PA was fractionated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by phloroglucinolysis and HPLC to report the degree of polymerization (DP), concentration, and composition at 11 DP values in seed and wine and 21 DP values in skin. In skin, the highest PA concentration was observed at a DP of 31 in Shiraz and 29 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing 15% of the total PA in both varieties. The distribution of seed PA had the highest concentration at a DP of 7 in Shiraz and 6 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 30% of the total PA. In the wine PA distribution, the highest concentration was observed at a DP of 11 in Shiraz and 9 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 26 and 32% of the distribution, respectively. A second peak in wine PA concentration was observed at the largest DP of 18 in Shiraz and 15 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 20% of the distribution. The composition in wine did not vary at different DP, but the proportion of epicatechin gallate varied in seed PA less than 4 DP. The proportion of epigallocatechin increased with increasing DP in skin PA. Wine PA had a DP range and composition similar to the distribution of skin PA between DP 4 and 18 suggesting that larger skin PAs are not extracted into wine. This study provides information that could be used to target the important PA fractions in grapes that need to be measured to understand (or predict) PA extraction into wine and eventual mouthfeel.

  6. ASPECTS REGARDING WINE PRODUCTION AND WINE SECTOR COMPETITIVENESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine sector competitiveness in Romania. Vineyards have an important share in Romanian agriculture, Romania being ranked on 11th position in the world and on 5th position in the European Union in terms of vineyards surface, while the wine industry is an important contributor to the GDP. The research method was based on analyze of wine sector evolution in the last years. The paper presents current global context of wine market at international level and focus on Romanian wine production sector and wine trade, seen in the light of competitiveness. The competitiveness of Romanian wine sector need to be related with measures that are able to increase the attractiveness of Romanian wines, both on domestic and external markets.

  7. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  8. Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Huo, Shan-Shan; Luan, Li-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2013-06-01

    Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

  9. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit without...

  10. Is solar radiation a key to good red wine grape anthocyanin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite a century of research, we still lack a concrete, mechanistic understanding of solar radiation and temperature effects on anthocyanin accumulation and composition, crucial for red wine grapes. Our aim was to elucidate the mechanistic response to microclimate of anthocyanin metabolism in Viti...

  11. Dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy and cold hardiness influence grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) susceptibility to cold injury, which is a major cause of economic loss in high latitude growing regions. The objectives of this study were to compare dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars considered more (C...

  12. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec. 455...

  13. Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Maicas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics.

  14. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  15. Efficacy of ultraviolet radiation as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Ilse N; du Toit, Maret; Krügel, Maricel

    2011-05-01

    Since sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) is associated with health risks, the wine industry endeavours to reduce SO(2) levels in wines with new innovative techniques. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-C (254 nm) as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines. A pilot-scale UV-C technology (SurePure, South Africa) consisting of an UV-C germicidal lamp (100 W output; 30 W UV-C output) was used to apply UV-C dosages ranging from 0 to 3672 J l(-1), at a constant flow rate of 4000 l h(-1) (Re > 7500). Yeasts, lactic and acetic acid bacteria were singly and co-inoculated into 20 l batches of Chenin blanc juice, Shiraz juice, Chardonnay wine and Pinotage wine, respectively. A dosage of 3672 J l(-1), resulted in an average log(10) microbial reduction of 4.97 and 4.89 in Chardonnay and Pinotage, respectively. In Chenin blanc and Shiraz juice, an average log(10) reduction of 4.48 and 4.25 was obtained, respectively. UV-C efficacy may be influenced by liquid properties such as colour and turbidity. These results had clearly indicated significant (p radiation may stabilize grape juice and wine microbiologically in conjunction with reduced SO(2) levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy for the quality control of wine spirits, brandies and grape marc spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, O.; Caldeira, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to apply a rapid method for the determination of methanol, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate in wine spirits, brandies and grape marc spirits, using Fourier Transform Infrared – Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Spectroscopy.

  17. Augmentation of chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine by incorporation of grape seeds during vinification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenuGopal, K S; Cherita, Chris; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2018-03-01

    The role of grape seed tannins on improving organoleptic properties and its involvement in color stabilization in red wine are well established. The addition of grape seeds as the source of condensed tannins in fruit wine may provide a solution for its color instability and improvement of sensory attributes. Syzgium cumini is traditionally known for its therapeutic properties. In the current study, the influence of yeasts and grape seed addition during fermentation on the chromatic, phenolic and sensory attributes of the wine was accessed. Grape seed addition improved the color characteristics of wine and increased overall phenolic composition. Analysis by HPLC revealed 6 major anthocyanins, among which 3, 5-diglucoside form of delphidin and petunidin was found to be the major components. Cluster and PLSR analysis explained the impact of seed addition on the yeasts, as well as on the perception of panelists, with bitterness and astringency as the dominating attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of pre-bloom leaf removal on grape aroma composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Battista, Fabrizio; Panighel, Annarita; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2018-03-01

    Early leaf removal at pre-bloom is an innovative viticultural practice for regulating yield components and improving grape quality. The effects of this technique on vine performance, grape composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon variety were assessed. Pre-bloom leaf removal enhanced canopy porosity, total soluble solids in musts and reduced cluster compactness. This practice had a strong effect on glycoside aroma precursors, in particular by increasing glycoside terpenols and norisoprenoids. Metabolites of linalool were the most responsive to leaf removal. Wine produced from defoliated vines was preferred in tasting trials for its more intense fruity notes and mouthfeel attributes. Pre-bloom leaf removal is a powerful technique for modifying canopy microclimate, vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The increase of glycoside aroma compounds in treated grapes has potential positive effect in improving the sensory profile of the resulting wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non-stressed (ΨPD ≥ -7.9 bars and ΨL ≥ -14.9 bars) and stressed (ΨPD ≤ -8.0 bars and

  20. Characterization and multivariate classification of grapes and wines of two Cabernet Sauvignon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess and characterize two clones, 169 and 685, of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and to evaluate the wine produced from these grapes. The experiment was carried out in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil, during the 2009 harvest season. During grape ripening, the evolution of physical-chemical properties, phenolic compounds, organic acids, and anthocyanins was evaluated. During grape harvest, yield components were determined for each clone. Individual and total phenolics, individual and total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for wine. The clones were also assessed regarding the duration of their phenological cycle. During ripening, the evolution of phenolic compounds and of physical-chemical parameters was similar for both clones; however, during harvest, significant differences were observed regarding yield, number of bunches per plant and berries per bunch, leaf area, and organic acid, polyphenol, and anthocyanin content. The wines produced from these clones showed significant differences regarding chemical composition. The clones showed similar phenological cycle and responses to bioclimatic parameters. Principal component analysis shows that clone 685 is strongly correlated with color characteristics, mainly monomeric anthocyanins, while clone 169 is correlated with individual phenolic compounds.

  1. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  3. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  4. Fermentation behaviour and volatile compound production by agave and grape must yeasts in high sugar Agave tequilana and grape must fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Fiore, Concetta; Acosta, Guillermina; Romano, Patrizia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on the characterization of yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages and their individual fermentation properties. In this study, a comparison and evaluation of yeasts of different origins in the tequila and wine industries were carried out for technological traits. Fermentations were carried out in high (300 g l(-1)) and low (30 g l(-1)) sugar concentrations of Agave tequilana juice, in musts obtained from Fiano (white) and Aglianico (red) grapes and in YPD medium (with 270 g l(-1) of glucose added) as a control. Grape yeasts exhibited a reduced performance in high-sugar agave fermentation, while both agave and grape yeasts showed similar fermentation behaviour in grape musts. Production levels of volatile compounds by grape and agave yeasts differed in both fermentations.

  5. Impact of Plasmopara viticola infection of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes on wine composition and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Deliere, Laurent; Crachereau, Jean Christophe; Davidou, Ludivine; Sauris, Pierre; Guilbault, Pascal; Darriet, Philippe

    2018-01-15

    This work reports the identification of volatile compounds involved in the particular and atypical flavor detected in Vitis vinifera red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes infected and wilted by brown rot (Plasmopara viticola). Must made from withered grapes had green aromas while red wines were marked by intense odor reminiscent of green, herbaceous notes but also figs and cooked fruit. Thanks to GC-O and GC-MS analysis, cooked fruit notes were identified as 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone, whereas herbaceous and green aromas were identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. We show that the organoleptic impact of P. viticola is more pronounced in Merlot wines compared to Cabernet Sauvignon ones. The highest levels of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (75.3ng/L) were found in old Merlot wines made with 20% infected berries, suggesting the incidence of berry quality on the ability of a wine to age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenolic characterisation of red wines from different grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanzone, Martín; Zamora, Fernando; Jofré, Viviana; Assof, Mariela; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of wine and its association with the grape variety/cultivar is of paramount importance in oenology and a necessary tool for marketing. Phenolic compounds are very important quality parameters of wines because of their impact on colour, taste and health properties. The aim of the present work was to study and describe the non-flavonoid and flavonoid composition of wines from the principal red grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza (Argentina). Sixty phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids/derivatives, stilbenes, anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and dihydroflavonols, were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS). Marked quantitative differences could be seen in the phenolic profile among varieties, especially in stilbenes, acylated anthocyanins and other flavonoids. The polyphenolic content of Malbec wines was higher compared with the other red varieties. Dihydroflavonols represent a significant finding from the chemotaxonomic point of view, especially for Malbec variety. This is the first report on the individual phenolic composition of red wines from Mendoza (Argentina) and suggests that anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids exert a great influence on cultivar-based differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  8. Partitioning of ochratoxin A in mycelium and conidia of Aspergillus carbonarius and the impact on toxin contamination of grapes and wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; Mathieu, F.; Lebrihi, A.; Mitchell, D.; Magan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius is an important ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing fungus which is responsible for toxin contamination of grapes and wine. The objectives of this study were to examine the partitioning of OTA in mycelium and conidia of a range of A. carbonarius strains on artificial grape juice and defined media, to determine the excretion patterns of OTA from these spores, and the effect of organic acids used in wine production on OTA excretion from conidia. The results showed that 60-70% of the OTA was accumulated in the conidia of a number of different isolates of A. carbonarius. Calculations showed that on different defined media, an amount of 0011- to 01-pg OTA was present per conidium. The OTA in spores was found to be rapidly excreted into the medium during the initial few hours after conidial germination leading to an increase of OTA in must during maceration for wine production. The presence of tartaric acid inhibited OTA production, but malic acid enhanced this production during mycelial growth. These acids were also shown to affect the time course of germination and the rate of OTA excretion from conidia during germination. Conclusions: This study is the first to examine and show the partitioning of OTA into spores of strains of A. carbonarius and that rapid excretion of OTA from spores could be a reason for OTA accumulation in musts during wine production.Significance and Impact of the Study: Conidia of A. carbonarius could be a major source of OTA contamination of grapes used in wine production. This information could help in the development of effective prevention strategies to minimize wine contamination with this important mycotoxin. (author)

  9. Amarone: a modern wine coming from an ancient production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronetto, Lanfranco; Dellaglio, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Amarone wine is a renowned dry red wine produced in Valpolicella (Verona, Northern Italy). It is made from local grapes varieties (Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara) that are slowly dried under natural conditions during the fall into winter. After the postharvest drying, carried out for several weeks in dedicated lofts called fruttaio, the grapes are vinified: crushed, given prefermentative cold maceration, undergo alcoholic fermentation on the skins, malolactic fermentation, and finally maturation. The partially dried grapes are traditionally crushed during the second half of January to February. Because cellar conditions are unfavorable for either alcohol or malolactic fermentation, selected microbial cultures (yeasts and malolactic bacteria) are often necessary to correctly manage fermentation. The progress of both fermentation processes needs constant surveillance. During maturation conducted in vessels or wooden containers (tonneau in durmast oak), clarification and stabilization lead to improvements in quality. Product specifications require that Amarone not be bottled before the wine has been aged for 2years (Anonymous (2010). Disciplinare di produzione dei vini a denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita "Amarone della Valpolicella". Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana. Serie generale n. 84. April 12). Amarone achieved its DOCG (Controlled and Guaranteed Denomination) status in 2010. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Arneborg, Nils; Toldam-Andersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia viticola, Metschnikowia fructicola and Hanseniaspora uvarum) indigenously isolated...... in Denmark were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars, Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines. RESULTS......: The different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, five acids, two ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulfur compound. The use of M. viticola...

  11. Unexpected relationships between δ13C and wine grape performance in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Antonio Costantino Costantini

    2013-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Water nutrition is crucial for wine grape performance. δ13C is a method used to assess vine water status during the growing season and to estimate vine performance. A good performance is expected at moderate stress and intermediate δ13C values. A better knowledge of the interaction between water and nutrient scarcity is needed, as it can affect the use of δ13C to predict vine performance.

  12. Combining color chart, colorimetric measurement and chemical compounds for postharvest quality of white wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollazzo, Marco; Baccelloni, Simone; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Bellincontro, Andrea

    2018-01-03

    This paper provides data for the potential use of a color chart to establish the best quality of white wine grapes destined for postharvest processing. Grechetto, Vermentino and Muscat of Alexandria white wine grape varieties were tested by sampling berries at different dates during their quality attribute evolution. A color chart and reflectance spectrocolorimeter were used in combination with analyses of total carotenoids and chlorophylls in all three varieties and of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Grechetto alone. Total carotenoids decreased from 0.85 to 0.76 µg g -1 in Grechetto berries and from 0.70 to 0.46 µg g -1 in Vermentino berries while increased from 0.70 to 0.80 µg g -1 in Muscat berries during ripening. Total chlorophylls decreased in all varieties, and a strict correlation was found between hue angle (measured by color chart or spectrocolorimeter) and chlorophyll disappearance, with R 2 ranging from 0.81 to 0.95 depending on the variety. VOCs were only measured in Grechetto grapes, and a significant increase in glycosylation was found with ripening. The concentration of different classes of VOCs exhibited a clear decrease during ripening, except for terpenoids and esters which showed a peak at the beginning. The benzenoid class reached the highest concentration, which was almost 50% of the total. Cluster analysis using Ward's method enabled the best grape quality to be identified. This experimental work highlights that a color chart is cheap and easy to use to define the right quality stage for white wine grapes. The color chart enabled the enochemical features to be matched with the VOC results for the aromatic maturity of Grechetto. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Olga; González-Royo, Elena; Gil, Mariona; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness.

  14. Performance of purified grape pomace as a fining agent to reduce the levels of some contaminants from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, María Dolores; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2018-03-30

    The quality of red wine depends on the absence of compounds which may affect its safety and/or stability such as ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and some metals and trace compounds. The presence of ochratoxin A in musts and wines is due to fungal contamination of the grapes and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. Biogenic amines are formed by the microbiological descarboxylation of the corresponding amino acid precursors during the fermentation or aging and storage, and, at high concentrations, they may induce adverse reactions in sensitive people. Trace elements may have both a nutritional and a toxic effect on health, but also can cause turbidity and stability problems. Their presence is affected mainly by natural factors such as soil mineral content and direct contact with tank surfaces and metallic tubing during winemaking. One of the best options to remove these compounds when present in excess in wine is fining. However, some fining agents commonly used may themselves present problems related with their allergenic properties or with their propensity to increase the protein content, which can cause turbidity problems. In an attempt to avoid such these problems, purified grape pomace was tested as a fining alternative since it has been seen to have a high capacity to reduce the astringency, turbidity and also the ochratoxin A content. The main aim of this work, therefore, was to study if this material can limit the presence of ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and metals and some trace elements in a Monastrell red wine, thus increasing the value and safety of this product.

  15. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  16. Complexity and Dynamics of the Winemaking Bacterial Communities in Berries, Musts, and Wines from Apulian Grape Cultivars through Time and Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Marzano

    Full Text Available Currently, there is very little information available regarding the microbiome associated with the wine production chain. Here, we used an amplicon sequencing approach based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS to obtain a comprehensive assessment of the bacterial community associated with the production of three Apulian red wines, from grape to final product. The relationships among grape variety, the microbial community, and fermentation was investigated. Moreover, the winery microbiota was evaluated compared to the autochthonous species in vineyards that persist until the end of the winemaking process. The analysis highlighted the remarkable dynamics within the microbial communities during fermentation. A common microbial core shared among the examined wine varieties was observed, and the unique taxonomic signature of each wine appellation was revealed. New species belonging to the genus Halomonas were also reported. This study demonstrates the potential of this metagenomic approach, supported by optimized protocols, for identifying the biodiversity of the wine supply chain. The developed experimental pipeline offers new prospects for other research fields in which a comprehensive view of microbial community complexity and dynamics is desirable.

  17. Complexity and Dynamics of the Winemaking Bacterial Communities in Berries, Musts, and Wines from Apulian Grape Cultivars through Time and Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Marinella; Fosso, Bruno; Manzari, Caterina; Grieco, Francesco; Intranuovo, Marianna; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Mulè, Giuseppina; Scioscia, Gaetano; Valiente, Gabriel; Tullo, Apollonia; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Pesole, Graziano; Santamaria, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is very little information available regarding the microbiome associated with the wine production chain. Here, we used an amplicon sequencing approach based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to obtain a comprehensive assessment of the bacterial community associated with the production of three Apulian red wines, from grape to final product. The relationships among grape variety, the microbial community, and fermentation was investigated. Moreover, the winery microbiota was evaluated compared to the autochthonous species in vineyards that persist until the end of the winemaking process. The analysis highlighted the remarkable dynamics within the microbial communities during fermentation. A common microbial core shared among the examined wine varieties was observed, and the unique taxonomic signature of each wine appellation was revealed. New species belonging to the genus Halomonas were also reported. This study demonstrates the potential of this metagenomic approach, supported by optimized protocols, for identifying the biodiversity of the wine supply chain. The developed experimental pipeline offers new prospects for other research fields in which a comprehensive view of microbial community complexity and dynamics is desirable.

  18. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  19. Genetic diversity of a brazilian wine grape germplasm collection based on morphoagronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de S. Leão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of cultivars, to quantify the variability and to estimate the genetic distances of 66 wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of the EMBRAPA Semi-Arid, in Juazeiro, BA, Brazil, through the characterization of discrete and continuous phenotypic variables. Multivariate statistics, such as, principal components, Tocher's optimization procedure, and the graphic of the distance, were efficient in grouping more similar genotypes, according to their phenotypic characteristics. There was no agreement in the formation of groups between continuous and discrete morpho-agronomic traits, when Tocher's optimization procedure was used. Discrete variables allowed the separation of Vitis vinifera and hybrids in different groups. Significant positive correlations were observed between weight, length and width of bunches, and a negative correlation between titratable acidity and TSS/TTA. The major part (84.12% of the total variation present in the original data was explained by the four principal components. The results revealed little variability between wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semi-Arid.

  20. Fungal Endophytes as a Metabolic Fine-Tuning Regulator for Wine Grape.

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    Ming-Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available Endophytes proved to exert multiple effects on host plants, including growth promotion, stress resistance. However, whether endophytes have a role in metabolites shaping of grape has not been fully understood. Eight endophytic fungal strains which originally isolated from grapevines were re-inoculated to field-grown grapevines in this study, and their effects on both leaves and berries of grapevines at maturity stage were assessed, with special focused on secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities. High-density inoculation of all these endophytic fungal strains modified the physio-chemical status of grapevine to different degrees. Fungal inoculations promoted the content of reducing sugar (RS, total flavonoids (TF, total phenols (TPh, trans-resveratrol (Res and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, in both leaves and berries of grapevine. Inoculation of endophytic fungal strains, CXB-11 (Nigrospora sp. and CXC-13 (Fusarium sp. conferred greater promotion effects in grape metabolic re-shaping, compared to other used fungal strains. Additionally, inoculation of different strains of fungal endophytes led to establish different metabolites patterns of wine grape. The work implies the possibility of using endophytic fungi as fine-tuning regulator to shape the quality and character of wine grape.

  1. Regulatory and institutional developments in the Ontario wine and grape industry

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    Carew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Carew,1 Wojciech J Florkowski21Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada; 2Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA, USAAbstract: The Ontario wine industry has undergone major transformative changes over the last two decades. These have corresponded to the implementation period of the Ontario Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA Act in 1999 and the launch of the Winery Strategic Plan, "Poised for Greatness," in 2002. While the Ontario wine regions have gained significant recognition in the production of premium quality wines, the industry is still dominated by a few large wine companies that produce the bulk of blended or "International Canadian Blends" (ICB, and multiple small/mid-sized firms that produce principally VQA wines. This paper analyzes how winery regulations, industry changes, institutions, and innovation have impacted the domestic production, consumption, and international trade, of premium quality wines. The results of the study highlight the regional economic impact of the wine industry in the Niagara region, the success of small/mid-sized boutique wineries producing premium quality wines for the domestic market, and the physical challenges required to improve domestic VQA wine retail distribution and bolster the international trade of wine exports. Domestic success has been attributed to the combination of natural endowments, entrepreneurial talent, established quality standards, and the adoption of improved viticulture practices.Keywords: Ontario, wine, quality standards

  2. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  3. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  4. Torulaspora delbrueckii for secondary fermentation in sparkling wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Laura; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2018-09-01

    In the search for the desired oenological features and flavour complexity of wines, there is growing interest in the potential use of non-Saccharomyces yeast that are naturally present in the winemaking environment. Torulaspora delbrueckii is one such yeast that has seen profitable use in mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with different grape varieties. T. delbrueckii can have positive and distinctive impacts on the overall aroma of wines, and has also been used at an industrial level. Here, T. delbrueckii was successfully used in pure and mixed secondary fermentations for sparkling wine. The two selected T. delbrueckii strains used completed the secondary fermentation 'prise de mousse' in these pure and mixed fermentations. The sparkling wines obtained with T. delbrueckii showed different aromatic compositions and sensory profiles to those of S. cerevisiae. T. delbrueckii strain DiSVA 130 showed high esters production and significantly high scores for some of the aromatic descriptors that positively influence the sensory profile of sparkling wine. Thus, the use of T. delbrueckii in pure and mixed fermentations is a suitable strategy to further develop the flavour complexity during secondary fermentation of sparkling wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

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    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  6. Influence of skin hardness on dehydration kinetics of wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Caudana, Alberto; Giacosa, Simone; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Río Segade, Susana

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of initial mechanical properties on the evolution of the weight loss of berries through the drying process is scarce. Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of skin hardness at two different physiological stages of off-vine drying kinetics of grapes. Skin hardness was evaluated as the berry skin-break force parameter, measured by the texture analysis test. The decrease of berry weight as a function of the drying time was linear, indicating that the drying rates were constant within each cultivar studied (Moscato bianco and Erbaluce), and for each ripening stage and berry skin hardness. The drying rates decreased as berry skin hardness increased for the ripest grapes in the cultivars studied. The study allowed the assessment of the correlation between the skin hardness of fresh berries and the weight loss determined for different drying days. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. OPPORTUNITIES FOR ORGANISING CLUSTERS IN THE BULGARIAN GRAPE-WINE SECTOR

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    Albena MITEVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the development of clusters as a key element of the National Strategy for increasing the competitiveness. The role of the clusters becomes especially important at this time because SME do not have the capacity to meet EU requirements and to survive without uniting themselves. Moreover the National Strategy for Vine-wine Sector in Bulgaria stipulates the transformation of the sector in a leading one and securing a decent place of Bulgarian wines on international market which may be succeed through cluster introduction in the sector. In the paper is presented an overview of the initiatives for cluster development in the Bulgarian grape-wine sector and are disclosed the structure and role of cluster participants.

  9. Phenolic compositions of grapes and wines from cultivar cAbernet Sauvignon produced in Chile and their relationship to commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Galvez, Andrés; Obreque-Slier, Elías; López-Solís, Remigio; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2012-09-05

    The phenolic composition of wine depends on, among other factors, the grapes used to make it. In this sense, knowledge of the chemical composition of grapes and its association with the resulting wines is an important tool to determine if there is a relationship between the phenolic composition of grapes and the price that these wines obtain in the market. For this purpose, grape skins and seeds from the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon from the central region of Chile, in 2009 and 2010 vintages from two ripening points, were subjected to chemical and phenolic analyses, as were the wines made from these grapes. Grapes and the corresponding wines from three retail price wine categories, U.S. $6-8, U.S. $28-30, and U.S. $150-160, were evaluated. No differences were found across the price categories in the chemical analysis of grapes. Berry skins and wines from the higher price categories presented a higher concentration only of total tannins, and the differences in their concentrations were only among the different fractions of proanthocyanidins in the skins, seeds, and wines; there were no differences in their proportions. A seasonal effect influenced the concentrations of certain compounds in grapes and led to a decrease in the concentration of total phenols, total tannins, and total anthocyanins between sampling dates as harvesting moved toward the common commercial grape harvest in Chilean viticulture.

  10. Investigation of the copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Tingting; Yu, Jing; Huang, Weidong; Fang, Yulin; Zhan, Jicheng

    2018-02-15

    The copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China, were investigated. The results showed that the copper pollution status in vineyard soils, grapes and wines in the investigated area in China is under control, with only 4 surface soil (0-20cm) samples over maximum residue limits (MRL) and no grape or wine samples over MRL. Different vineyards, grape varieties, vine ages, and training systems all significantly influenced the copper contents in the vineyard soils, grape and wines. Additionally, the copper levels in the vineyard soils, grapes and wines all had some correlation. In wine samples, the copper contents ranged from 0.52 to 663μg/L, which is only approximately one percent the level found in grapes and one ten-thousandth that found in soils. Of the wine samples, red wines showed a significantly higher copper content than white wines, while in the red/white grape and soil samples, no significant differences were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of cluster sun exposure on chemical composition and technological properties of grapes and wine from cultivars Cabernet sauvignon and mavrud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambalov, V.; Rijchev, V.; Botyanski, P.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of direct solar radiation on grape clusters of cvs Cabernet sauvignon and Mavrid, formed under four different microclimatic conditions: Vo- control; V1 - clusters exposed naturally to direct sunlight; V2 - clusters formed under natural shading; V3 - clusters formed under artificial shading.The positive impact of direct solar radiation on the formation of wine structure, character and body indicated the primary role of agrotechnical practices for ensuring better sunlight exposure of clusters and microclimatic conditions to enable the production of good wine-making materials

  12. Quality parameters of wine grape varieties under the influence of different vine spacing and training systems

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    O. Tkachenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and biochemical indices, which characterize quality of white wine grape varieties Zagrey and Aromatnyi of selection of NNC «IV&W named after V. Ye. Tairov», (harvest of 2016 were determined. The field trial which includes various variants of planting density and vine training systems, made it possible to study the influence of viticulture practices on the criteria of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complex, oxidative enzyme system of grapes. Low-density plantings of Aromatnyi variety (2222 vines per ha were characterized by harvest that slightly exceeded the grapes obtained from dense plantations (4000 vines per ha in terms of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complexes. The most optimal in terms of the mass concentration of sugars, phenolic substances, polymer forms, macerating ability of must, activity of oxidizing enzyme system was cultivation of this variety on a 160 cm – high trunk. Growing grapes of Zagrey variety with vine spacing, corresponding to 4000 plants per ha, contributed to obtaining harvest with optimal parameters of carbohydrate-acid complex, low technological reserve and mass concentration of phenolic compounds, moderate macerating ability and activity of monophenol monooxygenase in must. Training vines of this variety on a 40 cm high trunk with vertical shoot positioning led to significant deterioration of grape quality due to increased content of phenolic substances and their polymer forms, high macerating capacity of must.

  13. Characterization of microbial metabolism of Syrah grape products in an in vitro colon model using targeted and non-targeted analytical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Anna-Marja; Mattila, Ismo; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Cheynier, Veronique; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Bes, Magali; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Guyot, Sylvain; Orešič, Matej

    2013-03-01

    Syrah red grapes are used in the production of tannin-rich red wines. Tannins are high molecular weight molecules, proanthocyanidins (PAs), and poorly absorbed in the upper intestine. In this study, gut microbial metabolism of Syrah grape phenolic compounds was investigated. Syrah grape pericarp was subjected to an enzymatic in vitro digestion model, and red wine and grape skin PA fraction were prepared. Microbial conversion was screened using an in vitro colon model with faecal microbiota, by measurement of short-chain fatty acids by gas chromatography (GC) and microbial phenolic metabolites using GC with mass detection (GC-MS). Red wine metabolites were further profiled using two-dimensional GC mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). In addition, the effect of PA structure and dose on conversion efficiency was investigated by GC-MS. Red wine exhibited a higher degree of C1-C3 phenolic acid formation than PA fraction or grape pericarp powders. Hydroxyphenyl valeric acid (flavanols and PAs as precursors) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (anthocyanin as a precursor) were identified from the red wine metabolite profile. In the absence of native grape pericarp or red wine matrix, the isolated PAs were found to be effective in the dose-dependent inhibition of microbial conversions and short-chain fatty acid formation. Metabolite profiling was complementary to targeted analysis. The identified metabolites had biological relevance, because the structures of the metabolites resembled fragments of their grape phenolic precursors or were in agreement with literature data.

  14. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

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    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  15. When Wine and Apple Both Help the Production of Grapes: ERP Evidence for Post-lexical Semantic Facilitation in Picture Naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Python, Grégoire; Fargier, Raphaël; Laganaro, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Background : Producing a word in referential naming requires to select the right word in our mental lexicon among co-activated semantically related words. The mechanisms underlying semantic context effects during speech planning are still controversial, particularly for semantic facilitation which investigation remains under-represented in contrast to the plethora of studies dealing with interference. Our aim is to study the time-course of semantic facilitation in picture naming, using a picture-word "interference" paradigm and event-related potentials (ERPs). Methods : We compared two different types of semantic relationships, associative and categorical, in a single word priming and a double word priming paradigm. The primes were presented visually with a long negative Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA), which is expected to cause facilitation. Results : Shorter naming latencies were observed after both associative and categorical primes, as compared to unrelated primes, and even shorter latencies after two primes. Electrophysiological results showed relatively late modulations of waveform amplitudes for both types of primes (beginning ~330 ms post picture onset with a single prime and ~275 ms post picture onset with two primes), corresponding to a shift in latency of similar topographic maps across conditions. Conclusion : The present results are in favor of a post-lexical locus of semantic facilitation for associative and categorical priming in picture naming and confirm that semantic facilitation is as relevant as semantic interference to inform on word production. The post-lexical locus argued here might be related to self-monitoting or/and to modulations at the level of word-form planning, without excluding the participation of strategic processes.

  16. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

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    Lei Zhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  17. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

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    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  18. Impact of Leaf Removal, Applied Before and After Flowering, on Anthocyanin, Tannin, and Methoxypyrazine Concentrations in 'Merlot' (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilotti, Paolo; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Lisjak, Klemen; Baša Česnik, Helena; Sabbatini, Paolo; Peterlunger, Enrico; Castellarin, Simone Diego

    2016-06-08

    The development and accumulation of secondary metabolites in grapes determine wine color, taste, and aroma. This study aimed to investigate the effect of leaf removal before flowering, a practice recently introduced to reduce cluster compactness and Botrytis rot, on anthocyanin, tannin, and methoxypyrazine concentrations in 'Merlot' grapes and wines. Leaf removal before flowering was compared with leaf removal after flowering and an untreated control. No effects on tannin and anthocyanin concentrations in grapes were observed. Both treatments reduced levels of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in the grapes and the derived wines, although the after-flowering treatment did so to a greater degree in the fruit specifically. Leaf removal before flowering can be used to reduce cluster compactness, Botrytis rot, and grape and wine IBMP concentration and to improve wine color intensity but at the expense of cluster weight and vine yield. Leaf removal after flowering accomplishes essentially the same results without loss of yield.

  19. Aroma compounds and characteristics of noble-rot wines of Chardonnay grapes artificially botrytized in the vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Jie; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yun; An, Rong-Yan; Yue, Zhuo-Ya

    2017-07-01

    Aroma characteristics and their impact volatile components of noble-rot wines elaborated from artificial botrytized Chardonnay grapes, obtained by spraying Botrytis cinerea suspension in Yuquan vineyard, Ningxia, China, were explored in this work. Dry white wine made from normal-harvested grapes and sweet wine produced from delay-harvested grapes were compared. Wine aromas were analysed by trained sensory panelists, and aroma compounds were determined by SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that esters, fatty acids, thiols, lactones, volatile phenols and 2-nonanone increased markedly in noble-rot wines. In addition to typical aromas of noble-rot wines, artificial noble-rot wines were found to contain significant cream and dry apricot attributes. Partial Least-Squares Regression models of aroma characteristics against aroma components revealed that non-fermentative odorants were the primary contributor to dry apricot attribute, especially, thiols, C13-norisoprenoids, lactones, terpenols and phenolic acid derivatives, while cream attribute was dependent on both fermentative and non-fermentative volatile components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of phenolic compounds content and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wines produced from Vitis labrusca grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braga de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in the northern Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, specifically the communes of Colombo and Almirante Tamandaré, is based mainly on the utilization of Vitis labrusca grapes var. Bordô (Ives. Total sugar content, pH, and total acidity were analyzed in red wine samples from 2007 and 2008 vintages following official methods of analysis. Moreover, total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents were analyzed by colorimetric methodologies and the antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical methodology. Phenolic compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic content of wine samples presented concentrations varying between 1582.35 and 2896.08 mg gallic acid.L-1 since the major part corresponds to flavonoid content. In these compounds' concentration range, a direct relationship between phenolic compounds content and levels of antioxidant activity was not observed. Among the identified phenolic compounds, chlorogenic, caffeic, and syringic acids were found to be the major components. Using three principal components, it was possible to explain 81.36% of total variance of the studied samples. Principal Components Analysis does not differentiate between vintages.

  1. Study of translocation of photosynthate in grapes with radiotracers with the dual purpose of increasing grape production and improving the technology required for the evaluation of the photosynthetic yield of other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcar, J.

    1984-05-01

    Using [ 14 C]-CO 2 to label the products of photosynthesis formed at each leaf on developing, fruiting grape stems the pattern of translocation of sugar to competing ''sinks'' was determined. The studies, which used four economically important Uruguayan wine-grape varieties in field trials, established that the upper parts of the stems were 'parasitic' in that their leaves did not contribute sugars to grape cluster growth. From these results a technique was developed for shortening shoots which resulted in increased sugar content of clusters. Further research on ''source-sink'' relationships in grape will emphasis the role of plant growth regulators and their possible use in agronomic practice

  2. The Use of Grape Seed Byproducts Rich in Flavonoids to Improve the Antioxidant Potential of Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Jara-Palacios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of adding seeds from grape pomace during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been studied. Seeds of Pedro Ximenez variety were rich in phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids such as catechin and procyanidins. Changes in total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity of red wines were observed. These changes depended on the vinification stage and the amount of seeds (SW: 450 g or DW: 900 g seeds/150 kg grapes applied. In general, antioxidant activity was greater when a simple dose (SW was considered. Results indicate that seeds rich in flavonoids could be used as wine additives, which could improve the antioxidant potential of red wines in a warm climate.

  3. INFLUENCE THE STOCKS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF GRAPES AND ALIGOTE WINE

    OpenAIRE

    Chausov V. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of the six-year study of the effect of stocks Riparia × Rupestris 101-14 and Berlandieri × Riparia Kober 5BB on yield, quality of grapes and Aligote wine in the central zone of the Krasnodar region. Effect of stock on scion strongly depends on the annual weather conditions. In a given year, there is a stock better adapted to the weather conditions. Stocks of Riparia × Rupestris 101-14 increase winter hardiness, and the stock Berlandieri × Riparia Kober 5BB - droug...

  4. [Amperometric biosensor for ethanol analysis in wines and grape must during wine fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkotova, L V; Slast'ia, E A; Zhyliakova, T A; Soldatkin, O P; Schuhmann, W; Dziadevych, S V

    2005-01-01

    The amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination based on alcohol oxidase immobilised by the method of electrochemical polymerization has been developed. The industrial screen-printed platinum electrodes were used as transducers for creation of amperometric alcohol biosensor. Optimal conditions for electrochemical deposition of an active membrane with alcohol oxidase has been determined. Biosensors are characterised by good reproducibility and operational stability with minimal detection limit of ethanol 8 x 10(-5) M. The good correlation of results for ethanol detection in wine and during wine fermentation by using the developed amperometric biosensor with the data obtained by the standard methods was shown (r = 0.995).

  5. Influence of Production Method on the Chemical Composition, Foaming Properties, and Quality of Australian Carbonated and Sparkling White Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Julie A; McRae, Jacqui M; Condé, Bruna C; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Nicholson, Emily L; Smith, Paul A; Howell, Kate S; Boss, Paul K; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2017-02-22

    The chemical composition (protein, polysaccharide, amino acid, and fatty acid/ethyl ester content), foaming properties, and quality of 50 Australian sparkling white wines, representing the four key production methods, that is, Méthode Traditionelle (n = 20), transfer (n = 10), Charmat (n = 10), and carbonation (n = 10), were studied. Méthode Traditionelle wines were typically rated highest in quality and were higher in alcohol and protein contents, but lower in residual sugar and total phenolics, than other sparkling wines. They also exhibited higher foam volume and stability, which might be attributable to higher protein concentrations. Bottle-fermented Méthode Traditionelle and transfer wines contained greater proportions of yeast-derived mannoproteins, whereas Charmat and carbonated wines were higher in grape-derived rhamnogalacturonans; however, total polysaccharide concentrations were not significantly different between sparkling wine styles. Free amino acids were most abundant in carbonated wines, which likely reflects production via primary fermentation only and/or the inclusion of nontraditional grape varieties. Fatty acids and their esters were not correlated with foaming properties, but octanoic and decanoic acids and their ethyl esters were present in Charmat and carbonated wines at significantly higher concentrations than in bottle-fermented wines and were negatively correlated with quality ratings. Research findings provide industry with a better understanding of the compositional factors driving the style and quality of sparkling white wine.

  6. Heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd content in wine produced from grape cultivar Mavrud, grown in an industrially polluted region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina Angelova

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the period 1991-1993 with cv. Mavrud, grown in the region with a major industrial pollutant the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW and a region with no industrial pollutants (as a control. The heavy metal content in soil, grapes and wine was determined. Most of the heavy metals in the grapes precipitate during fermentation into the sediments, which is the reason for their significantly lower content in the wine. Water washing of grape before processing leads to about 2 time decrease in the Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd contents of wine. The pre-washing of grapes does not lead to any quality deterioration in the wine produced. The amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd in the wine from cv. Mavrud, grown in the region of the NFMW-Plovdiv, are lower than the maximum admissible levels, while the Pb content exceeds them about two times.

  7. Impact of Short-Term Intake of Red Wine and Grape Polyphenol Extract on the Human Metabolome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Fuhrmann, J.C.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Rein, D.; Peters, S.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Hollebrands, B.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Garczarek, U.

    2012-01-01

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from

  8. Innovative business cases in the South Africa table grape and wine industry's: developing the concept op empowerment entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, P.J.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on an innovative initiative taken spontaneously by producers in the supply chain of the table grapes and wine industry to empower employees. Empowerment is a fundamental force for change in doing business in South Africa and its societies, especially in

  9. Impact of the Botrytis cinerea strain and metabolism on (-)-geosmin production by Penicillium expansum in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum.

  10. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  11. Comparison on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cabernet sauvignon and merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-07-25

    The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  12. Evaluation of organic and inorganic compounds levels of red wines processed from Pinot Noir grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Sirén

    2015-03-01

    The wine products showed different profiles of carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Especially, saccharose (max. 0.21 g/L, rhamnose (max. 0.45 g/L, fructose (max. 1.9 g/L, and phosphate (max 1.4 g/L quantities were extremely high in some wines. The results also showed that yeast fermentation in winemaking agitated high production of lactic (max 5.7 g/L and tartaric (max 1.7 g/L acids. The red wines processed by cold maceration and natural fermentation gave similar profiles. Only one of the Pinot Noir wines entirely differentiated from the others with comparison of carbohydrates and organic acids.

  13. Phenolics composition and antioxidant activity of wine produced from spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx.) fruits from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiangfei; Fang, Yulin; Gao, Jinshan; Qiao, Lingling; Zhang, Ang; Guo, Zhijun; Qin, Minyang; Huang, Jizhuang; Hu, Ying; Zhuang, Xifu

    2012-01-01

    Wines made from 3 spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) genotypes-Junzi 1# (JZ 1#), Junzi 2# (JZ 2#), and Liantang (LT)-and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx., CR) were evaluated for their phenolics composition and antioxidant activities by several assays, including 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS scavenging capacity, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and metal-chelating capacity). The results showed that CR wine had higher contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and oligomeric proanthocyanidins than the 3 spine grape genotype wines and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) wine. Among the 3 varieties of spine grape wines, JZ 1# had higher contents than the 2 other genotypes. Moreover, the total monomeric anthocyanins in JZ 1# was about 4.5-fold higher than those in CS wine and CR wine. A significance analysis demonstrated that the antioxidant capacity (as measured by the ABTS scavenging capacity and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) of CR wine was significantly higher than that of the control and spine grape wines. With respect to metal-chelating capacity, the CR wine was the strongest amongst all the wine samples tested, followed by JZ 1#. This indicates that CR and JZ 1# wines can potentially be considered as wild fruit wines with abundant phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx.) are 2 species of important wild plants in South China. However, they have not yet been effectively developed and utilized. Recently, some researchers attempted to convert their juice to wine. We anticipate that this research will provide sufficient experimental evidence for their good antioxidant activity and potential for further development and utilization. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF WINE MICROBIOTA DURING THE SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF RED GRAPES JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep its place on the wine international market, Romania should produce typical wines starting from localgrape varieties and conducting the alcoholic fermentation by starter cultures obtained from local isolated wine yeast.The present study was initiated due to the fact that there are few informations regarding the evolution of winemicrorganisms in plantations and in the fermentations process for quantitative point of view.The population dynamics of microbiota in Valea Calugareasca vineyard was analysed during the alcoholicfermentation. No yeast starter cultures had been used in order to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenousmicroorganisms population. Classical works and methods for alcoholic fermentation monitoring have been employed atthis level.At the beginning of fermentation the total number of yeasts found is doubling, while the number of bacteria is stabilizedat a value of 103 CFU/ml. During the alcoholic fermentation the yeasts become predominant (107–108 cfu/ml andcontinue the fermentation until its completion. Significant differences regarding the evolution of yeast microbiota forquantitative point of view between varieties have been recorded.

  15. Proanthocyanidin screening by LC-ESI-MS of Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Natércia; Azevedo, Joana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one of the most important polyphenolic compounds in wine. Among PAs, prodelphinidin (PD) dimers and trimers have not been widely detected in wines due to the lack of available commercial standards and the difficulty to detect and isolate them from natural sources. LC-ESI-MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) with the right chromatographic conditions has proven to be a powerful tool for PAs detection and identification in complex samples. This technique has been applied to an exhaustive study of PA composition of two Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes, especially for the identification of PD dimers and trimers. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with ion trap provided additional information about the structures of these compounds through the fragmentation patterns of the pseudomolecular ions. A LC-ESI-MS method was optimized and 41 different compounds were found. Among them are included 8 PD dimers and 13 PD trimers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L. from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. F. de Sales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  17. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L.) from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sales, Nathalia F F; Silva da Costa, Leandro; Carneiro, Talita I A; Minuzzo, Daniela A; Oliveira, Felipe L; Cabral, Lourdes M C; Torres, Alexandre G; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2018-03-08

    Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  18. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  19. [The antioxidant activity of the products of processing of red grape of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidzba, A M; Kubyshkin, A V; Guguchkina, T I; Markosov, V A; Katsev, A M; Naumova, N V; Shramko, Yu I; Zaytsev, G P; Chernousova, I V; Ogay, Yu A; Fomochkina, I I

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data on the antioxidant activity of grape juice, grape concentrates and wine from grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Saperavi from Crimea and Krasnodar regions was presented. Flavonoids are presented in the form of glycosides of such anthocyanins as delphinidin, malvidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and also by quercetin and its glycoside, (+)-D-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Oligomeric procyanidins, which are condensed catechol units (2-6) soluble in water, are presented in significant amounts, and polymeric procyanidins with the amount catechin units greater than 7, insoluble in water, constituted the bulk of polyphenols od wine and concentrates from red grapes (no juice). Among non-flavonoid polyphenols hydroxybenzoic (gallic, syringic) and hydroxycinnamic (caftaric, cautaric) acids are identified, the relative content of which in the amount of polyphenols in the juice is maximum, and minimum is in concentrates. It was found that antioxidant activity for all products in standard Trolox method can be estimated by the equation: Y = 0.53627+0.1395X+0.080439X2-0.00064708X3, with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9952; where: Y--antioxidant activity, g/dm3 by Trolox method; X--mass concentration of phenolic substances on the Folin-Ciocalteu, g/dm3. The equation is valid for Y = 0.76-196.22; X = 1.0-82.67. The results of biological testing of wines Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi and polyphenol concentrates from grape on the biological model of bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 demonstrated the applicability of bioassay to assess the antioxidant activity, which correlates well with the polyphenols content and antioxidant activity by trolox method.

  20. Comparison of fortified, sfursat, and passito wines produced from fresh and dehydrated grapes of aromatic black cv. Moscato nero (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Carolina; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Río Segade, Susana; Caudana, Alberto; Cagnasso, Enzo; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Moscato nero d'Acqui is an Italian aromatic black winegrape variety characterized by a low content of anthocyanins (mostly tri-substituted), a satisfactory content of high molecular mass tannins, and a fair amount of terpenes. The grapes were subjected to a postharvest dehydration process under controlled thermohygrometric conditions (16-18°C, 55-70 RH%, 0.6m/s air speed) with the aim to produce three different special wine types (fortified, sfursat, and passito) from fresh, partially dehydrated (27°Brix), and withered (36°Brix) grapes, respectively. Chemical traits of produced grapes and wines were then evaluated through spectrophotometric, HPLC, and GC-MS methods. Increased contents of skin phenolic compounds and reduced extractable contents of seed phenolic compounds were observed as dehydration progressed. Few significant differences were found in the anthocyanin profile of grapes, although the relative abundance of coumaroylated anthocyanins was higher in dehydrated grapes. The predominant free volatile compound found in grapes was geraniol, which decreased with increasing water loss, whereas the contents of major glycosylated volatile compounds increased even above the concentration effect. The changes in the phenolic composition among wines agreed with those among grape skins. Fortified wines were chromatically unsatisfactory probably due to the low content of total anthocyanins, whereas sfursat and passito wines meet good chromatic characteristics as a result of the concentration effect during grape dehydration. Fortified and sfursat wines had free aroma profiles richer in 2-phenylethanol and citronellol, whereas passito wines were mainly composed of 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate, citronellol being the predominant terpenol in all the wine types studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemometric analysis for the detection of biogenic amines in Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon wines: a comparative study between organic and nonorganic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, L; Saavedra, J; Martínez, C; Córdova, A; Ganga, M A

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the presence of biogenic amines (BAs) was correlated with the type of wine grape culture (traditional or organic) and their concentration in the different stages of winemaking (must, alcoholic fermentation [AF] and malolactic fermentation [MLF]). The formation of BA occurred mainly during MLF in which the percentages for putrescine, cadaverine, phenylethylamine, histamine, and tyramine were 100%, 70%, 13%, 61%, and 44% for the wines produced with traditional grapes and 100%, 94%, 25%, 88%, and 13% for the wines produced with organic grapes, respectively. In general, these latter wines exhibited a lower concentration of total amines. The principal component analysis and partial least-square discriminate analysis indicated that the generation of BA has a certain behavioral pattern in the wines analyzed, which is associated with the different stages of wine production and with the type of culture (traditional or organic) used in the wine grapes. Chemometrics tools can be useful as a method of characterization and classification in a global overview of the process variables involved in the development of toxic chemicals in foods, such as the production of BA in wine. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Yeast strains role on the sulphur dioxyde combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarède

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of four industrial and indigenous yeast strains on the sulphur dioxide combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes is studied in different growth of the Sauternes area and one growth in the Jurançon area. The analysis of ketonic compounds (pyruvic acid and 2-oxo-glutaric acid, acetaldehyde and PC50 on the wines clearly showed significant statistical difference between the yeast strains for the sulphur dioxide combination. By adding the same dosage of sulphiting, the free SO2 levels are variable depending on the yeast strain used. One strain (Zymaflore ST, isolated from a spontaneous fermentation of a botrytised must, giving wines with low PC50 values, is well adapted for the noble rot must vinification. The choice of the yeast strain is a parameter of importance to limit the sulphur dioxide amount in the wines.

  3. Phytosterols in grapes and wine, and effects of agrochemicals on their levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Antonietta; Vitalini, Sara; Burlini, Nedda; Bernasconi, Silvana; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-12-15

    To improve the knowledge on the chemical diversity and complexity of grapevine, we investigated the plant sterol content of berry and seed tissues at pre-véraison and véraison stages in 2009 and 2010. We also assessed the effects of benzothiadiazole and chitosan elicitors on content of sterols in grapes and their levels in the corresponding experimental wines. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant component in berry tissues, in both growth stages and years, with the highest amounts in the flesh and skin at pre-véraison and véraison, respectively. Stigmasterol and campesterol were present in lower concentrations in both phenological stages and vintages. During the transition from pre-véraison to véraison, phytosterols decreased in all tissues, in both years, apart from stigmasterol in seeds. In addition, the results showed that the plant activators were more effective than conventional fungicides in rising the levels of sterols, particularly β-sitosterol, both in grapes and in microvinificates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    Detailed insight into the effects of enzymatic treatments on grape phenolics is of significant importance for grape processing for wine making. This study examined the release of phenols during enzymatic (pectinolytic and cellulolytic) degradation of the cell wall polysaccharides in skins of Merlot...... the enzymatic treatment; phenolic acids, including hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids, were released as a function of monosaccharides liberation, i.e. as a function of the enzyme catalyzed cell wall degradation of the skins, and with some of the phenolic acids perhaps released from the lignin...

  5. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  6. Wine grape pomace as antioxidant dietary fibre for enhancing nutritional value and improving storability of yogurt and salad dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Angela; Zhao, Yanyun

    2013-05-01

    Wine grape pomace (WGP) as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre (ADF) was fortified in yogurt (Y), Italian (I) and Thousand Island (T) salad dressings. During the 3 weeks of storage at 4 °C, viscosity and pH of WGP-Y increased and decreased, respectively, but syneresis and lactic acid percentage of WGP-Y and pH of WGP-I and WGP-T were stable. Adding WGP resulted in 35-65% reduction of peroxide values in all samples. Dried whole pomace powder (WP) fortified products had dietary fibre content of 0.94-3.6% (w/w product), mainly insoluble fractions. Total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 958-1340 mg GAE/kg product and 710-936 mg AAE/kg product, respectively. The highest ADF was obtained in 3% WP-Y, 1% WP-I and 2% WP-T, while 1% WP-Y, 0.5% WP-I and 1% WP-T were mostly liked by consumers based on the sensory study. Study demonstrated that WGP may be used as a functional food ingredient for promoting human health and extending shelf-life of food products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nitrogen requirements of commercial wine yeast strains during fermentation of a synthetic grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alicia; Chiva, Rosana; Sancho, Marta; Beltran, Gemma; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Guillamon, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Nitrogen deficiencies in grape musts are one of the main causes of stuck or sluggish wine fermentations. Currently, the most common method for dealing with nitrogen-deficient fermentations is adding supplementary nitrogen (usually ammonium phosphate). However, it is important to know the specific nitrogen requirement of each strain, to avoid excessive addition that can lead to microbial instability and ethyl carbamate accumulation. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of increasing nitrogen concentrations of three different nitrogen sources on growth and fermentation performance in four industrial wine yeast strains. This task was carried out using statistical modeling techniques. The strains PDM and RVA showed higher growth-rate and maximum population size and consumed nitrogen much more quickly than strains ARM and TTA. Likewise, the strains PDM and RVA were also the greatest nitrogen demanders. Thus, we can conclude that these differences in nitrogen demand positively correlated with higher growth rate and higher nitrogen uptake rate. The most direct effect of employing an adequate nitrogen concentration is the increase in biomass, which involves a higher fermentation rate. However, the impact of nitrogen on fermentation rate is not exclusively due to the increase in biomass because the strain TTA, which showed the worst growth behavior, had the best fermentation activity. Some strains may adapt a strategy whereby fewer cells with higher metabolic activity are produced. Regarding the nitrogen source used, all the strains showed the better and worse fermentation performance with arginine and ammonium, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  9. Micro-scale energy valorization of grape marcs in winery production plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.serranti@uniroma1.it

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • BioMethane Potential of grape marcs was investigated. • Grape marcs were characterized to realize a micro-scale energy recovery. • Comparative BMP batch-tests utilizing lab-scale reactors were performed. • Biogas valorization by grape marcs anaerobic digestion at small scale is evaluated. - Abstract: The BiochemicalMethanePotential (BMP) of winery organic waste, with reference to two Italian red and white grapes (i.e. Nero Buono and Greco) by-products was investigated. The study was carried out to verify the possibility to reduce the production impact in a green-waste-management-chain-perspective. The possibility to efficiently utilize wine-related-by-products for energy production at a micro-scale (i.e. small-medium scale winery production plant) was also verified. Results showed as a good correlation can be established between the percentage of COD removal and the biogas production, as the winery can produce, from its waste methanization, about 7800 kW h year{sup −1} electrical and 8900 kW h year{sup −1} thermal. A critical evaluation was performed about the possibility to utilize the proposed approach to realize an optimal biomass waste management and an energetic valorization in a local-energy-production-perspective.

  10. Micro-scale energy valorization of grape marcs in winery production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BioMethane Potential of grape marcs was investigated. • Grape marcs were characterized to realize a micro-scale energy recovery. • Comparative BMP batch-tests utilizing lab-scale reactors were performed. • Biogas valorization by grape marcs anaerobic digestion at small scale is evaluated. - Abstract: The BiochemicalMethanePotential (BMP) of winery organic waste, with reference to two Italian red and white grapes (i.e. Nero Buono and Greco) by-products was investigated. The study was carried out to verify the possibility to reduce the production impact in a green-waste-management-chain-perspective. The possibility to efficiently utilize wine-related-by-products for energy production at a micro-scale (i.e. small-medium scale winery production plant) was also verified. Results showed as a good correlation can be established between the percentage of COD removal and the biogas production, as the winery can produce, from its waste methanization, about 7800 kW h year −1 electrical and 8900 kW h year −1 thermal. A critical evaluation was performed about the possibility to utilize the proposed approach to realize an optimal biomass waste management and an energetic valorization in a local-energy-production-perspective

  11. Characterization of grape seed oil from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and characteristics of red grape seed oils (Vitis vinifera L from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain. Eight representative varieties of grape seed oils from the Spanish wine Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo and Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín and Verdejo were studied. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 13.89 to 10.18%, and the moisture was similar for all the seeds. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in all samples, representing around 78%, followed by oleic acid with a concentration close 16%, the degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 90%. β-sitosterol and α-tocopherol were the main sterol and tocopherol, reaching values of 77.31% and 3.82 mg·100 g−1 of oil, respectively. In relation to the tocotrienols, α-tocotrienol was the main tocotrienol and accounted for 13.18 mg·100 g−1 of oil.El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar la composición y características de aceites de semillas de uvas rojas (Vitis vinifera L de vinos con denominación de origen protegida (DOP de España. Ocho variedades representativas de aceites de semillas de uvas españolas Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo y Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín y Verdejo fueron estudiadas. Los contenidos en aceite de las semillas oscilaron entre 13.89 y 10.18%, la humedad fué similar para todas las semillas. El contenido en ácido linoléico fué alto en todos los aceites alcanzando un valor del 78%, seguido del ácido oléico con una concentración cercana al 16%, registrando un grado total de insaturación del 90%. b-sitosterol y α-tocoferol fué el principal esterol y tocoferol, alcanzado niveles del 77.31% y de un 3.82 mg·100 g−1 de aceite respectivamente. En relación a los tocotrienoles, α-tocotrienol fué el mayoritario con

  12. Tannin quantification in red grapes and wine: comparison of polysaccharide- and protein-based tannin precipitation techniques and their ability to model wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Smith, Paul A

    2008-07-23

    Quantification of red grape tannin and red wine tannin using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and the Adams-Harbertson (A-H) tannin assay were investigated. The study allowed for direct comparison between the repeatability of the assays and for the assessment of other practical considerations such as time efficiency, ease of practice, and throughput, and assessed the relationships between tannin quantification by both analytical techniques. A strong correlation between the two analytical techniques was observed when quantifying grape tannin (r(2) = 0.96), and a good correlation was observed for wine tannins (r(2) = 0.80). However, significant differences in the reported tannin values for the analytical techniques were observed (approximately 3-fold). To explore potential reasons for the difference, investigations were undertaken to determine how several variables influenced the final tannin quantification for both assays. These variables included differences in the amount of tannin precipitated (monitored by HPLC), assay matrix variables, and the monomers used to report the final values. The relationship between tannin quantification and wine astringency was assessed for the MCP and A-H tannin assays, and both showed strong correlations with perceived wine astringency (r(2) = 0.83 and r(2) = 0.90, respectively). The work described here gives guidance to those wanting to understand how the values between the two assays relate; however, a conclusive explanation for the differences in values between the MCP and A-H tannin assays remains unclear, and further work in this area is required.

  13. Integrative Inferences on Pattern Geometries of Grapes Grown under Water Stress and Their Resulting Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Fushing; Hsueh, Chih-Hsin; Heitkamp, Constantin; Matthews, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Multiple datasets of two consecutive vintages of replicated grape and wines from six different deficit irrigation regimes are characterized and compared. The process consists of four temporal-ordered signature phases: harvest field data, juice composition, wine composition before bottling and bottled wine. A new computing paradigm and an integrative inferential platform are developed for discovering phase-to-phase pattern geometries for such characterization and comparison purposes. Each phase is manifested by a distinct set of features, which are measurable upon phase-specific entities subject to the common set of irrigation regimes. Throughout the four phases, this compilation of data from irrigation regimes with subsamples is termed a space of media-nodes, on which measurements of phase-specific features were recoded. All of these collectively constitute a bipartite network of data, which is then normalized and binary coded. For these serial bipartite networks, we first quantify patterns that characterize individual phases by means of a new computing paradigm called "Data Mechanics". This computational technique extracts a coupling geometry which captures and reveals interacting dependence among and between media-nodes and feature-nodes in forms of hierarchical block sub-matrices. As one of the principal discoveries, the holistic year-factor persistently surfaces as the most inferential factor in classifying all media-nodes throughout all phases. This could be deemed either surprising in its over-arching dominance or obvious based on popular belief. We formulate and test pattern-based hypotheses that confirm such fundamental patterns. We also attempt to elucidate the driving force underlying the phase-evolution in winemaking via a newly developed partial coupling geometry, which is designed to integrate two coupling geometries. Such partial coupling geometries are confirmed to bear causal and predictive implications. All pattern inferences are performed with

  14. Integrative Inferences on Pattern Geometries of Grapes Grown under Water Stress and Their Resulting Wines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fushing Hsieh

    Full Text Available Multiple datasets of two consecutive vintages of replicated grape and wines from six different deficit irrigation regimes are characterized and compared. The process consists of four temporal-ordered signature phases: harvest field data, juice composition, wine composition before bottling and bottled wine. A new computing paradigm and an integrative inferential platform are developed for discovering phase-to-phase pattern geometries for such characterization and comparison purposes. Each phase is manifested by a distinct set of features, which are measurable upon phase-specific entities subject to the common set of irrigation regimes. Throughout the four phases, this compilation of data from irrigation regimes with subsamples is termed a space of media-nodes, on which measurements of phase-specific features were recoded. All of these collectively constitute a bipartite network of data, which is then normalized and binary coded. For these serial bipartite networks, we first quantify patterns that characterize individual phases by means of a new computing paradigm called "Data Mechanics". This computational technique extracts a coupling geometry which captures and reveals interacting dependence among and between media-nodes and feature-nodes in forms of hierarchical block sub-matrices. As one of the principal discoveries, the holistic year-factor persistently surfaces as the most inferential factor in classifying all media-nodes throughout all phases. This could be deemed either surprising in its over-arching dominance or obvious based on popular belief. We formulate and test pattern-based hypotheses that confirm such fundamental patterns. We also attempt to elucidate the driving force underlying the phase-evolution in winemaking via a newly developed partial coupling geometry, which is designed to integrate two coupling geometries. Such partial coupling geometries are confirmed to bear causal and predictive implications. All pattern inferences

  15. Use of two osmoethanol tolerant yeast strain to ferment must from Tempranillo dried grapes: effect on wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lerma, N; Peinado, R A

    2011-01-31

    The must from Tempranillo dried grapes was divided into four batches to produce sweet wine. The first one was fortified with ethanol up to 12% (v/v) to avoid fermentation (traditional way). Other two batches were partially fermented with two osmoethanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (X4 and X5). The last one was fermented with native yeast by spontaneous fermentation. Wines fermented partially with the strains X4 and X5 show high volatile acidity values (above 2g/L expressed as acetic acid), and a glycerol concentration around 20 g/L. Both strains also produce high amount of carboxylic acids and therefore the wines show a high ethyl ester concentration. Aromatic series were obtained for all the wines by grouping aroma compounds according to their odor descriptors. The series of the fermented wines with higher values in relation with the control wine were fruity, sweet and fatty, emphasizing the fruity series in the samples fermented with the X4 and X5 strains. The sensorial analysis of the wine samples by a tasting panel put in evidence that the musts fermented with the osmoethanol tolerant yeasts were better valued than the rest of the wine samples. The must fermented with the X4 strain obtained the maximum score in terms of aroma and flavour. So, the use of these osmoethanol tolerant S. cerevisiae strains could be a suitable alternative to produce sweet wines from must with high sugar concentration. The wines obtained this way are chemically and organoleptically more complex than those elaborated traditionally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  17. Production of ready to drink red and rosé wines from new seedless grapevine crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonacci Donato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols (proanthocyanidins content in grapes is higher in seeds compared to berry skins. Monomeric flavan-3-ols are more astringent, however, they can combine with other monomer, with anthocyanins and with mannoproteins released by yeast and therefore lose their harsh features in wines. Proanthocyanidins extracted during fermentation and maceration processes in red wines, are important for the organoleptic characteristics of the product and for its aging. There is a difference between skins and seeds proanthocyanidins, with the latter being perceived as more harsh and astringent. One of the most important purposes of refinement and aging of red wines very rich in polyphenols is the slow loss of bitterness. Instead, for wines ready to drink seeds tannins can give bitter overtones, therefore reducing their quality since consumers generally prefer a reduced astringency and attenuated bitterness. This paper investigates the possibility of employ some new seedless grapes crossings of Vitis vinifera L., obtained in recent breeding programs carried out at the CREA-VE of Turi, for the production of improved red and rosé wines made with traditionally red winemaking.

  18. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Belda Aguilar, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina Díaz, Domingo; Santos de la Sen, Antonio; Moreno Arribas, M. Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production ...

  19. Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white and red wine grape processing leftovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt, Kajetan; Klančnik, Anja; Mozetič Vodopivec, Branka; Sternad Lemut, Melita; Jug Novšak, Katja; Raspor, Peter; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-11-01

    During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities. FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white 'Zelen' and 'Sauvignon Blanc' grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces. FDSS extracts from winery by-products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  1. Portable system for temperature monitoring in all phases of wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, Luciano; Cambralla, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ascariz, J M; Miguel-Jiménez, J M; Cantos-Frontela, J J; Dongil, J

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a low-cost and highly versatile temperature-monitoring system applicable to all phases of wine production, from grape cultivation through to delivery of bottled wine to the end customer. Monitoring is performed by a purpose-built electronic system comprising a digital memory that stores temperature data and a ZigBee communication system that transmits it to a Control Centre for processing and display. The system has been tested under laboratory conditions and in real-world operational applications. One of the system's advantages is that it can be applied to every phase of wine production. Moreover, with minimum modification, other variables of interest (pH, humidity, etc.) could also be monitored and the system could be applied to other similar sectors, such as olive-oil production. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The characteristics of the winegrowing and wine-production in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kudová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a description of the winegrowing and wine-production in Australia, a country, which is becoming a more and more significant producer and exporter of wine in the world, and has become a part of competitive environment of the winegrowing and wine-production industry in the Czech Republic.Structural analysis of external environment is a part of strategic analysis of an industry, where one of the key parts is the analysis of competitive environment within an industry.Winegrowing areas of Australia are nowadays located mostly in the colder climatic zone of Australia. In the 70-ies of the last century, there were planted new vineyards, in these areas, and the grapes from them have started to be used for production of quality-wine and the production of sweet wines and brandies have decreased. The most significant wine-production state has become the South Australia with the sound vineyards around the Murray River. The area of the productive vineyards has doubled, in the past seven years; most of the vineyards are under irrigation. The total grape production in the marketing year 2001–2002 was 1 514 501 t, where 56% were the blue grapes. In the marketing year 2001–2002, there was produced 1 220 mil. litres of wine and 416 mil. litres were exported., whereas in the marketing year 2002–2003 the exports amounted for 508 mil. litres of wine. Most of the wine was exported to the Great Britain – in the marketing year 2001–2002 it was 48% of the total exports. In 2003–2004, were exported to the Czech Republic 466 914 litres of wine, which is an 850% growth within the past four years. The average price of 1 litre of wine imported to the Czech Republic was 2.16 €, in the marketing year 2002–2003, and have grown by 0.28 € in the following year. Wine imports to Australia are decreasing from the marketing year 1997–1998. In the marketing year 2002–2003, the imports were 17 mil. litres of wine

  3. Technological approaches to the vinification of Dornfelder grape variety cultivated in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Antoce Arina Oana; Cojocaru George Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In Romania, Dornfelder is a rare grape variety which started to become popular among some wine producers due to the intense colour of its wines. However, it is mostly used in blends and therefore varietal wines of Dornfelder are not found too often. In this paper we present some technological approaches suitable for the production of varietal wines of Dornfelder, some of them novel for the Romanian wine industry. The experimental samples include a classical red wine made by the usual technol-...

  4. The behaviour of trace elements and radionuclides in must of grapes during fermentation and usual wine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.H.; Fischer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The elements Co(II), Sr(II), Cs(I), Tl(I) and Am(III) were added as their radionuclides to the must of white grapes of one vintage and from that wine was prepared using usual wine technology. The elimination of the elements during the fermentation and as a consequence of the subsequent treatments has been determined. The decrease of the metal contents with time follows approximately an exponential function in the cases of Co, Cs, Tl and Am, whereas the Sr-content remains nearly constant. In the total balance, the following residual values were found in the final wine: Co 8.6+-0.6%, Sr 41+-4%, Cs 0.13+-0.07 resp. 0.031+-0.008%, Tl 1.3+-0.2% and Am 1.0+-0.2% of the initial value. (orig./PW) [de

  5. Postharvest dehydration of wine white grapes to increase genistein, daidzein and the main carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Federica; Silvestrini, Maria Grazia; Luneia, Roberto; Botondi, Rinaldo; Bellincontro, Andrea; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2012-12-01

    Wine white grape bunches of the Grechetto variety were dehydrated at 10, 20 and 30°C, RH 45% and forced air ventilation of 1.5m/s. Chemical and metabolic changes due to the effect of dehydration were studied at various stages of weight loss: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Berry colour at 10 and 20°C tended to become greener with dehydration but at 30°C, at the final sampling, the colour darkened. Acidity decreased in all samples, while sugars increased. Total phenol content increased at 10°C until 30% weight loss was reached and then declined, while at 20 and 30°C the concentration decreased immediately. The contents of lutein and β-carotene (respectively 68 and 58mg/kg d.w.), representing the 80% of total carotenoids, did not change significantly until the 30% of weight loss, when at 30°C the value increased above all for lutein while at 10 and 20°C, the contents decreased significantly. Daidzein, at 10°C, rose significantly from about 150μg/kg d.w. to 1434μg/kg d.w. at 20% weight loss and then declined; at the same weight loss percentage, the genistein concentration began to increase. At 20°C both isoflavones rose until the end of the experiment, reaching values similar to the sample at 10°C. A temperature of 30°C was deleterious to grape isoflavones. A discussion on the changes in isoflavones related to temperature and time is reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolite and proteome changes during the ripening of Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties cultured in a nontraditional wine region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraige, Karina; González-Fernández, Raquel; Carrilho, Emanuel; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2015-01-15

    Grapevines are an important fruit crop from economic and cultural point of views in many countries, including Brazil, where the practice of vitiviniculture is being developed in different regions. We compared the anthocyanin concentration, the main organic acids and sugars, and the proteome profiles during berry ripening of Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from two distinct geographical sources in São Paulo State. The proteome was mapped by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially abundant proteins during the ripening process were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. An increase in sugar concentration and in anthocyanin content was observed, as well a decrease in the tartaric and malic acid concentration. A total of 128 spots varied with geographical origin, grape variety, and ripening stage, with 108 being identified. The identified proteins resulted in 80 gene products. A multivariate analysis of protein abundance clustered the samples according to grape variety, geographical origin, and stage of ripening, and showed the possibility of using proteomics to characterize three variables: variety, area where grown, and the ripening process. The changes observed during the ripening process corresponded to enzymes involved in sugar and organic acid metabolism. These results are in accordance with the metabolic profile reported for the process. Given the importance of discriminating grapes, thus making the adulteration of wines more difficult, in this paper we showed the possibility of differentiating varieties of grapes, geographical area of cultivation and stage of ripening by combining the results of differentially abundant protein determinations and multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid Quantification of Four Anthocyanins in Red Grape Wine by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongming; Xia, Biqi; Chen, Xiangzhun; Duanmu, Chuansong; Li, Denghao; Han, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The identification and quantification of four anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and malvidin-3-O-glucoside) in red grape wine were carried out by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole linear ion trap MS (HILIC/QTrap-MS/MS). Samples were diluted directly and separated on a Merck ZIC HILIC column with 20 mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile mobile phase. Quantitative data acquisition was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion mode of the linear ion trap. The LOQs were in the range 0.05-1.0 ng/mL. The average recoveries were in the range 94.6 to 104.5%. The HILIC/QTrap-MS/MS platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of the four anthocyanins in red grape wines and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  8. Characterization of an Antioxidant-Enriched Beverage from Grape Musts and Extracts of Winery and Grapevine By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabita Aguilar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of antioxidants from complex winery and grapevine by-products into Vitis vinifera must offers new opportunities for wine grapes by the development of a new, enriched fruit juice. However, this demands the search for new valorization methods to get hold of additional antioxidant compounds. The objective of this study was to find a novel functionality for grape pomace, grapevine leaves, and canes by its reuse as a functional matrix for the extraction of antioxidants into grape must. After thermomaceration, 22 polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Grape pomace was a good source of anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside, while flavonols (quercetin-3-hexoside and phenolic acids (caftaric acid were the main phenolic compounds in leaf extracts. Catechin dimer was the only polyphenol compound present in all of the matrices. Enriched grape juice comprised by 40:20:40 (v/v/v of pomace, leaf, and cane extracts, yielded an oxygen radical absorbance capacity of pirogallol red and fluorescein ratio of 0.70, indicating that the reactivity of antioxidants present in enriched grape juice was at least as efficient as other polyphenol-rich beverages. Thus, pomace, leaves and canes supply additional polyphenols to grape must that results into a beverage with promissory antioxidant activity and potential health benefits.

  9. Indirect Field Measurement of Wine-Grape Vineyard Canopy Leaf Area Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Pierce, Lars L.; Skiles, J. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) indirect measurements were made at 12 study plots in California's Napa Valley commercial wine-grape vineyards with a LI-COR LI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA). The plots encompassed different trellis systems, biological varieties, and planting densities. LAI ranged from 0.5 - 2.25 sq m leaf area/ sq m ground area according to direct (defoliation) measurements. Indirect LAI reported by the PCA was significantly related to direct LAI (r(exp 2) = 0.78, p less than 001). However, the PCA tended to underestimate direct LAI by about a factor of two. Narrowing the instrument's conical field of view from 148 deg to 56 deg served to increase readings by approximately 30%. The PCA offers a convenient way to discern relative differences in vineyard canopy density. Calibration by direct measurement (defoliation) is recommended in cases where absolute LAI is desired. Calibration equations provided herein may be inverted to retrieve actual vineyard LAI from PCA readings.

  10. Determination of 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in grapes and wines of Valley of the Sao Francisco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Patricia Brandao da

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of the content of nutrients in musts and wine has been the subject of several studies due to its importance for the quality control and even for determining the geographical authenticity of a specific wine brand. Not less important is the assessment of the impact on the final product caused by the presence of contaminants in the soil. It has to be taken also into consideration that the addition of fertilizers, pesticides, and even irrigation water can increase the content of contaminants in the soil. Fertilizers, for example, may contain unwanted elements such as trace metals and radionuclides. These contaminants can affect both the quality and the commercial value of the agricultural products. The most important contaminants, as far as radioactive elements is concerned, are the members of the uranium and thorium natural series, and potassium-40, which is present in ali soils and rocks with an average concentration around 0.012% of the natural potassium. The content of uranium and of its decay products in soils can be modified by the addition of phosphate fertilizers. Although several studies have been performed aiming to assess the impact of the presence of metals and radionuclides in many agricultural products, there is no reference in the literature concerning the presence of natural radionuclides in grapes and wine. Therefore, this study was carried out with the objective of determining the content of some members of the uranium and thorium decay series (namely, 226 Ra and 228 Ra), besides 40 K, in grapes and wine produced in the Fazenda Milano, in the municipality of Petrolina - Pernambuco, in the Vale do Sao Francisco. Besides, measurements were performed for some trace metals, aiming to verify if any correlation exists between the metal and radionuclide contents. The radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry, using a hyper pure Germanium detector. The results for 226 Ra in samples of pulp and wine ranged from 0.60 ± 0.05 to 0.70

  11. Wine and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet.

  12. Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast isolated from grapes and wine fermentation in Lanzarote, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sara S; Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Laich, Federico

    2013-01-01

    During the characterization of the microbiota biodiversity associated with grapes and wineries in different bioclimatic conditions of the Canary Islands (Spain), a novel yeast species was isolated from Lanzarote, the driest wine-producing region of the archipelago. Seven strains isolated from grapes, microvinifications and wineries are described. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically a member of the genus Lachancea and are closely related to Lachancea meyersii NRRL Y-27269(T) and Lachancea nothofagi NRRL Y-48670(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analysis, a novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is L2C-15(T) ( = CBS 12615(T) = CECT 13066(T)) which was isolated from grape berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Listán Negro red grape variety in Tinajo, Lanzarote. The MycoBank no. is MB 801390.

  13. Biocontrol ability and action mechanismof Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina isolated from wine musts against grey mold disease agent Botrytis cinerea on grape and their effects on alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Josè Fernandes Lemos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold is one of the most important diseases of grapevine in temperate climates. This plant pathogen affects plant growth and reduces wine quality. The use of yeasts as biocontrol agents to apply in the vineyard have been investigated in recent years as an alternative to agrochemicals. In this work, fermenting musts obtained from overripe grape berries, therefore more susceptible to infection by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, were considered for the selection of yeasts carrying antifungal activity. Thirty-six isolates were identified as Starmerella bacillaris, a species recently proven to be of enological interest. Among them 14 different strains were studied and antifungal activity against B. cinerea was demonstrated, for the first time, to be present in S. bacillaris species. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, tested in vitro, was found to be the main responsible of S. bacillaris antifungal effects. All the strains were able to reduce B. cinerea decay on wounded grape berries artificially inoculated with gray mold. The colonization level of wound was very high reaching, after five days, a concentration of 106 cells per ml of grape juice obtained after berry crushing. At this cell concentration S. bacillaris strains were used to ferment synthetic and natural musts. The sequential yeast inoculation, performed by adding S. cerevisiae 48 h after S. bacillaris, was needed to complete sugar consumption and determined a significant increase in glycerol content and a reduction of ethanol and acetic acid concentrations.The high wound colonization ability, found in this work, together with the propensity to colonize grape berry and the interesting enological traits possessed by the selected S. bacillaris strains allow the use of this yeast as biocontrol agent on vine and grape berries with possible positive effects on must fermentation, although the presence of S. cerevisiae is needed to complete the fermentation process

  14. Effects of resveratrol, grape juice or red wine consumption Irisin levels and fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 and uncoupoling protein gene expression modulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle de Souza Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Resveratrol and grape juice were able to increase muscle tissue FNDC5 gene expression, and high-fat diet, red wine and resveratrol, increased UCP2 gene expression in this tissue. Grape juice was capable of increasing adipose tissue UCP2 gene expression. High-fat diet, isolated or associated to beverages rich in polyphenols, have decreased FNDC5 gene expression in adipose tissue. Nevertheless, the interventions did not affect irisin levels.

  15. Effect of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines of the north foot of Mt. Tianshan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Cheng, Guo; Duan, Liang-Liang; Jiang, Ren; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-08-15

    C6 and C9 volatiles, originated from fatty acids, are important volatiles for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes and wines. This study evaluated the influence of different training systems including Modified Vertical Shoot Positioned, (M-VSP); Fan training system with two trunks (F-TT); Fan training system with multiple trunks (F-MT) on these volatiles and the long-chain fatty acids (>C12) of grape berries and wines in the northwest of China. The expression profiles of genes from associated metabolic pathway were also analyzed. F-MT training resulted in lower vine vigor, larger yield, higher content of unsaturated fatty acids in grapes and lower C6 esters in wines in comparison with M-VSP and F-TT. M-VSP and F-TT enhanced C6 volatiles in grape berries. The concentrations of C6 volatiles were positively correlated with the expression of VvLOXA and VvHPL1. The results expanded the knowledge of the influence of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles of grapes and wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hu; Li, Xiangmin; Xiong, Ying; Pei, Ke; Nie, Lijuan; Xiong, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA) was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen)32+-doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs) were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs. PMID:28264472

  17. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A silver nanoparticle (AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen 3 2 + -doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs.

  18. Relationship between 2-phenylethanol content and differential expression of L-amino acid decarboxylases (AADC) in (Vitis vinifera) vidal wine grape at different loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Li, K.; Liu, Z.; Guo, X.; Jiang, C.; Yue, G.; Li, W.; Dou, Y.; Zheng, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) was used to determine the type and content of aroma in Vidal grapes. A quantitative fluorescence measurement was performed to determine the differential expression of Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC). By conducting five different load treatments (fruit weight per 667 m2: 750, 1,000, 1,250, 1,500, and over 1,750 kg), we found that the main components of Vidal grapes were alcohols, esters, alkanes, aldehydes, phenols, ketones, and ethers. The relative levels of alcohols, esters, alkanes, and phenols were 25, 27, 18, and 14%, respectively. The relationship between the dynamic content of the characteristic aroma component 2-phenylethanol and the expression of AADC enzyme was explored. The results showed that for a small load, the relative expression levels of 2-phenylethanol-regulating AADC enzyme were high and low in the early and late stages of growth, respectively. For a large load, the content of 2-phenylethanol was low, while the relative expression levels of 2-phenylethanol-regulating AADC enzyme were low and high in the early and late stages of growth, respectively. In the early stage, the positive regulation was significant, and in the late stage, the relative expression of AADC was increased rapidly, which in turn, increased the positive regulation. It was recommended that the suitable yield for Vidal grape during peak fruiting period was 1,000~1,500 kg per 667 m2. This study provides the scientific basis for the control of fruit aroma and can be used as a reference for load adjustment in the production of wine grape during peak fruiting period. (author)

  19. The dynamics of ochratoxigenic fungi contents through different stages of dried grape production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakobyan Lusine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried vine fruit (raisin, sultana and currant is the second (after wine most important product of viticulture. Concerning this, the contamination of dried grape by ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA has attracted much attention. Favorable climatic conditions in countries with well-developed viticulture contribute to the spreading of ochratoxigenic fungi. The aim of this work was to identify the contamination sources of dried vine fruit by ochratoxigenic filamentous fungi and OTA, as well to determine the Critical Control Points (CCP at different stages of production. Primary contamination of grapes occurred during vegetation, especially maturation period, when the risk of mechanical damages was the highest one. 48 samples of soil and 81 samples of fresh grape berries collected in 4 regions of Armenia were investigated. As a result, 22 micromycetes sp. from 7 genera were isolated. Drying process is one of the main CCP. As the most of dried products is produced by open sun drying method, secondary contamination occurs in plants. In our studies 27 species of filamentous fungi were revealed in 87 samples of dried vine fruit, collected at different stages of production. The samples had quite high contamination level by potential toxigenic A. niger and A. carbonarius species.

  20. Applications of Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS in the Study of Grape and Wine Volatile Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarita Panighel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are responsible for the wine “bouquet”, which is perceived by sniffing the headspace of a glass, and of the aroma component (palate-aroma of the overall flavor, which is perceived on drinking. Grape aroma compounds are transferred to the wine and undergo minimal alteration during fermentation (e.g., monoterpenes and methoxypyrazines; others are precursors of aroma compounds which form in winemaking and during wine aging (e.g., glycosidically-bound volatile compounds and C13-norisoprenoids. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME is a fast and simple technique which was developed for analysis of volatile compounds. This review describes some SPME methods coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS used to study the grape and wine volatiles.

  1. Grape and wine amino acid composition from Carignan noir grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in the Maule Valley, Chile: Effects of location and rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Martínez-Gil, A M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Garde-Cerdán, T; Moreno-Simunovic, Y

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen compounds play a key role on grape and wine quality. Their composition in grapes depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and terroir, and affects fermentation kinetics and the volatile compound formation. The aim of this work was to study grape and wine amino acid composition of ungrafted or grafted onto cv. País Carignan grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in ten sites of the Maule Valley (Chile). The results showed that proline was the most abundant amino acid in grapes and wines. In general, Carignan noir grapevines grafted over País showed lower grape amino acid content respect to ungrafted vines. Cool night index (CI) was inversely correlated to several amino acids, showing that their plant synthesis or accumulation increased with lower minimum temperatures during the last month before harvest. Truquilemu (Tru) and Ciénaga de Name (Cdn) sites showed the highest concentration for several amino acids and total amino acid content in grapes, which led to a faster alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Retention of Proanthocyanidin in Wine-like Solution Is Conferred by a Dynamic Interaction between Soluble and Insoluble Grape Cell Wall Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Li, Sijing; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2016-11-09

    For better understanding of the factors that impact proanthocyanidin (PA) adsorption by insoluble cell walls or interaction with soluble cell wall-derived components, application of a commercial polygalacturonase enzyme preparation was investigated to modify grape cell wall structure. Soluble and insoluble cell wall material was isolated from the skin and mesocarp components of Vitis vinifera Shiraz grapes. It was observed that significant depolymerization of the insoluble grape cell wall occurred following enzyme application to both grape cell wall fractions, with increased solubilization of rhamnogalacturonan-enriched, low molecular weight polysaccharides. However, in the case of grape mesocarp, the solubilization of protein from cell walls (in buffer) was significant and increased only slightly by the enzyme treatment. Enzyme treatment significantly reduced the adsorption of PA by insoluble cell walls, but this effect was observed only when material solubilized from grape cell walls had been removed. The loss of PA through interaction with the soluble cell wall fraction was observed to be greater for mesocarp than skin cell walls. Subsequent experiments on the soluble mesocarp cell wall fraction confirmed a role for protein in the precipitation of PA. This identified a potential mechanism by which extracted grape PA may be lost from wine during vinification, as a precipitate with solubilized grape mesocarp proteins. Although protein was a minor component in terms of total concentration, losses of PA via precipitation with proteins were in the order of 50% of available PA. PA-induced precipitation could proceed until all protein was removed from solution and may account for the very low levels of residual protein observed in red wines. The results point to a dynamic interaction of grape insoluble and soluble components in modulating PA retention in wine.

  3. Effects of fining on phenolic compounds and colour of red wine obtained with addition of increased amounts of grape solid phase in pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the effect of grape pomace enrichment in solid phase (stems and seeds on phenolic compounds and colour stability of obtained red wines, before and after use of different fining agents. Results have shown increase in total phenols and flavan-3-ols content after grape solid phase addition. On the other hand, decrease in anthocyanins content has generally been recorded in all wine samples except in wines obtained with addition of 40 g/l of seeds during maceration. Stems addition caused decrease in colour intensity while addition of seeds has increased this colour parameter. The use of four fining agents (albumin, gelatine, bentonite and PVPP has been investigated and compared, especially in terms of their influence on potential stabilization effect of grape solid phase on wine colour. Fined wines tended to have considerably lower anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol levels, especially in the case of gelatine and PVPP treatment (decrease up to 60 and 70%, respectively. In the case of chromatic parameters, used fining agents caused colour intensity decrease but it is important to emphasize that their values, after fining, are still as high as expected from red wine. This can be explained by the stabilization effect of increased flavan-3-ols content.

  4. The influence of apical and basal defoliation on the canopy structure and biochemical composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz grapes and wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Wu, Xiwen; Needs, Sonja; Liu, Di; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Defoliation is a commonly used viticultural technique to balance the ratio between grapevine vegetation and fruit. Defoliation is conducted around the fruit zone to reduce the leaf photosynthetic area, and to increase sunlight exposure of grape bunches. Apical leaf removal is not commonly practiced, and therefore its influence on canopy structure and resultant wine aroma is not well studied. This study quantified the influences of apical and basal defoliation on canopy structure parameters using canopy cover photography and computer vision algorithms. The influence of canopy structure changes on the chemical compositions of grapes and wines was investigated over two vintages (2010-11 and 2015-16) in Yarra Valley, Australia. The Shiraz grapevines were subjected to five different treatments: no leaf removal (Ctrl); basal (TB) and apical (TD) leaf removal at veraison and intermediate ripeness, respectively. Basal leaf removal significantly reduced the leaf area index and foliage cover and increased canopy porosity, while apical leaf removal had limited influences on canopy parameters. However, the latter tended to result in lower alcohol level in the finished wine. Statistically significant increases in pH and decreases in TA was observed in shaded grapes, while no significant changes in the color profile and volatile compounds of the resultant wine were found. These results suggest that apical leaf removal is an effective method to reduce wine alcohol concentration with minimal influences on wine composition.

  5. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  6. Detection of wine grape nutrient levels using visible and near infrared 1nm spectral resolution remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; van Aardt, Jan; Bajorski, Peter; Vanden Heuvel, Justine

    2016-05-01

    The grape industry relies on regular crop assessment to aid in the day-to-day and seasonal management of their crop. More specifically, there are six key nutrients of interest to viticulturists in the growing of wine grapes, namely nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc and boron. Traditional methods of determining the levels of these nutrients are through collection and chemical analysis of petiole samples from the grape vines themselves. We collected ground-level observations of the spectra of the grape vines, using a hyperspectral spectrometer (0.4-2.5um), at the same time that petioles samples were harvested. We then interpolated the data into a consistent 1 nm spectral resolution before comparing it to the nutrient data collected. This nutrient data came from both the industry standard petiole analysis, as well as an additional leaf-level analysis. The data were collected for two different grape cultivars, both during bloom and veraison periods to provide variability, while also considering the impact of temporal/seasonal change. A narrow-band NDI (Normalized Difference Index) approach, as well as a simple ratio index, was used to determine the correlation of the reflectance data to the nutrient data. This analysis was limited to the silicon photodiode range to increase the utility of our approach for wavelength-specific cameras (via spectral filters) in a low cost drone platform. The NDI generated correlation coefficients were as high as 0.80 and 0.88 for bloom and veraison, respectively. The ratio index produced correlation coefficient results that are the same at two decimal places with 0.80 and 0.88. These results bode well for eventual non-destructive, accurate and precise assessment of vineyard nutrient status.

  7. [Flavouring estimation of quality of grape wines with use of methods of mathematical statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakuba, Yu F; Khalaphyan, A A; Temerdashev, Z A; Bessonov, V V; Malinkin, A D

    2016-01-01

    The questions of forming of wine's flavour integral estimation during the tasting are discussed, the advantages and disadvantages of the procedures are declared. As investigating materials we used the natural white and red wines of Russian manufactures, which were made with the traditional technologies from Vitis Vinifera, straight hybrids, blending and experimental wines (more than 300 different samples). The aim of the research was to set the correlation between the content of wine's nonvolatile matter and wine's tasting quality rating by mathematical statistics methods. The content of organic acids, amino acids and cations in wines were considered as the main factors influencing on the flavor. Basically, they define the beverage's quality. The determination of those components in wine's samples was done by the electrophoretic method «CAPEL». Together with the analytical checking of wine's samples quality the representative group of specialists simultaneously carried out wine's tasting estimation using 100 scores system. The possibility of statistical modelling of correlation of wine's tasting estimation based on analytical data of amino acids and cations determination reasonably describing the wine's flavour was examined. The statistical modelling of correlation between the wine's tasting estimation and the content of major cations (ammonium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium), free amino acids (proline, threonine, arginine) and the taking into account the level of influence on flavour and analytical valuation within fixed limits of quality accordance were done with Statistica. Adequate statistical models which are able to predict tasting estimation that is to determine the wine's quality using the content of components forming the flavour properties have been constructed. It is emphasized that along with aromatic (volatile) substances the nonvolatile matter - mineral substances and organic substances - amino acids such as proline, threonine, arginine

  8. Grapevine bunch rots: impacts on wine composition, quality, and potential procedures for the removal of wine faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christopher C; Blackman, John W; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2013-06-05

    Bunch rot of grape berries causes economic loss to grape and wine production worldwide. The organisms responsible are largely filamentous fungi, the most common of these being Botrytis cinerea (gray mold); however, there are a range of other fungi responsible for the rotting of grapes such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and fungi found in subtropical climates (e.g., Colletotrichum spp. (ripe rot) and Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot)). A further group more commonly associated with diseases of the vegetative tissues of the vine can also infect grape berries (e.g., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola ). The impact these fungi have on wine quality is poorly understood as are remedial practices in the winery to minimize wine faults. Compounds found in bunch rot affected grapes and wine are typically described as having mushroom, earthy odors and include geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, and fenchone. This review examines the current state of knowledge about bunch rot of grapes and how this plant disease complex affects wine chemistry. Current wine industry practices to minimize wine faults and gaps in our understanding of how grape bunch rot diseases affect wine production and quality are also identified.

  9. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Fia; Claudio Gori; Ginevra Bucalossi; Francesca Borghini; Bruno Zanoni

    2018-01-01

    The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvent...

  10. Impact of short-term intake of red wine and grape polyphenol extract on the human metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Fuhrmann, Jens C; van Dorsten, Ferdinand A; Rein, Dietrich; Peters, Sonja; van Velzen, Ewoud J J; Hollebrands, Boudewijn; Draijer, Richard; van Duynhoven, John; Garczarek, Ursula

    2012-03-28

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from healthy male adults consuming a mix of red wine and grape juice extracts (WGM) for 4 days in a placebo-controlled, crossover study. Syringic acid, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, pyrogallol, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were confirmed as the strongest urinary markers of WGM intake. Overall, WGM had a mild impact on the endogenous metabolism. Most noticeable were changes in several amino acids deriving from tyrosine and tryptophan. Reductions in the microbial metabolites p-cresol sulfate and 3-indoxylsulfuric acid and increases in indole-3-lactic acid and nicotinic acid were observed in urine. In plasma, tyrosine was reduced. The results suggest that short-term intake of WGM altered microbial protein fermentation and/or amino acid metabolism.

  11. Wine tourism product clubs as a way to increase wine added value: the case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Del Campo Gomis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisco José Del Campo Gomis, David López Lluch, José Miguel Sales Civera, Asunción M Agulló Torres, Margarita Brugarolas, Mollá-Bauzá, África Martínez Poveda, Fermín Camacho de los Ríos, Antonio Miguel Nogués PedregalDepartament of Agrienvironmental Economics, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Campus Universitario de Orihuela-Desamparados, Orihuela (Alicante, SpainAbstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze how the wine tourism product clubs work in Spain and their importance for Spanish wine tourism. A tourism product club is a product development partnership established and led by the tourism industry stakeholders including small- and/or medium-sized companies. The group pools its resources to develop new marketready products or to increase the value of existing ones. Lodging companies, tour operators, administrators of tourism facilities, tourist associations, government, other companies of the sector and, even, nontourist companies can participate as members of a tourism product club. Following this model, wine tourism can contribute to create a wine tourism product club. In Spain the international promotion of tourist products is carried out through the Turespaña website. The wine tourism product club, The Wine Routes of Spain, is one of the wine tourism product clubs developed by the Spanish government. It is an ambitious project that began in 2001. Nevertheless, other Spanish regions have created more wine tourism product clubs in order to develop their own wine tourism industry such as “Divinum vitae – Where the pleasues are born” created in Castilla–La Mancha in 2006.Keywords: wine, tourism, product club, Spain

  12. Characterization of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Carménère grape and wine proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Kennedy, James A; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-05-02

    A formal compositional study of the proanthocyanidins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Carménère was conducted in this work. We first characterized the polymeric proanthocyanidins of Carménère skins, seeds, and wines. In addition, the wine astringency was analyzed and compared with Cabernet Sauvignon. Although Carménère wines had a higher proanthocyanidin concentration and mean degree of polymerization than Cabernet Sauvignon wines, the former wines were perceived as less astringent. The low seed/skin proportion in Carménère wines as compared to other varieties, as evidenced by the reduced number of seeds per berry and the higher amount of epigallocatechin subunits of Carménère wine proanthocyanidins, could explain this apparent paradox.

  13. Wine and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenfelter, Orley; Storchmann, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the extensive literature on the impact of weather and climate on grapes and wine with the goal of describing how climate change is likely to affect their production. We start by discussing the physical impact of weather on vine phenology, berry composition and yields, and then survey the economic literature measuring the effects of temperature on wine quality, prices, costs and profits and how climate change will affect these. We also describe what ha...

  14. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. E.; Torres Neto, A. B.; Silva, W. B.; Silva, F. L. H.; Swarnakar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent v...

  15. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols from Black Tea and Red Wine/Grape Juice Is Source-Specific and Colon-Region Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Gross, G.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Klinkenberg, M.; Vos, de Ric; Vaughan, E.E.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Possemiers, S.; Wiele, van der T.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and

  16. Wine grape cultivar influence on the performance of models that predict the lower threshold canopy temperature of a water stress index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The calculation of a thermal based Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) requires an estimate of canopy temperature under non-water stressed conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different wine grape cultivars on the performance of models that predict canopy temperature non...

  17. Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-06-30

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety names. 4.93 Section 4.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93...

  19. Molecular characterization and technological properties of wine yeasts isolated during spontaneous fermentation of Vitis vinifera L.cv. Narince grape must grown in ancient wine making area Tokat, Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Zeynep Dilan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera L grown in Tokat and produces rich and balanced wines often with a greenish yellow tint and delicate fruity flavour. Fermentation by indigenous yeasts may produce wines with complex oenological properties that are unique to specific region. In this study yeast population during alcoholic fermentation of Narince was investigated. Yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 5.8 ITS rRNA region and sequence information for the D1/D2 domains of the 26S gene. Eight different species belonging to nine genera were identified as: Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hansenispora guilliermondii, Pichia kluyveri, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina, Lachancea thermotolerance and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis and Pichia kluyveri were identified only in the early stage of fermentation. Selected yeasts tested for their physiological traits, ethanol, SO2, temperature, pH tolerance, H2S production, killer and enzymatic activity, fermentation rate, flocculation characteristic, foam, volatile acid and volatile compounds production. Among the yeasts, one,Lachancea thermotolerance and four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain showed remarkable technological properties and results were compared with those obtained by using commercial starter culture.

  20. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  1. Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1986-11-01

    Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (..mu..) and fermentation rates (..nu..) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, ''flor'' yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory medium were also the best at fermenting molasses. Invertase activity was not a limiting step in ethanol production, ..nu.. being accelerated by supplementing molasses with ammonia and biotine, and by cell recycle.

  2. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer?s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively require...

  3. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  4. Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Revilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain, Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA.

  5. Conversion to organic wine production: exploring the economic performance impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nisén, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relationship between organic wine production and economic performance. The aim of this study is to clarify, what are the economic impacts that result from the conversion of wine production from conventional to organic. This is an interesting topic to be explored in more detail because despite the increasing demand of organic wine and share of vineyard area used for organic winemaking, the economic consequences of the conversion are still somewhat unclea...

  6. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in wine...

  7. Analysis of climate change indices in relation to wine production: A case study in the Douro region (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Ward Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is of major relevance to wine production as most of the wine-growing regions of the world, in particular the Douro region, are located within relatively narrow latitudinal bands with average growing season temperatures limited to 13–21°C. This study focuses on the incidence of climate variables and indices that are relevant both for climate change detection and for grape production with particular emphasis on extreme events (e.g. cold waves, storms, heat waves. Dynamical downscaling of MPI-ESM-LR global data forced with RCP8.5 climatic scenario is performed with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model to a regional scale including the Douro valley of Portugal for recent-past (1986–2005 and future periods (2046–2065; 2081–2100. The number, duration and intensity of events are superimposed over critical phenological phases of the vine (dormancy, bud burst, flowering, véraison, and maturity in order to assess their positive or negative implications on wine production in the region. An assessment on the statistical significance of climatic indices, their differences between the recent-past and the future scenarios and the potential impact on wine production is performed. Preliminary results indicate increased climatic stress on the Douro region wine production and increased vulnerability of its vine varieties. These results will provide evidence for future strategies aimed to preserve the high-quality wines in the region and their typicality in a sustainable way.

  8. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García-Estévez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS. Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L* values and higher chroma (C*ab values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  9. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Puente, Víctor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-11-23

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L*) values and higher chroma (C* ab ) values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  10. Terroir et vignoble: how the farming management can affect the production of a quality wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alba; Bini, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Italian wine is one of the most exported wine in the world. The particular climate, the soil characteristics and other several factors have contributed to this success. Italy is located in the temperate belt, with a suitable climate for grapevine cultivation. For this reason, all regions in Italy produce wine, first of all the Veneto region, with 8.569.000 hl of wine in 2011. Wine quality derives from the perfect interaction among climate, morphology, soil and plant, i.e. the terroir. So, knowledge of the land characteristics, together with cultivation techniques and management, is essential to understand this interaction and the typicality of the wine. For example, large utilization of fertilizers and pesticides may determine accumulation of toxic substances in soil and possible translocation to the food chain. For this reason, metal contamination of soils and plants becomes a main issue in agricultural production. Therefore, our attention was focused on the determination of soil quality of the Prosecco DOCG (controlled and guaranteed denomination of origin) area, particularly in Conegliano. Conegliano is a town located in Veneto, in the province of Treviso, known for its wine. This wine variety is regulated by the Conegliano-Valdobbiadene production Consortium, to protect both consumers and producers. The goals of this research are: evaluation of trace metal content (Al ,Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, V and Zn) in soils and possible uptake by grape leaves; estimation of biological soil quality (QBS-ar index); analysis of oxidative stress in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and grape leaves, by the Lipid peroxidation test (LPO test). Results concerning trace metal concentration show: i) a high content of Al, Mg and P in soils, and ii) high concentration of Al, Cu, Fe and Zn in grape leaves. High contents of Al in topsoil are consistent with the high concentration of organic matter. Instead, high Al contents in subsoil are related to clay. Mg and P are usually

  11. Terpene content of wine from the aromatic grape variety ‘Irsai Oliver’ (Vitis vinifera L. depends on maceration time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron Mojmir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the determination of the content of both free and bound terpenes in berries and wine of the aromatic grapevine variety ‘Irsai Oliver’. Grapes were macerated in juice for different time intervals (viz. 0; 5; 12; 24 hours and thereafter processed to wine. The objective was to map the dependence of some selected terpenes on the period of maceration. Using gas chromatography, some nine organic compounds were detected. Attention was paid to contents of linalool (3,7-dimethylokta-1,6-dien-3-ol, 2,6-dimetyl-3,7-octadiene-2,6-diol, hotrienol ([(5E-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5,7-trien-3-yl] acetate, αterpineol (2-(4-Methyl-1-cyclohex-3-enylpropan-2-ol, β-citronellol (3,7-Dimethyloct-6-en-1-ol, nerol ((Z-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, geraniol ((trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-oktadien-1-ol and epoxylinalool (2-(5-ethenyl-5-methyloxolan-2-ylpropan-2- ol: epoxylinalool 1 (trans-linalool oxide (furanoid cis-linalool oxide (furanoid and epoxylinalool 2 (trans-linalool oxide (pyranoid cis-linalool oxide (pyranoid. Some basic wine parameters (alcohol, pH, sugars and total acids were estimated as well. The terpene content in wine increased gradually with the period of maceration. The highest and the lowest amounts of terpenes were recorded after 24 hours of maceration and no maceration, respectively. The terpene glycosides content was higher than that of the aglycones. Linalool and 2,6-dimetyl-3,7-octadiene-2,6-diol were the most abundant terpenes.

  12. The future potential for wine production in Scotland under high-end climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Miriam; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.; Boberg, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    grape growing regions? The temperature analogues towards the end of the twenty-first century occurred at more southerly latitudes in Europe, with some variability from west to east arising from the influence of continental climates. Temperature analogues alone match with several current wine grape...

  13. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villiers, André de; Alberts, Phillipus; Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  14. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  15. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Lukyanchuk; V. A. Khobin; V. A. Khobin

    2016-01-01

    The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex a...

  16. Isolation and identification of resveratrol-producing endophytes from wine grape Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Nan, Lijun; Liu, Junchao; Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Dianpeng; Han, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    Obtain endophyte strains with effective resveratrol production from superior grapevine variety Cabernet Sauvignon in Xinjiang and determine related taxonomic position of the strain. Seventy-three strains of endophytes, including 23 strains of bacteria, 14 ones of actinomycetes, 24 fungus and 12 yeasts, were isolated, respectively. The distribution law of endophytes was spring (30.14 %) = summer (30.14 %) < autumn (39.73 %) in different seasons, while the fruit (12.33 %) < leaf (20.55 %) < stem (32.88 %) < root (34.25 %) in different tissues and organs. From the 36 strains of endophytic fungi isolated, seven strains producing polyphenols were screened by ferric chloride-potassium ferricyanide color reaction. C2J6, stable genetic properties producing highly 1.48 mg L(-1) of resveratrol, was identified as Aspergillus niger by 26S rDNA-ITS sequence analysis after thin-layer chromatography sieve analysis, ultra violet wavelength scanning and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. There were the certain number and kinds of endophytes in the various tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon, which, to a certain extent, reflected the biological diversity of plant endophytes. The fact that the fungus C2J6 producing resveratrol in grape was acquired attested the special ability of the endophytes to produce the same or similar bioactive substances as the host plants.

  17. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  18. Ningxia update: Government policy and measures for promoting a sustainable wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Linhai; Li Xueming; Cao Kailong; Ma Huiqin

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly growing wine industry in the Ningxia region of north-central China had 35,300 ha of wine grapes and 184 registered wineries as of mid-2016. Ningxia's mission is to develop a sustainable wine industry based on small-scale producers and high-quality products in order to distinguish itself from other key regions in China. Government measures over the last two years have included diversifying grape varieties, encouraging vineyard mechanization, awarding cash to medalists in renown win...

  19. Lead complexation in wines with the dimers of the grape pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Pellerin

    1997-03-01

    Our study is the first to show that in wine most of the lead is complexed with a pectic polysaccharide that is not degraded during vinification. dRG-II-B is also known to form complexes with other cations, including strontium and barium. However, it is not known what role dRG-II-B has in determining the metabolic fate in humans of toxic cations present in wine.

  20. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    OpenAIRE

    Saltman Y; Johnson TE; Wilkinson KL; Bastian SEP

    2015-01-01

    Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and f...

  1. Location effects on the polyphenolic and polysaccharidic profiles and colour of Carignan grape variety wines from the Chilean Maule region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Heredia, Francisco J; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on a study of chemical characterization and colour parameters of cv. Carignan red wines from six locations and two production years of the Chilean Maule valley. The chemical study was performed on polyphenolic composition (benzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and anthocyanins) and several fractions of proanthocyanidins and polysaccharides. Results revealed that although significantly (p < 0.05) different content of anthocyanins were observed according to the production year, it could be possible to establish fingerprints of the different locations of the Maule valley wines. Thus, wines from zones closer to the Andes Mountains had higher content of procyanidin B3 (Caliboro), polysaccharides and cis-resveratrol-glucoside (Loncomilla and Melozal), whereas the proximity to the Pacific Ocean provoked a unifying effect in chemical and colorimetric terms (Cauquenes, Sauzal and Huerta del Maule). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolics from Winemaking By-Products Better Decrease VLDL-Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels than Those of Red Wine in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walkia Polliana; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Marques, Valquíria Fernanda; Dos Santos, Ieda Maria; Magalhães, Kedma; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Negro-Dellacqua, Melissa; Miranda, Maria Spínola; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids. However, the contribution of phenolic acids was minor for both samples. Furthermore, equivalent concentration of winemaking by-products (100 mg/kg/d) showed greater biological activity by than that of red wine by decreasing the levels of VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in Wistar rats. Therefore, this study supports the use of winemaking by-products as an economical source of bioactive phenolics with potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Monitoring the impact of an aspartic protease (MpAPr1) on grape proteins and wine properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Louwrens Wiid; Bely, Marina; Divol, Benoit

    2018-04-23

    The perception of haze in wine is brought about when pathogenesis-related proteins become unstable and aggregate, subsequently resulting in crosslinking until it develops into light-dispersing particles. Elimination of these proteins is usually achieved via bentonite fining, which, although effective, suffers from several drawbacks. The utilization of proteases has been proposed as an ideal alternative. In a previous study, an aspartic protease (MpAPr1) from the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima was purified and shown to be partially active against grape proteins in synthetic medium. In this study, the effects of pure MpAPr1 supplemented to Sauvignon Blanc juice on subsequent fermentation were investigated. The juice was incubated for 48 h and thereafter inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results revealed that the enzyme had no observable effects on fermentation performance and retained activity throughout. Protein degradation could be detected and resulted in a significant modification of the wine composition and an increase in the presence of certain volatile compounds, especially those linked to amino acid metabolism.

  4. The role of soil biogeochemistry in wine taste: Soil factors influencing grape elemental composition, photosynthetic biomarkers and Cu/Zn isotopic signature of Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Simon; Oliva, Priscia; Darrozes, José; Viers, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Orgogozo, Laurent; Le Guedard, Marina; Schreck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the influence of soil composition in wine taste is of great economic and environmental interest in France and around the world. Nevertheless the impact of soil composition on wine taste is still controversially discussed. Since inorganic soil components do not have a proper taste and do not enter the plant anyway, their influence needs to be induced by nutrient absorption and its impact on plant functioning and grape composition. Indeed recent development of geological tracers of origin proof the existence of soil chemical and isotopic signatures in wine. However, type and scale of the impact of soil composition on wine taste are not well understood yet, and little experimental evidence exists due to the complexity of mechanisms involved. Thus, to provide evidence for the impact of soil composition on grape composition and potentially wine taste, we studied soil and plant material from two relevant vineyards (Soave, Italia). On those two directly adjacent vineyards, two different wines are produced with the same plant material and cultivation techniques. The vineyards only differ by their underlying bedrock - limestone versus basaltic rock - and thus present suitable conditions for investigating the impact of soil composition on grapes and wine. Pedological and mineralogical parameters were analyzed for the two vineyards whereas chemical extractions (citrate, CaCl2) were performed to determine nutrient bioavailability in both soils. Elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS analyses in different compartments (soils, vine leaves and grapes). Isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn was investigated in various samples as source tracers and in order to better understand fractionation mechanisms involved. Finally, plant health was studied using the Omega-3 biomarker which determines the fatty acid composition in vine leaves, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Results show that the vineyards are characterized by two different soil types due

  5. Grape tannin catechin and ethanol fluidify oral membrane mimics containing moderate amounts of cholesterol: Implications on wine tasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Saad, Ahmad; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2016-11-01

    Wine tasting results in interactions of tannin-ethanol solutions with proteins and lipids of the oral cavity. Among the various feelings perceived during tasting, astringency and bitterness most probably result in binding events with saliva proteins, lipids and receptors. In this work, we monitored the conjugated effect of the grape polyphenol catechin and ethanol on lipid membranes mimicking the different degrees of keratinization of oral cavity surfaces by varying the amount of cholesterol present in membranes. Both catechin and ethanol fluidify the membranes as evidenced by solid-state 2 H NMR of perdeuterated lipids. The effect is however depending on the cholesterol proportion and may be very important and cumulative in the absence of cholesterol or presence of 18 mol % cholesterol. For 40 mol % cholesterol, mimicking highly keratinized membranes, both ethanol and catechin can no longer affect membrane dynamics. These observations can be accounted for by phase diagrams of lipid-cholesterol mixtures and the role played by membrane defects for insertion of tannins and ethanol when several phases coexist. These findings suggest that the behavior of oral membranes in contact with wine should be different depending of their cholesterol content. Astringency and bitterness could be then affected; the former because of a potential competition between the tannin-lipid and the tannin-saliva protein interaction, and the latter because of a possible fluidity modification of membranes containing taste receptors. The lipids that have been up to now weakly considered in oenology may be become a new actor in the issue of wine tasting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  6. Technological approaches to the vinification of Dornfelder grape variety cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoce Arina Oana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, Dornfelder is a rare grape variety which started to become popular among some wine producers due to the intense colour of its wines. However, it is mostly used in blends and therefore varietal wines of Dornfelder are not found too often. In this paper we present some technological approaches suitable for the production of varietal wines of Dornfelder, some of them novel for the Romanian wine industry. The experimental samples include a classical red wine made by the usual technol- ogy using freshly harvested grapes (DW = Dornfelder wine and two variants made with dried grapes (DR and DWDR. The DR variant (Dornfelder raisin wine is produced by a straw-wine type technology, by fermenting a must obtained from grapes dried for 7 weeks. The DWDR is a variant obtained by fermenting a mixture of crushed dried grapes and new Dornfelder wine, the ratio of crushed raisins to wine being 1:1 in weight. The wines were analysed both physico-chemically and sensorially. After one year of aging in bottles, the variant DWDR of wine, produced by fermenting dried berries in already finished wine, proved to be the most balanced in taste, with an intense and complex aroma of berries and red fruit, also displaying good aging potential and stability. The variant DR appeared dense and intense, but with a less complex fruity aroma, with a dominant note of blueberries and black currants. Both straw wines are preferable to the classic varietal wine, which is vinous, but lacks structure and displays a dissociated acidity and a simple aromatic profile, with dominant sour cherry, mineral and vegetal notes.

  7. Grouping of Bulgarian wines according to grape variety by using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, M.; Nikolova, Kr.; Ivanova, Ir.; Minkova, St.; Evtimov, T.; Krustev, St.

    2017-12-01

    68 different types of Bulgarian wines were studied in accordance with 9 optical parameters as follows: color parameters in XYZ and SIE Lab color systems, lightness, Hue angle, chroma, fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength. The main objective of this research is using hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate the similarity and the distance between examined different types of Bulgarian wines and their grouping based on physical parameters. We have found that wines are grouped in clusters on the base of the degree of identity between them. There are two main clusters each one with two subclusters. The first one contains white wines and Sira, the second contains red wines and rose. The results from cluster analysis are presented graphically by a dendrogram. The other statistical technique used is factor analysis performed by the Method of Principal Components (PCA). The aim is to reduce the large number of variables to a few factors by grouping the correlated variables into one factor and subdividing the noncorrelated variables into different factors. Moreover the factor analysis provided the possibility to determine the parameters with the greatest influence over the distribution of samples in different clusters. In our study after the rotation of the factors with Varimax method the parameters were combined into two factors, which explain about 80 % of the total variation. The first one explains the 61.49% and correlates with color characteristics, the second one explains 18.34% from the variation and correlates with the parameters connected with fluorescence spectroscopy.

  8. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and flavor of foods and beverages, the addition of flavorings to wine contravenes the legal definition of wine. Given the current legislation, it is perhaps not surprising that the potential use of food additives in wine production has not been explored. This study therefore investigated Australian wine consumers' acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in food and wine production. Consumers (n=1,031 were segmented based on their self-reported wine knowledge (ie, subjective knowledge. Using these ratings, low (n=271, medium (n=528, and high (n=232 knowledge segments were identified. Consumers considered natural flavorings and colors, and additives associated with health benefits (eg, vitamins, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids, to be acceptable food additives, irrespective of their level of wine knowledge. In contrast, the use of winemaking additives, even commonly used and legally permitted additives such as tartaric acid, preservatives, oak chips, and tannins, were considered far less acceptable, particularly, by less knowledgeable consumers. Surprisingly, natural flavorings were considered more acceptable than currently used winemaking additives. Consumers were therefore asked to identify the flavors they would most prefer in white and red wines. Fruit flavors featured prominently in consumer responses, eg, lemon and apple for white wines and blackcurrant and raspberry for red wines, but vanilla and/or chocolate, ie, attributes typically

  9. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  11. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessanha, Sofia [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Luisa, E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.p [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von [Institute for analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  12. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  13. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase clean-up for analysis of ochratoxin A in beer, red wine, and grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Kong, Weijun; Zhou, Shujun; Yin, Lihui; Wan, Li; Yang, Meihua

    2013-04-01

    A simple, reliable, and low-cost method based on molecularly imprinted polymer as a selective sorbent of SPE was proposed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer, red wine, and grape juice by HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Samples were diluted with water and cleaned up with an AFFINIMIP® SPE OTA column. After washing and eluting, the analyte was analyzed by HPLC-FLD. Under the optimized conditions, LOD and LOQ for OTA were 0.025 and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of OTA from beer, red wine, and grape spiked at 0.1, 2, and 5 ng/mL ranged from 91.6 to 101.7%. Furthermore, after a simple regenerated procedure, the molecularly imprinted polymer based SPE column could be reused at least 14 times to achieve more than 80% recoveries of OTA in real samples. The developed method was applied to the detection of 30 beer, red wine, and grape juice samples and only four samples were contaminated by OTA with levels below the legal limits. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effects of red wine, grape juice and resveratrol consumption on bone parameters of Wistar rats submitted to high-fat diet and physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Letícia Monteiro da Fonseca; Pimenta, Nina Da Matta Alvarez; Fiochi, Raiza Da Silva Ferreira; Mota, Bruna Ferreira Mota; Monnerat, Juliana Arruda de Souza; Teixeira, Cristiane Correia; Ramalho, Renata Beatriz Da Rocha; Maldronato, Isabelle Waleska; Dolisnky, Manuela; Boaventura, Gilson Teles; Blondet, Vilma; Barroso, Sergio Girão; Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da; Rocha, Gabrielle De Souza

    2017-10-27

    intake of diets with high saturated fat may produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization. Lifestyle changes help reduce the bone loss observed in osteoporosis. Resveratrol, present in grape juice and red wine, has osteogenic and osteoinductive effects, being potentially beneficial for bone health. to evaluate the effects of red grape juice, red wine and resveratrol consumption on bone parameters in Wistar rats submitted to a high-fat diet and physical training. female Wistar rats, with 90 days of age, were divided into five groups and followed up for 60 days: a) control group; b) high-fat group; c) grape juice group; d) red wine group; and e) resveratrol group. The different groups of animals performed a physical training protocol. Animal's weight and consumption were monitored weekly. After 60 days, femoral dimensions, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were evaluated. there was no difference in body mass; however, all groups consuming the high-fat diet had higher consumption (p diet.

  16. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  17. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  18. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce-Johnson Patricio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  19. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  20. 76 FR 3573 - Proposed Addition of New Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... produces wines that have good tannin structure and that are free of the hybrid aromas typical of many other... misidentified as Petite Sirah. In a study conducted by UC Davis in the 1990's, DNA analysis of commercial... Enology and Viticulture, vol. 50, no. 3, 1999.) Using the same DNA analysis, UC Davis identified...

  1. [Amperometric biosensor for lactate analysis in wines and grape must during fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkotova, L V; Horiushkina, T B; Slast'ia, E A; Soldatkin, O P; Tranh-Minh, S; Chovelon, J M; Dziadevych, S V

    2005-01-01

    The amperometric biosensor based on lactate oxidase for determination of lactate has been developed, and two methods of immobilization of lactate oxidase on the surface of industrial screen-printed platinum electrodes SensLab were compared. A sensor with immobilized in the Resydrol polymer lactate oxidase by the method of physical adsorption is characterized of narrow dynamic range and greater response value in comparison with a biosensor based on immobilised in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) lactate oxidase by the method of electrochemical polymerization. Operational stability of the biosensor developed was studied and it was shown, that the immobilization method does not influence their stability. The analysis of the lactate in wine and during wine fermentation has been conducted. High correlation of the data obtained by means of amperometric lactate biosensor and a standard method of an ionic chromatography has been shown. The developed biosensor could be applied in the food industry for the control and optimization of the wine fermentation process, and quality control of wine.

  2. Growth inhibitory effect of grape phenolics against wine spoilage yeasts and acetic acid bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastorková, E.; Žáková, T.; Landa, Přemysl; Nováková, J.; Vadlejch, J.; Kokoška, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 3 (2013), s. 209-213 ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phenolic compound * Antimicrobial activity * Wine spoilage microorganism Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2013

  3. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lukyanchuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex avtomatization sites grape processing with bulk transportation of the latter; improving the quality and durability of wines by the processing of a wide applying wine cold and heat, as well as technical and microbiological control most powerful automation equipment; the introduction of automated production processes of continuous technical champagne, sherry wine and cognac alcohol madery; the use of complex automation auxiliary production sites (boilers, air conditioners, refrigeration unitsand other.; complex avtomatization creation of enterprises, and sites manufactory bottling wines. In the wine industry developed more sophisticated schemes of automation and devices that enable the transition to integrated production automation, will create, are indicative automated enterprise serving for laboratories to study of the main problems of automation of production processes of winemaking.

  4. Wine producers’ perceptions of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...

  5. Characterization of Titratable Acids, Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activities of Wines Made from Eight Mississippi-Grown Muscadine Varieties during Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscadine grape (vitis rotundifolia) Michx.) and its wine products are becoming more acceptable due to potential health benefits associated with high concentrations of phenolic compounds. In this research, wines made from eight high-yielding muscadine grape varieties grown in Mississippi were compa...

  6. Production and characterization of wine from mango fruit ( Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of wine from mango fruit ( Mangifera indica ) varieties in Kenya. ... Six mature and unripe mango fruits were harvested three times from a farm in Katheka Kai Division, Machakos County ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Modifications in climate suitability for wine production of Romanian wine regions as a result of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimia Liviu Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the shifts in climate suitability for wine production affecting Romanian wine growing regions. For this, we analyzed the spatial distribution over Romanian territory of the oenoclimate aptitude index (IAOe for the 1961 to 1990 and 1991 to 2013 time periods. The IAOe has been calculated based on gridded data at 10 × 10 km resolution of average daily temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration between 1961–2013, originating from about 150 weather stations across Romanian territory and recorded in the ROCADA database. The study reveals: northward shifts and to higher altitudes of suitability for wine production; the appearance of new areas suitable for wine production; the expansion or the shrinkage of the current areas suitable for wine production; shifts in classes of suitability for wine production in the current wine regions and appearance of premises of replacing their specific varieties and traditional wine type production; the tendency to level climate suitability at regional scale by diminishing suitability for white wines and replacing it with climate suitability for red wines. The study provides a solid support for developing strategies to adapt Romanian viticulture to climate change.

  8. Detailed characterization of glycosylated sensory-active volatile phenols in smoke-exposed grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestheden, Matthew; Dennis, Eric G; Romero-Montalvo, Eduardo; DiLabio, Gino A; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2018-09-01

    The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. vines to smoke from wildland fires can alter the chemical composition of the berries, such that the resulting wine can possess a defect known as smoke-taint. This work constitutes a complete method for the analysis of simple volatile phenol glycosides (VP-glycosides) that can be elevated in berries and wine following smoke exposure. We synthesized 16 model VP-glycosides, four of which are not reported previously, to facilitate method development. Fragmentation analysis using high-resolution accurate-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the glycone and aglycone influenced the fragmentation pattern of VP-glycosides. Diagnostic fragmentation patterns for the synthesized VP-glycosides were applied to identify several VP-glycosides in smoke-exposed berries and wine. The fragmentation pattern of VP-disaccharides should facilitate the characterization of modified glycones. Putative non-VP glycosides elevated in smoke-exposed berries are demonstrated for the first time. In tandem with VP-glycosides, such compounds may contribute to the expression of smoke taint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  10. Micro-scale energy valorization of grape marcs in winery production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of winery organic waste, with reference to two Italian red and white grapes (i.e. Nero Buono and Greco) by-products was investigated. The study was carried out to verify the possibility to reduce the production impact in a green-waste-management-chain-perspective. The possibility to efficiently utilize wine-related-by-products for energy production at a micro-scale (i.e. small-medium scale winery production plant) was also verified. Results showed as a good correlation can be established between the percentage of COD removal and the biogas production, as the winery can produce, from its waste methanization, about 7800 kW h year(-1) electrical and 8900 kW h year(-1) thermal. A critical evaluation was performed about the possibility to utilize the proposed approach to realize an optimal biomass waste management and an energetic valorization in a local-energy-production-perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) in some wines from Italian native grapes by Gas-Chromatography-SIM/MASS spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Piombino, Paola; Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Moio, Luigi

    2005-06-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis by Selective Ion Monitoring (SIM) was applied to quantify 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) in both red and white wines obtained from some Italian cultivar of Vitis vinifera. Wines were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction performed with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113). The ion m/z 128 was used for quantification while the ion m/z 129 as qualifier. Precision, linearity and accuracy of the method resulted satisfactory. Results showed a significant variation in the concentration of furaneol in wine with grape variety. Generally, HDMF concentrations in white wines were lower than in red wines. Among white wines, Chardonnay resulted characterized by the highest concentration of HDMF. Among red wines the highest concentrations of HDMF were detected in Primitivo and Refosco varieties.

  12. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, S R; Lage, S H; Brandizzi, L; Yoshida, V; da Luz, P L

    2005-09-01

    Although red wine (RW) reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM), and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 +/- 8.1 years) without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects were used as controls for vascular reactivity. Subjects randomly received RW, 250 ml/day, or purple grape juice (GJ), 500 ml/day, for 14 days with an equal wash-out period. At baseline, all 16 subjects were hypercholesterolemic (mean LDL = 181.0 +/- 28.7 mg/dl) but HDL, triglycerides, glucose, adhesion molecules, and platelet function were within normal limits. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was significantly decreased compared to controls (9.0 +/- 7.1 vs 12.1 +/- 4.5%; P effect on either molecule. No significant alterations were observed in plasma lipids, glucose or platelet aggregability with RW or GJ. Both RW and GJ similarly improved flow-mediated dilation, but RW also enhanced endothelium-independent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic patients despite the increased plasma cholesterol. Thus, we conclude that GJ may protect against coronary artery disease without the additional negative effects of alcohol despite the gender.

  13. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  14. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Young Wines Made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grapes Treated by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS (Vitis vinifera L. were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz, and deionized water (control, at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC and total anthocyanin content (TAC of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  16. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  17. Application of sequential and orthogonalised-partial least squares (SO-PLS) regression to predict sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from grape chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Tomic, Oliver; Næs, Tormod; Jeffery, David W; Bastian, Susan E P; Boss, Paul K

    2018-08-01

    The current study determined the applicability of sequential and orthogonalised-partial least squares (SO-PLS) regression to relate Cabernet Sauvignon grape chemical composition to the sensory perception of the corresponding wines. Grape samples (n = 25) were harvested at a similar maturity and vinified identically in 2013. Twelve measures using various (bio)chemical methods were made on grapes. Wines were evaluated using descriptive analysis with a trained panel (n = 10) for sensory profiling. Data was analysed globally using SO-PLS for the entire sensory profiles (SO-PLS2), as well as for single sensory attributes (SO-PLS1). SO-PLS1 models were superior in validated explained variances than SO-PLS2. SO-PLS provided a structured approach in the selection of predictor chemical data sets that best contributed to the correlation of important sensory attributes. This new approach presents great potential for application in other explorative metabolomics studies of food and beverages to address factors such as quality and regional influences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Fia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvents. The juice was dried by a spray-drying technique with the addition of arabic gum as support to obtain powder; juice and powder were characterized for antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration and profile. Phenolic acids, flavonols, flava-3-ols, procyanidins and resveratrol were detected in the juice and powder. The powder was used as anti-browning additive in white wine to test the potential re-use of the unripe grapes in the wine industry. The results indicated that the antioxidant complex from unripe grapes contributed to increasing the anti-browning capacity of white wine. Other applications, such as food and nutraceutical products development, can be considered for the antioxidant complex extracted from unripe grapes. In conclusion, the method proposed in this study may contribute to the exploitation of unripe grapes as a by-product of the winemaking process.

  19. Attractiveness of Czech winegrowing and wine-production in the stage of adaptation to the united market of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tomšík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the viniculture sector in the Czech Republic in the stage of its adaptation to the united EU-market. The period before the entrance of the Czech Republic to the EU can be characterized by an effort to develop the necessary resources for its quantitative and qualitative growth at the maximum possible level. Evaluation of this period comes from analysis of: legislature and governmental and EU laws, directives and measures, development of the area of vineyards, human resources and businesses, wine market in the Czech Republic and the European Union, financial support of winegrowing and wine-production, structure of wine production, and price of grapes. Legislature for this sector had been changed in relation to the legislature of the EU – the main impacts being in registration of vineyards, the ban on new planting. Area of vineyards was enlarged by about 7 thousand hectares, and the main focus in the near future will be directed to their renewal – because of the age of the vineyards and bad heritage from the past in terms of low investments. The size structure of business subjects changed as well. Production potential is 19.3 thousand hectares of vineyard, there is filed more than 18 thousand wine-growers and nearly 600 wine producers. There is a potential for 20 thousand jobs in this sector, and considering the limited production area of vineyards, this projects into a high influence on the character, and development level of these areas. Consumption of wine is gradually increasing (16.5 litres per habitant per year, as yet. Prices, which were found, are relatively stable in the period of focus, with differences between white and blue varieties. Whereas the financial support of winegrowing was focused on enlarging the area of vineyards, in the pre-accession period, it is redirected to the restructuring of vineyards, integrated production of grapes, and reproduction of vines, in the current period. Wine imports

  20. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  1. Biosynthesis of anthocyanins and their regulation in colored grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Mu, Lin; Yan, Guo-Liang; Liang, Na-Na; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2010-12-09

    Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  2. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ningxia update: Government policy and measures for promoting a sustainable wine industry

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    Hao Linhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing wine industry in the Ningxia region of north-central China had 35,300 ha of wine grapes and 184 registered wineries as of mid-2016. Ningxia's mission is to develop a sustainable wine industry based on small-scale producers and high-quality products in order to distinguish itself from other key regions in China. Government measures over the last two years have included diversifying grape varieties, encouraging vineyard mechanization, awarding cash to medalists in renown wine competitions, subsidizing international wine cooperation and education programs, and promoting local producers through Ningxia wine centers in major Chinese cities. These efforts have significantly improved wine quality, lowered costs and raised Ningxia's image as a region. The good reputation of Ningxia wine is now spreading from the trade to general consumers.

  4. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Validation and global uncertainty of a liquid chromatographic with diode array detection method for the screening of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone, pyraclostrobin and fenamidone in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Abreu, Susana; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Alves, Arminda

    2006-07-28

    Azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone are permitted Q(o) Inhibitor (Q(o)I) fungicides applied to vine in some European countries for the treatment of downy and powdery mildews. In this work, a method is validated for the analysis of these fungicides in grapes and wine. This screening method consists in a simple one step liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography (LC) fitted with a diode array detector (DAD). Limits of detection for grapes and wine were below 0.2 mg kg(-1) or mg l(-1), precision was not above 13%, and recoveries were, on average, 95+/-5% for grapes and 104+/-6% for wine. Global uncertainties evaluated in the concentration range from 0.25 to 2.50 mg l(-1) were below 20%. A confirmatory method by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) detection was used.

  6. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  7. Biodiversity and ochratoxin A profile of Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from wine grapes in Cyprus vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelides, Iakovos S; Aristeidou, Efi; Lazari, Maria; Tsolakidou, Maria-Dimitra; Tsaltas, Dimitris; Christofidou, Maria; Kafouris, Demetris; Christou, Eftychia; Ioannou, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri populations from Cyprus vineyards by morphological, toxigenic and phylogenetic analysis. Aspergillus section Nigri populations were isolated from grapes of the varieties 'Maratheftiko' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' originating from six growing regions of Cyprus during 2010 and 2011 years. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus section Nigri from grape samples was 43.3% and a total of 284 isolates were selected for further analyses based on the macroscopic characteristics of black aspergilli. The isolates were characterized by sequencing analysis of the calmodulin gene in order to identify species responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates were grouped in three major clusters. The A. tubingensis cluster included 262 isolates (92.25%), the A. niger cluster included 15 isolates identified as A. niger (5.3%) and 6 isolates identified as A. welwitschiae (2.1%). One isolate was classified as A. carbonarius (0.35%) and was grouped in a cluster together with the reference isolates of A. carbonarius, A. sclerotioniger, A. sclerotiocarbonarius and A. ibericus. All the isolates were evaluated for their ochratoxigenic ability by HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) and the positive isolates were re-examined using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The Aspergillus carbonarius isolate produced an average quantity of 1436.1 ng OTA/g Czapek Yeast Agar (CYA); From the A. niger strains three isolates (20%) produced OTA and only one isolate from A. welwitschiae (16.7%) was proved ochratoxigenic with toxin production average at 23.9 ng/g and 9.1 ng/g CYA respectively. Grape must samples derived from the collected berries were also analyzed for OTA and none of the samples were found contaminated with the mycotoxin. The results showed that the geographic area and the

  8. Soil application of neonicotinoid insecticides for control of insect pests in wine grape vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Timmeren, Steven; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2012-04-01

    Soil application of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides can provide opportunities for long-term control of insect pests in vineyards, with minimal risk of pesticide drift or worker exposure. This study compared the effectiveness of neonicotinoid insecticides applied via irrigation injection on key early-season and mid-season insect pests of vineyards in the eastern United States. On vines trained to grow on drip irrigation, early-season application of imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran provided high levels of control against the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae. Protection of vines against Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, and grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana, was also observed after mid-season applications. Efficacy was poor in commercial vineyards when treatments were applied to the soil before irrigation or rain, indicating that vines must be grown with an irrigation system for efficient uptake of the insecticide. In drip-irrigated vineyards, soil-applied neonicotinoids can be used to provide long residual control of either early-season or mid- to late-season foliage pests of vineyards. This approach can reduce the dependence on foliar-applied insecticides, with associated benefits for non-target exposure to workers and natural enemies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic role of wine grape powder in rats fed with a high fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP, rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with control diet (C, control plus 20 % WGP (C + WGP, 50 % high fructose (HF or 50 % fructose plus 20 % WGP (HF + WGP for 16 weeks. Blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides, weight, and arterial blood pressure were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index was calculated using insulin and glucose values. A glucose tolerance test was performed 2 days before the end of the experiment. As an index of oxidative stress, thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level was measured in plasma and kidney, and superoxide dismutase was measured in the kidney. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and renal tissue were significantly higher when compared to the control group. In addition, the area under the curve of the glucose tolerance test was higher in HF fed animals. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and the HOMA index, were also increased. WGP supplementation prevented these alterations in rats fed with the HF diet. We did not find any significant difference in body weight or systolic blood pressure in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that WGP supplementation prevented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and reduced oxidative stress in rats fed with HF diet. We propose that WGP may be used as a supplement in human food as well.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of resveratrol metabolic profile in healthy humans after moderate consumption of red wine and grape extract tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Escribano, Elvira; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia

    2012-11-01

    A pharmacokinetic study of the metabolic profile of resveratrol has been performed in healthy men after moderate red wine (RW) consumption. The bioavailability of resveratrol is highly influenced by several factors such as the food matrix and, therefore, this study has been compared with a pilot study in which men ingested grape extract (GE) tablets as a nutraceutical, containing similar total amounts of resveratrol than RW. Blood and urine samples were taken before and at several time points after intervention and then analyzed by SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Up to 17 resveratrol and piceid derivatives were identified, including those formed by the intestinal microbiota. Resveratrol glucosides were found in plasma as intact forms and reached the lowest maximum concentrations 1h after both interventions. Higher plasma concentrations and longer times (t(max)) were observed for resveratrol glucuronides due to phase II metabolism and even higher values for conjugates derived from microbiota, such as dihydroresveratrol-glucuronides. The same trend was observed for total excreted amounts in urine samples. When both treatments were compared, statistically significant differences for some metabolites were obtained, which may be due to the different composition of resveratrol and piceid in both sources. However, GE formulation seems to delay resveratrol absorption, staying longer in the gut where could be metabolized to a greater degree, since 2.1-3.6-fold higher urinary concentrations of microbial metabolites were observed after GE intervention at 12-24h urinary fraction. Therefore, supplement intake could be also a way to bring resveratrol benefits to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE ADDED VALUE OF SULTANA SEEDLESS GRAPE PRODUCTION

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    Umut Burak Geyikci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey after USA is the second important raisin grape producer by cv “Sultana”in the world (Kara,2014. The Manisa district alone accounts for 31% of totalgrape production and 80% of the whole sultana seedless raisin grape production inTurkey. 95% of total grape output generated in Manisa is made up of Sultanaseedless grape(TUIK, 2012. In thisstudy, the added value of grape production inManisa has been calculated and according to the findings, the per capita addedvalue of grape production has been computed. In order to calculate the addedvalue of grape production in Manisa, costs of labor, fuel, fertilizer, disinfection,hormone, repair and maintenance of the businesses around have been investigated.After calculated costs had been deducted from total business income, the totaladded value of grape production in Manisa and the per capita added valueofgrape production in Manisa were attained The efficiency per hectare in the sampleproduction units, which was investigated during the field research, measures up to26.470 kg. The percentile distributions of cost items at this efficiency level are;27,8% fuel costs, 23,2% fertilizing costs, 19,9% irrigation costs, 11,4%disinfection costs, 7,5% hormone usage costs, 4,6% harvesting and transportingcosts and the rest consists of maintenance costs. When the costs are deducted from income per hectare (11.646 USD, the added value per hectare turns out to be8843 USD

  12. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  13. Influence of Different Fermentation Strategies on the Phenolic Profile of Bilberry Wine (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Annika; Weber, Fabian

    2017-08-30

    Polyphenol rich and especially anthocyanin rich berries like bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and derived products such as wine have enjoyed increasing popularity. During winemaking and aging, the phenolic profile undergoes distinct changes, a phenomenon that has been well investigated in grape wine but not in bilberry wine. The present study determined the influence of different fermentation strategies including various pre- and postfermentative heating and cooling concepts on the phenolic profile of bilberry wine. Besides significant differences in total anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, the different fermentation strategies resulted in distinguishable anthocyanin profiles. A very fast aging manifested by a rapid decrease in monomeric anthocyanins of up to 98% during a 12 week storage and a coincident formation of polymeric pigments and pyranoanthocyanins was observed. Several well-known processes associated with production and aging of wine were much more pronounced in bilberry wine compared to grape wine.

  14. Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From grape harvest to bubble rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    Bubbles in a glass of champagne may seem like the acme of frivolity to most of people, but in fact they may rather be considered as a fantastic playground for any fluid physicist. Under standard tasting conditions, about a million bubbles will nucleate and rise if you resist drinking from your flute. The so-called effervescence process, which enlivens champagne and sparkling wines tasting, is the result of the complex interplay between carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolved in the liquid phase, tiny air pockets trapped within microscopic particles during the pouring process, and some both glass and liquid properties. In this tutorial review, the journey of yeast-fermented CO2 is reviewed (from its progressive dissolution in the liquid phase during the fermentation process, to its progressive release in the headspace above glasses). The most recent advances about the physicochemical processes behind the nucleation, and rise of gaseous CO2 bubbles, under standard tasting conditions, have been gathered hereafter. Let's hope that your enjoyment of champagne will be enhanced after reading this tutorial review dedicated to the unsuspected physics hidden right under your nose each time you enjoy a glass of bubbly.

  15. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, M., E-mail: montse.meneses@uab.cat [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Systems Engineering and Telecomunication Department, ESE, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Torres, C.M.; Castells, F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Environmental Analysis and Management Group, AGA, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  16. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, M.; Torres, C.M.; Castells, F.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  17. New wine world from China: An analysis of competitiveness of the wine industry in Ningxia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Recently, China has become a huge wine consumer market as well as being an important wine producer. China has the fifth largest global wine consumption and the largest global red wine market (OIV, 2015) with most of the wine consumed (approximately 70%-80%) being produced domestically. With the growing economy and technological advances, the Chinese domestic wine industry has seen significant development. Now, China has the second largest vineyard area (table grape and wine grape) just after ...

  18. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  19. Evaluation of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts for the Reduction of Alcohol Content in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Henschke, P. A.; Chambers, P. J.; Curtin, C.

    2014-01-01

    Over recent decades, the average ethanol concentration of wine has increased, largely due to consumer preference for wine styles associated with increased grape maturity; sugar content increases with grape maturity, and this translates into increased alcohol content in wine. However, high ethanol content impacts wine sensory properties, reducing the perceived complexity of flavors and aromas. In addition, for health and economic reasons, the wine sector is actively seeking technologies to facilitate the production of wines with lower ethanol content. Nonconventional yeast species, in particular, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeast species, which are largely associated with grapes preharvest, are present in the early stages of fermentation but, in general, are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 50 different non-Saccharomyces isolates belonging to 24 different genera for their capacity to produce wine with a lower ethanol concentration when used in sequential inoculation regimes with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain. A sequential inoculation of Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 followed by an S. cerevisiae wine strain was best able to produce wine with an ethanol concentration lower than that achieved with the single-inoculum, wine yeast control. Sequential fermentations utilizing AWRI1149 produced wines with 0.9% (vol/vol) and 1.6% (vol/vol) (corresponding to 7.1 g/liter and 12.6 g/liter, respectively) lower ethanol concentrations in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines, respectively. In Chardonnay wine, the total concentration of esters and higher alcohols was higher for wines generated from sequential inoculations, whereas the total concentration of volatile acids was significantly lower. In sequentially inoculated Shiraz wines, the total concentration of higher alcohols was higher and the total concentration of volatile acids was reduced compared with those in

  20. Grape yield to soil N-NO3- ratio can explain the different levels of biogenic amines in wine from two vineyards in the AOC Rioja (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Santamaría, Pilar; García-Escudero, Enrique; Peregrina, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Plant N status may affect the grape amino acid concentration, which act as precursors in the formation of biogenic amines in wine. Biogenic amines have negative effects on human health and so they reduce the wine quality. The objective of this study was to analyze, at bloom (when the vine N demand peaks) if both the available soil N and the N concentration in the leaf could explain the amino acid concentration in the must as well as the biogenic amines in wines from AOC Rioja. Two plots with cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grafted on R-110 rootstock were chosen: "La Grajera" (2,998 plants ha-1) and "Nájera" (2,849 plants ha-1), both plots with a traditional soil tillage management system and classified according to the American Soil Taxonomy as Typic Haloxerepts and Oxyaquic Xerorthent, respectively. Both soils had a pH higher than 7, a silty loam texture and organic matter values lower than 2%. The climatic conditions were described as semiarid Mediterranean according to the UNESCO aridity index. In each vineyard, three non-adjacent experimental plots with 3 rows of 30 vines each, were set out. No fertilizer was applied during the project. Each plot was sampled in 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons at bloom, analyzing the available soil N-NO3- at 0-15 and 15-45 cm depth and expressing the results in kg ha-1 by means of the bulk density of soil and the coarse elements content. Also at bloom, 30 leaves per experimental plot were collected and their N concentration was analyzed. At harvest, 200 berries were taken from each plot and the amino acid content in the musts was determined by HPLC. In addition, 100 kg of grapes from each plot were taken in order to elaborate wine according to the AOC Rioja common winemaking practices. When the winemaking process was finished, the concentration of biogenic amines in the wine (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadeverine, phenylethylamine and isoamylamine) was determined by HPLC. Our results showed

  1. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE E.U. ROLE IN THE WORLD GRAPE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the EU-27 position in the world grape production based on the data collected from FAO Stat data base for the period 2000-2008, using the index and share methods. The EU-27 is the most important vine cultivator and grape producer in the world. With its 3.5 million ha planted with vine, it accounts for 90.21 % of Europe’s area of vineyards and 48.14 % of the world vine area. In 2008, the EU-27 produced 25.1 million tones grapes placing it on the top position and contributing by 41.56 % to the world production. The top European countries: Italy, Spain, France, Germany and Romania achieved 21.8 million tones grapes, representing 86.98 % of the EU-27 and 32.96 % of the world grape production. Italy, Spain and France are among the top 10 grape producers in the world. As a conclusion, even thou the EU-27 planted area decreased by 8.24 % and its grape production declined by 16.16 %, the EU-27 continues to remain the main grape producer in the world.

  2. Yeast population dynamics reveal a potential 'collaboration' between Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum for the production of reduced alcohol wines during Shiraz fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-02-01

    The wine sector is actively seeking strategies and technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol; however, commercial wine yeasts have very similar ethanol yields. We recently demonstrated that Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 was able to produce wine with reduced alcohol concentration when used in sequential inoculation with a wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, different inoculation regimes were explored to study the effect of yeast population dynamics and potential yeast interactions on the metabolism of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 during fermentation of non-sterile Shiraz must. Of all inoculation regimes tested, only ferments inoculated with M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 showed reduced ethanol concentration. Population dynamics revealed the presence of several indigenous yeast species and one of these, Saccharomyces uvarum (AWRI 2846), was able to produce wine with reduced ethanol concentration in sterile conditions. Both strains however, were inhibited when a combination of three non-Saccharomyces strains, Hanseniaspora uvarum AWRI863, Pichia kluyveri AWRI1896 and Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI2845 were inoculated into must, indicating that the microbial community composition might impact on the growth of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI 2846. Our results indicate that mixed cultures of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI2846 enable an additional reduction of wine ethanol concentration compared to the same must fermented with either strain alone. This work thus provides a foundation to develop inoculation regimes for the successful application of non-cerevisiae yeast to the production of wines with reduced alcohol.

  3. Volatile flavour profile of reduced alcohol wines fermented with the non-conventional yeast species Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, C; Sengler, F; Solomon, M; Curtin, C

    2016-10-15

    Production of quality wines with decreased alcohol concentration continues to be one of the major challenges facing wine producers. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the isolation or generation of wine yeasts less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol. We recently demonstrated that Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 and Saccharomyces uvarum AWRI2846 were both able to produce reduced alcohol wine when used in sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This effect is additive when both strains are co-inoculated in grape must. Here we describe the volatile flavour profile of Chardonnay and Shiraz wines produced with these two strains. Wines fermented with M. pulcherrima showed concentrations of ethyl acetate likely to affect negatively wine aroma. Wines fermented with S. uvarum and with a combination of M. pulcherrima and S. uvarum were characterised by increased concentrations of 2-phenyl ethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate, both associated with positive sensory attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of total iron-reactive phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins in wine grapes of skins and seeds based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Liu, Xu; Jin, Xiaoduo; Li, Chen; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Shuqin; Ning, Jifeng; Yanne, Paul

    2017-12-15

    Phenolics contents in wine grapes are key indicators for assessing ripeness. Near-infrared hyperspectral images during ripening have been explored to achieve an effective method for predicting phenolics contents. Principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) models were built, respectively. The results show that SVR behaves globally better than PLSR and PCR, except in predicting tannins content of seeds. For the best prediction results, the squared correlation coefficient and root mean square error reached 0.8960 and 0.1069g/L (+)-catechin equivalents (CE), respectively, for tannins in skins, 0.9065 and 0.1776 (g/L CE) for total iron-reactive phenolics (TIRP) in skins, 0.8789 and 0.1442 (g/L M3G) for anthocyanins in skins, 0.9243 and 0.2401 (g/L CE) for tannins in seeds, and 0.8790 and 0.5190 (g/L CE) for TIRP in seeds. Our results indicated that NIR hyperspectral imaging has good prospects for evaluation of phenolics in wine grapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multistarter from organic viticulture for red wine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eSuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the use of a multistarter fermentation process has been proposed to improve the organoleptic characteristics of wines. In the present study the fermentation performances and the interactions of mixed and sequential cultures of H. uvarum, C. zemplinina and a strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from organic musts were investigated. To evaluate the oenological performances of the tested strains microvinifications in pasteurized red grape juice from Montepulciano d’Abruzzo cultivar were compared. The course of fermentation has been controlled through classical determinations (CO2 evolution, ethanol, glycerol, pH, total titratable acidity, sugar content, free sulfur dioxide (SO2, dry extract, sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds. Moreover, the yeast population was determined by both culture-dependent and independent approaches. In particular, the pure culture of H. uvarum and C. zemplinina didn’t end the fermentation. On the contrary, when S. cerevisiae was added, fermentations were faster confirming that yeast interactions influence the fermentation kinetics. Moreover, C. zemplinina showed a good interaction with S. cerevisiae by increasing the fermentation kinetic in high gravity Montepulciano must, with low ethyl acetate and acetic acid production. This study confirmed that non-Saccharomyces (NS yeasts play a crucial role also in organic wines and their activity could be modulated through the selection of appropriate strains that correctly interact with S. cerevisiae.

  6. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines: chromatic properties and global phenolic composition by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-09-01

    Valdeorras (the N.W. corner of Spain) wants to promote the production and marketing of new sweet wines. The present work represents the first study on sweet wines manufactured with red grapes Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera, a teinturier cultivar. Two different red sweet wines were elaborated: the first one was made with dried grapes; Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera has excellent potential to produce wines from raisined grapes; the second one, a fortified sweet wine aged in oak barrels. Different red Garnacha Tintorera-based wines (a dry base wine, GBW; a naturally sweet wine, GNSW; and a fortified sweet wine, GFSW) were characterized. Chromatic characteristics and phenolic compounds were established by spectrophotometric methods in order to assess the technology of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines. High molecular weight brown polymers, produced during the grape drying process and isolated from sweet wines by the dialysis process, were responsible for the brown colour of sweet wines. As a consequence, yellowness of sweet wines was also higher which was confirmed by colorimetric indexes. With respect to phenolic content, GFSW presented the lowest content because the maceration-alcoholic fermentation was stopped through the addition of alcohol before the diffusion of red pigments from skins to must was complete. GNSW presented the highest phenolic content due to the concentration effect resulting from evaporation of water from the grapes. Anthocyanins of sweet wines were polymerised in great extent. The percentage of polymerised tannins was sufficient to guarantee the aging process of sweet wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cooling and heating in modern wine production; Kjoeling og oppvarming i moderne vinproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merati, Renato Giovanni; Triacca, Domenica

    2009-07-01

    The production of wine increases worldwide. Research on technologies to achieve better quality goes on continuously. The most advanced technologies are cooling and heating systems which produces wines of higher qualities. (AG)

  8. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  9. Quantifying the Contribution of Grape Hexoses to Wine Volatiles by High-Precision [U13C]-Glucose Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Mark A.; Tobias, Herbert J.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Sacks, Gavin L.; Mansfield, Anna Katharine

    2016-01-01

    Many fermentation volatiles important to wine aroma potentially arise from yeast metabolism of hexose sugars, but assessing the relative importance of these pathways is challenging due to high endogenous hexose substrate concentrations. To overcome this problem, gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) was used to measure high-precision 13C/12C isotope ratios of volatiles in wines produced from juices spiked with tracer levels (0.01–1 APE) of uniformly labeled [U-13C]-glucose. The contribution of hexose to individual volatiles was determined from the degree of 13C enrichment. As expected, straight-chain fatty acids and their corresponding ethyl esters were derived almost exclusively from hexoses. Most fusel alcohols and their acetate esters were also majority hexose-derived, indicating the importance of anabolic pathways for their formation. Only two compounds were not derived primarily from hexoses (hexanol and isobutyric acid). This approach can be extended to other food systems or substrates for studying precursor–product relationships. PMID:24960193

  10. Quantifying the contribution of grape hexoses to wine volatiles by high-precision [U¹³C]-glucose tracer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Mark A; Tobias, Herbert J; Brenna, J Thomas; Sacks, Gavin L; Mansfield, Anna Katharine

    2014-07-16

    Many fermentation volatiles important to wine aroma potentially arise from yeast metabolism of hexose sugars, but assessing the relative importance of these pathways is challenging due to high endogenous hexose substrate concentrations. To overcome this problem, gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) was used to measure high-precision (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of volatiles in wines produced from juices spiked with tracer levels (0.01-1 APE) of uniformly labeled [U-(13)C]-glucose. The contribution of hexose to individual volatiles was determined from the degree of (13)C enrichment. As expected, straight-chain fatty acids and their corresponding ethyl esters were derived almost exclusively from hexoses. Most fusel alcohols and their acetate esters were also majority hexose-derived, indicating the importance of anabolic pathways for their formation. Only two compounds were not derived primarily from hexoses (hexanol and isobutyric acid). This approach can be extended to other food systems or substrates for studying precursor-product relationships.

  11. Wine and Cheese: Two Products or One Association? A New Method for Assessing Wine-Cheese Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara V. Galmarini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique list of 14 descriptors (covering cheese and wine perception and a hedonic scale for dynamical rating of liking. The dynamic hedonic data were associated with the TDS profiles obtaining Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL. Furthermore, the nine associations that resulted from combining each wine with each cheese were evaluated by multi-bite and multi-sip TDS. Individually, Chaource had practically no TDL; for Comté, mushroom flavor was a positive TDL, and in Époisses, salty was a negative TDL. As for wines, negative TDL were only found in the red wines: bitter, sour and astringent. Positive TDL for wines were: fruity, spicy and woody. Changes in the dynamic perception had a bigger impact on liking of wine compared to cheese. For the associations, the negative TDL were only three and mostly wine related: sour (for seven out of nine combinations, bitter (six out of nine and astringent (five out of nine. Positive TDL were more varied (a total of 10 descriptors and were related either to wine or cheese. As opposed to what was found in cheese alone, salty was a positive TDL in two of the combinations. It was observed that the dynamic sensory perception had a more important impact on liking in wine-cheese combinations than when consumed separately. TDS and TDL have a big potential in the study of food pairing, which should be further exploited.

  12. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwal, Manjit K; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K; Aggarwal, N K; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S K

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C.

  13. Tannase production by Penicillium atramentosum KM under SSF and its applications in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit K Selwal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica, ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana, jamun (Syzygium cumini, Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate and keekar (Acacia nilotica leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3 as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35ºC.

  14. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coimbra S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although red wine (RW reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM, and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 ± 8.1 years without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects were used as controls for vascular reactivity. Subjects randomly received RW, 250 ml/day, or purple grape juice (GJ, 500 ml/day, for 14 days with an equal wash-out period. At baseline, all 16 subjects were hypercholesterolemic (mean LDL = 181.0 ± 28.7 mg/dl but HDL, triglycerides, glucose, adhesion molecules, and platelet function were within normal limits. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was significantly decreased compared to controls (9.0 ± 7.1 vs 12.1 ± 4.5%; P < 0.05 and increased with both GJ (10.1 ± 7.1 before vs 16.9 ± 6.7% after: P < 0.05 and RW (10.1 ± 6.4 before vs 15.6 ± 4.6% after; P < 0.05. RW, but not GJ, also significantly increased endothelium-independent vasodilation (17.0 ± 8.6 before vs 23.0 ± 12.0% after; P < 0.01. GJ reduced ICAM-1 but not VCAM and RW had no effect on either molecule. No significant alterations were observed in plasma lipids, glucose or platelet aggregability with RW or GJ. Both RW and GJ similarly improved flow-mediated dilation, but RW also enhanced endothelium-independent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic patients despite the increased plasma cholesterol. Thus, we conclude that GJ may protect against coronary artery disease without the additional negative effects of alcohol despite the gender.

  15. Oxidation of Wine Polyphenols by Secretomes of Wild Botrytis cinerea Strains from White and Red Grape Varieties and Determination of Their Specific Laccase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimdars, Sabrina; Hitschler, Julia; Schieber, Andreas; Weber, Fabian

    2017-12-06

    Processing of Botrytis cinerea-infected grapes leads to enhanced enzymatic browning reactions mainly caused by the enzyme laccase which is able to oxidize a wide range of phenolic compounds. The extent of color deterioration depends on the activity of the enzymes secreted by the fungus. The present study revealed significant differences in the oxidative properties of secretomes of several B. cinerea strains isolated from five grape varieties. The presumed laccase-containing secretomes varied in their catalytic activity toward six phenolic compounds present in grapes. All strains led to identical product profiles for five of six substrates, but two strains showed deviating product profiles during gallic acid oxidation. Fast oxidation of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside was observed. Product formation rates and relative product concentrations were determined. The results reflect the wide range of enzyme activity and the corresponding different impact on color deterioration by B. cinerea.

  16. The New World challenge: Performance trends in wine production in major wine-exporting countries in the 2000s and their implications for the Australian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan Fleming

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anderson, K., Nelgen, S., 2011. Global Wine Markets, 1961 to 2009: A Statistical Compendium. University of Adelaide Press, Adelaide publication of an index of revealed comparative advantage suggests that the Australian wine industry had come under increased competition from other “New World” producers in the first decade of this century. We examine this influence by comparing the transformation of winegrapes into wine volume and value in the 11 largest wine-exporting countries during the years, 2000–2009. Our focus is on the challenge issued by other New World producers from the Southern Hemisphere to Australian producers, and the continuing challenge to Old World global supremacy by New World producers and its response. Four performance measures are used this study. Two key trends are evident. First, all countries migrated to higher price points, albeit with differing degrees of success: slightly declining productivity in transforming winegrapes into wine output was overwhelmed by price/quality effects, leading to substantial gains in transforming winegrapes into wine value. Second, New World producers plus Portugal and Spain were much more successful in achieving gains in their export value proposition than they were in extracting value in their domestic markets. Results show that Australian wine producers had lost some of their competitive advantage during the 2000s as their pre-existing strategy dominated by the export of high-volume wines by large companies at low to medium price points, and their reliance on a reputation for reliable good quality for the price point was beginning to fail in the face of competition from both New World and Old World producers. Acknowledgement of this outcome has led to a good deal of introspection, and recognition of the need to promote the wine regions of Australia, based on higher-quality wines, and to select and promote quality indicators.

  17. Preventative disease management and grower decision making: A case study of California wine-grape growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the adoption and timing of preventative grapevine trunk disease-management practices among agricultural decision-makers (growers) in California. These diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, Phomopsis dieback) significantly diminish vineyard productivity and longevity. Gi...

  18. Production of fermentation aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts: effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen on two model strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Francisco M; Medina, Karina; Farina, Laura; Boido, Eduardo; Henschke, Paul A; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    The contribution of yeast fermentation metabolites to the aromatic profile of wine is well documented; however, the biotechnological application of this knowledge, apart from strain selection, is still rather limited and often contradictory. Understanding and modeling the relationship between nutrient availability and the production of desirable aroma compounds by different strains must be one of the main objectives in the selection of industrial yeasts for the beverage and food industry. In order to overcome the variability in the composition of grape juices, we have used a chemically defined model medium for studying yeast physiological behavior and metabolite production in response to nitrogen supplementation so as to identify an appropriate yeast assimilable nitrogen level for strain differentiation. At low initial nitrogen concentrations, strain KU1 produced higher quantities of esters and fatty acids whereas M522 produced higher concentrations of isoacids, gamma-butyrolactone, higher alcohols and 3-methylthio-1-propanol. We propose that although strains KU1 and M522 have a similar nitrogen consumption profile, they represent useful models for the chemical characterization of wine strains in relation to wine quality. The differential production of aroma compounds by the two strains is discussed in relation to their capacity for nitrogen usage and their impact on winemaking. The results obtained here will help to develop targeted metabolic footprinting methods for the discrimination of industrial yeasts.

  19. An Empirical Study of Grape Wine Advertising Strategies Based on Market Segmentation%基于市场细分的葡萄酒广告策略实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李甲贵

    2012-01-01

    运用完整结构的调查问卷,采用便利抽样法对西安市120名葡萄酒消费者的购买行为进行调查。结果表明,根据消费者人口学特征和行为特征可将西安市葡萄酒消费者细分为时尚型、商务型和保健型3类不同的消费群体。基于此,从广告主题、广告诉求、广告媒体等方面提出了具有针对性的葡萄酒广告策略。该研究结论有助于营销人员更好地认识西安葡萄酒市场,为制订有效的葡萄酒广告策略提供参考。%Using a high-structured questionnaire, an investigation was conducted in Xi'an by a convenience sample of 120 valid actual grape wine consumers. According to the sample's demographic and behavioral characteristics, Xi'an grape wine market was clustered into three segments: fashion-oriented consumer group, business-oriented consumer group and health-oriented consumer group. Based on the market segmentation, grape wine advertising strategies, including advertising theme, appeal and media, were analyzed separately. The research conclusion was benefi- cial to marketers to get better understanding ofXi' an grape wine market and to make grape wine advertising strategies more effectively.

  20. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Kennedy; Jacqui M. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of ...

  1. Preharvest methyl jasmonate and postharvest UVC treatments: increasing stilbenes in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, María Isabel; Puertas, Belén; Guerrero, Raúl F; García-Parrilla, María Carmen; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2014-03-01

    Stilbene-enriched wine is considered to be an interesting new food product with added value due to its potential health-promoting properties. Stilbene concentration in grape is highly variable and rather scarce. However, it can be increased by stress treatments. For this reason, numerous pre- and postharvest grape treatments, and some combinations of them, have been tested to maximize stilbene content in grapes. In the present manuscript, Syrah grapes were treated with (i) methyl jasmonate (MEJA), (ii) ultraviolet light (UVC), and (iii) methyl jasmonate and ultraviolet light (MEJA-UVC) and compared with untreated grapes. Afterward, winemaking was developed. Wine achieved by combination of both treatments (MEJA-UVC) contained significantly higher stilbene concentration (trans-resveratrol and piceatannol) than its respective control (2.5-fold). Wine quality was improved in color-related parameters (color intensity, L*, a*, b*, ΔE*, anthocyanins, and tannin). Moreover, MEJA-UVC wines obtained the highest score in sensorial analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that pre- and postharvest treatments are combined to increase stilbenes in wine. The effect of treatment combination (methyl jasmonate and UVC light) on grape and wine was evaluated. Our results highlight the positive effect of the treatments in stilbene content, color parameters, and sensorial analysis. Moreover, added-value by-products were achieved. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. The role of cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvariani Levani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Georgian wine industry is not fully utilized. High fragmentation of agricultural land leads to limited production that restricts farmers' access to capital resources, finances, and markets, and prevents further development of the Georgian wine industry. Grape collectors and wine makers need help to join their capital and efforts, to gain economies of scale in production and marketing by jointly accessing agricultural inputs. This study aims to identify the importance of farmer cooperatives for grape producers in the Georgian wine industry in order to overcome inefficiency in the sector. Furthermore, this research project investigates the barriers and driving forces of smallholder grape farmers or wine makers to join cooperatives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders of the Georgian wine industry in order to assess different perspectives on the importance and benefits of farmer cooperatives in the local context. The interview results permit economic analysis of transaction costs, agency theory and property rights in the context of the nascent cooperative movement in the Georgian wine industry. The interviews revealed that development of agriculture cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry is strongly dependent on both farmer enthusiasm and governmental support.1

  3. Ensaio de vinificação: influência da mistura de variedades de uva, sôbre a qualidade do vinho Wine fermentation: the blending of grape varieties to improve wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Zardetto de Toledo

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados ensaios de vinificação, para observar a influência da associação de variedades de uvas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo, sôbre a melhoria da qualidade do vinho. As uvas empregadas no ensaio foram das variedades Seibel 2 e Seibel 10096. A mistura dos mostos constituída de 70% da var. Seibel 10096 e 30% da var. Seibel 2 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados.The musts of two grape varieties (Seibel 2 and Seibel 10.096 raised in the State of S. Paulo were blended in different percentages to observe their influence on the wine quality. The variety Seibel 2 produces wines of very poor quality. A must composed of 50% Seibel 2 and 50% Seibel 10.096 produced a much better wine. The most remarkable improvement was obtained through the fermentation of a must composed of 70% Seibel 10.096 and 30% Seibel 2.

  4. Wine and grape tannin interactions with salivary proteins and their impact on astringency: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kennedy, James A

    2011-03-11

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  5. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Kennedy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  6. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  7. Toward sustainability: Development of the Ningxia wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Linhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ningxia government's key responsibilities for the grape and wine sector are sustainable economic development and natural resource management. While emerging as an industry leader in China, Ningxia has experienced many challenges, the major ones are increasing labor costs and seasonal worker shortages, production cost control, and a market dominated by domestic giants and increased imports. Ningxia government made policies to encourage the development of boutique wineries, high quality wines and wine tourism. On natural resource protection, a strict annual irrigation quota has led to the quick adoption of drip irrigation. New vineyards have been designed with a focus on mechanization. Fertilization program will be fine-tuned using the analysis of the soil and the mineral elements in leaves. Various personnel training programs have been organized every year. In summary, the potential of Ningxia wine region has already been proven, and Ningxia government will continually provide its support for the sustainable grape and wine development of the region.

  8. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  9. THE DIFFERENCE IN COLOR AND SENSORY OF ORGANIC QUALITY WINE AND WINE FROM CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Šottníková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the colour and sensory evaluation of wines and organic wines from conventional cultivation. 6 organic wines and 6 wines from conventional cultivation were evaluated. The methodology describes colour measurements using spectrophotometry and sensory 20-point-scale system of scoring. The colour evaluation of different varieties did not clearly demonstrate impact of growing on lightness or hue and saturation of wine. Conclusive differences in colour (P <0.05 were established, especially for Pinot Blanc and Malverina from white varieties and Medina from red grapes. The greatest colour stability was demonstrated by Moravian Muscat. Sensory evaluation did not show any noticeable differences between the wines of conventional and organic production, there were, however, differences among varieties.

  10. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of ochratoxin A in grapes, musts and wines by LC–MS/MS: First comparison of stable isotope dilution assay and diastereomeric dilution assay methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie@nyseos.fr [Nyseos, 2 place Pierre Viala, Montpellier Cedex 1 34060 (France); Bros, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.bros@gmail.com [Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, UMT Qualinnov, 2 place Pierre Viala, Montpellier Cedex 1 34060 (France); Bouisseau, Anaïs, E-mail: anais.bouisseau@gmail.com [Nyseos, 2 place Pierre Viala, Montpellier Cedex 1 34060 (France); Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron, UMR-CNRS-5247, Universités Montpellier I and II, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Cavelier, Florine, E-mail: florine@univ-montp2.fr [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron, UMR-CNRS-5247, Universités Montpellier I and II, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Schneider, Rémi, E-mail: remi.schneider@vignevin.com [Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, UMT Qualinnov, 2 place Pierre Viala, Montpellier Cedex 1 34060 (France)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • OTA extraction on immunoaffinity columns is not adapted for DIDA quantification. • The use of a labeled internal standard is compulsory to obtain reliable results. • SIDA and DIDA quantification approaches have been compared for the first time. Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) exhibits potent nephrotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects and its maximum level in wines has been set to 2 μg L⁻¹ by regulation. Consequently, the analytical procedures for OTA determination in wines have to be both very sensitive and reliable. In this paper, we compared two quantification methods: the stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and the diastereomeric dilution assay (DIDA). For this purpose, non-natural analogues of OTA were synthesized: the labeled OTA (OTA-d₄) as a diastereomeric mixture for the SIDA and one non-natural OTA’s diastereomer (OTA-dia) for the DIDA. To quantify OTA in red grapes, musts or wines, the sample preparation was optimized using immunoaffinity column extraction and the analysis was performed by LC–MS/MS in Multiple Reaction Monitoring mode. A validation procedure in agreement with the International Organization of Vine and Wine recommendations was conducted. It appeared that SIDA quantification exhibited excellent sensitivity (LOD < 1 ng L⁻¹), accuracy (recovery = 98%), repeatability (RSD < 3%) and intermediate reproducibility (RSD < 4%) compared to quantification by DIDA. Indeed, DIDA method did not provide satisfactory results demonstrating that immunoaffinity extraction is exclusively selective for the natural OTA and not for its diastereomer, which therefore cannot be considered as a good internal standard for this particular method.

  12. Analysis of ochratoxin A in grapes, musts and wines by LC–MS/MS: First comparison of stable isotope dilution assay and diastereomeric dilution assay methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, Aurélie; Bros, Pauline; Bouisseau, Anaïs; Cavelier, Florine; Schneider, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • OTA extraction on immunoaffinity columns is not adapted for DIDA quantification. • The use of a labeled internal standard is compulsory to obtain reliable results. • SIDA and DIDA quantification approaches have been compared for the first time. - Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) exhibits potent nephrotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects and its maximum level in wines has been set to 2 μg L −1 by regulation. Consequently, the analytical procedures for OTA determination in wines have to be both very sensitive and reliable. In this paper, we compared two quantification methods: the stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and the diastereomeric dilution assay (DIDA). For this purpose, non-natural analogues of OTA were synthesized: the labeled OTA (OTA-d 4 ) as a diastereomeric mixture for the SIDA and one non-natural OTA’s diastereomer (OTA-dia) for the DIDA. To quantify OTA in red grapes, musts or wines, the sample preparation was optimized using immunoaffinity column extraction and the analysis was performed by LC–MS/MS in Multiple Reaction Monitoring mode. A validation procedure in agreement with the International Organization of Vine and Wine recommendations was conducted. It appeared that SIDA quantification exhibited excellent sensitivity (LOD −1 ), accuracy (recovery = 98%), repeatability (RSD < 3%) and intermediate reproducibility (RSD < 4%) compared to quantification by DIDA. Indeed, DIDA method did not provide satisfactory results demonstrating that immunoaffinity extraction is exclusively selective for the natural OTA and not for its diastereomer, which therefore cannot be considered as a good internal standard for this particular method

  13. Global Wine Markets, 1961 to 2009: A statistical compendium

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Nelgen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    Until very recently, most grape-based wine was consumed close to where it was produced, and mostly that was in Europe. Barely one-tenth of the world’s wine production was exported prior to the 1970s, even counting intra-European trade. The latest wave of globalization has changed that forever. Now more than one-third of all wine consumed globally is produced in another country, and Europe’s dominance of global wine trade has been greatly diminished by the surge of exports from ‘New World’ pro...

  14. Brettanomyces bruxellensis yeasts: impact on wine and winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolucci, Monica; Tirelli, Antonio; Cocolin, Luca; Toffanin, Annita

    2017-09-21

    Yeasts belonging to the Brettanomyces/Dekkera genus are non-conventional yeasts, which affect winemaking by causing wine spoilage all over the world. This mini-review focuses on recent results concerning the presence of Brettanomyces bruxellensis throughout the wine processing chain. Here, culture-dependent and independent methods to detect this yeast on grapes and at the very early stage of wine production are encompassed. Chemical, physical and biological tools, devised for the prevention and control of such a detrimental species during winemaking are also presented. Finally, the mini-review identifies future research areas relevant to the improvement of wine safety and sensory profiles.

  15. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-10-11

    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.

  16. Effect of Protectants on the Fermentation Performance of Wine Yeasts Subjected to Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caridi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During alcoholic fermentation of must from dried grapes, yeasts are subjected to very high sugar concentrations, besides other environmental stresses, and they modify their metabolic behaviour giving low ethanol yield and abnormally high acetic acid production. To investigate the protective effect of catechin, inositol, and SO2 on wine yeasts, three thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, selected for wine making of must from dried grapes, and three strains of Saccharomyces selected for the production of wine, were inoculated in a sample of must at very high osmotic strength. A significant (p<0.01 or p<0.05 relationship between the addition of 100 mg/L of catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must and the change in the metabolic behaviour of the yeasts was observed. Compared to the control and depending on strain and protectant, the fermentation rate after 3 days increased up to 55 %, the ethanol content of the wines increased up to 16 %, the unitary succinic acid production increased up to 55 %, the unitary acetic acid production decreased up to 53 %, and the unitary glycerol production decreased up to 69 %. So by adding catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must it is possible to minimise the abnormal fermentation performance that wine yeasts exhibit in wine making of must from dried grapes.

  17. Not your ordinary yeast: non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine production uncovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Neil P; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2014-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and grape juice are 'natural companions' and make a happy wine marriage. However, this relationship can be enriched by allowing 'wild' non-Saccharomyces yeast to participate in a sequential manner in the early phases of grape must fermentation. However, such a triangular relationship is complex and can only be taken to 'the next level' if there are no spoilage yeast present and if the 'wine yeast' - S. cerevisiae - is able to exert its dominance in time to successfully complete the alcoholic fermentation. Winemakers apply various 'matchmaking' strategies (e.g. cellar hygiene, pH, SO2 , temperature and nutrient management) to keep 'spoilers' (e.g. Dekkera bruxellensis) at bay, and allow 'compatible' wild yeast (e.g. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans and Candida/Metschnikowia pulcherrima) to harmonize with potent S. cerevisiae wine yeast and bring the best out in wine. Mismatching can lead to a 'two is company, three is a crowd' scenario. More than 40 of the 1500 known yeast species have been isolated from grape must. In this article, we review the specific flavour-active characteristics of those non-Saccharomyces species that might play a positive role in both spontaneous and inoculated wine ferments. We seek to present 'single-species' and 'multi-species' ferments in a new light and a new context, and we raise important questions about the direction of mixed-fermentation research to address market trends regarding so-called 'natural' wines. This review also highlights that, despite the fact that most frontier research and technological developments are often focussed primarily on S. cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces research can benefit from the techniques and knowledge developed by research on the former. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  19. Organic wine production in Brazil: Challenges and limitations / La production de vin biologique au Brésil – défis et limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Marcos -Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the consumer pressure to healthier and sustainable food, and the search for quality of life, companies in various activities have reinvented to meet this demand. Organic products that have features to meet this trend, also took their place in the Brazilian wine industry, that is entered in this field to stay competitive. On the other hand, they found limiting factors that inhibiting the growth in supply of this product. In this perspective, the objective of this study is to describe and analyze what are the limiting factors for organic wine production in Brazil. To this end, an exploratory research was conducted from in-depth interviews, secondary data and direct observation. The collected data were crossed between companies and theory. The results are presented in the following chain of organic wine, based on primary resources - production - distribution - marketing and stakeholders. For conclusion, it is notable that wineries holding a major concern to maintain the certification, but the biggest challenge is to produce goodorganic grapes. On the other hand, it still requires marketing efforts, so that the product value can reach the end consumer

  20. Bacterial diversity of Grenache and Carignan grape surface from different vineyards at Priorat wine region (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria del Carmen; Franquès, Judit; Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert

    2016-02-16

    Epiphytic bacteria on grape berries play a critical role in grape health and quality, which decisively influence the winemaking process. Despite their importance, the bacteria related with grape berry surface remain understudied and most previous work has been based on culture-dependent methods, which offer a limited view of the actual diversity. Herein, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial diversity on the surface from two grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, and compared them across five vineyards included within the Priorat region (Spain). We could detect up to 14 bacterial phyla with Firmicutes (37.6% Bacillales and 14% Lactobacillales), Proteobacteria (16.8% Pseudomonadales and 11.6% Enterobacteriales) and Actinobacteria (3.4% Actinomycetales) being the most abundant. Bacterial community was different at each vineyard being grape varietal, geographical situation and orientation related with changes in bacterial populations. The most abundant bacterial taxa and those driving differences between the vineyards and grape varietals were identified. This study indicates that bacterial community heterogeneities can be influenced by geographic factors like orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. System-Level and Granger Network Analysis of Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Dynamics Identifies Key Points of Grape Berry Development at the Interface of Primary and Secondary Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Xiaoliang; Weiszmann, Jakob; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a fruit crop with worldwide economic importance. The grape berry undergoes complex biochemical changes from fruit set until ripening. This ripening process and production processes define the wine quality. Thus, a thorough understanding of berry ripening is crucial for the prediction of wine quality. For a systemic analysis of grape berry development we applied mass spectrometry based platforms to analyse the metabolome and proteome of Early Campbell at 12 stages covering major d...

  2. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The Microbial Diversity of Sherry Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cordero-Bueso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The principal role of wine yeast is to transform efficiently the grape-berries’ sugars to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and other metabolites, without the production of off-flavors. Wine yeast strains are able to ferment musts, while other commercial or laboratory strains fail to do so. The genetic differences that characterize wine yeast strains in contrast to the biological ageing of the veil-forming yeasts in Sherry wines are poorly understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains frequently exhibit rather specific phenotypic features needed for adaptation to a special environment, like fortified wines with ethanol up to 15% (v/v, known as Sherry wines. Factors that affect the correct development of the veil of flor during ageing are also reviewed, along with the related aspects of wine composition, biofilm formation processes, and yeast autolysis. This review highlights the importance of yeast ecology and yeast metabolic reactions in determining Sherry wine quality and the wealth of untapped indigenous microorganisms co-existing with the veil-forming yeast strains. It covers the complexity of the veil forming wine yeasts’ genetic features, and the genetic techniques often used in strain selection and monitoring during fermentation or biological ageing. Finally, the outlook for new insights to protect and to maintain the microbiota of the Sherry wines will be discussed.

  4. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  5. Wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2002-05-01

    Wine contains many phenolic substances, most of which originate in the grape berry. The phenolics have a number of important functions in wine, affecting the tastes of bitterness and astringency, especially in red wine. Second, the color of red wine is caused by phenolics. Third, the phenolics are the key wine preservative and the basis of long aging. Lastly, since phenolics oxidize readily, they are the component that suffers owing to oxidation and the substance that turns brown in wine (and other foods) when exposed to air. Wine phenolics include the non-flavonoids: hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates and the stilbenes; plus the flavonoids: flavan-3-ols, the flavonols, and the anthocyanins. While polymeric condensed tannins and pigmented tannins constitute the majority of wine phenolics, their large size precludes absorption and thus they are not likely to have many health effects (except, perhaps, in the gut). The total amount of phenols found in a glass of red wine is on the order of 200 mg versus about 40 mg in a glass of white wine.

  6. Cu, Zn and Mn uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine: effect of soil metal content and plant vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, María Paz

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of leaf thinning on micronutrient (Cu, Zn and Mn) uptake and distribution in grape tissues, in a 16 year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. The analysis was carried out in two plots with differences in vigor (P1- high and P2-low) grown in calcareous soils. Vigour was analysed by the NDVI values. In each plot, two treatments (with and without leaf thinning after bloom) were applied. Total and the CaCl2-DTPA extractable fraction of these micronutrients were evaluated. Nutrient concentration in petiole were evaluated from veraison to harvest as well as the concentration of those elements in seeds and skins at ripening and in wines elaborated with grapes grown in each plot and treatment in 2013. Their relationships were evaluated. The soil extractable fraction did not give a good correlation with petiole concentrations. However, Mn in petiole was strongly correlated with soil total Mn. Cu and Zn had higher concentration at veraison than at harvest, while for Mn it was the opposite. Cu concentration in petiole and seeds was greater in the most vigorous plots, but there were not clear differences between treatments. Cu in seeds and skins correlated significantly but there was not correlation with Cu in petiole. Zn concentration in skins was quite similar in both plots, but with higher values in vines without leaf thinning. Zn concentrations in skins were correlated with Zn in petiole but no significant correlation was found with Zn in seeds. Higher concentrations were found in the no thinning treatment in skins. For Mn, petiole concentrations were greater in the high vigorous plot and in the leaf thinning treatment. However, petiole Zn concentrations were greater in the less vigorous plot and without clear effect of leaf thinning. Mn concentration in skins was greater in the less vigorous vines in both treatments and it was inversely correlated with Mn in seeds, but there were no significant correlation between them and Mn in petiole

  7. Pulsed electric fields (PEF applications on wine production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Burcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel techniques have been searched in the last decades as a result of increasing demand for high quality food products. Non-thermal processing technologies, such as pulsed electric fields (PEF have been improved to achieve inhibition of deleterious effects on quality-related compounds. The working principle of PEF is based on the application of pulses of high voltage (typically above 20 kV/cm up to 70 kV/cm to liquid foods placed between two electrodes. Pulsed electric fields technique has also been studied in winemaking process. Certain positive influences of PEF on vinification have been reported as elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, reduction of maceration time, increase in phenolic compounds extraction , acceleration of wine aging and inactivation of oxidative enzymes. The aim of this review is to summarize the potential applications of PEF in winemaking and to express its effects on quality of wine.

  8. Preliminary situation analysis of wine production industry in the Czech Republic since 1989

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    Radka Šperková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available External environment factors influencing Czech wine production industry went have been significantly changing in the past 20 years. Objective of this paper is to identify and describe selected external environment factors influencing this industry.Changes in the Czech Republic in 1989 significantly influenced all industries in the Czech eco­no­my, including wine production. The most significant include the transition from planned socialistic economy to the market economy, establishment of the Czech Republic (January 1, 1993, entrance European Union (May 1, 2004. For the wine production industry it brought for example opening the domestic market to competition, simplifying international trade with EU-member countries, stabilization of the area of vineyards including the ban on their extension, establishment of the Wine Fund, establishment of non-governmental organisations supporting activities of wine producers (e.g. Union of wine producers of the Czech Republic, National Wine centre, Moravín, Partnership foundation, etc. Significant changes can be found also in the field of wine-marketing and promotion of wines. Wines from the Czech Republic are sold in foreign markets and achieve awards within international trade fairs and wine exhibitions, Czech Republic organises wine trade fairs, e.g. Vinex or Wine and distilled products, Wine fund have registered the trademark „Svatomartinské víno“ (St. Martin Wine, etc. Other significant factors identified within macro-environment analysis include con­ti­nuous changes in wine production technology. Here we can expect that in the future, there will grow the use of PET bottles, which could replace the classical glass bottles, just as it happened in the soft-drinks production industry. Changes happened also in the field of legislature, and were connected with updating the law on winegrowing and wine production, change of the VAT to 19 %, cancellation of the consumption tax on wine or new titles

  9. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF ETHANOL CONCENTRATION, GLYCEROL CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS OF GRAPE-MAHUA WINE TO MAXIMIZE THE QUALITY AND OVERALL ACCEPTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Black grapes (Vitis vinifera and mahua (Madhuca longfolia extract was used in 90:10 grape-mahua ratio for fermentation for 15 days and subjected to clarification using bentonite and gelatin as fining agents. Ageing was allowed for three months and studies were conducted using response surface methodology to assess the effect of ethanol, glycerol and temperature on viscosity, color, specific gravity, pH and overall acceptability. Experimental designs were conducted and 20 samples were prepared containing varying concentration of ethanol (7.55%-13.44%, glycerol (6.19-18.8g/l and temperature (5.6-22.4oC respectively. The maximum desirability of 93% was obtained for wine under the optimized conditions 13.44% ethanol, 6.19g/l glycerol and 14oC temperature, having viscosity (efflux time, 12.9 s; color absorbance, 4.61; SG, 1.0012; pH, 3.34 and overall acceptability, 8.47.

  11. Chemical and sensory characterization of DOC red wines from Marche (Italy) related to vintage and grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Emanuele; Boulton, Roger B; Thorngate, John H; Frega, Natale G

    2004-06-16

    Monomeric phenols, color and copigmentation parameters, pigments with different chemical structure, tannin, glucose, fructose, glycerol, ethanol, and organic acids were determined in DOC red wines from Marche (Italy), obtained during three different vintages ranging from 1996 to 2000. The intensity of the bitter and astringent tastes of the wines was determined with panel tastings. Lacrima di Morro and Vernaccia di Serrapetrona (obtained from local cultivars) were different from Rosso Piceno, Rosso Piceno Superiore, and Rosso Conero (produced from different percentages of Sangiovese and Montepulciano). Vernaccia, a red, sweet, "spumante" wine, was an outlier. Lacrima showed a low tannin content, a high content of small pigments and phenols, and a high ratio of copigmented color, which persisted after 3 years of aging. The chemical determinations accounted for a high percentage of variability of measured panel astringency, copigmented color, and measured wine absorbance at 520 nm. It was not possible to create a predictive model for bitterness.

  12. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    . Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, very-low-density lipoprotein ( VLDL)- triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), blood pressure, and body weight were determined......-triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, FVIIc, or blood pressure. Drinking wine was associated with relative body weight increments closely corresponding to the energy contributed by the alcohol component. Conclusion: Moderate red wine consumption for 4 weeks is associated with desirable changes in HDL-C and fibrinogen......Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study...

  13. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Escott, Carlos; Loira, Iris; Del Fresno, Juan Manuel; Morata, Antonio; Tesfaye, Wendu; Calderon, Fernando; Benito, Santiago; Suárez-Lepe, Jose Antonio

    2016-10-31

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed ( Vitis vinifera ) and French oak ( Quercus robur and Querrus petraea ), were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  14. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In this case, Syrah juice was extracted with classic flash thermovinification from fresh must in order to release more colour and tannins. Three types of oenological tannins, which are, respectively, derived from grape skin, seed (Vitis vinifera and French oak (Quercus robur and Querrus petraea, were selected to carry out the experiments with seven treatments. Results indicated that tannin treatments significantly improved wine aroma complexity and sensorial properties. However, the concentration of some stable pigments such as Vitisin A, Vitisin A-Ac and Vitisin B was negatively affected by tannin additions. Nevertheless, by means of cluster analysis and principal component analysis, it was observed that higher alcohols were significantly promoted by grape seed tannin while most anthocyanins can be improved by addition of grape tannins. In conclusion, low amount of oenological tannin derived from grape seed is a promising method to be applied especially for young red wine making.

  15. Effect of temperature, water activity, and pH on growth and production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius from Brazilian grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamani, Fabiana Reinis Franca; Hernandes, Thais; Lopes, Noelly Alves; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Santiago, Wilder Douglas; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-11-01

    The growth of ochratoxigenic fungus and the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and their derivatives can be caused by a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological factors. The determination of interactions between these factors and fungal species from different climatic regions is important in designing models for minimizing the risk of OTA in wine and grape juice. This study evaluated the influence of temperature, water activity (aw), and pH on the development and production of OTA in a semisynthetic grape culture medium by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger strains. To analyze the growth conditions and production of OTA, an experimental design was conducted using response surface methodology as a tool to assess the effects of these abiotic variables on fungal behavior. A. carbonarius showed the highest growth at temperatures from 20 to 33°C, aw between 0.95 and 0.98, and pH levels between 5 and 6.5. Similarly, for A. niger, temperatures between 24 and 37°C, aw greater than 0.95, and pH levels between 4 and 6.5 were optimal. The greatest toxin concentrations for A. carbonarius and A. niger (10 μg/g and 7.0 μg/g, respectively) were found at 15°C, aw 0.99, and pH 5.35. The lowest pH was found to contribute to greater OTA production. These results show that the evaluated fungi are able to grow and produce OTA in a wide range of temperature, aw, and pH. However, the optimal conditions for toxin production are generally different from those optimal for fungal growth. The knowledge of optimal conditions for fungal growth and production of OTA, and of the stages of cultivation in which these conditions are optimal, allows a more precise assessment of the potential risk to health from consumption of products derived from grapes.

  16. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT OF THE FETEASCĂ NEAGRĂ GRAPE POMACE AND ITS FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM WINE INDUSTRY IN DIFFERENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariu Mariana Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the hereby study was to analyze and to compare the chemical content of the grape pomace and its fractions: skins and seeds from the red grape variety Fetească neagră (from Iași area, obtained in different years 2013 and 2014 respectively, from the winemaking process. Measurements targeted the dry matter content (DM%, organic matter (OM%, crude ash (CA%, crude protein (CP%, crude fat (EE%, crude fiber (CF%, neazotate extractive substances (SEN%, total polyphenols (TP% and tannins (Ta%. The results obtained showed significant differences in the chemical composition in favour of the grape pomace obtained in the 2014 climatic conditions: in the case of the seed for the content of DM%, SEN%, TP% and Ta%, in the case of the skins for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, TP%, Ta% and in the case of the grape pomace for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, SEN%, TP%, and Ta%. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition showed an annual variation of the chemical components, which may be due to climatic conditions and winemaking process. Therefore, an annual chemical quality assessment of the grape pomace is necessary, for the efficient use in the animal feed.

  17. Wine quality, reputation, denominations: How cooperatives and private wineries compete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how cooperatives in Northern Italy (Alto Adige and Trentino compete with private wineries regarding product quality and reputation, i.e. if firm organization affects wine quality and winery reputation. Moreover, we examine if cooperatives with deep roots in their local economy specialize in specific regional denomination rules (i.e. DOC, IGT. Compared to private wineries, cooperatives face additional challenges in order to raise wine quality, among them appropriate incentives that induce individual growers to supply high quality grapes (e.g. vineyard management and grape pricing schemes to lower yields. The quality reputation of a winery with consumers depends crucially on its winemaking skills. Wine regions differ with respect to climatic conditions and quality denomination rules. Assuming similar climatic conditions within wine regions as well as winemaking skills between firms, incentive schemes to induce individual growers to supply high quality grapes and quality denomination rules remain crucial determinants of wine quality and winery reputation when comparing different regions and firm organizational forms. The data set analyzed allows differentiating local cooperatives vs. private wineries and denotes retail prices, wine quality evaluations, indicators for winery reputation, and distinct denomination rules. We employ a hedonic pricing model in order to test the following hypothesis: First, wines produced by cooperatives suffer a significant reputation and/or wine quality discount relative to wines from private producers. Second, cooperatives and/or private wineries specialize in specific wine denominations for which they receive a price premium relative the competing organizational form. Our results are mixed. However, we reject the hypothesis that cooperatives suffer a reputation/wine quality discount relative to private producers for the Alto Adige wine region. Moreover, we find that regional cooperatives and private

  18. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact.

  19. Glycerol production by Oenococcus oeni during sequential and simultaneous cultures with wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Cesar E; Farías, Marta E; Strasser de Saad, Ana M; Pasteris, Sergio E

    2014-07-01

    Growth and fermentation patterns of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kloeckera apiculata, and Oenococcus oeni strains cultured in grape juice medium were studied. In pure, sequential and simultaneous cultures, the strains reached the stationary growth phase between 2 and 3 days. Pure and mixed K. apiculata and S. cerevisiae cultures used mainly glucose, producing ethanol, organic acids, and 4.0 and 0.1 mM glycerol, respectively. In sequential cultures, O. oeni achieved about 1 log unit at 3 days using mainly fructose and L-malic acid. Highest sugars consumption was detected in K. apiculata supernatants, lactic acid being the major end-product. 8.0 mM glycerol was found in 6-day culture supernatants. In simultaneous cultures, total sugars and L-malic acid were used at 3 days and 98% of ethanol and glycerol were detected. This study represents the first report of the population dynamics and metabolic behavior of yeasts and O. oeni in sequential and simultaneous cultures and contributes to the selection of indigenous strains to design starter cultures for winemaking, also considering the inclusion of K. apiculata. The sequential inoculation of yeasts and O. oeni would enhance glycerol production, which confers desirable organoleptic characteristics to wines, while organic acids levels would not affect their sensory profile. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of some nutrients on nutritional and physiological status of grape plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, A.E.N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The grape is as old as that of man and is intermingled with it; details of grape growing of figure in mosaics of fourth dynasty of Egypt(2440 B.C) and later the grape as commercial crop is assuming increasing importance. In addition; grapes are the world's biggest most widespread deciduous fruit crop. About one acre in every 125 cultivated acres in the world is in grapes and one person in every 100 works in more phase of the grape and products business. About 55% of the world grape production goes into wine and about 15% into raisins. The balance is grown mainly for the table grapes, juice and other products. The vinfera grape is predominate (Chiders, 1983). According to the statistics of FAO in 1989 the total acreage of grape vine was about 8, 424, 000 hectare which produced 59, 158, 000 metric tones of fruits. Nowadays, in A.R.E, grapes are considered the second fruit in egypt. The total area increased in last few years under the new land reclamation and different soil types, its total area reached about 118826 faddans produced about 786968 metric tons according to the last statistics of the ministry of agriculture in 1994. 25 tabs., 104 refs

  1. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.

  2. Effects of In-Amphorae Winemaking on the Chemical and Sensory Profile of Chardonnay Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The high value of dry extract and volatile acidity could statistically differentiate (P ˂ 0.05 the Chardonnay wine obtained in amphorae with maceration and stored for six months from the wine obtained in barrels and barriques, as evidenced by the analysis of variance. Similarly, the principal component analysis showed that all the amphorae wines sampled between November and March (not the wine analyzed immediately after alcoholic fermentation were clearly differentiated from the analogue barrel and barrique wines due to the high volatile acidity, straw colour, and tannic perception. The Chardonnay wine produced in amphorae was characterized by a spicy flavour, pleasant tannic and a less ‘green’ character than wines from barrels and barriques, but showed a weak varietal aroma. Thus, the commercial offer of finished wines based on Chardonnay grapes can be potentially extended by including a product processed in amphorae.

  3. 27 CFR 24.291 - Removal of wine for vinegar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of wine for vinegar production. 24.291 Section 24.291 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... received; (2) The volume and alcohol content of all wine used in the manufacture of vinegar, and the date...

  4. ORGANIC ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN WINE STOCKS AFTER Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  5. Direct stamp of technology or origin on the genotypic and phenotypic variation of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae population in a natural model of boiled grape juice fermentation into traditional Msalais wine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Wang, Guan-Qiong; Xue, Ju-Lan; Gou, Dong-Qi; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains worldwide show genetic and phenotypic diversity and their population substructures are greatly affected by their technological application or geographical origins. Msalais is a traditional wine obtained via a unique method of spontaneous fermentation of local boiled grape juice in Southern Xinjiang. We analyzed 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais fermentation. These strains were highly diverse with respect to the interdelta region and 24 phenotypic traits, with apparent differentiation according to strain origins and technologies used to produce Msalais. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains from traditional workshops was higher than in strains from modern plants. These local strains had different origin- or technology-specific fermentative characteristics. Strains growing in large-scale fermentation tanks tolerated high temperature, whereas strains from traditional workshops tolerated high alcohol content (16%) and low temperature (13°C). Almost all the strains were characterized by the highest fermenting vigor, with weak H2S production and no histamine, cadaverine, phenethylamine and tryptamine production. Majority of strains had pronounced autolytic activity with high β-glucosidase and polygalacturonase activity and alcohol production. Our study reveals a direct stamp of technology or origin on genotypic and phenotypic variation of an indigenous S. cerevisiae population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  7. Different preferences for wine communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sillani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the presence of variations in the reactions of different types of audiences to certain communication tools for wine. Five samples of audiences were compared: wine professionals, organic produce specialists, wine tourists, and two samples of general tourists. The following bundle of attributes were considered: name of the grape; information on organic production methods; type of closure; QR code; landscape; advertising language. Diverse audience’s preferences were measured by conjoint analysis. The results have shown a common sensitivity to certain attributes, and a different or contrary sensitivity to others. In particular, all samples have demonstrated that: 1 certified organic wines communicated in standard wine-market style have the potential of becoming market leaders; 2 photographs facilitate the acceptance of technologically-advanced closures; 3 the presence of the QR code in printed advertisements increases the expected value of the product; 4a landscape characterised by holistic “garden viticulture” increases preferences. Textual language was more effective with professionals, while photographic language was more effective with tourists. Supplementary information on the organic production methods, in addition to the mandatory labelling requirements, increased the preferences of professionals and wine tourists, and was counterproductive with the general tourists.

  8. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea; Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto; Biasioli, Franco; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  9. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto [PerfectWine s.r.l., Via della Pieve 70, 37029 S. Floriano (Italy); Biasioli, Franco [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy); Scampicchio, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-04-20

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  10. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  11. Filamentous fungi associated with natural infection of noble rot on withered grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, M; Simonato, B; Favati, F; Bernardi, P; Sbarbati, A; Zapparoli, G

    2018-05-02

    The effects of noble rot infection of grapes on the characteristics of different types of wine, including Italian passito wine, are well known. Nevertheless, there is still little information on filamentous fungi associated with noble-rotten grapes. In this study, withered Garganega grapes for passito wine production, naturally infected by noble rot, were analyzed and compared to sound grapes. Skin morphology and fungal population on berry surfaces were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed microcracks, germination conidia and branched hyphae on noble-rotten berries. Penicillium, Aureobasidium and Cladosporium were the most frequent genera present. Analysis of single berries displayed higher heterogeneity of epiphytic fungi in those infected by noble-rot than in sound berries. Penicillium adametzoides, Cladosporium cladospoirioides and Coniochaeta polymorpha were recovered. These, to the best of our knowledge, had never been previously isolated from withered grapes and, for C. polymorpha, from grapevine. This study provided novel data on noble rot mycobiota and suggests that fungi that co-habit with B. cinerea could have an important role on grape and wine quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Nutrition and health--favorable effect of wine and wine flavonoids on cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, A

    2002-12-21

    Epidemiological studies have shown a favourable effect of moderate alcohol consumption with regard to atherosclerotic disorders. In addition to alcohol, wine contains a large number of other components including polyphenols. These polyphenols mainly originate from the skins and seeds of grapes and, because of differences in vinification, their variety and concentration is higher in red wine than in white wine. In vitro and ex vivo studies have shown that some of these polyphenols are able to slow down LDL-cholesterol oxidation, stimulate NO production, influence prostaglandin synthesis and inhibit platelet aggregation. However, little is known about their resorption, bioavailability and effectiveness in vivo. Since data from intervention studies with wine polyphenols are also lacking, no statement can yet be made about any clinically relevant effect of these components, in either red or white wine, in terms of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Volatile phenols in wine: Control measures of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Šućur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the considerable amount of research regarding volatile phenols production by Brettanomyces and on microbiological and technological parameters that influence development of these compounds during all stages of grape processing and winemaking. Also, volatile phenols impact on wine aroma and quality and prevention methods were discussed. The yeast genus Brettanomyces is the major microorganism that has the ability to convert hydroxycinnamic acids into significant concentration of phenolic compounds, especially of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, in red wine. When volatile phenols reach concentrations above the sensory threshold in wine, it is then characterized as wine with fault. In order to control the growth of Brettanomyces and preclude volatile phenols production, it is helpful to keep good quality of grape, winery sanitation, control of oxygen and sulphite level, as well as orderly check physiochemical composition of wine.

  14. The extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine during fermentative maceration is affected by the enological technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2011-05-25

    The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction.

  15. Brix, pH and anthocyanin content determination in whole Port wine grape berries by hyperspectral imaging and neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Armando M.; Franco, Camilo; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of measuring pH, sugars, and anthocyanin content of whole grape berries. The spectrum of each sample, composed of six whole grape berries, was collected using hyperspectral imaging in reflectance mode from 380 to 1028 nm. The spectra were converted to enological...... parameters by multilayer perceptrons created using 240 samples that were split for 7-fold cross-validation and test. The test set with 30 samples revealed R2 values of 0.73, 0.92 and 0.95 and RMSE of 0.18, 0.95 °Brix and 14 mg/l for pH, sugars and anthocyanin content, respectively. This is the only work, up...

  16. Wine and cheese: two products or one association? A new method for assessing wine-cheese pairing

    OpenAIRE

    Dufau, Lucie; Loiseau, Anne-Laure; Visalli, Michel; Schlich, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais) and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource) were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique ...

  17. Shifts in climate suitability for wine production as a result of climate change in a temperate climate wine region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Liviu Mihai; Patriche, Cristian Valeriu; Quenol, Hervé; Sfîcă, Lucian; Foss, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is causing important shifts in the suitability of regions for wine production. Fine scale mapping of these shifts helps us to understand the evolution of vineyard climates, and to find solutions through viticultural adaptation. The aim of this study is to identify and map the structural and spatial shifts that occurred in the climatic suitability for wine production of the Cotnari wine growing region (Romania) between 1961 and 2013. Discontinuities in trends of temperature were identified, and the averages and trends of 13 climatic parameters for the 1961 to 1980 and 1981 to 2013 time periods were analysed. Using the averages of these climatic parameters, climate suitability for wine production was calculated at a resolution of 30 m and mapped for each time period, and the changes analysed. The results indicate shifts in the area's historic climatic profile, due to an increase of heliothermal resources and precipitation constancy. The area's climate suitability for wine production was modified by the loss of climate suitability for white table wines, sparkling wines and wine for distillates; shifts in suitability to higher altitudes by about 67 m, and a 48.6% decrease in the area suitable for quality white wines; and the occurrence of suitable climates for red wines at lower altitudes. The study showed that climate suitability for wine production has a multi-level spatial structure, with classes requiring a cooler climate being located at a higher altitude than those requiring a warmer climate. Climate change has therefore resulted in the shift of climate suitability classes for wine production to higher altitudes.

  18. 响应面法优化无核白葡萄酒澄清工艺的研究%Optimization of the Clarification of Seedless White Grape Wine by Response Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅; 雷静; 郭峰; 吴斌; 韩琛

    2016-01-01

    澄清度是衡量葡萄酒外观质量的重要指标。本实验以无核白葡萄酒作为研究对象,研究不同澄清剂(皂土、果胶酶、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮)、澄清温度、澄清时间对无核白葡萄酒澄清效果的影响,采用响应曲面Box-Behnken设计方法,建立无核白葡萄酒透光率与澄清剂添加量、澄清温度、澄清时间之间的回归模型,确定最佳澄清条件。研究结果表明,皂土澄清效果最佳,最佳的澄清条件为:皂土添加量0.41 g/L、澄清温度3.8℃、澄清时间7.85 h。在此条件下,无核白葡萄酒透光率为98.70%。本研究为当地无核白葡萄酒贮藏研究提供理论支持。%Clarity is an important index in the evaluation of wine appearance. In this experiment, seedless white grape wine was used as the re-search object, and the effects of different clarifying agents (bentonite, pectinase, and polyvinylpyrrolidone), clarifying temperature and clarify-ing time on the clarification of seedless white grape wine were explored. The regression model of wine light transmittance and the adding levels of clarifying agents, clarifying temperature, and clarifying time was set up using response surface Box-Behnken design. Furthermore, the opti-mum clarifying conditions were determined as follows:the adding level of bentonite was 0.41 g/L, clarifying temperature was at 3.8℃, and clarifying time was 7.85 min. Under these conditions, the actual light transmittance of seedless white grape wine was 98.70%. This study pro-vided theoretical support for the research on the storage of local seedless white grape wine.

  19. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra, S.R.; Lage, S.H.; Brandizzi, L.; Yoshida, V.; da Luz, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Although red wine (RW) reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM), and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 ± 8.1 years) without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects we...

  20. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  1. Resveratrol and its oligomers from wine grapes are selective (1)O2 quenchers: mechanistic implication by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and theoretical calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Yan; He, Shan; Jiang, Ke-Zhi; Sun, Cui-Rong; Pan, Yuan-Jiang

    2010-08-25

    Resveratrol and its oligomers, abundantly present in wine grapes, are believed to be effective phytoalexins for the phenomenon "French paradox" partially by virtue of their powerful antiradical properties. EPR spin-trapping technique was utilized, demonstrating all polyphenols were selective (1)O2 quenchers but not effective (•)OH and O2(•¯) scavengers. On the basis of the HPLC-ESI-MS(2) analysis for the simulated reactions of polyphenols with (1)O2, the molecular weights of the resulting photochemical products were 14 or 28 Da higher than those of their substrates. No fragment C2H2O (42 Da), which was rather distinctive of the resorcinol rings in these cases, had been observed, whereas their MS/MS spectra displayed characteristic neutral fragments including carbon monoxide (CO, 28 Da) and 2-hydroxy[1,4]benzoquinone (C6H4O3, 124 Da). Finally, PM3 semiempirical calculations and HR-FTICR-MS experiments were performed, supporting the assertion that their quenching mechanism involved physical and chemical pathways. Chemical quenching underwent an endoperoxide intermediate form to generate quinones.

  2. Wine phenolic compounds influence the production of volatile phenols by wine-related lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I; Campos, F M; Hogg, T; Couto, J A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of wine phenolic compounds on the production of volatile phenols (4-vinylphenol [4VP] and 4-ethylphenol [4EP]) from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were grown in MRS medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid, in the presence of different phenolic compounds: nonflavonoids (hydroxycinnamic and benzoic acids) and flavonoids (flavonols and flavanols). The inducibility of the enzymes involved in the p-coumaric acid metabolism was studied in resting cells. The hydroxycinnamic acids tested stimulated the capacity of LAB to synthesize volatile phenols. Growth in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids, especially caffeic acid, induced the production of 4VP by resting cells. The hydroxybenzoic acids did not significantly affect the behaviour of the studied strains. Some of the flavonoids showed an effect on the production of volatile phenols, although strongly dependent on the bacterial species. Relatively high concentrations (1 g l(-1) ) of tannins inhibited the synthesis of 4VP by Lact. plantarum. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the main compounds stimulating the production of volatile phenols by LAB. The results suggest that caffeic and ferulic acids induce the synthesis of the cinnamate decarboxylase involved in the metabolism of p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, tannins exert an inhibitory effect. This study highlights the capacity of LAB to produce volatile phenols and that this activity is markedly influenced by the phenolic composition of the medium. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. A non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis approach for improving energy efficiency of grape production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshroo, Alireza; Mulwa, Richard; Emrouznejad, Ali; Arabi, Behrouz

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops with approximately 67.5 million tonnes produced each year and energy is an important element in modern grape productions as it heavily depends on fossil and other energy resources. Efficient use of these energies is a necessary step toward reducing environmental hazards, preventing destruction of natural resources and ensuring agricultural sustainability. Hence, identifying excessive use of energy as well as reducing energy resources is the main focus of this paper to optimize energy consumption in grape production. In this study we use a two-stage methodology to find the association of energy efficiency and performance explained by farmers' specific characteristics. In the first stage a non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis is used to model efficiencies as an explicit function of human labor, machinery, chemicals, FYM (farmyard manure), diesel fuel, electricity and water for irrigation energies. In the second step, farm specific variables such as farmers' age, gender, level of education and agricultural experience are used in a Tobit regression framework to explain how these factors influence efficiency of grape farming. The result of the first stage shows substantial inefficiency between the grape producers in the studied area while the second stage shows that the main difference between efficient and inefficient farmers was in the use of chemicals, diesel fuel and water for irrigation. The use of chemicals such as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides were considerably less than inefficient ones. The results revealed that the more educated farmers are more energy efficient in comparison with their less educated counterparts. - Highlights: • The focus of this paper is to identify excessive use of energy and optimize energy consumption in grape production. • We measure the efficiency as a function of labor/machinery/chemicals/farmyard manure/diesel-fuel/electricity/water. • Data were obtained from 41 grape

  4. Protective properties of wine products and the role of high performance liquid chromatography in the study of these properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulyanova, E V; Larionov, O G; Revina, A A; Andrievskaya, D V; Urusova, L M; Fenin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Data on the biologically active substances present in wines and wine products, the methods of their determination, and changes under chemical, radiation and other types of action are generalized. The role of high performance liquid chromatography in the studies of the protective properties of wines is demonstrated. Particular attention is devoted to problems of counterfeiting of wine products and the possibility to reveal it by using amperometric determination of the antioxidant activity. The bibliography includes 117 references

  5. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  6. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  7. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m. PMID:25506607

  8. Production, characterization of tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF using agroindustrial wastes, and application in the clarification of grape juice (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Juliana Silva; Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  9. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  10. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the quality of grape brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape brandy is a product obtained by fermentation and distillation of crushed grapes of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera. Grape brandy quality depends on many factors such as: grapevine varieties, climate, soil, time and method of distillation, storage methods and other distillates. The grapevine variety 'Neoplanta' grown in the experimental field of the PD 'Center for Viticulture and Enology' in Niš was used in the experiment. Tests were performed in the laboratory of the Centre. Healthy grapes of harvest maturity were squashed by a stalk-removing electric crusher. Fermentation was performed in plastic containers in the presence of the indigenous microflora of wine yeasts. This paper presents the influence of pH and inorganic nitrogen added to the fermentation medium on the content of volatile components and concentrations of higher alcohols.

  11. The effect of different position of grape clusters on the bearing shoot on production results of Cabernet Sauvignon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čoloveić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the differences were examined between clones of Cabernet sauvignon (clones ISV-F-V5, ISV-F-V6 and R5, i.e. the difference between uvological properties of grape clusters and grape berries, based on the different positions on the bearing shoot. Tests were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture 'Radmilovac'. Standard ampelographic methods were used in numerous analyses of grape yield, as well as uvological properties of clones. All data were statistically analyzed and processed by the method of two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measuring of one factor (height and Tukey HSD test. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences between clones. The best results were achieved with grape clusters positioned in the base of bearing shoot. The first positioned grape clusters on the bearing shoot had the highest share in the total grape yield, the highest amount of sugar, and the highest positioned grape clusters had higher content of total acids. The differences determined between examined clones were in regard to productivity and quality of grapes which reflected also on production value.

  12. Production of red wine from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red wine was produced from must formulated by mixing 10% (w/v) roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdriffa var. sabdariffa) Hot water extract with pawpaw juice at the rate of 3:1. The must was formulated using a pure strain of Sacchromyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine, propagated and pitched at a rate of 8% (v/v).

  13. Production and Quality Evaluation of Pineapple Fruit Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ningli; Ma, Lina; Li, Liuji; Gong, Xiao; Ye, Jianzhi

    2017-12-01

    The fermentation process of pineapple fruit wine was studied. The juice was inoculated with 5% (v/v) active yeast and held at 20 °C for 7 days. Total sugar and pH decreased while the alcoholic strength increased with increasing length of fermentation. The fermented fruit wine contains 2.29 g/L total acid, 10.2 % (v/v) alcohol, 5.4 °Brix soluble solids, pH 3.52. Pineapple wine detected 68 kinds of aroma components, including 34 esters, 13 alcohols. The ester material accounted for 52.25% of the main aroma components. The quality and sensory evaluation results indicated that pineapple fruit wine belongs to a kind of low alcohol wine, so it is easy to be accepted by the public.

  14. A review of the content of the putative chemopreventive phytoalexin resveratrol in red wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stervbo, Ulrik; Vang, Ole; Bonnesen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Resveratrol, a naturally occurring compound of various fruits such as grapes, is thought to possess chemopreventive properties. The levels of resveratrol in grapes and grape products including wine, varies from region to region and from one year to another. This paper reviews the resveratrol...... content in red wine based on relevant published data. Red wine contains an average of 1.9 ± 1.7 mg trans-resveratrol/ l (8.2 ± 7.5 lM), ranging from non-detectable levels to 14.3 mg/l (62.7 lM) trans-resveratrol. In general, wines made from grapes of the Pinot Noir and St. Laurent varieties showed...... the highest level of trans-resveratrol. No region can be said to produce wines with significantly higher level of trans-resveratrol than all other regions. Levels of cis-resveratrol follow the same trend as trans-resveratrol. The average level of trans-resveratrol-glucoside (trans-piceid) in a red wine may...

  15. Analysis of selected indicators of winegrowing and wine-production industries in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with industry analysis of winegrowing and wine-production in Bulgaria and in the Czech Republic. The analysis is more focused on winegrowing and wine-production in Bulgaria with the aim to present the less known information.The annual production of wine in Bulgaria amounts for about 2 million hectoliters, being mostly proce- ssed by industrial producers, even though the area of productive vineyards is decreasing by almost 33% to the level of 100 000 hectares. Czech Republic has a lower area of vineyards than Bulgaria, and thanks to the higher yields per hectare it produces about 0.5 million hectoliters of wine. Wine consumption is also different – Czech Republic reaches about 75% of consumption in Bulgaria.Bulgaria, unlike the Czech Republic, belongs to the wine-export countries, especially focusing on exports of bottled red wine. The most important importers of Bulgarian wine – bottled and cask – are Poland, Russia, Great Britain, and Germany. The average prices of exported bottled wine oscillated around USD 1 per liter, in the monitored period. In case of the cask wine, the prices are almost 50% lower. The prices of wines imported to Bulgaria are slightly lower than prices of wines being exported from Bulgaria. Most of the wine was imported from Moldova and Macedonia, Hungary, and Poland.The wine foreign trade balance of Bulgaria and Czech Republic is active for Bulgaria, which exports about 24 thousand hectoliters of wine to the Czech Republic. Exports of Czech and Moravian wines to Bulgaria are minimal.

  16. Evaluation of environmentally friendly products for control of fungal diseases of grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schilder, A.M.C.; Gillett, J.M.; Sysak, R.W.; Wise, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Various environmentally friendly products were tested for efficacy in controlling powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis, and Botrytis bunch rot in grapes over several years. The products tested were: JMS stylet oil (paraffinic oil), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis), Croplife (citrus and coconut extract) + Plant food (foliar fertilizer), Armicarb (potassium bicarbonate), Elexa (chitosan), Milsana (giant knotweed extract), and AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqua/is). JMS Stylet Oil, Armicarb, Se...

  17. Radiological and microanalytical studies of fine Melnik wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, Dimiter; Geleva, Elena; Damianova, Anna; Grigorov, Todor; Goutev, Nikolai; Protohristov, Hristo; Stoyanov, Chavdar; Bashev, Vladimir; Popov, Evgeni; Tringovska, Ivanka; Kostova, Dimitrina

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear methods and chemical fingerprinting can help in the process of determination of the year of production (vintage) and the geographical provenance or designation of origin of high quality wines. For the first time we report results obtained for fine Bulgarian wines from Melnik region, as well as, vineyard soil, vine stems and grape leaves. The gamma-ray activity of the radioisotope 137 Cs has been measured also for the first time in wines from different vintages using low background, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The specific concentrations of 16 elements have been measured in samples from soil, vine stems, grape leaves and fine wines from the type Shiroka Melnishka, which are grown in typical Melnik vineyard by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The obtained radiological and chemical correlations can be used as initial data base in order to determinate the wine vintage back to 1986 and, eventually, as tool to establish the designation of origin of the Melnik fine wine and the quality of the wine

  18. Sensory profile and volatile aroma composition of reduced alcohol Merlot wines fermented with Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, C; Barker, A; Tran, T; Borneman, A; Curtin, C

    2017-07-03

    Strategies for production of wines containing lower alcohol concentrations are in strong demand, for reasons of quality, health, and taxation. Development and application of wine yeasts that are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol has the potential to allow winemakers the freedom to make lower alcohol wines from grapes harvested at optimal ripeness, without the need for post-fermentation processes aimed at removing ethanol. We have recently shown that two non-conventional wine yeast species Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum were both able to produce wine with reduced alcohol concentration. Both species produced laboratory-scale wines with markedly different volatile aroma compound composition relative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work describes the volatile composition and sensory profiles of reduced-alcohol pilot-scale Merlot wines produced with M. pulcherrima and S. uvarum. Wines fermented with M. pulcherrima contained 1.0% v/v less ethanol than S. cerevisiae fermented wines, while those fermented with S. uvarum showed a 1.7% v/v reduction in ethanol. Compared to S. cerevisiae ferments, wines produced with M. pulcherrima showed higher concentrations of ethyl acetate, total esters, total higher alcohols and total sulfur compounds, while wines fermented with S. uvarum were characterised by the highest total concentration of higher alcohols. Sensorially, M. pulcherrima wines received relatively high scores for sensory descriptors such as red fruit and fruit flavour and overall exhibited a sensory profile similar to that of wine made with S. cerevisiae, whereas the main sensory descriptors associated with wines fermented with S. uvarum were barnyard and meat. This work demonstrates the successful application of M. pulcherrima AWRI3050 for the production of pilot-scale red wines with reduced alcohol concentration and highlights the need for rigorous evaluation of non-conventional yeasts with regard to their sensory impacts

  19. Enzymatic biotransformation of polyphenolics increases antioxidant activity of red and white grape pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape pomace (GP) is a polyphenolic-rich byproduct of wine production. As most polyphenolics are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, treatment with hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase GP functionalities. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of tannase ...

  20. Improved classification accuracy of powdery mildew infection levels of wine grapes by spatial-spectral analysis of hyperspectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, Uwe; Matros, Andrea; Petrovic, Tijana; Zanker, Timothy; Scott, Eileen S; Seiffert, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging means of assessing plant vitality, stress parameters, nutrition status, and diseases. Extraction of target values from the high-dimensional datasets either relies on pixel-wise processing of the full spectral information, appropriate selection of individual bands, or calculation of spectral indices. Limitations of such approaches are reduced classification accuracy, reduced robustness due to spatial variation of the spectral information across the surface of the objects measured as well as a loss of information intrinsic to band selection and use of spectral indices. In this paper we present an improved spatial-spectral segmentation approach for the analysis of hyperspectral imaging data and its application for the prediction of powdery mildew infection levels (disease severity) of intact Chardonnay grape bunches shortly before veraison. Instead of calculating texture features (spatial features) for the huge number of spectral bands independently, dimensionality reduction by means of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was applied first to derive a few descriptive image bands. Subsequent classification was based on modified Random Forest classifiers and selective extraction of texture parameters from the integral image representation of the image bands generated. Dimensionality reduction, integral images, and the selective feature extraction led to improved classification accuracies of up to [Formula: see text] for detached berries used as a reference sample (training dataset). Our approach was validated by predicting infection levels for a sample of 30 intact bunches. Classification accuracy improved with the number of decision trees of the Random Forest classifier. These results corresponded with qPCR results. An accuracy of 0.87 was achieved in classification of healthy, infected, and severely diseased bunches. However, discrimination between visually healthy and infected bunches proved to be challenging for a few samples

  1. Taxation and Consumption of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Dimitris

    1983-01-01

    In this article, the impact that a sales tax might have upon wine consumption and, hence, on the wine and grape growing industries, is analysed. Implications for government revenue are also considered. It is shown that the relative responsiveness of supply and demand, rather than the level in the marketing chain at which a tax is levied, determines where the tax burden finally falls. The imposition of a tax on wine might force certain sectors of the wine and grape industries to undergo a phas...

  2. The role of production process and information on quality expectations and perceptions of sparkling wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Riccardo; Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Caracciolo, Francesco; Cembalo, Luigi; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi; Siani, Tiziana; Marotta, Giuseppe; Nazzaro, Concetta; Piombino, Paola

    2018-05-28

    The present research aims to analyse, by combining sensory and experimental economics techniques, to what extent production process, and the information about it, may affect consumer preferences. Sparkling wines produced by Champenoise and Charmat methods were the object of the study. A quantitative descriptive sensory analysis with a trained panel and non-hypothetical auctions combined with hedonic ratings involving young wine consumers (N=100), under different information scenarios(Blind, Info and Info Taste), were performed. Findings show that the production process impacts both the sensory profile of sparkling wines and consumer expectations. In particular, the hedonic ratings revealed that when tasting the products, both with no information on the production process (Blind) and with such information (Info Taste), the consumers preferred the Charmat wines. On the contrary, when detailed information on the production methods was given without tasting (Info), consumers liked more the two Champenoise wines. It can be concluded that sensory and non-sensory attributes of sparkling wines affect consumers' preferences. Specifically, the study suggests that production process information strongly impacts liking expectations, while not affecting informed liking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Wine consumers' subjective responses to wine mouthfeel and understanding of wine body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Danner, Lukas; Li, Luxing; Bossan, Hélène; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    Wine mouthfeel is considered important for wine quality by experts, while consumers understanding of mouthfeel and the role of wine body in their wine choice is unknown. One experiment determined the influence of intrinsic wine mouthfeel on consumers' wine liking and emotions, and the other, how consumers understand the term wine body. The first experiment used a 2 astringency level×2 body level experimental design. The samples were base wine with; nothing added (control), added xanthan gum (for increased body), added grape seed extract (GSE, for increased astringency), and with both added xanthan gum and GSE. The consumer taste trial (n=112) indicated that wine with increased body did not influence wine liking and emotions; while increased astringency decreased liking and elicited more intense negative emotions. The second experiment examined consumers' knowledge of wine body through an online survey (n=136). Consumers described wine body most frequently using words such as flavour, fullness, and strength. Wine body was therefore understood by consumers predomi