WorldWideScience

Sample records for windspire 1-kw wind

  1. Performance evaluation of 1 kw PEFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Hideaki [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Minato-ky, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a PEFC Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns the effects brought on PEFC operating performance by conditions particular to shipboard operation. The performance characteristics were examined through tests performed on a 1 kw stack and on a single cell (Manufactured by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.). The tests covered the items (1) to (4) cited in the headings of the sections that follow. Specifications of the stack and single cell are as given.

  2. A maximum power point tracking scheme for a 1kw stand-alone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A maximum power point tracking scheme for a 1kw stand-alone solar energy based power supply. ... This paper elucidates one of the tracking schemes for a photovoltaic (PV) systems using Cuk converter operating in discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM) as an interface. A method for efficiently maximizing the output ...

  3. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  4. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  5. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  6. Efficiency of small wind generator powered water pumping systems; Rendimento de unidade de bombeamento de agua acionada por gerador eolico de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Mendeleyev Guerreiro; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de; Costa, Levy Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET), PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the efficiency of a small wind generator powered water pumping system; the generator is a permanent magnet generator of 1 kw of axial flow, using three fiber glass blades with 2.46 m diameter. The used centrifugal pump is connected to a 0.5 c v motor, three-phase, frequency of 60 Hz, rotational speed of 3450 rpm. For the efficiency evaluation a shell anemometer, a flow and pressure sensor were used, connected to a data logger to the collection and storage of the data. An energy analyzer was also used to collect the current, voltage and power generated from the wind generator. (author)

  7. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  8. Wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Woll, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Across the country, huge open spaces are covered in gently turning wind turbines. In Wind Energy, explore how these machines generate electricity, learn about the history of wind power, and discover the latest advances in the field. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  9. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  10. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel Energy...

  11. WIND TURBINES FOR WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barladean A.S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of wind turbine choice for wind power stations is examined in this paper. It is shown by comparison of parameters and characteristics of wind turbines, that for existing modes and speeds of wind in territory of Republic of Moldova it is necessary to use multi-blade small speed rotation wind turbines of fan class.

  12. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  13. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  14. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  15. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  16. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  17. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  18. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  19. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  20. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  1. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  2. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  3. Influence of wind loading

    OpenAIRE

    MAVLONOV RAVSHANBEK ABDUJABBOROVICH; VAKKASOV KHAYRULLO SAYFULLAHANOVICH

    2015-01-01

    Each wind load is determined by a probabilistic-statistical method based on the concept of “equivalent static wind load”, on the assumption that structural frames and components/cladding behave elastically in strong wind.

  4. Tower Winds - Cape Kennedy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from Wind Gust Charts. Record contains hourly wind directions and speed with a peak wind recorded at the end of each day. Sorted by: station,...

  5. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  6. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  7. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization.......In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization....

  8. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Yunying Pan; Danhzen Gu

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends ...

  9. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  10. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  11. Wind for Schools (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses, by installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools, by implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school. This poster provides an overview of the first two years of the Wind for Schools project, primarily supporting activities in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

  12. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  13. Wind energy; Energie eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachey, C.

    2000-05-01

    This public information paper presents the wind energy resource in the Languedoc Roussillon region, explains how a wind turbine works, the different types of utilization and the cost of the wind energy. The environmental impacts of the wind energy, on the noise and the landscape, are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  15. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  16. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  17. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  18. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  19. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two ap....... The greatest sector-wise extreme winds are from west to northwest. Different data, different periods and different methods have provided a range of values of the 50-year wind and accordingly the gust values, as summarized in Table 15.......The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...

  20. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.......This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  1. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  2. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  3. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  4. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  5. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  6. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  7. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of airfoil profiles specifically designed for wind turbine application was initiated in the late 80’s [67, 68, 30, 15]. The first attempts to reduce airfoil noise for wind turbines made use of airfoil trailing edge serration. Themodification of airfoil shapes targeted at noise...... reduction is more recent. An important effort was produced in this direction within the SIROCCO project. This latter work involved measurements on full size wind turbines and showed that trailing edge serration may proved a viable solution for mitigating wind turbine noise though it has not been implemented...... on commercial wind turbine yet. It should be mentioned here that the attenuation of turbulent inflow noise using wavy leading edge has recently been investigated [55], but this technique has still to be further validated for practical applications. In this paper, it is proposed to optimize an airfoil which...

  8. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  9. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  10. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R. [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  11. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  12. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  13. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  14. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity, defined as the 50-year wind speed (ten minute averages) under standard conditions, i.e. 10 meter over a homogeneous terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are Skjern...

  15. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, Ole; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrainwith the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites...

  16. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu......Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint...... quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination R-2. Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind...... direction is especially critical for layout optimization and the recommended choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is finally presented....

  17. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  18. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  19. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  20. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...

  1. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  2. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  3. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  4. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  5. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  6. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  7. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  8. Wind energy applications guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  9. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  10. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are dealt...... with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...

  11. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  12. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    Wind energy should be an important part of the energy supply mix, both at home and abroad, to provide cleaner air and a more stable fuel supply. Not only can wind energy contribute to solving complex global issues, it also can provide a large market for American technological leadership. Even though utilities are paying more attention to wind in a number of states, there are no plans for major installations of wind power plants in the United States. At the same time, European nations have developed aggressive wind energy development programs, including both ambitious research and development efforts and market incentives. Many countries recognize the importance of the clean energy provided by wind technology and are taking steps to promote their fledgling domestic industries. The emphasis on market incentives is starting to pay off. In 1991, European utilities and developers installed nearly twice as much wind capacity as Americans did. In 1992 the gap will be even greater. This article reviews aggressive incentives offered by European governments to boost their domestic wind industries at home and abroad in this almost $1 billion per year market. By offering substantial incentives - considerably more than the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is proposing - European nations are ensuring dramatic near-term wind energy development and are taking a major step toward dominating the international wind industry of the 21st century

  13. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  14. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The wind turbine technology is a very complex technology involving multidisciplinary and broad technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, mechanics, structure dynamics, meteorology as well as electrical engineering addressing the generation, transmission, and integration of wind turbines...... into the power system. Wind turbine technology has matured over the years and become the most promising and reliable renewable energy technology today. It has moved very fast, since the early 1980s, from wind turbines of a few kilowatts to today’s multimegawatt-sized wind turbines [13]. Besides their size......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled...

  15. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  16. Turning to the wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, B.

    1981-10-01

    Consideration is given the economic and technological aspects of both free-stream (horizontal-axis) and cross-wind (vertical-axis) wind energy conversion systems, with attention to operational devices ranging in rotor diameter from 10 to 40 m and in output from 22 to 630 kW. After a historical survey of wind turbine design and applications development, the near-term technical feasibility and economic attractiveness of combined wind/fossil-fueled generator and wind/hydroelectric systems are assessed. Also presented are estimates of wind energy potential extraction in the U.S. and Denmark, the industrial requirements of large-scale implementation, energy storage possibilities such as pumped hydro and flywheels, and cost comparisons of electrical generation by large and small wind systems, coal-fired plants, and light-water fission reactors.

  17. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  18. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  19. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

  20. Observability of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

  1. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Offshore Wind Power Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Wind power development scenarios are critical when trying to assess the impact of the demonstration at national and European level. The work described in this report had several objectives. The main objective was to prepare and deliver the proper input necessary for assessing the impact of Demo 4...... – Storm management at national and European level. For that, detailed scenarios for offshore wind power development by 2020 and 2030 were required. The aggregation level that is suitable for the analysis to be done is at wind farm level. Therefore, the scenarios for offshore wind power development offer...... details about the wind farms such as: capacity and coordinates. Since the focus is on the impact of storm fronts passage in Northen Europe, the offshore wind power scenarios were estimated only for the countries at North and Baltic Sea. The sources used are public sources, mentioned in the reference list...

  3. Wind farm economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy are changing rapidly, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. Although the United Kingdom has regions of high wind speed, these are often in difficult terrain and construction costs are often higher than elsewhere in Europe. Nevertheless, wind energy costs are converging with those of the conventional thermal sources. At present, bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, which means that energy prices are higher. Ways of overcoming this problem are explored. It is important, also, to examine the value of wind energy. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than energy from centralized plant, since it is fed into the low-voltage distribution network. (Author)

  4. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  5. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    ), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide......): assuming geostrophic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u(*) and direction at standard conditions by means of the geostrophic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 degrees sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values...... of the friction velocity pressure pu(*)(2)/2 taken once every two months. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at the west coast of Jutland (25 +/- 1 m/s) than at any of the other sites (22 +/- 1 m/s). These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck...

  6. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has therefore been developed. The unscented Kalman filter was first tested on linear and non-linear test cases......Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify...... which was successful. Then the estimation of a wind turbine state including dynamic inflow was tested on a simulated NREL 5MW turbine was performed. This worked perfectly with wind speeds from low to nominal wind speed as the output prediction errors where white. In high wind where the pitch actuator...

  7. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  8. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles......% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model....... for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  9. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  10. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  11. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power......, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  12. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  13. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ..., Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC... XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, and TGP Development...

  14. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  15. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the metmast and Nacelle Windspeed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are identical with the data used for the Risø-I-3246(EN......) power curve report. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1] and the wind and yaw correlation is analyzed in accordance to Ref. [2]....

  16. Wind power prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  17. Wind on the moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.

    1992-01-01

    A local town councillor describes the setting up of a wind farm in the south Pennines which plans to sell electricity to the local electricity suppliers. The Coal Clough wind farm will generate sufficient electricity to meet the average demand of 7,500 households and will be managed by a consortium known as Wind Resources Limited linking the construction company and the utilities aiming to buy the electricity produced. While wind power offers many environmental advantages over other means of power generation, local opposition was strong on the basis of the noise produced and clearly visible structures in an area designated as being of outstanding natural beauty. (UK)

  18. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  19. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  20. Winds of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, C.; Short, L.

    1998-01-01

    The British countryside is oversubscribed with multiple and often irreconcilable demands. The siting of wind turbines is but one facet of this situation. While the problems of these demands are widely recognised, there is little understanding or agreement on how to resolve them. The 1996 Future Landscape: New Partnerships was an attempt to address this challenge. The use of wind energy as a case study initiated a partnership between contemporary artists and the wind energy industry. It became clear that artists have an important role to play in creating new ways of seeing that will establish wind turbines as new icons for a sustainable future. (Author)

  1. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  2. Climate Wind Power Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana M. Berdzenishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgia as a whole is characterized by rather rich solar energy resources, which allows to construct alternative power stations in the close proximity to traditional power plants. In this case the use of solar energy is meant. Georgia is divided into 5 zones based on the assessment of wind power resources. The selection of these zones is based on the index of average annual wind speed in the examined area, V> 3 m / s and V> 5 m / s wind speed by the summing duration in the course of the year and V = 0. . . 2 m / s of passive wind by total and continuous duration of these indices per hour.

  3. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, Carol

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  4. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  5. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  6. Wind Power Today: (2002) Wind Energy Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2002 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2002, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  7. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  8. Wind energy - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangi, R.; Oprisan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of wind technology developments in Canada and around the world was reviewed. Information regarding the level of wind turbine deployment was presented. It was shown that significant effort has been made on the national and international level to increase the capacity of this clean, non-polluting form of energy. Wind energy has become competitive with conventional sources of electricity due to lower cost, higher efficiency and improved reliability of generating equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of wind electricity generating systems and the economics and atmospheric emissions of the systems were described. At present, there is about 23 MW of wind energy generating capacity installed in Canada, but the potential is very large. It was suggested that wind energy could supply as much as 60 per cent of Canada's electricity needs if only one per cent of the land with 'good winds' were covered by wind turbines. Recently, the Canadian government has provided an accelerated capital cost allowance for certain types of renewable energies under the Income Tax Act, and the flow-through share financing legislation to include intangible expenses in certain renewable energy projects has been extended. Besides the support provided to the private sector through tax advantages, the Government also supports renewable energy development by purchasing 'green' energy for its own buildings across the country, and by funding a research and development program to identify and promote application of wind energy technologies, improve its cost effectiveness, and support Canadian wind energy industries with technology development to enhance their competitiveness at home and abroad. Details of the Wind Energy Program, operated by Natural Resources Canada, are described. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  10. Wind speed dynamical model in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    , the dynamic model for wind flow will be established. The state space variables are determined based on a fine mesh defined for the farm. The end goal of this method is to assist the development of a dynamical model of a wind farm that can be engaged for better wind farm control strategies.......This paper presents a model for wind speed in a wind farm. The basic purpose of the paper is to calculate approximately the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine in a farm. In this regard the governing equations of flow will be solved for the whole wind farm. In ideal circumstances...

  11. Fixture for winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  12. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  13. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  14. MWR, Meteor Wind Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of a state of the art meteor wind radar, and acceptable comprises in the interests of economy, are detailed. Design consideration of some existing and proposed radars are discussed. The need for international cooperation in mesopause level wind measurement, such as that being fostered by the MAP GLOBMET (Global Meteor Observations System) project, is emphasized.

  15. Research on wind energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available & underlying technologies Ovid: composite man- rated trainer airplane Eskom?s wind farm, Klipheuwel, Cape Town ? CSIR, then DME & City of Cape Town undertook study on large grid connected wind turbines ? included a study tour to Europe. ? Recommended...

  16. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  17. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...

  18. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...

  19. The difficult wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of the conditions for wind power production in Norway and points out that several areas should be well suited. A comparison to Danish climate is made. The wind variations, turbulence problems and regional conditions are discussed

  20. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  1. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  2. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power...... system considering conventional power plants, distributed generation based on wind energy and CHP technology as well as the load and transmission facilities. In particular, the different models are used to represent two well-known test systems, the RBTS and the IEEE-RTS, and to calculate...

  3. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    for the installation of wind turbines in cities, with Copenhagen, DK, as example. Focus is taken on turbine with a swept area of maximum 5m2, since turbines of this size are relatively easy to be integrated in the urban space and are in the financial range for small companies as well as for private persons. Elements......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings...... the lower wind energy in cities other factors foster the attractiveness of urban wind energy application, like the demand or wish to reduce CO2 emissions and the possibility to produce energy directly to ones household....

  4. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  5. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...... conditions. So, a new aeroelastic blade model has been derived, which includes important features of large wind turbines, yet simple enough to be suitable for analytical analysis and control design....

  6. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  7. European Wind Atlas and Wind Resource Research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    to estimate the actual wind climate at any specific site and height within this region. The Danish and European Wind Atlases are examples of how the wind atlas methodology can be employed to estimate the wind resource potential for a country or a sub-continent. Recently, the methodology has also been used...... - from wind measurements at prospective sites to wind tunnel simulations and advanced flow modelling. Among these approaches, the wind atlas methodology - developed at Ris0 National Laboratory over the last 25 years - has gained widespread recognition and is presently considered by many as the industry......-standard tool for wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines. The PC-implementation of the methodology, the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), has been applied in more than 70 countries and territories world-wide. The wind atlas methodology is based on physical descriptions and models...

  8. Wind and tornado guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project is to provide guidance and criteria for design of new facilities and for evaluation of existing ones subjected to extreme winds, earthquakes, and floods. This paper describes the treatment of wind and tornado hazards. Four facility-use categories are defined which represent increasing levels of risk to personnel or the environment in the event of a high wind event. Facilities are assigned to a particular category, depending on their mission, value, or toxic material content. The assigned facility-use category determines the design and evaluation criteria. The criteria are based on probabilistic hazard assessment. Performance goals are also specified for each facility-use category. A uniform approach to design wind loads, based on the ANSI A58.1-1982 standard, allows treatment of high winds and hurricane and tornado winds in a similar manner. Based on the wind hazard models, some sites must account for the possibility of tornadoes while others do not. Atmospheric pressure changes and missiles must be taken into account when considering tornadoes. The design and evaluation guidelines are designed to establish consistent levels of risk for different natural phenomena hazards and for facilities at different geographical locations

  9. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.

    1992-02-01

    Interest in wind energy as a supplementary source for the production of electricity has recently gained renewed momentum due to widespread concern about environmental impacts from the large scale use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy. In addition, political unrest in the Middle East has drawn attention to the importance of national energy self-sufficiency. European government administrations, however, have not yet fully appreciated the real worth of the 'clean energy' afforded by wind energy. In this regard, the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) is acting as a strong voice to inform the public and energy planners by stimulating international wind energy R ampersand D cooperation, and organizing conferences to explain the advantages of wind energy. In October 1991, EWEA published a strategy document giving a picture of the real possibilities offered by wind energy within the geographical, social, and European economic context. This paper provides an overview of the more significant features to emerge from this document which represents a useful guideline for wind power plant technical/economic feasibility studies in that it contains brief notes on resource availability, land requirements, visual and acoustic impacts, turbine sizing, performance, interconnection to utility grids, maintenance and operating costs, safety, as well as, on marketing aspects

  10. Wind farms and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkesteijn, L.; Havinga, R.; Benner, J.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The siting of wind farms is becoming an increasingly important issue in the Netherlands. This paper gives an overview of the current situation concerning the planning of wind farms. We will pay attention to: Wind energy in official Dutch planning policy. To select the optimal sites, the government has made an administrative agreement with the 7 windy provinces. Nevertheless, wind energy is still fighting for a rightful position in physical planning policy. Some examples will illustrate this. Studies on siting and siting problems in the Netherlands. In order to gain more insight into aspects of wind farming several studies have been executed. In this paper special attention will be paid to the results of a study on the potential impact of large windturbine clusters on an existing agricutural area. Experiences with siting of wind farms in the Netherlands. Based on experiences with the planning and realization of farms, this paper gives the main problems. In the final part of the paper we present some general conclusions. Generally speaking, the knowledge is available for selecting optimal sites in the Netherlands. The basic problems for wind farming nowadays seem to be the visual impact and actually obtaining the ground. Nevertheless, there do seem to be enough sites for realizing the goals in the Netherlands. (au)

  11. Database on wind characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Courtney, M.S. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The organisations that participated in the project consists of five research organisations: MIUU (Sweden), ECN (The Netherlands), CRES (Greece), DTU (Denmark), Risoe (Denmark) and one wind turbine manufacturer: Vestas Wind System A/S (Denmark). The overall goal was to build a database consisting of a large number of wind speed time series and create tools for efficiently searching through the data to select interesting data. The project resulted in a database located at DTU, Denmark with online access through the Internet. The database contains more than 50.000 hours of measured wind speed measurements. A wide range of wind climates and terrain types are represented with significant amounts of time series. Data have been chosen selectively with a deliberate over-representation of high wind and complex terrain cases. This makes the database ideal for wind turbine design needs but completely unsuitable for resource studies. Diversity has also been an important aim and this is realised with data from a large range of terrain types; everything from offshore to mountain, from Norway to Greece. (EHS)

  12. Mongolia wind resource assessment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.; Chadraa, B.; Natsagdorj, L.

    1998-01-01

    The development of detailed, regional wind-resource distributions and other pertinent wind resource characteristics (e.g., assessment maps and reliable estimates of seasonal, diurnal, and directional) is an important step in planning and accelerating the deployment of wind energy systems. This paper summarizes the approach and methods being used to conduct a wind energy resource assessment of Mongolia. The primary goals of this project are to develop a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas of Mongolia and to establish a wind measurement program in specific regions of Mongolia to identify prospective sites for wind energy projects and to help validate some of the wind resource estimates. The Mongolian wind resource atlas will include detailed, computerized wind power maps and other valuable wind resource characteristic information for the different regions of Mongolia

  13. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...... by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), in the IEC61400-27-1 Committee Draft for electrical simulation models for wind power generation, which is currently under review, [1]. The Type 4 wind turbine model described in this report includes a set of adjustments of the standard Type 4 wind turbine model...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  14. Satellite winds as a tool for offshore wind resource assessment: The Great Lakes Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new observational wind atlas for the Great Lakes, and proposes a methodology to combine in situ and satellite wind observations for offshore wind resource assessment. Efficient wind energy projects rely on accurate wind resource estimates, which are complex to obtain offshore...... the North American Regional Reanalysis. Generalized wind climates are obtained for each buoy and coastal site with the wind model WAsP, and combined into a single wind speed estimate for the Great Lakes region. The method of classes is used to account for the temporal sparseness in the SAR data set...

  15. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  16. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...

  17. Offshore wind speed and wind power characteristics for ten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper utilizes wind speed data measured at 3 and 10 m above water surface level using buoys at 10 stations in Ionian and Aegean Seas to understand the behaviour of wind and thereafter energy yield at these stations using 5 MW rated power offshore wind turbine. With wind power densities of 971 and 693 W/m2 at ...

  18. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  19. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effectiveness of vegetation in reducing wind ... Wind erosion; roughness length; shear velocity ratio; shear stress ratio; roughness density; wind tunnel. J. Earth .... flow direction induced by its kinematic viscosity. An increase in shear stress causes a proportional increase in the height-dependent change in wind velocity.

  20. Sensing the wind profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining...... measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Høvsøre, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled...

  1. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen.......On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...

  2. Financing renewables - wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the wind energy markets world-wide, in Europe and in the UK. It outlines the main methods of financing wind energy installations and discusses why different institutional structures have led to different markets in the UK and in Germany, with some concern about the state of the UK onshore industry. The paper looks ahead to the opening up of the potentially much larger offshore wind resource, concluding that in this area, existing UK development and financing structures are well suited. (Author)

  3. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  4. Wind turbine influence on surfers wind conditions at Hanstholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Andersen, Søren Juhl

    alter the wind conditions on the lee side, which is an important area for wind and kite surfers. The Dynamic Wake Meander Model is used to investigate the wind conditions north east of the planned new turbines at Hanstholm covering a surf area from a location called “Fish Factory” to a location called...... “Hamborg”. This model, which predicts instationary wind conditions behind one or more wind turbines, has previously been used to predict the changed power and load conditions for wind turbines in wind farm conditions. Avery fine agreement to measurements is seen and the model is therefore considered...

  5. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...

  6. Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth (and others)

    2005-09-01

    This report is the final report of a Danish research project 'Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms'. The objective of the project has been to analyse and assess operational strategies and possibilities for control of different types of wind turbines and different wind farm concepts. The potentials of optimising the lifetime/energy production ratio by means of using revised operational strategies for the individual wind turbines are investigated. Different strategies have been simulated, where the power production is decreased to an optimum when taking loads and actual price of produced electricity into account. Dynamic models and control strategies for the wind farms have also been developed, with the aim to optimise the operation of the wind farms considering participation in power system control of power (frequency) and reactive power (voltage), maximise power production, keep good power quality and limit mechanical loads and life time consumption. The project developed models for 3 different concepts for wind farms. Two of the concepts use active stall controlled wind turbines, one with AC connection and one with modern HVDC/VSC connection of the wind farm. The third concept is based on pitch controlled wind turbines using doubly fed induction generators. The models were applied to simulate the behaviour of the wind farm control when they were connected to a strong grid, and some initial simulations were performed to study the behaviour of the wind farms when it was isolated from the main grid on a local grid. Also the possibility to use the available information from the wind turbine controllers to predict the wind speed has been investigated. The main idea has been to predict the wind speed at a wind turbine using up-wind measurements of the wind speed in another wind turbine. (au)

  7. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  8. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    inves- tigated for a full polar (i.e. as function of mean inflow wind direction). This investigation relates to a mean wind speed bin defined as 8m=s±1m=s. The impact of ambient turbu- lence intensity and turbine inter spacing on the production of a wind turbine operating under full wake conditions...... is investi- gated. Four different turbine inter spacings, ranging between 3.8 and 10.4 rotor diameters, are analyzed for ambient turbu- lence intensities varying between 2% and 20%. This analysis is based on full scale production data from three other wind farms Wieringermeer [3], Horns Rev [4] and Nysted [5......]. A very satisfactory agreement between experimental data and predictions is observed. This paper finally includes additionally an analysis of the production impact caused by atmospheric stability effects. For this study, atmospheric stability conditions are defined in terms of the Monin-Obukhov length...

  9. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have designed and constructed an HTS machine......A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely on in the future. The work presented...... experimental setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises...

  10. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  11. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...... at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the longterm wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting...... for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation...

  12. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  13. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis Wind...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...

  14. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  15. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  16. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  17. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  18. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  19. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    performance of the wind pump. One year wind speed data collected at 10 m height was extrapolated to the wind pump hub height using wind shear coefficient. The model assumed balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. The theoretical model estimated the average ...

  20. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

  1. Wind energy: A viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soin, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the economic feasibility of wind energy in the current economic and political environment. The article specifically addresses the wind farm application to India, with asides to Europe and the US. Topics discussed include cost of energy generation for a 10 MW wind farm, cost comparison for captive energy options (diesel, coal, wind), environmental impacts, and social benefits

  2. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Martin H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, Torben S.

    This poster presents the Public Service Obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464 "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project goal is to integrate a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model with statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on short term...... forecasting for existing wind farms, as well as long term power system planning for future wind farms....

  3. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  4. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    velocity and model angle were varied . Additionally, static wall pressures and cross section flow were studied with the addition of a screen. The pressure...the geometry of a wind lens or flange on the shroud and a gradually diverging shape, proved to accelerate the flow through the duct. 14. SUBJECT...Tunnel velocity and model angle were varied . Additionally, static wall pressures and cross section flow were studied with the addition of a screen. The

  5. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  6. Wind energy handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Tony; Sharpe, David; Bossanyi, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    Named as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles of 2012Every year, Choice subject editors recognise the most significant print and electronic works reviewed in Choice during the previous calendar year. Appearing annually inChoice's January issue, this prestigious list of publications reflects the best in scholarly titles and attracts extraordinary attention from the academic library community. The authoritative reference on wind energy, now fully revised and updated to include offshore wind power<

  7. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. Germany and Spain are no longer the only countries ensuring European Union market growth. The market sees also a rise in importance of wind power in United Kingdom, Portugal, Italy and France. (A.L.B.)

  8. Wind interviewet til politikken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Fredag d. 29. september blev centerleder og professor ved Center for Europæisk Politik Marlene Wind interviewet til Politiken i forbindelse med det tyske forbundsvalgs betydning for EU's fremtid. Mange har spekuleret i om FDP (Freie Demokratische Partei) med deres unægtelige indflydelse på en...... kommende tysk koalition, kommer til at påvirke den tysk-franske alliance i EU-regi. Ikke hvis man spørger Marlene Wind:...

  9. Small wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Castellano, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to develop a project on installing a small wind turbine at the University of Glyndwr in Wrexham Wales. Today are immersed in a world seeking clean energy for reduce greenhouse gases because this problem is becoming a global reality. So installing a small wind turbine at the university would provide large quantity of clean energy to supply a workshop and also reduce the expulsion of CO2 into the atmosphere. The main characteristic of the turbine under...

  10. Wind turbine state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has the...

  11. Wind turbine reliability analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Pérez, Jesús María; García Márquez, Fausto Pedro; Tobias, Andrew Mark; Papaelias, Mayorkinos

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of steadily increasing wind power generation worldwide, wind turbine manufacturers are continuing to develop a range of configurations with different combinations of pitch control, rotor speeds, gearboxes, generators and converters. This paper categorizes the main designs, focusing on their reliability by bringing together and comparing data from a selection of major studies in the literature. These are not particularly consistent but plotting failure rates against hour...

  12. Wind Streak and Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    23 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a wind streak developed in the lee of a meteor impact crater in western Daedalia Planum. The dominant winds responsible for the streak blew from the bottom/lower right (southeast). The image is located near 9.9oS, 144.9oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left; the picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  13. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  14. Database on Wind Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, J.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061......his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061...

  15. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  16. Wind Conditions for Wind Farm Hanstholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Mann, Jakob

    The net annual energy production (AEP) of the Hanstholm Wind Farm is 158 GWh per year for the Siemens SWT-3.6-120 turbine and 140 GWh for the Vestas V112-3.0 turbine. These values have an uncertainty (standard deviation) of 6%. This result is mainly based on the data for Risø DTU’s test station...... at Høvsøre where wind speeds are measured at approximately the same height as the turbines at Hanstholm and where the terrain is similar. On top of that meso-scale modeling has been used to extrapolate the climatology from Høvsøre to Hanstholm increasing the AEP by almost 6% compared to just using...... the Høvsøre climatology directly. This method of extrapolation is rather new, but several older investigations indicate that the wind resource at Hanstholm is slightly higher than at Høvsøre. The work is carried out for Grontmij-Carl Bro according to a contract dated January 18th 2011....

  17. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rinker, Jennifer [Former National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employee

    2018-04-02

    To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor to NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines.

  18. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  19. Wind turbines and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C.

    2010-01-01

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  1. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly growing. In 2006 the installed generating capacity in the world increased by 25%, a growth rate which has more or less been sustained during the last decade. And there is no reason to believe that this growth will slow significantly in the coming years. For example, the United Kingdom's goal for installed wind turbines by 2020 is 33 GW up from 2 GW in 2006, an average annual growth rate of 22% over that period. More than half of all turbines are installed in Europe, but United States, India and lately China are also rapidly growing markets. The cradle of modern wind energy was set by innovative blacksmiths in rural Denmark. Now the wind provides more than 20% of the electrical power in Denmark, the industry has professionalized and has close ties with public research at universities. This focus issue is concerned with research in wind energy. The main purposes of research in wind energy are to: decrease the cost of power generated by the wind; increase the reliability and predictability of the energy source; investigate and reduce the adverse environmental impact of massive deployment of wind turbines; build research based educations for wind energy engineers. This focus issue contains contributions from several fields of research. Decreased costs cover a very wide range of activities from aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades, optimal site selection for the turbines, optimization of the electrical grid and power market for a fluctuating source, more efficient electrical generators and gears, and new materials and production techniques for turbine manufacturing. The United Kingdom recently started the construction of the London Array, a 1 GW off-shore wind farm east of London consisting of several hundred turbines. To design such a farm optimally it is necessary to understand the chaotic and very turbulent flow downwind from a turbine, which decreases the power production and increases the mechanical loads on other nearby turbines. Also

  2. Wind turbines and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C. [National Colaborating Centre for Environmental Health, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  4. The potential of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-09-01

    Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigues, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

  5. The potential of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-09-01

    Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigus, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

  6. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...... of wind turbines are selected to replace the original wind turbines to reconstruct the wind farm, which is demonstrated to be better than the refurbishment approach which replaces the old wind turbines with the same type. The simulations performed in this research reveal that the reconstructed wind farm......, which consists of multiple types of wind turbine, has a smaller LCoE (10.43%) than the refurbishment approach, which shows the superiority of the proposed method. This research contributes an optimization tool to the wind industry, which consequently drives down the cost of energy produced by offshore...

  7. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States); Afjeh, Abdollah [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Jamali, Mohsin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Bingman, Verner [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  8. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  9. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  10. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  11. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1995-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  12. Wind Atlas of Bay of Bengal with Satellite Wind Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadi, Navila Rahman

    footstep towards offshore wind energy analysis for this region. Generally, it is difficult to find offshore wind data relative to the wind turbine hub heights, therefore a starting point is necessary to identify the possible wind power density of the region. In such scenario, Synthetic aperture radars (SAR......The objective of this study is to obtain appropriate offshore location in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh for further development of wind energy. Through analyzing the previous published works, no offshore wind energy estimation has been found here. That is why, this study can be claimed as the first......) have proven useful. In this study, SAR based dataset- ENVISAT ASAR has been used for Wind Atlas generation. Furthermore, a comparative study has been performed with Global Wind Atlas (GWA) to determine a potential offshore wind farm. Additionally, the annual energy production of that offshore windfarm...

  13. Wind power today: 1999 Wind Energy program highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, Pat

    2000-04-06

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview for the Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy for the 21st century. Content objectives include: Educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain DOE wind energy program objectives and goals; describe program accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  14. When real life wind speed exceeds design wind assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther-Jensen, M.; Joergensen, E.R. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Most modern wind turbines are designed according to a standard or a set of standards to withstand the design loads with a defined survival probability. Mainly the loads are given by the wind conditions on the site defining the `design wind speeds`, normally including extreme wind speeds given as an average and a peak value. The extreme wind speeds are normally (e.g. in the upcoming IEC standard for wind turbine safety) defined as having a 50-year recurrence period. But what happens when the 100 or 10,000 year wind situation hits a wind turbine? Results on wind turbines of wind speeds higher than the extreme design wind speeds are presented based on experiences especially from the State of Gujarat in India. A description of the normal approach of designing wind turbines in accordance with the standards in briefly given in this paper with special focus on limitations and built-in safety levels. Based on that, other possibilities than just accepting damages on wind turbines exposed for higher than design wind speeds are mentioned and discussed. The presentation does not intend to give the final answer to this problem but is meant as an input to further investigations and discussions. (au)

  15. Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Jensen, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    be quantified, albeit with relatively large uncertainty due to stochastic effects in the data. There is evidence of the ‘deep array effect’ in that wake losses in the centre of the wind farm are under-estimated by the wind farm model WAsP, although overall efficiency of the wind farm is well predicted due......Here, we quantify relationships between wind farm efficiency and wind speed, direction, turbulence and atmospheric stability using power output from the large offshore wind farm at Nysted in Denmark. Wake losses are, as expected, most strongly related to wind speed variations through the turbine...... thrust coefficient; with direction, atmospheric stability and turbulence as important second order effects. While the wind farm efficiency is highly dependent on the distribution of wind speeds and wind direction, it is shown that the impact of turbine spacing on wake losses and turbine efficiency can...

  16. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  17. Wind Power Today: 1998 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromly, K.

    1999-06-17

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy manages the Federal Wind Energy Program. The mission of the program is to help the US wind industry to complete the research, testing, and field verification needed to fully develop advanced wind technologies that will lead the world in cost-effectiveness and reliability. This publication, printed annually, provides a summary of significant achievements in wind energy made during the previous calendar year. Articles include wind energy in the Midwest, an Alaskan wind energy project, the US certification program, structural testing, and the federal program in review.

  18. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) toolkit (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Draxl: NREL

    2014-01-01

    Regional wind integration studies require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high penetration scenarios. The wind datasets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as being time synchronized with available load profiles.As described in this presentation, the WIND Toolkit fulfills these requirements by providing a state-of-the-art national (US) wind resource, power production and forecast dataset.

  19. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  20. Aeroservoelasticity of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovmose Kallesoee, B.

    2007-12-14

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravity and pitch action, and on the other it is transparent, suitable for analytical analysis and parameter studies, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual terms in these equations are discussed and given physical interpretations; 2) Steady state blade deformation and induced velocities are computed by combining the PDEs with a steady state aerodynamic model; 3) Aeroelastic modes of motion are computed by combining the linearized PDEs with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model; this model is used to analyze how blade deformation effects the modes of motion; and 4) the linear aeroelastic blade model is derived by a modal expansion of the linearized PDEs combined with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model. The aeroelastic blade model has many similarities to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model is used to develop a state estimator for estimating the wind speed and wind shear, and to suggest a load reducing controller. The state estimator estimates the wind shear very

  1. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    is minimized. The controller is practically feasible. Yet, the results on load reduction in this approach are not very significant. In the second strategy, the wind farm control problem has been divided into below rated and above rated wind speed conditions. In the above rated wind speed pitch angle and power....... Distributed controller design commences with formulating the problem, where a structured matrix approach has been put in to practice. Afterwards, an H2 control problem is implemented to obtain the controller dynamics for a wind farm such that the structural loads on wind turbines are minimized.......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage...

  2. Wind energy potential in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Though located in the tropics, India is endowed with substantial wind resources because of its unique geographical location which gets fully exposed to both the south-west and north-east monsoon winds. The westerly winds of the south-west monsoons provide bulk of the wind potential. Areas with mean annual wind speed exceeding 18 k mph and areas with mean annual power density greater than 140 W/m 2 have been identified using the wind data collected by the wind monitoring project funded by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES). Seasonal variations in wind speed at selected locations are discussed as also the frequency distribution of hourly wind speed. Annual capacity factors for 250 kW wind electric generators have been calculated for several typical locations. A good linear correlation has been found between mean annual wind speed and mean annual capacity factor. A method is described for assessing wind potential over an extended region where adequate data is available. It is shown that the combined wind energy potential over five selected areas of limited extent in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu alone amounts to 22,000 MW under the assumption of 20 per cent land availability for installing wind farms. For a higher percentage of land availability, the potential will be correspondingly higher. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The global wind power market not only repelled the strictures of the financial crisis, but saw the installation of 37 GW in 2009, which is almost 10 GW up on 2008. China and the United States registered particularly steady growth and the European Union also picked up momentum to break its installation record. A total capacity of 158 GW of wind power are now installed across the world from which 74.8 GW in the European Union. Among the European countries Denmark has the highest wind capacity per inhabitant in 2009: 627.5 kW/1000 inhabitants. Spain seeks to limit its market's growth in order to better manage the development of wind energy across the country. German growth is back, Italy chalks up a new record for installation and the French market is becoming increasingly regulated. United-Kingdom is developing offshore wind farms: the offshore capacity could reasonably rise to 20000 MW by 2020. The last part of the article reports some economical news from the leading players: Vestas, GE-Energy, Gamesa, Enercon, Sinovel and Siemens. (A.C.)

  4. Wind Powering America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.; Dougherty, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately$60 billion investment and$1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced

  5. Wind Powering America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. (NREL); Dougherty, P. J. (DOE)

    2001-07-07

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately $60 billion investment and $1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced.

  6. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  8. Financing wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, P.

    1996-01-01

    Triodos Bank has more than 10 years of experience with developing and financing wind projects in the Netherlands. Over 50 Megawatt has been installed with direct involvement of the bank. The experience is both as a bank and as a venture capital fund. In this contribution the perspective will be more from a venture capital point of view than as a bank. The bank's activities in the wind energy sector started in 1986 by forming a joint venture with an engineering bureau, experienced i wind energy but not yet in developing wind projects. From 1989 onwards the joint venture started to build wind farms, both as a private company and in a joint venture with utilities. The European Investment Bank became involved with a long-term debt finance facility (15 years, fixed interest loan). The main difficulties were long-term commitments from landowners (Dike authorities) and utilities with regard to power contracts. The development got really stuck when utilities refused to pay a fair price anymore. Also, site development became more and more difficult. Even the poor technical performance improved drastically and did not frighten developers and banks too much. (author)

  9. Wind power; Die Kraft der Winde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardo, Dietrich

    2009-10-30

    Wind power plants are probably only one pillar of the bridge that is taking us into an energy future still unimaginable to us. They are extremely cost-intensive and bulky and they spoil our landscapes. Their patronage by political leaders is understandable considering our excessive dependence on oil and gas. True energy autonomy is currently still a utopian dream for a country as poor in resources as Germany. On the other hand, to reach Utopia you have to build bridges there. Seen this way all currently available types of renewable energy represent bridge technologies whose realisation is imperative.

  10. The wind energy takes off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.; Degobert, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the objectives defined for wind energy production by 2050, the important growth of wind energy in Europe and in other parts of the world, and its importance in terms of business and jobs, this article presents the Denmark model where the wind energy industry is a world leader but now faces the need of a new development model. It comments the investments and incentives implemented in Western countries after the first oil crisis. It outlines the increasing power of wind generators and their technological evolution, the development of offshore wind farms and their cost, and finally the intermittency problem and the case of small wind turbines

  11. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We...... investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number...... of wind turbines

  12. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  13. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have design and constructed a HTS machine experimental...... still be optimized towards more competitive alternative to conventional machines. Additionally, by constructing the HTS machine setup we went through most of the issues related to the HTS machine design which we managed to address in rather simple manner using everyday materials and therefore proving......A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely in the future. The work presented...

  14. Strategic wind power trading considering rival wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers......, uncertainty of rival wind power generation should also be considered. Under this context, this paper addresses the impact of rival wind producers on the offering strategy and profits of a pricemaker wind producer. A stochastic day-ahead market setup is considered, which optimizes the day-ahead schedules...... considering a number of foreseen real-time scenarios. The results indicate that strategic wind producer is more likely to exercise market power having a mid-mean or low-mean forecast distribution, rather than having a high-mean one. Furthermore, it is observed that its offering strategy varies considerably...

  15. Wind Power Today: 2000 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, W.

    2001-05-08

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  16. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  17. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    established from the on-site distribution functions of the horizontal mean wind speeds, the 90% quantile of turbulence along with average values of vertical wind shear and air density and the maximum flow inclination. This paper investigates the accuracy of fatigue loads estimated using this equivalent wind...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...... and Høvsøre in Denmark have been used to estimate the natural variation in the wind conditions between 10 min time periods. The structural wind turbine loads have been simulated using the aero-elastic model FAST. The results show that using a 90% quantile for the turbulence leads to an accurate assessment...

  18. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  19. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  20. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  1. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  2. Wind farm policy 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    Argyll and Bute District Council, having received a number of planning applications for the erection of wind farms, seeks, in this document, to set out its environmental policy on these installations in line with national government guidelines and those from Strathclyde Regional Council. District Council policy on thirteen environmental issues connected with wind farm construction is set out, covering issues such as environmental impacts on wild-life, noise pollution, access for construction, maintenance and decommissioning vehicles as well as planning consent issues. Recommendations are made to four interested bodies, Strathclyde Regional Council, the Forestry Authority and Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. (UK)

  3. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  4. Wind Technology Advancements and Impacts on Western Wind Resources (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-09-01

    Robi Robichaud made this presentation at the Bureau of Land Management West-wide Wind Opportunities and Constraints Mapping (WWOCM) Project public meeting in Denver, Colorado in September 2014. This presentation outlines recent wind technology advancements, evolving turbine technologies, and industry challenges. The presentation includes maps of mean wind speeds at 50-m, 80-m, and 100-m hub heights on BLM lands. Robichaud also presented on the difference in mean wind speeds from 80m to 100m in Wyoming.

  5. Wind Forcing of the Pacific Ocean Using Scatterometer Wind Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research was an understanding of the wind-forced ocean circulation, particularly for the Pacific Ocean. To determine the ocean's response to the winds, we first needed to generate accurate maps of wind stress. For the ocean's response to wind stress we examined the sea surface height (SSH) both from altimeters and from numerical models for the Pacific Ocean.

  6. Wind turbine wakes; power deficit in clusters and wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to present recent power deficit analysis based on wind farm measurements. The power deficit is used to validate wind farm prediction models for different inflow conditions......The purpose of this presentation is to present recent power deficit analysis based on wind farm measurements. The power deficit is used to validate wind farm prediction models for different inflow conditions...

  7. Footprints in the wind? Environmental impacts of wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoha, P. [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Cayman Islands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This paper reviews the environmental impacts of wind power development and examines noise generated by wind turbines, noise control methods, visual impacts and visibility, and the impact on wildlife and natural habitat. Details are given of other impacts such as electromagnetic interference and the disposal of materials used in the manufacture of parts of wind energy converters. Political issues and social costs of wind energy are considered.

  8. Wind energy. To produce electricity with the wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene

    2015-11-01

    This guide addresses the different aspects of wind-based power generation. It outlines the role of wind energy to meet objectives related to the share of renewable energies in the French energy mix, that wind energy is actually replacing fossil energies, that it is based on local resources within higher safety and less wastage, that current advances are made to integrate wind energy production into the grid, and that it is a solution to diversify energy production. Some figures are presented and commented, regarding onshore wind energy production in France, the location of wind farms, and wind energy production in comparison with other renewable sources. The operation of a wind turbine is described and the different types of wind turbines are evoked. The issue of wind farm planning with citizen participation is addressed: regional planning, studies of pre-feasibility for location selection, procedure, and content of the impact study (radars, fauna and flora, landscapes, safety, health). Other features are outlined: a planned dismantling, and a globally favourable perception. The next part addresses offshore wind energy: the interesting potential of stronger and more reliable wind at sea (European situation, French opportunities, elements comprised in an offshore wind farm), impacts (on marine ecosystems, on neighbouring localities, and interests for visitors). Economic aspects are then addressed: cost and profitability, economic spin-offs, and perspectives. The last part concerns individuals and the possibilities to participate to wind farm projects or to invest in small wind turbines with some prerequisites (constant and steady winds, installation assessment, required expertise, indispensable preliminary steps, costs, aids and profitability)

  9. Wind energy, status and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wijk, A.

    1994-01-01

    Wind energy is diffuse but was widely used before the industrial revolution. The first oil crisis triggered renewed interest in wind energy technology in remote areas. Winds develop when solar radiation reaches the earth's highly varied surface unevenly, creating temperature density and pressure differences. The earth's atmosphere has to circulate to transport heat from the tropics towards the poles. On a global scale, these atmospheric currents work as an immense energy transfer medium. Three main applications can be distinguished: wind pumps, off-grid applications and grid-connected applications. The total generating costs for wind turbine systems are determined by total investments costs, the life time, the operating and maintenance costs, the wind regime (the wind energy potential is proportional to v 3 where v is the wind speed), the efficiency and availability of the wind turbine. The main gains are achieved as a result of improved reliability. The optimum size of a wind turbine depends on the wind speed, the wind turbine costs, the construction costs, the environmental impact and the social costs. The value of wind energy depends on the application that is made of the energy generated and on the costs of alternatives, it can be calculated by the avoided costs of damage to flora, fauna and mankind due to acid rain deposition, enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The environmental aspects are bird hindrance, noise, telecommunication interference and safety. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Blowing in the Wind: A Review of Wind Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of wind as a replenishable energy resource has come back into favour in recent decades. It is much promoted as a viable, clean energy option that will help towards reducing CO[subscript 2] emissions in the UK. This article examines the history of wind power and considers the development of wind turbines, together with their economic,…

  11. Far offshore wind conditions in scope of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Far offshore atmospheric conditions are favourable for wind energy purposes since mean wind speeds are relatively high (i.e., high power production) while turbulence levels are relatively low (i.e., less fatigue loads) compared to onshore conditions. Offshore wind energy, however, is still expensive

  12. Capturing the journey of wind from the wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbine design, control strategies often assume Taylor’s frozen turbulence where the fluctuating part of the wind is assumed to be constant. In practise, the wind turbine faces higher turbulence in case of gusts and lower turbulence in some cases. With Lidar technology, the frozen turbulence

  13. Marine wind data presentation using wind transition matrix

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.J.; Gouveia, A.D.; Desai, R.G.P.

    depends upon the direction from which the wind is presently blowing. The percentage cumulative wind transition matrix of the order of 49 x 49 has been presented for the data obtainEd. by the wind monitoring system. These observations were obtained at a...

  14. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verelst, D.R.S.; Larsen, T.J.; Van Wingerden, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the

  15. Monthly Wind Characteristics and Wind Energy in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Evaluating wind power potential for a site is indispensable before making any decision for the installation of wind energy infrastructures and planning for relating projects. This paper presents a branch of a composite analysis whose objective was to investigate the potential of wind energy resource in Rwanda.

  16. Monthly Wind Characteristics and Wind Energy in Rwanda | Sarari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating wind power potential for a site is indispensable before making any decision for the installation of wind energy infrastructures and planning for relating projects. This paper presents a branch of a composite analysis whose objective was to investigate the potential of wind energy resource in Rwanda. Statistical ...

  17. Wind Power Today: Wind Energy Program Highlights 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program accomplishments for the previous year. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2001 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2001, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  18. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  19. 77 FR 40608 - Notice of Petition for Enforcement and Declaratory Order; Exelon Wind 1, LLC; Exelon Wind 2, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Petition for Enforcement and Declaratory Order; Exelon Wind 1, LLC; Exelon Wind 2, LLC; Exelon Wind 3, LLC; Exelon Wind 4, LLC; Exelon Wind 5, LLC; Exelon Wind 6, LLC; Exelon Wind 7, LLC; Exelon Wind 8, LLC; Exelon Wind 9, LLC; Exelon Wind 10, LLC; Exelon Wind 11, LLC...

  20. Wind/water energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, J.

    1979-01-01

    Device will convert wind, water, tidal or wave energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Is comprised of windmill-like paddles or blades synchronously geared to orient themselves to wind direction for optimum energy extraction.

  1. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  2. Wind energy a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, PhD, David E

    2014-01-01

    While covering the fascinating history of wind power as a whole, this timely handbook focuses on current technological developments and the promise--and pitfalls--of wind energy as part of the world's energy future.

  3. VT Act 174 Wind Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The statewide wind potential layer used in the Act 174 effort represents three combined wind resource layers: Potential Residential and Small and...

  4. 2016 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) annual Distributed Wind Market Report provides stakeholders with statistics and analysis of the distributed wind market, along with insight into its trends and characteristics.

  5. 2016 Offshore Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spitsen, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report is intended to provide stakeholders with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide.

  6. Strong winds and waves offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2016-01-01

    This report is prepared for Statoil, with the intention to introdu e DTU Wind Energy's ongoing resear h a tivities on o shore extreme wind and wave onditions. The purpose is to share our re ent ndings and to establish possible further ollaboration with Statoil. The fo us of this report is on the ......This report is prepared for Statoil, with the intention to introdu e DTU Wind Energy's ongoing resear h a tivities on o shore extreme wind and wave onditions. The purpose is to share our re ent ndings and to establish possible further ollaboration with Statoil. The fo us of this report...... is on the meteorologi al and o eani onditions related to storm winds and waves over the North Sea. With regard to the o shore wind energy appli ation, the parameters addressed here in lude: extreme wind and extreme waves, storm wind and waves and turbulen e issues for o shore onditions....

  7. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  8. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  9. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation...

  10. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  11. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  12. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  13. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  14. A Changing Wind Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Yaël; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Pittard, Julian M.; Parkin, Elliot Ross; Rauw, Gregor; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hillier, D. John

    2018-02-01

    We report on the first detection of a global change in the X-ray emitting properties of a wind–wind collision, thanks to XMM-Newton observations of the massive Small Magellenic Cloud (SMC) system HD 5980. While its light curve had remained unchanged between 2000 and 2005, the X-ray flux has now increased by a factor of ∼2.5, and slightly hardened. The new observations also extend the observational coverage over the entire orbit, pinpointing the light-curve shape. It has not varied much despite the large overall brightening, and a tight correlation of fluxes with orbital separation is found without any hysteresis effect. Moreover, the absence of eclipses and of absorption effects related to orientation suggests a large size for the X-ray emitting region. Simple analytical models of the wind–wind collision, considering the varying wind properties of the eruptive component in HD 5980, are able to reproduce the recent hardening and the flux-separation relationship, at least qualitatively, but they predict a hardening at apastron and little change in mean flux, contrary to observations. The brightness change could then possibly be related to a recently theorized phenomenon linked to the varying strength of thin-shell instabilities in shocked wind regions. Based on XMM-Newton and Chandra data.

  15. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the economic crisis affecting most of the globe's major economies, wind energy continues to gain supporters around the world. Global wind power capacity increased by 40.5 GW between 2010 and 2011 compared to a 39 GW rise between 2009 and 2010, after deduction of decommissioned capacity. By the end of 2011 global installed wind turbine capacity should stand at around 238.5 GW, and much of the world's growth is being driven by capacity build-up in the emerging markets (China, India...). In 2011 Asia was the world's biggest market (52%) ahead of Europe (24.5%) and North-America (19.7%). Europe has still the largest wind power capacity in the world with 40.6% of total in 2011. 2011 was another tough year for Vestas company while Gamesa company has managed to maintain positive profit growth by gaining market shares abroad. Siemens keeps its lead in the offshore market. The Chinese market is now suffering form excess capacity and Chinese companies fell prey to domestic competition

  16. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  17. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  18. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  19. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  20. An Appropriate Wind Model for Wind Integrated Power Systems Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Speed Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Karki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar. Wind energy is being perceived as a promising alternative. This source of energy technology and its applications have undergone significant research and development over the past decade. As a result, many modern power systems include a significant portion of power generation from wind energy sources. The impact of wind generation on the overall system performance increases substantially as wind penetration in power systems continues to increase to relatively high levels. It becomes increasingly important to accurately model the wind behavior, the interaction with other wind sources and conventional sources, and incorporate the characteristics of the energy demand in order to carry out a realistic evaluation of system reliability. Power systems with high wind penetrations are often connected to multiple wind farms at different geographic locations. Wind speed correlations between the different wind farms largely affect the total wind power generation characteristics of such systems, and therefore should be an important parameter in the wind modeling process. This paper evaluates the effect of the correlation between multiple wind farms on the adequacy indices of wind-integrated systems. The paper also proposes a simple and appropriate probabilistic analytical model that incorporates wind correlations, and can be used for adequacy evaluation of multiple wind-integrated systems.

  1. Proceedings of the Canadian Wind Energy Association's 2009 wind matters conference : wind and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for wind energy and electric power industry experts to discuss issues related to wind and power systems. An overview of wind integration studies and activities in Canada and the United States was provided. New tools and technologies for facilitating the integration of wind and improve market conditions for wind energy developers were presented. Methods of increasing wind penetration were evaluated, and technical issues related to wind interconnections throughout North America were reviewed. The conference was divided into the following 5 sessions: (1) experiences with wind integration, and lessons learned, (2) update on ongoing wind integration initiatives in Canada and the United States, (3) initiatives and tools to facilitate wind integration and market access, (4) developments in wind interconnection and grid codes, (5) wind energy and cold weather considerations, and (6) challenges to achieving the 20 per cent WindVision goal in Canada. The conference featured 21 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Wind Technologies and Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robi Robichaud

    2014-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview of wind energy research being conducted at the National Wind Technology Center, market and technology trends in wind energy, and opportunities for wind technology.

  3. The wind power of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Escobedo, Q.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; Zapata-Sierra, A.

    2010-01-01

    The high price of fossil fuels and the environmental damage they cause have encouraged the development of renewable energy resources, especially wind power. This work discusses the potential of wind power in Mexico, using data collected every 10 min between 2000 and 2008 at 133 automatic weather stations around the country. The wind speed, the number of hours of wind useful for generating electricity and the potential electrical power that could be generated were estimated for each year via the modelling of a wind turbine employing a logistic curve. A linear correlation of 90.3% was seen between the mean annual wind speed and the mean annual number of hours of useful wind. Maps were constructed of the country showing mean annual wind speeds, useful hours of wind, and the electrical power that could be generated. The results show that Mexico has great wind power potential with practically the entire country enjoying more than 1700 h of useful wind per year and the potential to generate over 2000 kW of electrical power per year per wind turbine installed (except for the Chiapas's State). Indeed, with the exception of six states, over 5000 kW per year could be generated by each turbine. (author)

  4. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    binned wind speed data to determine the linear fit function. The linear fit function was then used .... was assumed to be quadratic and the wind regime was assumed to be characterized by the. Rayleigh distribution. ..... Assessment and Identification of Wind Resource for Rural Application in Geba. Catchment. Proceedings of ...

  5. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  6. About the wind energetics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, D.S.; Kharitonov, V.P.; Murugov, V.P.; Sokol'skij, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The review of wind power energetics state in USA, Europe, Russia is given. The data of EC on wind power plants production in different periods are presented. The directions of scientific-research works with the purpose of increasing the level of wind power industry of Russia corresponding to economics demands were elaborated. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  8. The wind power of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Escobedo, Q. [Gerencia de Energias No Convencionales, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113 Col. Palmira, C. P. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; Zapata-Sierra, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural, Universidad de Almeria, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The high price of fossil fuels and the environmental damage they cause have encouraged the development of renewable energy resources, especially wind power. This work discusses the potential of wind power in Mexico, using data collected every 10 min between 2000 and 2008 at 133 automatic weather stations around the country. The wind speed, the number of hours of wind useful for generating electricity and the potential electrical power that could be generated were estimated for each year via the modelling of a wind turbine employing a logistic curve. A linear correlation of 90.3% was seen between the mean annual wind speed and the mean annual number of hours of useful wind. Maps were constructed of the country showing mean annual wind speeds, useful hours of wind, and the electrical power that could be generated. The results show that Mexico has great wind power potential with practically the entire country enjoying more than 1700 h of useful wind per year and the potential to generate over 2000 kW of electrical power per year per wind turbine installed (except for the Chiapas's State). Indeed, with the exception of six states, over 5000 kW per year could be generated by each turbine. (author)

  9. Wind height distribution influence on offshore wind farm feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Della Morte, Renata; Matarazzo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilization depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore as compared to sites on land. The higher wind speeds have to compensate the additional cost of offshore developments. However, not only the mean wind speed is different, but the whole flow regime, as can be seen in the vertical wind speed profile. The commonly used models to describe this profile have been developed mainly for land sites, so they have to be verified on the basis of field data. Monin-Obukhov theory is often used for the description of the wind speed profile at a different height with respect to a measurement height. Starting from the former, , the profile is predicted using two parameters, Obukhov length and sea surface roughness. For situations with near-neutral and stable atmospheric stratification and long (>30km) fetch, the wind speed increase with height is larger than what is predicted from Monin-Obukhov theory. It is also found that this deviation occurs at wind speeds important for wind power utilization, mainly at 5-9 ms-1. In the present study the influence of these aspects on the potential site productivity of an offshore wind farm were investigated, namely the deviation from the theory of Monin-Obukhov due to atmospheric stability and the influence of the fetch length on the Charnock model. Both these physical effects were discussed and examined in view of a feasibility study of a site for offshore wind farm in Southern Italy. Available data consisted of time histories of wind speeds and directions collected by National Tidegauge Network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale) at the height of 10m a.s.l. in ports. The theory of Monin-Obukhov was used to extrapolate the data to the height of the wind blades, while the Charnock model was used to extend the wind speed on the sea surface from the friction velocity on the ground. The models described were used to perform calculations for a feasibility study of an offshore wind farm in Southern

  10. Anholt offshore wind farm winds investigated from satellite images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Volker, Patrick

    , i.e. before the wind farm was constructed. Based on these data the wind resource is estimated. Concurrent Sentinel-1 SAR data and available SCADA and lidar data, kindly provided by DONG Energy and partners, for the period January 2013 to June 2015 account for ~70 images, while ~300 images...... are available for Sentinel-1 from July 2015 to February 2017. The Sentinel-1 wind maps are investigated for wind farm wake effects. Furthermore the results on wind resources and wakes are compared to the SCADA and model results from WRF, Park, Fuga and RANS models....

  11. Wind power forecast error smoothing within a wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleck, Nadja; Bremen, Lueder von

    2007-01-01

    Smoothing of wind power forecast errors is well-known for large areas. Comparable effects within a wind farm are investigated in this paper. A Neural Network was taken to predict the power output of a wind farm in north-western Germany comprising 17 turbines. A comparison was done between an algorithm that fits mean wind and mean power data of the wind farm and a second algorithm that fits wind and power data individually for each turbine. The evaluation of root mean square errors (RMSE) shows that relative small smoothing effects occur. However, it can be shown for this wind farm that individual calculations have the advantage that only a few turbines are needed to give better results than the use of mean data. Furthermore different results occurred if predicted wind speeds are directly fitted to observed wind power or if predicted wind speeds are first fitted to observed wind speeds and then applied to a power curve. The first approach gives slightly better RMSE values, the bias improves considerably

  12. Endurance Wind Power : practical insights into small wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed practical issues related to purchasing and installing small wind turbines in Canada. Wind power capacity can be estimated by looking at provincial wind maps as well as by seeking wind data at local airports. Wind resources are typically measured at heights of between 20 meters and 50 m. The height of a wind turbine tower can significantly increase the turbine's wind generating capacity. Turbine rotors should always be placed 30 feet higher than obstacles within 500 feet. Many provinces have now mandated utilities to accept renewable energy resources from grid-connected wind energy plants. Net billing systems are used to determine the billing relationship between power-producing consumers and the utilities who will buy the excess power and sell it to other consumers. Utilities are not yet mandated to purchase excess power, and it is likely that federal and provincial legislation will be needed to ensure that net billing systems continue to grow. Many Canadian municipalities have no ordinances related to wind turbine placements. Consumers interested in purchasing small wind turbines should ensure that the turbine has been certified by an accredited test facility and has an adequate safety system. The noise of the turbine as well as its power performance in relation to the purchaser's needs must also be considered. It was concluded that small wind turbines can provide a means for electricity consumers to reduce their carbon footprint and hedge against the inflationary costs of fossil-fuelled energy resources. tabs., figs

  13. Thuega. Wind in the forest; Thuega. Wind im Wald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the wind farms Biebersdorf and Neuerkirch. The wind farm Biebersdorf was built by Windpark Biebersdorf GmbH (Maerkische Heide, Federal Republic of Germany). It consists of fourteen wind turbines with an output of 28 MW. The annual production of this wind farm is approximately 62.4 million kWh. With this, approximately 15,600 households were supplied with clean electricity, and emissions of 50,000 tonnes of CO{sub 2} were avoided. The wind farm Neuerkirch (Neuerkirch, Federal Republic of Germany) consists of eight wind turbines of Enercon E-82 E2 with a capacity of 2.3 MW, a rotor diameter of 82 meters and a hub height of 138 meters. It was built by juwi Holding AG (Woerrstadt, Federal Republic of Germany). Thuega Erneuerbare Energie GmbH and Co. KG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) acquired both wind farms.

  14. Wake dynamics in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mare, Martin Tobias

    Wind turbines within offshore wind farms spend considerable time operating in the wake of neighboring wind turbines. An important contribution to the loads on a wake-affected wind turbine is the slow movement of the wake from the upstream wind turbine across the rotor of the wake-affected wind...

  15. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  16. Wind energy. Technology and Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    On this bilingual CD-ROM (English and German), we would like to offer you information on all different aspects of wind energy utilisation. Our aim is the worldwide spread of know-how on wind energy - one basic aim of WWEA. The CD-ROM and the correspondent website www.world-wind-energy.info addresses all who are interested in wind energy, especially on students and learners, staff members of administrations, companies, associations, etc, who want to inform themselves and further their education of wind energy. We hope that this CD-ROM may be use to you and we would appreciate your feedback and comments. (orig.)

  17. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  18. Index Bioclimatic "Wind-Chill"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoreanu Elena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an important bioclimatic index which shows the influence of wind on the human body thermoregulation. When the air temperature is high, the wind increases thermal comfort. But more important for the body is the wind when the air temperature is low. When the air temperature is lower and wind speed higher, the human body is threatening to freeze faster. Cold wind index is used in Canada, USA, Russia (temperature "equivalent" to the facial skin etc., in the weather forecast every day in the cold season. The index can be used and for bioclimatic regionalization, in the form of skin temperature index.

  19. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.; Barbose, G.; Darghouth, N.; Hoen, B.; Mills, A.; Weaver, S.; Porter, K.; Buckley, M.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.

    2014-08-01

    This annual report provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2013. This 2013 edition updates data presented in previous editions while highlighting key trends and important new developments. The report includes an overview of key installation-related trends; trends in wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States.

  20. Challenges in wind farm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...

  1. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  2. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  3. Wind Power Today and Tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-03-01

    Wind Power Today and Tomorrow is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today and Tomorrow is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2003 edition of the program overview also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2003, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed region s through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  4. Wind vanes in the antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgrén, S.; Neumann, J.

    1983-06-01

    Mesopotamia: An Akkadian tablet, the original of which was incised between about 1800 and 1600 B.C., makes explicit mention of a wind vane. Further three Sumero-Akkadian “dictionaries” have three different names for the single Akkadian name for wind vane. Since the latest period of flourishing of the Sumerian civilization took place between about 2 100 and 2000 B.C., wind vanes must have been in use in ancient Mesopotamia already about 4000 years ago, i.e. about 2000 years before the Chinese and Greeks had wind vanes. The Mesopotamian wind vanes were made of wood. China: It appears from the old Chinese literature that streamers were in use about the 2nd century B.C. in China for wind vanes. Shortly thereafter, a wind vane in the shape of a bird made of bronze is mentioned in the literature. Greece: The wind vane in the shape of a triton that was fixed, according to Vitruvius, to the top of the Tower of Winds at Athens, must have disappeared before A.D. 1436. Roman Empire: According to a passage in Dio Chrysostom's writtings, streamers appear to have been used for wind vanes. What seems to be the first wind vane in the shape of a cock, was erected in the 2nd century A.D. on the top of the mausoleum of the Flavians, in a North African province of the Roman Empire.

  5. Inside anti-wind groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rap, C.

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning the opposition to wind turbines was based on the preservation of the landscape. Now as wind farms are more frequent, the reasons to fight them become more concrete: -) the loss of value of properties due to the installation of a wind turbine in the surroundings, -) the noise and the view, or -) the impact on the fauna. More and more people question the choice of wind power as an efficient and reliable source of energy. In France about a few tens of thousand people are registered in associations of opponents to wind energy. These associations have merged into 2 main federations: 'Vent de colere' and 'Federation Environement Durable'. In october 2008 Apaw, a European platform against wind energy, was founded. Apaw gathers 400 federations from 21 European countries. Wind energy opponents are getting momentum, they are becoming experts on how to communicate, how to organize demonstrations, how to take legal actions and on active lobbying. (A.C.)

  6. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  7. Modeling of Wind Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spacil, D.; Santarius, P. [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Department of Electrical Measurement, FEECS, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava- Poruba (Czech Republic); Dobrucky, B. [University of Zilina, Department of Mechatronics and Electronics, FEE, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2006-07-01

    The electrical power produced by the wind power plant has increased in the last years in the world and probably will increase further in the future. Therefore, wind power plants have a significant influence on the power production. In this article the connection of the wind turbine to a grid is described in order to determine the impact of the existing wind turbines as well as planned wind turbines on the grid and ensure the proper functioning of the wind turbine. The purpose of the presented work is to find an analytical generator model for the simulation of the wind power plant and determine the influence on the grid by programming with Matlab/Simulink.

  8. The economics of offshore wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. - Research Highlights: → Market trends for investment in offshore wind generation. → Cost analysis and comparison of offshore and onshore wind farms. → Review of policy support schemes in Europe for offshore wind generators and implications.

  9. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orell, A; Foster, N.

    2015-08-01

    The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.

  10. Assembling Markets for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    This project studies the making of a market for wind power in France. Markets for wind power are often referred to as ‘political markets: On the one hand, wind power has the potential to reduce CO2-emissions and thus stall the effects of electricity generation on climate change; and on the other...... hand, as an economic good, wind power is said to suffer from (techno-economic) ‘disabilities’, such as high costs, fluctuating and unpredictable generation, etc. Therefore, because of its performance as a good, it is argued that the survival of wind power in the market is premised on different...... instruments, some of which I will refer to as ‘prosthetic devices’. This thesis inquires into two such prosthetic devices: The feed-in tariff and the wind power development zones (ZDE) as they are negotiated and practiced in France, and also the ways in which they affect the making of markets for wind power....

  11. Peigans plan wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-06-01

    The Peigan Nation of southwest Alberta will have four one-MW Nordex wind turbines installed on its land by October 1998, as the first step in a $200 million 101 MW grid-connected wind farm. The installation is a joint venture between Peigan Utilities Inc., Advanced Thermodynamics, the licencees to market the Nordex turbines, and the Sault Ste. Marie`s Batchawana Band. The joint venture is named `Weather-Dancer`. The test turbine is scheduled to be installed in August, with three more planned in October. Each turbine has a rotor of 54 metres in diameter, atop a 60-metre tower. Initially, the power will be used on the reserve through a Peigan-administered rural electrification association. The remainder of the turbines will be added as purchase contracts are signed with the Alberta Power Pool.

  12. Database on wind characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Fluid Mechanics Section, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Wind data with high temporal resolution exist from a variety of sites, and is in demand by windturbine designers and wind engineers. Unfortunately it has always been a problem to gain access to a suitable amount of this data, because they are available from many different sources in different formats and with very different levels of documentation and quality control. We are now in the process of gaining access to a large amount of this type of data, checking the quality of the data and putting the data at the disposition of the windturbine designer community through easy Internet access. Online search will use summary statistics calculated for each series to help in the selection of data. The selected data can then be downloaded directly to the user. 3 figs.

  13. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However......, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10...

  14. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  15. Wind turbine spoiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  16. Wind Data Analysis and Wind Flow Simulation Over Large Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terziev Angel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the share of renewable energy sources is one of the core policies of the European Union. This is because of the fact that this energy is essential in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and securing energy supplies. Currently, the share of wind energy from all renewable energy sources is relatively low. The choice of location for a certain wind farm installation strongly depends on the wind potential. Therefore the accurate assessment of wind potential is extremely important. In the present paper an analysis is made on the impact of significant possible parameters on the determination of wind energy potential for relatively large areas. In the analysis the type of measurements (short- and long-term on-site measurements, the type of instrumentation and the terrain roughness factor are considered. The study on the impact of turbulence on the wind flow distribution over complex terrain is presented, and it is based on the real on-site data collected by the meteorological tall towers installed in the northern part of Bulgaria. By means of CFD based software a wind map is developed for relatively large areas. Different turbulent models in numerical calculations were tested and recommendations for the usage of the specific models in flows modeling over complex terrains are presented. The role of each parameter in wind map development is made. Different approaches for determination of wind energy potential based on the preliminary developed wind map are presented.

  17. Estimation of wind characteristics at potential wind energy conversion sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    A practical method has been developed and applied to the problem of determining wind characteristics at candidate wind energy conversion sites where there are no available historical data. The method uses a mass consistent wind flow model (called COMPLEX) to interpolate between stations where wind data are available. The COMPLEX model incorporates the effects of terrain features and airflow. The key to the practical application of COMPLEX to the derivation of wind statistics is the model's linearity. This allows the input data sets to be resolved into orthogonal components along the set of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The solution for each eigenvector is determined with COMPLEX; the hourly interpolated winds are then formed from linear combinations of these solutions. The procedure requires: acquisition and merger of wind data from three to five stations, application of COMPLEX to each of the seven to 11 (depending on the number of stations for which wind data are available) eigenvectors, reconstruction of the hourly interpolated winds at the site from the eigenvector solutions, and finally, estimating the wind characteristics from the simulated hourly values. The report describes the methodology and the underlying theory. Possible improvements to the procedure are also discussed.

  18. Investigation of Wind Turbine Rotor Concepts for Offshore Wind Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyhan, Özlem; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Current plans in offshore wind energy developments call for further reduction of cost of energy. In order to contribute to this goal, several wind turbine rotor concepts have been investigated. Assuming the future offshore wind turbines will operate only in the offshore wind farms, the rotor concepts are not only evaluated for their stand-alone performances and their potential in reducing the loads, but also for their performance in an offshore wind farm. In order to do that, the 10MW reference wind turbine designed in Innwind.EU project is chosen as baseline. Several rotor parameters have been modified and their influences are investigated for offshore wind turbine design purposes. This investigation is carried out as a conceptual parametrical study. All concepts are evaluated numerically with BOT (Blade optimisation tool) software in wind turbine level and with Farmflow software in wind farm level for two wind farm layouts. At the end, all these concepts are compared with each other in terms of their advantages and disadvantages

  19. Unconventional wind machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheff, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to introduce an unconventional wind machine which has economics comparable with nuclear power and is already available in the public market place. Specifically, up to about 17 MWE could be saved for other uses such as sale in most 1000 MWE plants of any type - nuclear, oil, gas, peat, or wood - which use conventional electrically driven fans in their cooling towers. 10 refs

  20. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Contact: Ken O’Brock North Benton, OH 44449 Telephone: 216-584-4681 Pacific Energy Systems North Wind 615 Romero Canyon Road Contact: Fred Carr Santa... Natal St ation. NMa~port 121.: CO(. rok Is NN. ode 4. 12 Mai e otrp’. Di’i Ireastire Is- San Francisco (CA: I i r Nlech Pt;rr 3𔄁\\\\(’ŗ Norlnolk N\\N. I

  1. The Smart Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Halimi, Wissam; Salzmann, Christophe; Gillet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Remote experimentation is at the core of Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics education supported by e-learning. The development and integration of remote labo- ratories in online learning activities is hindered by the inherited supporting infrastructure’s architecture and implementation. In this paper we present a remote experiment (The Smart Wind Tur- bine) built following the Smart Device Paradigm and integrated in an Inquiry Learning Space: the rich open educational resource def...

  2. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  3. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-07-01

    This wind energy resource atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in the country of Armenia. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. The maps portray the wind resource with high-resolution (1-km2) grids of wind power density at 50-m above ground. The wind maps were created at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using a computerized wind mapping system that uses Geographic Information System (GIS) software.

  4. Wind exports markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the situation of wind export markets and the principles of firming, shaping and moving. Firming means the conversion of uncertain second to second output into hourly deliveries. Firming of energy is used to make up the difference between the hourly schedule and actual output. Firming of capacity is setting aside generation to stand behind fluctuations in wind output within the hour. Shaping is to convert uncertain hour-to-hour output throughout the year into predetermined deliveries that meet consumer demand. Moving refers to BC's attempts to bring about the transport of clean energy to California. But there are transmission issues involved because the network lines to California are already fully subscribed. One solution would be for IPPs to purchase services from Powerex, or any other service provider, at opportunity cost. Another element is that the market price for wholesale electricity is lower than in recent years. It is safe to say that there are lots of uncertainties involved in wind exports.

  5. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the over...

  6. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due...... to the partly unconstrained movement of the platform and ocean wave excitation. If this additional complexity is not dealt with properly, this may lead to a significant increase in the structural loads and, potentially, instability of the controlled system. In this paper, the wave excitation is investigated......, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system...

  7. Wind shear extremes at possible offshore wind turbine locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2003-01-01

    Positive and negative short-term extreme wind shear distributions (conditioned on the mean wind speed) are determined and compared for a number of offshore sites. The analysis is based on rapidly sampled field measurements (1-8 Hz) extracted from the "Database on Wind Characteristics" (www.windda...... seems to be rather conservative for an offshore location, compared to the estimated values based on measurements.......Positive and negative short-term extreme wind shear distributions (conditioned on the mean wind speed) are determined and compared for a number of offshore sites. The analysis is based on rapidly sampled field measurements (1-8 Hz) extracted from the "Database on Wind Characteristics" (www.......winddata.com). Three different averaging periods (2, 5 and 10 seconds) are considered, and for each averaging period a relation between the resulting extreme shear distributions and the averaging time are presented. The short-term extreme shear analysis is based on different spatial distances, and extrapolation...

  8. Database on wind characteristics - Analyses of wind turbine design loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of IEA R&D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - has been to provide wind energy planners, designers and researchers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with a source of actual wind fielddata (time series and resource data) observed...... in a wide range of different wind climates and terrain types. Connected to an extension of the initial Annex period, the scope for the continuation was widened to include also support to the international windturbine standardisation efforts.. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands...... and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of the continuation of Annex XVII falls in two separate parts. Part one accounts in detailsfor the available data in the established database bank, and part two describes various data analyses performed with the overall purpose of improving...

  9. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    . The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy......This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off...

  10. Low wind speed wind turbine in DIY version

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy has still a place, as it can generate power in the winter, when less sun is available and when the wind speed is higher. This paper proposes a solution for low cost blades from a polyethylene pipe (PE) and a low cost electric bike generator, which is possible to realize by a do it yourself (DIY) person. It is intended as low wind speed wind turbine (LWWT). The design is rather optimized towards a low cost/swept area, rather than the cost/nominal power. It uses a variant on the fur...

  11. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC... Development, LLC, and TGP Development Company, LLC (Petitioners) filed jointly a petition for declaratory...

  12. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  13. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical......Since the renewable energy is popularly applied in power industry, especially the smart grid is fast developing all over the world during these years, the reliable connection between a wind farm and the main grid has been focused on. Due to the difficult control on the wind energy, the connection...... scenarios. By delivering the signals among WTs (wind turbines) and control centers, they both are able to recognize another side’s operation situation and to adjust its own state to realize the optimization. A scenario is designed in this paper, in which a fault occurs in wind farm; then the protection...

  14. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...... changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical...

  15. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...... price thresholds are significantly higher when the monopolist at the peakload level owns both types of generators. Furthermore, when producing electricity with the peakload generator, the monopolist can avoid facing prices below marginal cost by owning a certain share of the wind generators....

  16. The wind energy more controlled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    The amendments put down at the French house of commons and at the senate to the energy orientation law will, if adopted, lead to the abandonment of about 95% of the wind energy projects (about 2500 MW). The minimum power to profit by the obligation of power purchase by Electricite de France or by local distribution companies is increased to 20 MW in order to favour the big structures and to protect the landscapes. This disposition is considered as catastrophic by the wind energy professionals and will lead to important geographical disparities between densely and weakly populated regions. In Germany, which is the first European wind power producing country with 160000 MW installed, the development of wind energy represents prohibitive investments. Nevertheless, Germany is now staking on offshore wind power. The first offshore wind farms will be put into service in 2006 in the Baltic sea. (J.S.)

  17. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This annual report--now in its tenth year--provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation trends and then covers an array of industry and technology trends. The report also discusses project performance, wind turbine prices, project costs, operations and maintenance expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments, expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments.

  18. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... the actions should be made and the type of actions requires knowledge on the accumulated damage or degradation state of the wind turbine components. For offshore wind turbines, the action times could be extended due to weather restrictions and result in damage or degradation increase of the remaining...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...

  19. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  20. 77 FR 61597 - Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Pacific Wind 2, LLC; Valentine Solar, LLC; EDF Renewable Development, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on September 27, 2012, Avalon Wind...

  1. Wind power's coming of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the role that wind power has in meeting future energy demand. The topics of the article include demonstration of current technology, an overview of research and market activity, institutional and regulatory barriers and other issues, financing of wind power projects, incentives and penalties, current market experience, national trends in application of wind power plants, advanced technologies, intermittency, power quality, and transmission and distribution

  2. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied....

  3. Solar wind stagnation near comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Cravens, T.E.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1983-03-01

    The nature of the solar wind flow near comets is examined analytically. In particular, the typical values for the stagnation pressure and magnetic barrier strength are estimated, taking into account the magnetic field line tension and the charge exchange cooling of the mass loaded solar wind. Knowledge of the strength of the magnetic barrier is required in order to determine the location of the contact discontinuity which separates the contaminated solar wind plasma and the outflowing plasma of the cometary ionosphere. (author)

  4. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yin; Kong Xiangdong; Hao Li; Ai Chao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system ca...

  5. Wind Turbine Optimization with WISDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2018-01-03

    This presentation for the Fourth Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop explains the NREL wind energy systems engineering initiative-developed analysis platform and research capability to capture important system interactions to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. Topics include Wind-Plant Integrated System Design and Engineering Model (WISDEM) and multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization.

  6. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Wind power capacity in the United States experienced strong growth in 2016. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions have also been driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers.

  7. Ancillary Services from Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meeting the EU objectives of sustainable energy supply in the near future involves a dramatic increase of the electricity demand covered by variable renewable sources, among which wind power holds an important role. This important role comes together with ever increasing requirements of wind powe...... plants ability of delivering ancillary services to the power system. The presentation attempts at giving an overview of the present (and future) research on the ability of large (offshore) wind farms to provide power system services....

  8. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  9. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  10. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel...... data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible forthe poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads...

  11. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so...

  12. Incompressible Wind Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, E.

    2018-04-01

    We present a simple, analytic model of an incompressible fluid accreting onto a moving gravitating object. This solution allows us to probe the highly subsonic regime of wind accretion. Moreover, it corresponds to the Newtonian limit of a previously known relativistic model of a stiff fluid accreting onto a black hole. Besides filling this blank in the literature, the new solution should be useful as a benchmark test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. Given its simplicity, it can also be used as an illustrative example in a gas dynamics course.

  13. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  14. Wind energy: Science or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisouw de Zilwa, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The energy policy of the Dutch government is aimed at the use of different energy sources (diversification). Therefore the Dutch government supports the implementation of wind turbines and stimulates product improvement and research by means of the TWIN-program (a program to support the application of wind energy in the Netherlands). The purpose of the program is to commercialize efficient wind turbines. Without subsidies it is not yet possible to exploit wind turbines in an efficient way. Around the year 2000 a capacity of 1000 MW must be realized. 1 fig., 1 ill., 5 tabs., 1 ref

  15. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  16. Wind energy and social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurtey, E.

    2008-01-01

    This document was prepared as part of a decentralized collaboration between Quebec and France to share knowledge regarding strategies and best practices in wind power development. It reviewed the social acceptance of Quebec's wind power industry, particularly at the municipal level. The wind industry is growing rapidly in Quebec, and this growth has generated many reactions ranging from positive to negative. The purpose of this joint effort was to describe decision making steps to developing a wind turbine array. The history of wind development in Quebec was discussed along with the various hardware components required in a wind turbine and different types of installations. The key element in implementing wind turbine arrays is to establish public acceptance of the project, followed by a good regulatory framework to define the roles and responsibilities of participants. The production of electricity from wind turbines constitutes a clean and renewable source of energy. Although it is associated with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, this form of energy can also have negative environmental impacts, including noise. The revenues generated by wind parks are important factors in the decision making process. Two case studies in Quebec were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Connecting Communities to Wind Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Edward I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-18

    WINDExchange is the platform for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Energy Technologies Office to disseminate credible wind energy information on a national level. Stakeholder engagement and outreach activities are designed to enable well-informed decisions about appropriate wind energy deployment. WINDExchange focuses on wind energy outreach at the national level while managing and supporting similar regional efforts through the implementation of DOE Regional Resource Centers (RRCs). This fact sheet provides an overview of DOE's WINDExchange initiative and the RRCs. Examples of RRC activities are provided.

  18. Disadvantages of the wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Odd W.

    2005-01-01

    The article discussed various disadvantages of the wind power production and focuses on turbine types, generators, operational safety and development aspects. Some environmental problems are mentioned

  19. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  20. Wind energy prediction; Prediccion eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiberta, B. J.; Florez, M. V. E.

    2004-07-01

    On March 12th, 2004 the Spanish Government modified the legal situation of the renewable energies following the approval of RD 436/2004. This makes necessary the development of wind energy prediction models for its entrance to the daily electricity market like the conventional energies. The improvement of physical models, meteorological models, or a combination of both, is necessary for the prediction of the wind generation. This will guarantee the wind energy full utilization and the participation in the electrical market, as well as the remuneration of the complementary services and the regulation of reactive electricity. In this way wind energy turns into a perfectly manageable one. (Author)

  1. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  2. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  3. The aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...... Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines....

  4. 2008 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, G.; Mills, A.; Rosa, A.; Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Tegen, S.; Musial, W.; Oteri, F.; Heimiller, D.; Rberts, B.; Belyeu, K.; Stimmel, R.

    2009-07-15

    The U.S. wind industry experienced a banner year in 2008, again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, the last year has been one of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting near-term growth prospects for the wind industry, and with federal policy changes enacted to push the industry towards continued aggressive expansion. This rapid pace of development has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace. Yet, the need for timely, objective information on the industry and its progress has never been greater. This report - the third of an ongoing annual series - attempts to meet this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2008. As with previous editions, this report begins with an overview of key wind power installation-related trends: trends in wind capacity growth in the U.S., how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources, the amount and percentage of wind in individual states and serving specific utilities, and the quantity of proposed wind capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind industry trends, including developments in turbine manufacturer market share, manufacturing and supply-chain investments, wind turbine and wind project size, project financing developments, and trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers. The report then turns to a discussion of wind project price, cost, and performance trends. In so doing, it reviews the price of wind power in the United States, and how those prices compare to the cost of fossil-fueled generation, as represented by wholesale power prices. It also describes trends in installed wind project costs, wind turbine transaction prices, project performance, and operations and maintenance expenses. Next, the report examines other policy and market factors impacting the

  5. Wind Power in Electrical Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, large number of wind turbines/wind farms have been installed and connected to power systems. In addition to the large centralised wind farms connected to transmission grids, many distributed wind turbines and wind farms are operated...... as distributed generators in distribution systems. This paper discusses the issues of wind turbines in distribution systems. Wind power conversion systems briefly introduced, the basic features and technical characteristics of distributed wind power system are described, and the main technical demands...

  6. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  7. Wind energy expo '82 and national conference American Wind Energy Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, V. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 41 papers in this conference report. Wind farms, large wind turbines, new wind turbines, marketing small wind systems, programs, performance, and economics, analytic methods, testing, power conversion, and rotor systems are the principal topics covered.

  8. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pryor, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient ...

  9. Data-driven wind plant control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebraad, P.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Each wind turbine in a cluster of wind turbines (a wind power plant) can influence the performance of other turbines through the wake that forms downstream of its rotor. The wake has a reduced wind velocity, since the turbine extracts energy from the flow, and the obstruction by the wind turbine

  10. Sixth international wind-diesel workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    At a workshop on hybrid wind/diesel power generation systems, papers were presented on international research programs, demonstration projects, wind/diesel deployment strategies and requirements, wind/diesel market development and economics, wind turbine design requirements, and wind/diesel models and analytical tools. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 11 papers from this workshop

  11. Sixth international wind-diesel workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    At a workshop on hybrid wind/diesel power generation systems, papers were presented on international research programs, demonstration projects, wind/diesel deployment strategies and requirements, wind/diesel market development and economics, wind turbine design requirements, and wind/diesel models and analytical tools. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 11 papers from this workshop.

  12. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  13. Dependence of optimal wind turbine spacing on wind farm length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria

    2016-01-01

    Recent large eddy simulations have led to improved parameterizations of the effective roughness height of wind farms. This effective roughness height can be used to predict the wind velocity at hub-height as function of the geometric mean of the spanwise and streamwise turbine spacings and the

  14. Representivity of wind measurements for design wind speed estimations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineer in South Africa, January 1987. Wever, N., and G. Groen. 2009. Improving potential wind for extreme wind statistics. KNMI scientific report - wetenschappelijk rapport : WR 2009-02. KNMI. De Bilt. The Netherlands. 114 pp. Wieringa, J. 1986...

  15. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dahlberg, J.-Å.; Cuerva, A.

    2006-01-01

    been used by meteorologists for turbulencemeasurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and proceduresfor...

  16. Offshore wind speed and wind power characteristics for ten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At Athos and Mykonos, increasing linear trends were estimated. At all the stations the chosen wind turbine could produce energy for more than 70% of the time. The wind speed distribution was found to be well represented by Weibull parameters obtained using Maximum likelihood method compared to WAsP and Method of ...

  17. Wind Turbine Test. Wind Matic WM 17S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 17S, 75 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, structural...

  18. Database on wind characteristics - Analyses of wind turbine design loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, K.S.

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of IEA R and D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - has been to provide wind energy planners, designers and researchers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with a source of actual wind field data (time series and resource data) observed in a wide range of different wind climates and terrain types. Connected to an extension of the initial Annex period, the scope for the continuation was widened to include also support to the international wind turbine standardisation efforts.. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of the continuation of Annex XVII falls in two separate parts. Part one accounts in details for the available data in the established database bank, and part two describes various data analyses performed with the overall purpose of improving the design load cases with relevance for to wind turbine structures. The present report constitutes the second part of the Annex XVII reporting. Both fatigue and extreme load aspects are dealt with, however, with the main emphasis on the latter. The work has been supported by The Ministry of Environment and Energy, Danish Energy Agency, The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM), The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE), The Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM) and The Government of the United States of America. (au)

  19. Improved Estimates of Moments and Winds from Radar Wind Profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmus, Jonathan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ghate, Virendra P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates nine radar wind profilers (RWP) across its sites. These RWPs operate at 915 MHz or 1290 MHz frequency and report the first three moments of the Doppler spectrum. The operational settings of the RWP were modified in summer, 2015 to have single pulse length setting for the wind mode and two pulse length settings for the precipitation mode. The moments data collected during the wind mode are used to retrieve horizontal winds. The vendor-reported winds are available at variable time resolution (10 mins, 60 mins, etc.) and contain a significant amount of contamination due to noise and clutter. In this data product we have recalculated the moments and the winds from the raw radar Doppler spectrum and have made efforts to mitigate the contamination due to instrument noise in the wind estimates. Additionally, the moments and wind data has been reported in a harmonized layout identical for all locations and sites.

  20. Effect of Wind Direction on ENVISAT ASAR Wind Speed Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of effects of wind directions (NCEP, MANAL, QuickSCAT and WRF) on the sea surface wind speed retrieval from 75 ENVISAT ASAR images with four C-band Geophysical model functions, CMOD4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5N at two target areas, Hiratsuka and Shirahama...

  1. Aerodynamic damping of nonlinearily wind-excited wind turbine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Male, P.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first step of the derivation of an aerodynamic damping matrix that can be adopted for the foundation design of a wind turbine. A single turbine blade is modelled as a discrete mass-spring system, representing the flap and edge wise motions. Nonlinear wind forcing is applied,

  2. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  3. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Service. References. Brown S, Nickling W G and Gillies J A 2008 A wind tunnel examination of shear stress partitioning for an assortment of surface roughness distribution; J. Geophys. Res. 113. F02S06, doi: 10.1029/2007JF000790. Buckley R 1987 The effect of sparse vegetation on the transport of dune sand by wind; ...

  4. Survey of wind power potential for wind-based electricity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    2006-12-31

    Dec 31, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. The potential for wind-generated electricity is examined using 22 months wind data collected from a prospective site located in the southern highlands of Tanzania. While the data for the year 2001 was from March to December that of 2002 was for all the twelve months of the year.

  5. Wind Resource Estimation using QuikSCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Zhang, Guosheng; Cheng, Yongcun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the offshore wind resources in the East China Sea and South China Sea were estimated from over ten years of QuikSCAT scatterometer wind products. Since the errors of these products are larger close to the coast due to the land contamination of radar backscatter signal and the compl...

  6. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently...

  7. Wind Resource Estimation using QuikSCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Zhang, Guosheng; Cheng, Yongcun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the offshore wind resources in the East China Sea and South China Sea were estimated from over ten years of QuikSCAT scatterometer wind products. Since the errors of these products are larger close to the coast due to the land contamination of radar backscatter signal...

  8. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, E. de

    2005-01-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  9. Modelling pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    In view of the current and forthcoming observational data on pulsar wind nebulae, this book offers an assessment of the theoretical state of the art of modelling them. The expert authors also review the observational status of the field and provide an outlook for future developments. During the last few years, significant progress on the study of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) has been attained both from a theoretical and an observational perspective, perhaps focusing on the closest, more energetic, and best studied nebula: the Crab, which appears in the cover. Now, the number of TeV detected PWNe is similar to the number of characterized nebulae observed at other frequencies over decades of observations. And in just a few years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array will increase this number to several hundreds, actually providing an essentially complete account of TeV emitting PWNe in the Galaxy. At the other end of the multi-frequency spectrum, the SKA and its pathfinder instruments, will reveal thousands of new pulsa...

  10. INCAS SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu STOICA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The INCAS Subsonic Wind Tunnel is a closed circuit, continuous, atmospheric pressure facility with a maximum speed of 110 m/s. The test section is octagonal ,of 2.5 m wide, 2.0 m high and 4 m long. The tunnel is powered by a 1200 kW, air cooled variable speed DC motor which drives a 12 blade, 3.5 m diameter fan and is equipped with a six component pyramidal type external mechanical balance with a 700 Kgf maximum lift capacity.The angle of attack range is between -45º and +45º while the yaw angle range is between -140º and +216º .The data acquisition system has been modified recently to allow the recording of all test data on a PC - type computer using LABVIEW and a PXI – type chassis containing specialized data acquisition modules.The tunnel is equipped with a variable frequency electrical supply system for powered models and a 10 bar compressed air supply for pneumatic flow control applications.In the recent years the subsonic wind tunnel has been intensively used for tests within several European projects (AVERT, CESAR and others.

  11. Grid Integration of Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giæver Tande, John Olav

    2003-07-01

    This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.

  12. Mastering the power of wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiegel, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the author deals with environmental aspects use of fossil fuels for the energy production. As a way for our planet to get back to a normal and ecologically balanced system the fossil fuels reduction and their replacement by renewable racecourses is recommended. Energetic potential of flowing sun, wind and tidal waves as power resources is discussed. The natural ecological resources are best utilised in the United States where the installed wind power output is 1600 MW. With 360 MW installed output in 1991 the Denmark took lead among European countries in utilising the wind power. The most dynamic power plant development among the European Union countries was recorded in Germany, where the installed power output of the wind power plants is 632 MW, i.e. i.e. 11.5 times higher compared to 55 MW in 1991. The economy of wind power in Germany and in Slovakia is compared. In Slovakia with annual 200 000 kWh power generation annually and the present kWh purchase price guarantee the rate of return of 10 million slovak crowns investment into a wind power plant project is in 100 years. Although the first wind power plants have already been built in the Zahorie, Kremnicke Bane, and Secovce regions, the wind exploitation status in Slovakia is still limping. According to professionals, the wind conditions in Slovakia are not ideal, but sufficient for a supplementary wind power plant system, that can be quite motivating especially for villages. Mount Chopok or mount Krizna are ideal sites to erect the three-blade tower with respect to wind speed. And also the anticipated Kremnicke vrchy site is worth considering. (author)

  13. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  14. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  15. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  16. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    During February and April 2012 a series of wind tunnel tests were performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility (OJF) with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible ...... in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.......During February and April 2012 a series of wind tunnel tests were performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility (OJF) with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible...

  17. Some challenges of wind modelling for modern wind turbines: The Weibull distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekatarina; Floors, Rogier

    2012-01-01

    Wind power assessments, as well as forecast of wind energy production, are key issues in wind energy and grid related studies. However the hub height of today’s wind turbines is well above the surface layer. Wind profiles studies based on mast data show that the wind profile above the surface layer...

  18. MCMC for Wind Power Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Klöckl, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for the direct generation of synthetic time series of wind power output. It is shown that obtaining a stochastic model directly in the wind power domain leads to reduced number of states and to lower order of the Markov chain at equal

  19. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Keywords: Wind pump, Windmill, Performance testing, Pump efficiency, Pump discharge,. Ethiopia. 1. INTRODUCTION. Energy demand .... Control/safety system. Mechanical control (by hand) .... important when irrigation is an issue. Daily water flow capacity is probably the best overall performance indicator of a wind pump.

  20. Noise from wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, S.

    2001-12-01

    First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described

  1. Spatial planning of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for spatial planning for wind power, based on experience with spatial planning in Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands. In addition experiences from Germany and Ireland have been used. This guidelines quotes all decisive criteria for successful implementation of wind energy: landscape integration, stakeholders involvement, noise and distance from buildings. (author)

  2. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  3. NTF – wind speed comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the met mast and Nacelle Wind speed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are the data that are same as used for the power curve report...

  4. Does representative wind information exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Representativity requirements are discussed for various wind data users. It is shown that most applications can be dealt with by using data from wind stations when these are made to conform with WMO specifications. Methods to achieve this WMO normalization are reviewed, giving minimum specifications

  5. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    the actions should be made and the type of actions requires knowledge on the accumulated damage or degradation state of the wind turbine components. For offshore wind turbines, the action times could be extended due to weather restrictions and result in damage or degradation increase of the remaining...

  6. Intraday Trading of Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Edlund, Kristian; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of a wind power producer participating in a short-term electricity market that allows for the continuous, but potentially illiquid, intraday trading of energy. Considering the realistic case of a wind farm operating in the western Danish price area of Nord Poo...

  7. Electrical Aspects of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    This is the most authoritative single volume on offshore wind power yet published. Distinguished experts, mainly from Europe's leading universities, have contributed a collection of peer reviewed papers on the interfaces between wind power technology and marine engineering. The range of issues...

  8. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1969-01-01

    The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...

  9. Mitigating Wind Induced Truck Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-25

    Dangerous weather and high wind in particular, is a common contributing factor in truck crashes. High wind speeds have been documented as a perennial cause of truck crashes in Kansas and other Great Plains states. The possibility of reducing such cra...

  10. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use...

  11. Assembling Markets for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    instruments, some of which I will refer to as ‘prosthetic devices’. This thesis inquires into two such prosthetic devices: The feed-in tariff and the wind power development zones (ZDE) as they are negotiated and practiced in France, and also the ways in which they affect the making of markets for wind power....

  12. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  13. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik

    Offshore wind energy has greatly matured during the last decade with an annually installed energy capacity exceeding 1 GW. A key factor for further large-scale development of offshore wind energy is a cost of energy reduction. Given for example the drop in oil price since summer 2014, which has c...

  14. An Experiment on Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Fiordilino, Emilio; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Aglieco, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    We discuss an experiment on wind energy performed with home-made apparatus. The experiment reproduces a laboratory windmill, which can pump water from a lower level to a higher one. By measuring the gain of the gravitational potential energy of the pumped water, one can determine the power extracted from the wind. The activity was carried out with…

  15. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R; Bolinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    According to the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, total installed wind power capacity in the United States grew at a rate of eight percent in 2014, bringing the United States total installed capacity to nearly 66 gigawatts (GW), which ranks second in the world and meets 4.9 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. In total, 4,854 MW of new wind energy capacity were installed in the United States in 2014. The 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report also finds that wind energy prices are at an all-time low and are competitive with wholesale power prices and traditional power sources across many areas of the United States. Additionally, a new trend identified by the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report shows utility-scale turbines with larger rotors designed for lower wind speeds have been increasingly deployed across the country in 2014. The findings also suggest that the success of the U.S. wind industry has had a ripple effect on the American economy, supporting 73,000 jobs related to development, siting, manufacturing, transportation, and other industries.

  16. Breezing ahead: the Spanish wind energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, Felix; Cruz, I.C.

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the rapid increase in Spain's wind generating capacity, and examines Spain's wind strategy, the assessment of wind power potential at regional level, and the guaranteeing of the market price for power generators using wind energy with yearly reviews of the price of electricity from wind power. Prices payable for electricity generated from renewable sources are listed, and the regional distribution of wind energy production is illustrated. Recent wind power installations in Spain, target levels for wind energy installations, wind farms larger than 1MW installed in 1999, and the impact of the growth of the wind energy market on the manufacturing industry and the manufacturers are discussed. Details of the wind energy capacity in the provinces of Navarra and Galicia are given, and plans for wind energy projects in the New National Plan for Scientific research, Development and Technological innovation (2000-2003) are considered

  17. In Search of the Wind Energy Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide advancement of wind energy is putting high demands on a number of underlying technologies such as wind turbine aerodynamics, structural dynamics, gearbox design, electrical grid connections, and so on. As wind is the only fuel for wind power plants, naturally, wind......-meteorology and wind-climatology are essential for any utilization of wind energy. This is what we are concerned about here with a view on what has happened in wind energy potential assessments in the last 25 years where the utilization of wind turbines in national power supply has accelerated and what......., The New Worldwide Microscale Wind Resource Assessment Data on IRENA's Global Atlas (The EUDP Global Wind Atlas, 2015)], and finally, the perspective for the current work with the New European Wind Atlas [E. L. Petersen et al., Energy Bull. 17, 34–39 (2014); Environ. Res. Lett. 8(1), 011005 (2013...

  18. Wind Program Newsletter: October 2014 Edition (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program Newsletter, supported by the EERE Wind and Water Power Technologies office, highlights the Wind Program's key activities, events, and funding opportunities.

  19. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...

  20. Advances in wind energy conversion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyajith, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The technology of generating energy from wind has significantly changed during the past five years. The book brings together all the latest aspects of wind energy conversion technology - from wind resource analysis to grid integration of generated electricity.

  1. 2016 Fee Wind energy directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    France is currently engaged in the energy transition where ambitious goals are at stake to allow the country to be one of the leading European countries in renewable energies. The cost of onshore wind is getting more and more competitive and for this reason, wind energy professionals are committed in contributing actively to reach the 32 % objective of renewable energies in the final energy consumption and 40 % of renewable energies in the electricity mix for 2030. 2014 was marked by a swift growth of the installed onshore wind energy, the positive trend is confirmed in 2015 with more than 500 MW connected to the grid in the first half of the year, corresponding to the annual forecast of 1,200 MW for 2015. Thanks to the energy transition law, operational policies will be implemented through the multi-annual energy programming (PPE- programmation pluriannuelle de l'energie). France will therefore continue increasing its development of renewable energies. This law will also allow France to develop offshore wind energy and to strengthen its position regarding wind energy: with an objective of 15 GW of fixed offshore wind energy and 6 GW of floating wind energy to be built in the 2030 horizon, the sector will be able to guarantee its development, especially in the current context of strong worldwide competition. Some 10,000 direct and indirect jobs are awaited for offshore wind energy on the national territory and wind energy professionals underline that the development of the offshore wind sector will contribute to the economic dynamism of the country. This sector is thus a job creating sector as confirmed in the figures of the wind employment monitor (observatoire de l'emploi) in France, recording a significant growth in 2013 with 10,800 jobs. This upward trend was confirmed in 2014. This proves the continuous commitment of the wind industry in seeing the success of the energy transition in France in a context marked by numerous energy and climate events

  2. Health impact of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Karakiewicz, Beata; Kassolik, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is employed worldwide as an alternative source of energy. At the same time, however, the health effects of wind turbines have become a matter of discussion. The purpose of this study is a critical review of available reports providing arguments both for and against the construction of wind farms. The authors also attempt to propose recommendations in accordance with the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) guidelines. In the case of exposure to wind farms, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is impossible. To obtain the highest-level recommendations, analysis of case-control studies or cohort studies with control groups should be performed. Preferably, it should include geostatistical analysis conducted with the use of variograms and the kriging technique. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (SM) and the Internet search engine Google. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF STATE OF THE ART: The nuisance caused by wind turbines is stereotypically linked with the noise that they produce. Nevertheless, the visual aspect of wind farms, opinions about them, and sensitivity to sound seem to be of the greater importance. To date, the direct correlations between the vicinity of modern wind farms, the noise that wind turbines make, and possible consequences to health have not been described in peer reviewed articles. Health effects are more probably associated with some environmental factors leading to annoyance or frustration. All types of studies share the same conclusion: wind turbines can provoke annoyance. As with any project involving changes in the local environment, a certain level of irritation among the population can be expected. There are elected officials and government representatives who should decide what level of social annoyance is acceptable, and whether wind power advantages outweigh its potential drawbacks. The influence of wind turbines on human emotional and physical health is a relatively new field of research. Further

  3. Wind energy conversion 1994. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, G.

    1995-01-01

    At the British Wind Energy Association's 16th Annual Conference, held in Stirling, over 60 high quality papers were presented, including a session devoted to 'Wind Energy in Scotland'. Under the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) wind energy has experienced rapid growth in England and Wales and with Scotland now having its own 'Scottish Renewables Obligation' (SRO) the opportunity to tap one of Europe's most important renewable energy resources now exists. The main contemporary issues concerning wind farming today, namely technical, social, economic and environmental were examined in the Geoff Pontin Memorial Lecture, which focused on these aspects in the context of grid integrated wind energy development. The remaining conference themes included machine development, aerodynamics and control, small machines, fatigue and dynamics, public attitudes, noise emissions, electrical integration, resource measurement, and standards, safety and planning. (author)

  4. Wind energy in France: impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Josette, R.

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of 2004, the European Union is the first producer of wind energy in the world (34205 MW), far beyond the USA (6740 MW) and India (2110 MW). Three countries are in the pole position: Germany (16629 MW), Spain (8263 MW) and Denmark (3117 MW). On the other hand, despite a voluntarist policy, the other countries encounter administrative and local difficulties in the development of wind energy. This is the case with France which has the second biggest potential wind resource of Europe, behind the UK. The French situation is explained by its centralized energy system, by the priority given to nuclear power, by important wind variations, and by a bad image of wind turbines in general (aesthetic, environmental). This situation should change in the future with the scheduling of pluri-annual investments, with adapted tariffs and with improved administrative procedures. (J.S.)

  5. The new European wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Today a number of well-established models and methodologies exist for estimating resources and design parameters, and in many cases they work well. This is true if good local data are available for calibrating the models or for verification. But the wind energy community is still hampered by many...... European Wind Atlas” aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions; standing on three legs: A data bank from a series of intensive measuring campaigns; a thorough examination and redesign of the model chain from global, mesoscale to microscale models and creation of the wind atlas...... database. Although the project participants will come from the 27 member states it is envisioned that the project will be opened for global participation through test benches for model development and sharing of data – climatologically as well as experimental. Experiences from national wind atlases...

  6. Wind resource analysis. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D. M.

    1978-12-01

    FY78 results of the Wind Resource Analyses task of the ERAB are described. Initial steps were taken to acquire modern atmosphere models of near-surface wind flow and primary data sets used in previous studies of national and regional wind resources. Because numerous assumptions are necessary to interpret available data in terms of wind energy potential, conclusions of previous studies differ considerably. These data analyses may be improved by future SERI research. State-of-the-art atmosphere models are a necessary component of the SERI wind resource analyses capacity. However, these methods also need to be tested and verified in diverse applications. The primary data sets and principal features of the models are discussed.

  7. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  8. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard

    During the last decades, wind turbines have been continuously developed with the aim of maximizing the life cycle benefits (production of electricity) minus the costs of planning, materials, installation, operation & maintenance as well as possible failure. In order to continue this development...... turbines and the central topics considered are statistical load extrapolation of extreme loads during operation and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades. Wind turbines differ from most civil engineering structures by having a control system which highly influences the loading. In the literature......, methods for estimating the extreme load-effects on a wind turbine during operation, where the control system is active, have been proposed. But these methods and thereby the estimated loads are often subjected to a significant uncertainty which influences the reliability of the wind turbine...

  9. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... turbine farm based on a dynamic programming type of method....

  10. Wind system documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

    1993-01-15

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

  11. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  12. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  13. Wind Resource Assessment – Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Courtney, Michael; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    This report presents a wind resource assessment for the seven test stands at the Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines in Denmark. Calculations have been carried out mainly using wind data from three on-site wind lidars. The generalized wind climates applied in the wind resource...... calculations for the seven test stands are based on correlations between a short period of on-site wind data from the wind lidars with a long-term reference. The wind resource assessment for the seven test stands has been made applying the WAsP 11.1 and WindPRO 2.9 software packages....

  14. Calculation of depleted wind resources near wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wind resource maps include wind distribution, energy density and potential power production without wake effects. Adding wake effect to such maps is feasible by means of a new method based on Fourier transformation,and the extra computational work is comparable to that of the basic wind...... resource map. The method is mainly intended for mapping inter-farm wake effects. It will work for all linear wake models and may even be extended to complex terrain by certain simplifying assumptions. The method is implemented for the Park model and Fuga models. A test example shows that these models...

  15. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, J.; Frank, Helmut Paul

    2016-01-01

    , MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users.The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely......Bench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented....

  16. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Giebel, Gregor; Nielsen, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely statisti......This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely...... statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on long term power system planning for future wind farms as well as short term forecasting for existing wind farms. Currently, wind power fluctuation models are either purely statistical or integrated with NWP models of limited...... resolution. With regard to the latter, one such simulation tool has been developed at the Wind Energy Division, Risø DTU, intended for long term power system planning. As part of the PSO project the inferior NWP model used at present will be replaced by the state-of-the-art Weather Research & Forecasting...

  17. Noise immission from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project also included a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

  18. The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony; Preus, Robert; Tegen, Suzanne; Baring-Gould, Ian

    2017-03-28

    To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbine costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.

  19. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hansen, Dana [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Wind power capacity additions in the United States rebounded in 2014, and continued growth through 2016 is anticipated. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—which is available for projects that began construction by the end of 2014. Wind additions are also being driven by recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, which have resulted in the lowest power sales prices ever seen in the U.S. wind sector. Growing corporate demand for wind energy and state-level policies play important roles as well. Expectations for continued technological advancements and cost reductions may further boost future growth. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond 2016 are uncertain. The PTC has expired, and its renewal remains in question. Continued low natural gas prices, modest electricity demand growth, and limited near-term demand from state renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have also put a damper on growth expectations. These trends, in combination with increasingly global supply chains, have limited the growth of domestic manufacturing of wind equipment. What they mean for wind power additions through the end of the decade and beyond will be dictated in part by future natural gas prices, fossil plant retirements, and policy decisions.

  20. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  1. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  2. Offshore wind resources at Danish measurement sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Courtney, M.S.; Lange, B.; Nielsen, M.; Sempreviva, A.M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Svenson, J.; Olsen, F. [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark); Christensen, T. [Elsamprojekt, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to characterise wind and turbulence characteristics at prospective offshore wind energy sites, meteorological observations from a number of purpose-built offshore monitoring sites have been analyzed and compared with long wind speed time series. New analyses have been conducted on the data sets focussing on meteorology, turbulence, extreme winds and wind and wave interactions. Relationships between wind speed, turbulence and fetch are highly complex. Minimum turbulence intensity offshore is associated with wind speeds of about 12 m/s. At lower wind speeds, stability effects are important while at higher winds speeds wind and wave interactions appear to dominate. On average, turbulence intensity offshore at 48 m height is approximately 0.08 if no coastal effects are present. However, the effect of the coastal discontinuity persists in wind speed and turbulence characteristics for considerable distances offshore. The majority of the adjustment of appears to occur within 20 km of the coast. (au)

  3. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  4. Vertically and Horizontally Mounted Wind Mills : Wind Energy Production in Tampere University of Applied Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to gather information about vertical and horizontal wind mills and to complete a research on wind power production by wind mills which were installed in Tampere University of Applied Sciences. The horizontally mounted wind mill Windspot 3.5 and vertically mounted wind mill Cypress were installed in summer 2011 but they started functioning and supplying energy only during 2012. In the theoretical part of this thesis wind speed and wind power production is dis...

  5. The new IEA Wind Task 36 on Wind Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind...... Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, …), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement...... forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions....

  6. Hurricane Wind Vector Estimates from WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Ian S; Hennon, Christopther C; Jones, W. L; Ahmad, Khalil

    2005-01-01

    .... In late 2004, the first preliminary oceanic wind vector results were released, and this paper presents the first evaluation of this product for several Atlantic hurricanes during the 2003 season...

  7. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verelst, D. R. S.; Larsen, T. J.; van Wingerden, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process. The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.

  8. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  9. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  10. Grid integration of wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Heier, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    This timely update provides detailed treatment of the integration of wind power into electrical power systems, including brand new material on offshore wind power farms and technologies This third English edition is based on new material from the fourth and fifth German editions (Windkraftanlagen: Systemauslegung, Netzintegration und Regelung, 5. Auflage, published by Teubner B.G. Gmbh, July 2009). It answers the question of how, with the proper control and direction, wind turbines can be made to operate more similarly to conventional power plants. The revised third edition addresses the engin

  11. Wind energy impact of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application

  12. Offshore wind power in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the project were to estimate the technical offshore wind power potential of the Gulf of Bothnia, with cost assessments, to study icing conditions and ice loads, and to design a foundation suitable for the environmental conditions. The technical offshore potential from Vaasa to Tornio is huge, more than 40 TWh/a, although the cost of offshore wind power is still higher than on land. Wind turbines have not previously been designed for the icing conditions found in Gulf of Bothnia and the recommendations for load cases and siting of megawatt-class turbines are an important result of the project. (orig.)

  13. WIND VARIABILITY IN BZ CAMELOPARDALIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Sequences of spectra of the nova-like cataclysmic variable (CV) BZ Cam were acquired on nine nights in 2005-2006 in order to study the time development of episodes of wind activity known to occur frequently in this star. We confirm the results of Ringwald and Naylor that the P-Cygni absorption components of the lines mostly evolve from higher expansion velocity to lower velocity as an episode progresses. We also commonly find blueshifted emission components in the Hα line profile, whose velocities and durations strongly suggest that they are also due to the wind. Curiously, Ringwald and Naylor reported common occurrences of redshifted Hα emission components in their BZ Cam spectra. We have attributed these emission components in Hα to occasions when gas concentrations in the bipolar wind (both front side and back side) become manifested as emission lines as they move beyond the disk's outer edge. We also suggest, based on changes in the P-Cygni profiles during an episode, that the progression from larger to smaller expansion velocities is due to the higher velocity portions of a wind concentration moving beyond the edge of the continuum light of the disk first, leaving a net redward shift of the remaining absorption profile. We derive a new orbital ephemeris for BZ Cam, using the radial velocity of the core of the He I λ5876 line, finding P = 0.15353(4). Using this period, the wind episodes in BZ Cam are found to be concentrated near the inferior conjunction of the emission line source. This result helps confirm that the winds in nova-like CVs are often phase dependent, in spite of the puzzling implication that such winds lack axisymmetry. We argue that the radiation-driven wind in BZ Cam receives an initial boost by acting on gas that has been lifted above the disk by the interaction of the accretion stream with the disk, thereby imposing flickering timescales onto the wind events, as well as leading to an orbital modulation of the wind due to the non

  14. Extreme Response for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number...... of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time series are independent. In the present paper is this assumption investigated based on field measurements...

  15. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EG10-25-000; EG10-26-000...

  16. Wind Turbine Test Wind Matic WM 15S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 15S, 55 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, dynamical...... behaviour of the turbine, loads at cut-in and braking, rotor torque at stopped condition, and noise emission....

  17. Study on wind turbine arrangement for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the separation distance between two neighboring offshore wind turbines has been carried out by using the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes technique developed at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Under offshore atmospheric conditions, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for...... to the turbulence mixing. This study hints that the optimal separation distance between neighboring turbines for offshore wind farms should be 7 rotor diameters....

  18. Program to determine space vehicle response to wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program was developed as prelaunch wind monitoring tool for Saturn 5 vehicle. Program accounts for characteristic wind changes including turbulence power spectral density, wind shear, peak wind velocity, altitude, and wind direction using stored variational statistics.

  19. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Wind Technologies Market Report provides an annual overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market. You can find the report, a presentation, and a data file on the Files tab, below. Additionally, several data visualizations are available in the Data Visualizations tab. Highlights of this year’s report include: -Wind power additions continued at a rapid clip in 2016: $13 billion was invested in new wind power plants in 2016. In 2016, wind energy contributed 5.6% of the nation’s electricity supply, more than 10% of total electricity generation in fourteen states, and 29% to 37% in three of those states—Iowa, South Dakota, and Kansas. -Bigger turbines are enhancing wind project performance: Increased blade lengths, in particular, have dramatically increased wind project capacity factors, one measure of project performance. For example, the average 2016 capacity factor among projects built in 2014 and 2015 was 42.6%, compared to an average of 32.1% among projects built from 2004 to 2011 and 25.4% among projects built from 1998 to 2001. -Low wind turbine pricing continues to push down installed project costs: Wind turbine prices have fallen from their highs in 2008, to $800–$1,100/kW. Overall, the average installed cost of wind projects in 2016 was $1,590/kW, down $780/kW from the peak in 2009 and 2010. -Wind energy prices remain low: After topping out at nearly 7¢/kWh for power purchase agreements (PPAs) executed in 2009, the national average price of wind PPAs has dropped to around 2¢/kWh—though this nationwide average is dominated by projects that hail from the lowest-priced Interior region of the country (such as Texas, Iowa, Oklahoma). These prices, which are possible in part due to federal tax support, compare favorably to the projected future fuel costs of gas-fired generation. -The supply chain continued to adjust to swings in domestic demand for wind equipment: Wind sector employment reached a new high of

  20. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Electricity Markets and Policy Group; Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Electricity Markets and Policy Group; Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Annual wind power capacity additions in the United States surged in 2015 and are projected to continue at a rapid clip in the coming five years. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—having been extended for several years (though with a phase-down schedule, described further on pages 68-69), as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions are also being driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond the current PTC cycle remain uncertain: growth could be blunted by declining federal tax support, expectations for low natural gas prices, and modest electricity demand growth. This annual report—now in its tenth year—provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation-related trends: trends in U.S. wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development; and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind power industry trends: developments in turbine manufacturer market share; manufacturing and supply-chain developments; wind turbine and component imports into and exports from the United States; project financing developments; and trends among wind power project owners and power purchasers. The report then turns to a summary of wind turbine technology trends: turbine size, hub height, rotor diameter, specific power, and IEC Class. After that, the report discusses wind power performance, cost, and pricing trends. In so doing, it describes

  1. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  2. Characterization of wind speed data according to wind direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J.L.; Garcia, A.; Prieto, E. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dpto. Proyectos e Ingenieria Rural; Francisco, A. De [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Ingenieria Forestal

    1999-05-01

    Knowledge of the wind speed distribution and the most frequent wind directions is important when choosing wind turbines and when locating them. For this reason wind evaluation and characterization are important when forecasting output power. The data used here were collected from eleven meteorological stations distributed in Navarre, Spain. We obtained data for the period extending from 1992 to 1995, with each datum encompassing 10 minutes of time. Wind speed data of each station were gathered in eight directional sectors, each one extended over 45 degrees according to the direction from which the wind blows. The stations were grouped in two blocks: those under the influence of the Ebro valley and those in mountainous areas. For each group the Weibull parameters were estimated, (according to the Weibull probability paper because the Weibull distribution gives the best fit in this region). Kurtosis and skewness coefficients were estimated as well. The Weibull parameters, especially the scale parameter c, depend strongly on the direction considered, and both Weibull parameters show an increasing trend as the direction considered moves to the more dominant direction, while both kurtosis and skewness show a corresponding decreasing trend. (author)

  3. Attitudes towards wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.

    1993-01-01

    Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)

  4. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  5. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  6. Starting to Explore Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Described is a simple, cheap and versatile homemade windmill and electrical generator suitable for a school class to use to explore many aspects and practicalities of using wind to generate electrical power. (Contains 8 figures.)

  7. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  8. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  9. Megawatt wind turbines gaining momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, K.; Madsen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    Through the short history of the modern wind turbine, electric utilities have made it amply clear that they have held a preference for large scale wind turbines over smaller ones, which is why wind turbine builders through the years have made numerous attempts develop such machines - machines that would meet the technical, aesthetic and economic demands that a customer would require. Considerable effort was put into developing such wind turbines in the early 1980s. There was the U.S. Department of Energy's MOD 1-5 program, which ranged up to 3.2 MW, Denmark's Nibe A and B, 630 kW turbine and the 2 MW Tjaereborg machine, Sweden's Naesudden, 3 MW, and Germany's Growian, 3 MW. Most of these were dismal failures, though some did show the potential of MW technology. (au)

  10. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. wind power industry experienced yet another record year in 2009, once again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, 2009 was a year of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting the wind power industry and with federal policy changes enacted to push the industry toward continued aggressive expansion. The year 2010, meanwhile, is anticipated to be one of some retrenchment, with expectations for fewer wind power capacity additions than seen in 2009. The rapid pace of development and change within the industry has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace, yet the need for timely, objective information on the industry and its progress has never been greater. This report - the fourth in an ongoing annual series - attempts to meet this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the United States wind power market, with a particular focus on 2009.

  11. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. wind power industry is facing uncertain times. With 2011 capacity additions having risen from 2010 levels and with a further sizable increase expected in 2012, there are – on the surface – grounds for optimism. Key factors driving growth in 2011 included continued state and federal incentives for wind energy, recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technology, and the need to meet an end-of-year construction start deadline in order to qualify for the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. At the same time, the currently-slated expiration of key federal tax incentives for wind energy at the end of 2012 – in concert with continued low natural gas prices and modest electricity demand growth – threatens to dramatically slow new builds in 2013.

  12. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  13. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring...... smooth switching between the two modes of operation. The partial and full load controllers are both based on classical proportional-integral control theory as well as additional filters such as an optional drive train damper and a notch filter mitigating the influence of rotor speed dependent variations...... in the feedback. The controller relies on generator speed as the primary feedback sensor. Additionally, the reference generator power is used as a feedback term to smoothen the switching between partial and full load operation. Optionally, a low-pass filtered wind speed measurement can be used for wind speed...

  14. Innovation paths in wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke

    Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back...... paths: government policies, demand conditions, geography, value chains, and the strategies undertaken by firms. It demonstrates that the innovation paths common to both countries have roots in a confluence of determining factors which are mainly due to social and political priorities, preferences...... Denmark and Germany have common national causes, while company-specific strategies also influence the innovation paths in significant ways. This raises important questions about the national specificity of innovation paths in wind power development. Finally, the paper briefly addresses the increasing...

  15. Wind Data from Kennedy Airport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abramson, Steve

    1997-01-01

    .... Although the original purpose for the anemometers was to track the lateral position of wake vortices, the measurements also provide a database of wind and turbulence that can be used for other purposes...

  16. Wind Data from Memphis Airport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnham, David

    1997-01-01

    .... Although the original purpose for the anemometers was to track the lateral position of wake vortices, the measurements also provide a database of wind and turbulence that can be used for other purposes...

  17. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...... (and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...

  18. Wind Measurement LIDAR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a Wind Measurement LIDAR whose sensor assembly is composed of SPEC Gen IV LIDAR seeker, with 12.8...

  19. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have wind data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use only*...

  20. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Flowers, Larry T.; Gagne, Matthew N.; Pro, Boyd H.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this report is to quantify and summarize the 2013 U.S. distributed wind market to help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry stakeholders, utilities, state and federal agencies, and other interested parties.

  1. A combinatorial wind field model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    of ordinary dierential equations (ODE). Considering some assumptions on the ow model (e.g. steadiness), the sys- tem can be approximated by a linear n dimensional system. Partitioning the state space into cells is performed by dening Lyapunov function sets, such that each cell is the region between two......This report is the deliverable 2.4 in the project Distributed Control of Large-Scale Oshore Wind Farms with the acronym Aeolus. The objective of this deliverable is to provide an understanding of the wind eld model and dynamic variations superimposed on the mean eld. In this report a dynamical...... model is developed for the wind ow in a wind farm based on nite volume method. Afterwards the model is transferred into a discrete framework called combinatorial, which determines the future behavior of the discrete system. In this regard, the dynamical model is de- rived and it is explained in terms...

  2. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This hasbeen done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model....... The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated throughcomparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind...

  3. COOP Wind and Radiation Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and radiation data from stations in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observers Network. Some precipitation and pressure forms are mistakenly placed in...

  4. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to add more topics in future editions and to update as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  5. On the Escarpment Wind Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Peterson, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that miscellaneous theories for flow over low ridges give results consistent with each other and that these results can be used to quantify certain observed features of the wind profile downwind from an escarpment...

  6. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  7. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... to the event of failure in ultimate loading in flapwise bending in the normal operating condition of a site-specific turbine....

  8. Generators of Modern Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, various types of wind generator configurations, including power electronic grid interfaces, drive trains, are described The performance in power systems is briefed. Then the optimization of generator system is presented. Some investigation results are presented and discussed....

  9. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Toft, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability....... It is described how uncertainties in wind turbine design related to computational models, statistical data from test specimens, results from a few full-scale tests and from prototype wind turbines can be accounted for using the Maximum Likelihood Method and a Bayesian approach. Assessment of the optimal...... reliability level by cost-benefit optimization is illustrated by an offshore wind turbine example. Uncertainty modeling is illustrated by an example where physical, statistical and model uncertainties are estimated....

  10. Optimal siting and sizing of wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinay-Iyicil, H.; Kuipers, F.A.; Guven, A. Nezih

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel technique to determine the optimal placement of wind farms, thereby taking into account wind characteristics and electrical grid constraints. We model the long-term variability of wind speed using a Weibull distribution according to wind direction intervals, and

  11. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  12. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large wind tunnels simulating the actual flight conditions as nearly as possible. Often, several wind tunnels ... wind tunnel tests can be 'scaled' to the actual velocity and actual body size using suitable scaling laws. A typical wind tunnel consists ofa test section ... tion and control positions. Some of this instrumentation like six.

  13. Wind Program Newsletter, May 2016 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program Newsletter provides wind industry stakeholders and the public with information about the Wind Program R&D efforts funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office. The newsletter comes out twice a year and is sent electronically to subscribers and distributed in hard copy to conference attendees.

  14. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned

  15. Validation of wind loading codes by experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1997, full scale measurements of the wind and wind induced pressures were carried out on the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. Simultaneously, a comparative wind tunnel experiment was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. In this paper, the

  16. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  17. Smart Wind Turbine : Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure,

  18. Wind Energy. The Facts. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    Considered to be the most important wind energy reference in the world. It presents a detailed overview of the wind energy sector, with the most up-to-date and in-depth information on the essential issues concerning wind power today. The new edition includes chapters on: Technology; Grid integration; The economics of wind; Industry and markets; Environmental issues; and Scenarios and targets

  19. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  20. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Dept. of Aero Materials Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding.

  1. Wind Resource Assessment – Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Courtney, Michael; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a wind resource assessment for the seven test stands at the Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines in Denmark. Calculations have been carried out mainly using wind data from three on-site wind lidars. The generalized wind climates applied in the wind resource calculations for the seven test stands are based on correlations between a short period of on-site wind data from the wind lidars with a long-term reference. The wind resource assessment for the seven ...

  2. Husum wind `97. Amiable and powerful. Proceedings; Husum Wind `97. Liebenswert und leistungsstark. Kongressband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Husum Fair and Congress on Wind Energy 97 wants to inform on and demonstrate the state of the art of wind energy and its potentials of development. This conference volume contains 21 papers in seven sections: Wind energy - society and environment; forum of the wind power plant manufacturers represented at the Husum Wind 97; foreign markets for wind power plants; development prospects for wind power; wind power in retrospective and relevant operating experience; panel discussion ``The amendment to the act on remuneration for power fed into the mains - wind power in the lull``; excursion to the test field WINDTEST, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. (AKF)

  3. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  4. Wind power: valuation and finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, C.; Mose, O.; Sorensen, B.

    1996-01-01

    The past 20 years of wind energy experience in Denmark has primarily been based upon three financing schemes, tailored to individually owned, guild owned and utility owned wind turbines. The merits of and problems with these schemes are discussed, as well as their relations to specific legislation regarding e.g. taxation. It is finally explored, whether new forms of organisation, valuation and financing may be needed. (author)

  5. 2008 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. wind industry experienced a banner year in 2008, once again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, the past year has been one of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting near-term growth prospects for the wind industry, and with significant federal policy changes enacted to push the industry toward continued aggressive expansion. This report examines key trends.

  6. Feasibility of Wind Energy Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The paper discuss the feasibility of wind energy parks including aspects of supply and demand of energy, costs of generation and risks of investment associated. The paper introduce to the situation of wind energy in the word and specifically in Spain, describes the legal framework in promotion of renewables in Spain, the analysis of revenues and the risk of this business in the european market

  7. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  8. Panorama 2016 - Offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2015-11-01

    While onshore wind power is a rapidly growing global industry, the offshore wind power market remains in its consolidation and globalization phase. This most mature of renewable marine energies continues to develop and can no longer be considered a niche industry. This fact sheet evaluates the market over the last several years, looking at its potential and its current rank in terms of electricity production costs. (author)

  9. 2015 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas A.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) annual Distributed Wind Market Report provides stakeholders with statistics and analysis of the market along with insights into its trends and characteristics. By providing a comprehensive overview of the distributed wind market, this report can help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry, utilities, federal and state agencies, and other interested parties.

  10. On the Escarpment Wind Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Peterson, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that miscellaneous theories for flow over low ridges give results consistent with each other and that these results can be used to quantify certain observed features of the wind profile downwind from an escarpment......It is shown that miscellaneous theories for flow over low ridges give results consistent with each other and that these results can be used to quantify certain observed features of the wind profile downwind from an escarpment...

  11. Panorama 2013 - Offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2012-10-01

    While onshore wind power is already a well-developed global industry, offshore wind power is still in the consolidation and globalization phase. The most mature of marine renewable energies is beginning to venture off the European coast and even to other continents, driven by public policies and the ever increasing number of players joining this promising market, which should evolve into deeper waters thanks to floating structures. (author)

  12. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  13. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy...

  14. Benchmarking U.S. Small Wind Costs with the Distributed Wind Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The objective of this report is to benchmark costs for small wind projects installed in the United States using a distributed wind taxonomy. Consequently, this report is a starting point to help expand the U.S. distributed wind market by informing potential areas for small wind cost-reduction opportunities and providing a benchmark to track future small wind cost-reduction progress.

  15. Modeling wind adjustment factor and midflame wind speed for Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2012-01-01

    Rothermel's surface fire spread model was developed to use a value for the wind speed that affects surface fire, called midflame wind speed. Models have been developed to adjust 20-ft wind speed to midflame wind speed for sheltered and unsheltered surface fuel. In this report, Wind Adjustment Factor (WAF) model equations are given, and the BehavePlus fire modeling...

  16. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao

    2010-10-01

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  17. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers.

  18. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  19. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  20. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, T.; Brask, M.H. [DEFU (Denmark); Jensen, F.V.; Raben, N. [SEAS (Denmark); Saxov, J. [Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Nielsen, L. [Vestkraft (Denmark); Soerensen, P.E. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Lightning damage to wind turbines is a serious problem for Danish power companies, who have experienced some cases with very costly lightning damage and a large number of cases with minor damage. The most costly cases include one catastrophic damage to an entire wind turbine, and several cases of destruction of blades, main bearings, generators and control systems. Over the years there have been several hundreds of cases with minor damage - typically damage and interruptions of the control and communication systems, or the power systems. The Danish power companies anticipate that the lightning threat will be even bigger for the large off-shore wind turbine installations that are currently being planned in Denmark. Furthermore, it is known from the off-shore wind turbines at Vindeby in Denmark that the costs of inspection and particularly repair work must be expected to be much higher off-shore as compared to wind turbines on land. These considerations was the background for a two year project concerned with investigation of lighting damages and with the formulation of a DEFU Recommendation for lightning protection of wind turbines, which was published in January 1999. The project was funded by the Danish power companies Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft and by DEFU. (au)