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Sample records for windscale works sellafield

  1. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This small, illustrated, booklet describes Sellafield under the headings: introduction (historical and general); organisation (Windscale Works; Calder Works); Magnox reprocessing (using nuclear fuel in a reactor; transport of fuel; used fuel stored in ponds; decanning of Magnox fuel; separation process; highly-active storage tanks; vitrification); waste disposal; health and safety; Calder Hall; future developments; training young people; community relations. (U.K.)

  2. An incident leading to contamination of the beaches near to the British Nuclear Fuels Limited Windscale and Calder Works, Sellafield November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls into the sections: executive summary; the inquiry; background to Sellafield operations (history; statutory control); the incident in the reprocessing plant (B205) (plant description; plant procedure; lead up to the incident; detection of the incident; conclusions concerning the incident); the effect on operations in the effluent treatment plant and sea discharge plant (B242/B241) (plant description; plant procedure; events in B242/B241 following the incident in B205; conclusions concerning operations in B242/B241); the effect on operations in the medium active liquid storage plant (B211) (plant description; events in B211 following transfer of waste from B242/B241; conclusions concerning the transfer of waste to B211); environmental aspects (description of events; conclusions concerning environmental aspects); compliance with the liquid waste disposal authorisation; conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  3. Child leukaemia around Sellafield. Local community reaction to the television documentary 'Windscale - the nuclear laundry'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; MacGill, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    The survey was made four months after the publication of the Black Report and extended over a random sample of 462 people in six Parish Councils constituting the domain of interest of the inquiry resulting from the television programme concerning the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant; 80% of the sample had seen the programme. (U.K.)

  4. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses a highly publicized accident at Sellafield, involving radioactive pollution, after which a period of continuous adverse media coverage eroded public confidence in the plant and its operators. The author presents alternative recovery strategies attempted before identification of an open information, open door policy as the optimal route to a restored reputation. The success of the new policies is described

  5. 'E minimis maxima' or The work of the UKAEA Laboratories at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the work carried out at Windscale's reprocessing site for thermal reactor fuels. Thermal reactor fuel behaviour is discussed, with reference to Magnox fuel, AGR fuel and water fuel. Fuel work that has application to more than one reactor system is mentioned. The plutonium studies on the development of the mixed plutonium/uranium oxide fuel for use in fast reactors is also considered. (U.K.)

  6. Windscale fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  7. Windscale inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear debate, far from being concluded by the Windscale decision, was in fact opened up and its scope widened to take into account the political, international, environmental and social issues involved. This debate continues and the selection of literature presented here aims to illustrate all aspects of the Inquiry and its implications. The material is presented in two main sections. Section A is concerned with the Inquiry itself: the proceedings, the report and the government's decision. Section B presents a selection of the literature and debate that resulted. (author)

  8. Taming Windscale's piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The options as to what to do with the Windscale Piles are being assessed before a final decision on decommissioning is made. Both Piles were shutdown in 1957 following the fire in the Pile number 1. Pile 1 still contains 22 tons of natural uranium fuel. The details of graphite moderator content, biological shielding and other components and containment are given. The fuel and isotope channels in Pile 2 have been examined and the air and water ducts have been inspected. The chimneys of both Piles are contaminated and all entrances have been sealed. Before any work starts the air outlet ducts will be sealed from the chimney and a ventilation system installed. A manipulator is being prepared to remove the remaining fuel elements from both Piles. The proposed decommissioning programme for both Piles is outlined. (U.K.)

  9. Experience of the remote dismantling of the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and Windscale pile chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives brief descriptions of some of the remote dismantling work and equipment used on two large decommissioning projects: the BNFL Windscale Pile Chimneys Project (remote handling machine, waste packaging machine, remotely controlled excavator, remotely controlled demolition machine) and the AEA Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor Project (remote dismantling machine, operational waste, bulk removal techniques, semi-remote cutting operations)

  10. Selling Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Kirsty.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes a trip to the Sellafield reprocessing plant arranged by BNFL for journalists. The train journey from London and the actual tour round the Sellafield site and visitor centre are described briefly. Several protest groups were encountered on the way but the point made is that in encouraging visitors to the site and explaining what is going on there BNFL is trying to be more open in its dealings with the public in an effort to inform, reassure and lessen mistrust. (UK)

  11. Windscale pile core surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.F.; Mathews, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles were closed down, defueled as far as possible and mothballed for thirty years following a fire in the core of Pile 1 in 1957 resulting from the spontaneous release of stored Wigner energy in the graphite moderator. Decommissioning of the reactors commenced in 1987 and has reached the stage where the condition of both cores needs to be determined. To this end, non-intrusive and intrusive surveys and sampling of the cores have been planned and partly implemented. The objectives for each Pile differ slightly. The location and quantity of fuel remaining in the damaged core of Pile 1 needed to be established, whereas the removal of all fuel from Pile 2 needed to be confirmed. In Pile 1, the possible existence of a void in the core is to be explored and in Pile 2, the level of Wigner energy remaining required to be quantified. Levels of radioactivity in both cores needed to be measured. The planning of the surveys is described including strategy, design, safety case preparation and the remote handling and viewing equipment required to carry out the inspection, sampling and monitoring work. The results from the completed non-intrusive survey of Pile 2 are summarised. They confirm that the core is empty and the graphite is in good condition. The survey of Pile 1 has just started. (UK)

  12. Windscale - power versus pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonney, S.

    1977-01-01

    Protests from British environmental groups, scientists, politicians and private citizens has forced the Government to postpone a decision on plans to create the world's largest nuclear fuel oxide reprocessing complex at Windscale, on the north-west coast of England. Subjects considered here are the vast increase in the the quantity of lethal nuclear waste stored at Windscale, the risk of explosion or plant malfunction causing radioactive fall-out, the increased radioactive discharge into the Irish Sea and into the atmosphere and the danger of terrorism or sabotage. It is stated that critics of the Windscale project have yet to be convinced that the nuclear power industry is as risk-free as its proponents maintain in public statements. To satisfy the great anxieties shared by a large number of people about the expansion plan, a full public inquiry is essential. (U.K.)

  13. The Windscale piles - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Adams, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the Windscale reactor piles, in which a fire occurred in the core of pile 1 thirty years ago. A description is given of the two Windscale piles, along with the events leading up to the accident, and the state of the piles following shutdown. The surveillance and maintenance to ensure that the pile and associated buildings were in a safe condition is outlined. The present state of the core, water ducts and pile chimneys is described. The present and future programme of work to ensure long term safety is discussed. This includes the initial steps in decommissioning of the piles. (U.K.)

  14. Training of health physics services staff at the Sellafield Works of British Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagg, B.

    This paper describes the qualifications required and the training of health physics non-industrial and industrial staff who provide a radiological protection service to the Sellafield site. The training offered may consist of formal group instruction, programmed learning using written texts, videotape lectures, and on-the-job training by line management. Experience has shown that formal oral and practical instruction to small groups is the most effective form of training when supplemented by on-the-job training

  15. Sellafield repository design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997, UK Nirex Ltd carried out a programme of investigations to evaluate the potential of a site adjacent to the BNFL Sellafield works to host a deep repository for the United Kingdom's intermediate-level and certain low-level radioactive waste. The programme of investigations was wound down following the decision in March 1997 to uphold the rejection of the Company's planning application for the Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF), an underground laboratory which would have allowed further investigations to confirm whether or not the site would be suitable. Since that time, the Company's efforts in relation to the Sellafield site have been directed towards documenting and publishing the work carried out. The design concept for a repository at Sellafield was developed in parallel with the site investigations through an iterative process as knowledge of the site and understanding of the repository system performance increased. This report documents the Sellafield repository design concept as it had been developed, from initial design considerations in 1991 up to the point when the RCF planning application was rejected. It shows, from the context of a project at that particular site, how much information and experience has been gained that will be applicable to the development of a deep waste repository at other potential sites

  16. The Windscale experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackith, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive waste into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant in Cumbria is discussed from an Irish viewpoint. A history of accidents at the plant is reviewed, and past, present and future levels of discharge to the environment are outlined. The effect on the Irish population of discharges to the marine environment is evaluated by consideration of the food chain and the exposure pathways to man, in particular the concentration of radioactive caesium and plutonium in the flesh of fish in the Irish Sea. The general health effects attributed to radiation exposures are given, and a cluster of Downs Syndrome babies born to mothers who were at the same school in Co. Louth is attributed to increased exposure during the 1957 fire at the Windscale plant. The author concludes that, because of military implications and the need for plutonium for nulcear weapons, the reprocessing plant will continue to operate, but with greatly reduced levels of discharges permitted

  17. Judgement on Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.C.; White, I.F.

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the findings of the report on the Windscale Inquiry into the application by British Nuclear Fuels Limited for planning permission to establish a plant for reprocessing irradiated oxide nuclear fuels (The Windscale Inquiry. Report by the Hon. Mr. Justice Parker, 26 January 1978, Vol.1, Report and Annexes 3 to 5, HMSO). Particular attention is given to comments in the report on the ICRP and NRPB, radiation protection standards, and the risks associated with fuel reprocessing. The bases of the judgements made are given, together with Mr. Justice Parker's recommenda-tions for the setting of discharge limits, monitoring discharges and levels of environmental radioactivity, and the assessment of what constitutes a tolerable risk to the public. (U.K)

  18. What price Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, S.

    1985-11-01

    The report examines the economic and waste management arguments used to justify the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. With specific reference to Windscale reprocessing plant, it concludes that reprocessing is not the optimum approach to the management of spent fuel for the next decade or longer, and that the alternatives of long-term storage and/or direct disposal are more economic and more environmentally sound alternatives. (author)

  19. Penney's Windscale thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, F

    1988-01-07

    The paper concerns the official file on the nuclear fire at Windscale in October 1957, which was written by Sir William Penney. The file was based on a 10-day investigation, and describes the physical causes and consequences of the fire. The events of the accident are described, along with the political events of the time concerning the U.S.A. and nuclear weapons, attempts to put out the fire, iodine fall-out in the milk, and polonium 210 contamination.

  20. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted

  1. Cleanup Progress on High Hazard Legacy Facilities at Sellafield: Pile Fuel Cladding Silo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skilbeck, D.

    2006-01-01

    This facility was constructed in the 1940's as the original dry storage silo for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) arising from the Windscale Pile Reactors. Subsequently it was used as the main storage facility for all ILW arising from the Sellafield operation. It was operated until it became full and the Magnox Swarf Storage Silos were constructed in the mid 1960's. A systematic and As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) risk reduction approach has been adopted at Sellafield to address issues in order of risk magnitude. Prior to being in a position to retrieve stored wastes it has been necessary to improve the overall safety performance of the silo. This has involved installing new fire prevention systems, improving structural integrity, clearing waste from the Transfer Tunnel, and improving overall seismic performance. A major step towards reducing the overall risk profile of this facility has been to seal the six charge holes in the Transfer Tunnel, that were used for tipping the waste into the silo compartments during operations. This also enabled the silo Transfer Tunnel to be removed. Overall this work has proved that significant cleanup can be performed safely and successfully, in one of the most hazardous environments at Sellafield. (authors)

  2. From passive storage to daily waste retrieval; changing the working culture at Sellafield's pile fuel storage pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, Derek [Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1948/50 to treat materials from the Windscale Piles. Multiple operational regimes over the intervening 60 years have resulted in a complex inventory of spent nuclear fuels, solid and liquid intermediate level wastes. A coordinated programme of work, designed to retrieve and safely dispose of the pond contents, has been implemented to enable the decommissioning of the facility. The long period of passive storage operations which preceded the implementation of the programme meant that the operator was faced with a dual challenge of providing new technical capability and changing a working culture that was inappropriate for the dynamic environment required to successfully deliver the programme. It was recognised that the nature of the programme meant that implementing a standard manufacturing approach to operations would not be appropriate. In order to create a dynamic retrievals focussed working culture, the operator has vigorously embraced change programmes aimed at improving a number of working practices including encouraging innovation, managing integrated but flexible production schedules, and encouraging work-face problem solving. The combined impact of beginning to resolve the technical challenges and focussing on the delivery culture has resulted in the facility making a step change towards becoming fully retrievals operations focussed. (authors)

  3. From passive storage to daily waste retrieval; changing the working culture at Sellafield's pile fuel storage pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1948/50 to treat materials from the Windscale Piles. Multiple operational regimes over the intervening 60 years have resulted in a complex inventory of spent nuclear fuels, solid and liquid intermediate level wastes. A coordinated programme of work, designed to retrieve and safely dispose of the pond contents, has been implemented to enable the decommissioning of the facility. The long period of passive storage operations which preceded the implementation of the programme meant that the operator was faced with a dual challenge of providing new technical capability and changing a working culture that was inappropriate for the dynamic environment required to successfully deliver the programme. It was recognised that the nature of the programme meant that implementing a standard manufacturing approach to operations would not be appropriate. In order to create a dynamic retrievals focussed working culture, the operator has vigorously embraced change programmes aimed at improving a number of working practices including encouraging innovation, managing integrated but flexible production schedules, and encouraging work-face problem solving. The combined impact of beginning to resolve the technical challenges and focussing on the delivery culture has resulted in the facility making a step change towards becoming fully retrievals operations focussed. (authors)

  4. Windscale: a case study in public scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugler, J.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of the action in Parliament - and relevant action outside Parliament - leading to the setting up of a public inquiry into the application by British Nuclear Fuels Limited for planning permission to construct a thermal oxide reprocessing plant at their Windscale works. The hearings and the subsequent report by the inspector are also examined from the points of view of public involvement and parliamentary and government machinery. (U.K.)

  5. Drypac-ing waste away at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Sellafield Drypac Plant (SDP) is designed to treat intermediate level wastes stored on the Sellafield site in the UK. SDP is a key component in the overall strategy of encapsulating ILW for future disposal in an underground repository. Civil work on the plant has started and it is scheduled to begin active operations in 2002. (UK)

  6. Sellafield: boom or bombshell?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, J.

    1988-01-01

    Building work at the Sellafield reprocessing plant is reviewed. BNFL is about halfway through its programme to build new plants for reprocessing and storing spent nuclear fuels. Most money is being spent on THORP, the thermal oxide reprocessing plant, but vitrification and encapsulation plants are also being built. All the construction work has provided employment for many workers, many from outside the area but also local labour which has altered the local job market. However, problems are envisaged when the construction programme is complete in 1992 and the number of jobs greatly reduced. Unemployment and economic depression are forecast. (U.K.)

  7. Being open at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Philippa.

    1986-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel at Sellafield is explained briefly stage by stage. The origin of the spent fuels which are reprocessed there is given and the procedures for the different types of spent fuel are explained. The new fuel handling plant is described. Also the site ion-exchange effluent plant (SIXEP), which is designed to reduce the amount of radioactivity in water discharged into the Irish Sea, is mentioned. The work at BNFL on vitrification and the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) are also mentioned. The public are able to look round the exhibition centre and see for themselves the plant and operations as described in this article. (U.K.)

  8. Thinking about Windscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, A.R.

    1977-10-01

    In his editorial the author states that the public enquiry into the future of nuclear fuel reprocessing at Windscale raised the question of how the public is best served in such matters; in both Britain and the US, the format in which public interest is determined is usually fallacious. There is seldom sufficient distinction between questions of public interest and those of scientific fact. The complexity of ecology and how limited our understanding of it is are often obscured during public examination of environmental questions. If scientists fail to agree, why should agreement, or resolution of disagreement be expected within public enquiries which allow little chance for challenging expert statements or re-examining data. To help this situation, the US requires Environmental Impact Statements which permit rational challenging. In addition in the US, there is an attempt to formalize the challenge between scientific witnesses at hearings so that the adversary can be deemed to have proved a case. The proposal is, that for major issues, a Science Court should judge the merits of opposing arguments. Under discussion is a test of the concept to clarify and codify procedural rules. The importance of the principle inherent in the impact statement and Science Court must be recognized. Only by such radical departures from traditional ways of determining public interest can we come to grips with the gap between the ability of environmental science to give clear decisions and the ability assumed (by public and administrators) to exist within environmental science. Those in Europe, because of the rapidity with which the world is changing, should be receptive to new and perhaps difficult ways of meeting the challenges of the environmental crisis.

  9. Sellafield: the nuclear legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Sir D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns Sir Douglas Black's independent inquiry into cancer in young people living near the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. The inquiry followed a Yorkshire Television documentary on the subject. Childhood cancer and the statistical methodology employed in the report are discussed, as answers to criticisms of the report. Also discussed are the Sellafield discharges and the incidence of childhood leukaemia near Sellafield. (U.K.)

  10. Diverting activities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Remote technology is being used to divert a raffinate feed pipe at the Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in the UK. Extensive use is being made by the contractor of computer graphics and a full-scale mock-up. (author)

  11. Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The first indications that childhood leukemia rates may be raised near the Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, England, came from largely anecdotal evidence in a television program Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry shown during 1983. During subsequent years, various epidemiological studies have investigated the claim in more detail. Geographical analyses of childhood leukemia incidence in the northern region and mortality in England and Wales using routinely available data made the first contribution. As a result, it was confirmed that leukemia rates in the area, particularly the neighboring village of Seascale, were high compared to other districts, although not totally extreme. Cohort studies of children born in Seascale or attending schools in Seascale were carried out to resolve some of the difficulties of interpretation of geographical analysis. Cohort studies indicated that the excess of leukemia was concentrated among children born in Seascale and was not found among those moving in after birth and suggested that any causal factors may be acting before birth or very early in life. A case-control study of leukemia (and lymphoma) among young people in West Cumbria has examined potentially important individual factors in detail. The study demonstrated a relationship between the raised incidence of leukemia in children and father's recorded external radiation dose during work at Sellafield before his child's conception. The association can effectively explain statistically the observed geographical excess

  12. Windscale Report: a nuclear apologia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Government representatives have pointed repeatedly with pride to Britain's longest nuclear planning inquiry, The Windscale Inquiry, as a model of open examination of a sensitive nuclear proposal. The official Report of the Windscale Inquiry, published in March 1978, bears little relationship to the proceedings of the Inquiry, according to the author. Instead, the Report is a heavy-handed nuclear apologia, he says, so clumsily one-sided as to provoke unease even among many Britons previously unmoved by the issue which gave rise to the inquiry. Windscale, built following WW II to produce plutonium for Britain's nuclear weapons, is now operated by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. In 1973, BNFL began to plan construction of a new full-scale oxide-fuel reprocessing plant. Protests delayed construction until the inquiry was planned and the inquiry team was formulated in March 1977. When the Inquiry ended, the inspector closeted himself to write the Report. The Report recommended that the oxide fuel reprocessing plant be built immediately. BNFL had asserted that the proposed thermal oxide reprocessing plant, THORP, was necessary for the management of spent fuel from British and other nuclear plants; that it was desirable for ''energy conservation,'' by recovering uranium and plutonium for re-use; that radioactive emissions within and outside the plant would pose no hazard; and that the servicing of foreign customers would not increase the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, but would rather help to persuade other countries not to reprocess their own fuel. The inspector agreed without qualification and with emphasis. In doing so he made no attempt even to describe the detailed evidence on either side, or to discuss the cases advanced by objectors. The author discusses the principal conclusions of the report and cites its futility

  13. Windscale: tackling the core of the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor requires the design of a robot or manipulator to enter the reactor core and cut up the core into pieces that can then be loaded into concrete-filled boxes and disposed of as nuclear waste. Existing equipment is not entirely suitable so the machine is being designed specifically for the job. A British firm has been chosen to supply the equipment, which will have joy stick control, and will be delivered by mid 1988. Six months development work, then a year of trials will follow, before the dismantling process will start. The machine, its operation and the remote viewing provision are discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Disaggregation of collective dose-a worked example based on future discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing site, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S R; Lambers, B; Stevens, A

    2004-01-01

    Collective dose has long been advocated as an important measure of the detriment associated with practices that involve the use of radioactivity. Application of collective dose in the context of worker protection is relatively straightforward, whereas its application in the context of discharges to the environment can yield radically different conclusions depending upon the population groups and integration times that are considered. The computer program PC-CREAM98 has been used to provide an indicative disaggregation into individual dose bands of the collective dose due to potential future radioactive discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing site at Sellafield in the UK. Two alternative discharge scenarios are considered, which represent a 'stop reprocessing early, minimum discharge' scenario and a 'reprocessing beyond current contracts' scenario. For aerial discharges, collective dose at individual effective dose rates exceeding 0.015 μSv y -1 is only incurred within the UK, and at effective dose rates exceeding 1.5 μSv y -1 is only incurred within about 20 km of Sellafield. The geographical distribution of collective dose from liquid discharges is harder to assess, but it appears that collective dose incurred outside the UK is at levels of individual effective dose rate below 1.5 μSv y -1 , with the majority being incurred at rates of 0.002 μSv y -1 or less. In multi-attribute utility analyses, the view taken on the radiological detriment to be attributed to the two discharge scenarios will depend critically on the weight or monetary value ascribed to collective doses incurred within the differing bands of individual dose rate

  15. Nuclear power. The Windscale controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.

    1978-01-01

    The aims of this unit are: (1) to provide a basic understanding of nuclear technology and of the associated technical and environmental problems; (2) to provide an understanding of: (a) the historical growth of the nuclear industry; (b) the arguments for the continued development of nuclear power, and the institutions promoting that development; (3) to provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms and institutions which officially regulate the nuclear power programme in the UK; (4) to provide an understanding of the main issues - technical, economic, social and political - involved in the controversy over the proposed expansion of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd's reprocessing facilities at Windscale, and the events leading up to the Public Inquiry on the proposal which began in June 1977; and (5) to examine (a) the reason for the growth in opposition to nuclear power in various countries and the different approaches taken by the opposition groups; (b) the political impact and effectiveness of that opposition. (author)

  16. Radiation and Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, David.

    1986-01-01

    Journalist's lay account of a visit to Sellafield's medical services department. Topics mentioned are personal air samplers, pre-employment scanning, preventative health assessment (smoking habits, coronary care haemoccult scanning, well woman clinics are included), whole body monitors, and cancer compensation schemes. (U.K.)

  17. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  18. A comparison of the observed and the expected cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, G.W.

    1976-12-01

    Data are given about the cases of cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale Works, BNFL during the period 1950 to 1974. The number of cancers of these types expected to occur in the working population at Windscale has been estimated for the same period. For none of these types is the observed number of cancers significantly different at the 95% confidence level from that expected. (author)

  19. New Sellafield study poses a puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Three years ago, an epidemiological study rocked the nuclear industry by suggesting a link between exposure to radiation among men and leukemia in their children. The study, by the late British epidemiologist Martin Gardner, focused on workers at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in northwest England and had profound implications for the nuclear industry: If a causal link between exposure and cancer could be proven, occupational exposure limits to radiation would have to be tightened and British Nuclear Fuels, the operator of Sellafield, might be open to litigation from the affected children and their relatives. A new study by Britain's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) found only fragile evidence that long-term cumulative exposure to radiation by fathers before conception of their children was linked to an increased risk of the child developing leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. But in Seascale, 3 kilometers south of Sellafield, the rate of leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma among children whose fathers worked in Sellafield and lived in Seascale when they were born was about 14 times the national average. The findings remain uncertain as to cause of the cancers

  20. The Windscale piles initial decommissioning programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorman, T.; Woodacre, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles, the first large scale nuclear reactors built in the UK were constructed in the late 1940's and operated until the accident in Pile No 1 caused their permanent shutdown in 1957. Following a period of care and maintenance, a programme of initial decommissioning has begun aimed at establishing a satisfactory long-term safe condition for the Windscale Piles Complex with minimum maintenance commitments. For the chimneys this involves the removal of the top filter sections. The pond will be emptied and cleaned. For the Piles the initial phase includes the consideration of options for long-term decommissioning solutions. (author)

  1. Sellafield - a nuclear licensed site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, Phillipa.

    1987-01-01

    The report is based on the experience gained when visiting the Exhibition Centre at the BNFL Sellafield site and joining the hour-long coach trip round the site. The sights are recorded and a description given of the processes undertaken at Sellafield to reprocess the Magnox fuel and store the spent fuel from AGR reactors. The purpose of the main plant building, and the passage of the spent fuel through the various processes is described. Criticism is made of the safety record at Sellafield and a full and open debate on nuclear power is called for. (UK)

  2. Living with Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    Initial findings are reported of a survey of the attitudes towards Sellafield (British Nuclear Fuels) of West Cumbrian people. Reasons for the survey are given. The following aspects were covered: attitude to BNF as a local company; attitudes about radiation levels in areas around BNF plant, as regards health risks to various classes of people; radiation levels in various environments (e.g. on the beaches, in house dust, etc.); comparison with other risks; amount of monitoring of radiation levels; interest in various sources of information about possible radiation risks; reliability of various sources of information; participation of the respondent in meetings, environmental groups, etc.; opportunity to express respondent's views; attitudes to various publicity activities. Variations between attitudes in different towns and villages in the area are discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Winning Public Confidence in Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    BNF operates the nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management centre of Sellafield in North West England. It is the largest nuclear site in Britain and perhaps the most famous nuclear plant in Western Europe. It is famous largely because it has long been the target of anti-nuclear interests. Well organised, well funded and well informed anti-nuclear organisations, notably including Green peace and Friends of the Earth, have made propaganda capital based on a number of controversial claims: - that by importing spent nuclear fuel from overseas for reprocessing at Sellafield, BNFL was turning Britain into a nuclear dustbin for the world. That discharges of low level radioactivity from Sellafield cause unacceptable nuclear pollution and endanger health, that the radioactivity in store in various forms on site at Sellafield, for which no permanent disposal routes are yet available, are a danger to the public and constantly threaten a major nuclear accident

  4. Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1987-02-01

    The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137 Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

  5. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Bob [BNFL (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  6. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Bob

    1989-01-01

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  7. After the fire: preparing the Windscale Piles for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Windscale Piles in the UK were taken out of service in 1957 after a fire in Pile 1. They have remained essentially in the same state since that time and during this period there have been periodic inspections of the complete structures to ensure that there is no degradation taking place. The Piles are in a safe condition and would remain so for a considerable period (50 years or more) provided they were undisturbed. However, the Piles must be decommissioned at some time and clearly this will require preparatory work which is now being carried out. The work is scheduled for completion in 1994, at a cost of Pound 8 million at present day prices. (author)

  8. Cases of leukaemia in the Sellafield area: the ''Sir Douglas Black'' report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.; Jammet, H.

    1984-01-01

    The report of this Advisory Group was published in the summer of 1984. Its conclusions can be summarised as follows: 1. Epidemiological surveys, although still incomplete, show that the incidence of cases of leukaemia and deaths caused by leukaemia in persons under 25 years of age is ''unusual'' in the village of Seascale and the Millom rural district. However, they are not unique and the same phenomenon can be found in comparable population groups located far away from any nuclear plants. 2. Taking all children born Seascale since 1950 who lived in the village up until 1980, their equivalent dose in the red marrow of the bone caused by Sellafield nuclear waste and the Windscale reactor fire of 1957 is only 13% of the equivalent dose due to background radiation. 3. The excessive leukaemia mortality rate at Seascale cannot be explained by radioactive waste. For this, a factor of 40 to 400 would be necessary. However, since doubts remain with respect to Sellafield nuclear waste, it must be temporarily concluded that the hypothesis of a connexion between the proximity of the nuclear plant and the excessive leukaemia rate cannot be fully eliminated. But neither can it be easily proven. The advisory Group recommendations are relating to: the surveys to be carried on; the inspection to be improved around the Sellafield plant; the incumbent regulations to be taken into consideration [fr

  9. Hydrogeological testing in the Sellafield area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of the hydrogeological test methodologies employed in the Sellafield geological investigations is provided in order that an objective appraisal of the quality of the data can be formed. A brief presentation of some of these data illustrates the corroborative nature of different test and measurement methodologies and provides a preliminary view of the results obtained. The programme of hydrogeological testing is an evolving one and methodologies are developing as work proceeds and targets become more clearly defined. As the testing is focused on relatively low permeability rocks at depth, the approach to testing differs slightly from conventional hydrogeological well testing and makes extensive use of oilfield technology. (author)

  10. Future analytical provision - Relocation of Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, B.

    2015-01-01

    Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services provide an essential view on the environmental, safety, process and high hazard risk reduction performances by analysis of samples. It is the largest and most complex analytical services laboratory in Europe, with 150 laboratories (55 operational) and 350 staff (including 180 analysts). Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Main Laboratory is in need of replacement. This is due to the age of the facility and changes to work streams. This relocation is an opportunity to -) design and commission bespoke MA (Medium-Active) cells, -) modify HA (High-Active) cell design to facilitate an in-cell laboratory, -) develop non-destructive techniques, -) open light building for better worker morale. The option chosen was to move the activities to the NNL Central laboratory (NNLCL) that is based at Sellafield and is the UK's flagship nuclear research and development facility. This poster gives a time schedule

  11. Windscale experiment. A study of Windscale's pollution of the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackith, R

    1984-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive waste into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant in Cumbria is discussed from an Irish viewpoint. A history of accidents at the plant is reviewed, and past, present and future levels of discharge to the environment are outlined. The effect on the Irish population of discharges to the marine environment is evaluated by consideration of the food chain and the exposure pathways to man, in particular the concentration of radioactive caesium and plutonium in the flesh of fish in the Irish Sea. The general health effects attributed to radiation exposures are given, and a cluster of Downs Syndrome babies born to mothers who were at the same school in Co. Louth is attributed to increased exposure during the 1957 fire at the Windscale plant. The author concludes that, because of military implications and the need for plutonium for nulcear weapons, the reprocessing plant will continue to operate, but with greatly reduced levels of discharges permitted.

  12. BNFL Sellafield further public consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The main issues raised during the further public consultation on the draft Sellafield authorisations for the discharge of radioactive wastes from the British Nuclear Fuel (BNFL) Sellafield site are outlined. An analysis of the categories and numbers of the 42,500 responses is made. The public consultation was based on five documents; a letter to consultees from the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF); the report by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution and the Inspectorate of MAFF on their earlier consultation exercise; a paper by BNFL on the economic and commercial justification of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP); a statement of the Government's policy on reprocessing and THORP and a document prepared by BNFL on the environmental implication of THORP. (UK)

  13. The selling of Sellafield (the public image)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David.

    1986-01-01

    The advertising campaign planned to restore the public image of Sellafield is discussed. Two aspects of the Sellafield site are being promoted especially, the first is that the discharges of long life radioactivity are being reduced. The second is the 'site accessibility' of Sellafield -BNFL is trying to encourage visitors to see for themselves what goes on at Sellafield. There is evidence that this will allay the fears and suspicions of the public. It is suggested, however, that providing information about nuclear power may be counter-productive as the concept of nuclear disaster may receive greater attention. The Sellafield site is difficult to promote whilst it continues to suffer leaks and it is suggested that the only way to promote Sellafield successfully may be by appealing to nationalism as the French have done in their nuclear campaign. (U.K.)

  14. Windscale inquiry and policy-making procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Moltke, K

    1978-07-01

    Policy decisions on the development and installation of nuclear facilities often strain both the time and human resources of a country, some countries having taken steps to involve the national government in specific siting decisions and shifting the constitutional balance in response to popular dissent. Challenges to nuclear facilities could be met by limiting the scope of intervenors and the use of judicial review. The 100-day Windscale Inquiry in the United Kingdom represents the most costly review any country has had of a specific nuclear policy and has international implications. A chronology of the inquiry illustrates how the debate evolved into a vote on whether nuclear energy should be developed at all and effectively cut off other avenues of recourse. The traditional procedures for planning are shown to be inadequate for setting nuclear energy policy without the intervention of Parliament. 18 references.

  15. Radioactive discharges from Sellafield (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study of low-level liquid radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd Sellafield site into the eastern basin of the Irish Sea, prepared on the basis of existing publications and documents, reviews chemical forms and rate of discharges, physical oceanography, sediment distribution and fisheries of the Irish Sea, behaviour of radionuclides in seawater, association with sedimentary materials, accumulation of radionuclides by biological materials, environmental monitoring, surveillance and assessment of radiation exposure of the public and impact on the environment

  16. The design and construction of the windscale vitrification plant and vitrified product store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.; Woodall, A.; Elsden, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the background of High Level Waste storage and vitrification development in the UK and its application to Reprocessing Operations at Sellafield. The main stages in the vitrification process and associated maintenance facilities are described together with the layout of the Windscale Vitrification Plant (WVP) and associated Vitrified Product Store (VPS). The design and construction techniques employed for example, the use of Computer Aided Design and the effect of automatic pipe bending/orbital welding and the use of precast units for cell construction, are discussed and current construction progress is highlighted. The vitrification process uses complex mechanical plant operating in high temperature and radiation fields. An extensive engineering and process development programme has been carried out. A full scale inactive facility (FSIF) has been constructed and the objectives and results from the operation of FSIF are presented. In addition to engineering and process development, a comprehensive programme of glass technology development has been carried out to establish maximum waste incorporation levels, reaction kinetic and product properties of the candidate glass formulations

  17. Radioactive lobsters put squeeze on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-11-01

    British Nuclear Fuels is facing a new controversy over its Sellafield Works in Cumbria. Levels of the radioactive isotope technetium-99 in lobsters close to the works have risen 40-fold since 1993 -and now far exceed EC standards for contamination of food after a nuclear accident. Radioactive doses to local seafood consumers have been rising steeply since BNFL commissioned a new enhanced actinide removal plant (EARP) in 1994. The Environment Agency has now asked BNFL to consider ways of reducing technetium-99 discharges from the plant - but the company is also under pressure to maintain throughput to meet the safety concerns of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and avoid disrupting the reprocessing of spent Magnox reactor fuel. (UK).

  18. Radioactive lobsters put squeeze on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels is facing a new controversy over its Sellafield Works in Cumbria. Levels of the radioactive isotope technetium-99 in lobsters close to the works have risen 40-fold since 1993 -and now far exceed EC standards for contamination of food after a nuclear accident. Radioactive doses to local seafood consumers have been rising steeply since BNFL commissioned a new enhanced actinide removal plant (EARP) in 1994. The Environment Agency has now asked BNFL to consider ways of reducing technetium-99 discharges from the plant - but the company is also under pressure to maintain throughput to meet the safety concerns of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and avoid disrupting the reprocessing of spent Magnox reactor fuel. (UK)

  19. Remote Decommissioning Experiences at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownridge, M.

    2006-01-01

    British Nuclear Group has demonstrated through delivery of significant decommissioning projects the ability to effectively deploy innovative remote decommissioning technologies and deliver cost effective solutions. This has been achieved through deployment and development of off-the-shelf technologies and design of bespoke equipment. For example, the worlds first fully remotely operated Brokk was successfully deployed to enable fully remote dismantling, packaging and export of waste during the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing facility. British Nuclear Group has also successfully implemented remote decommissioning systems to enable the decommissioning of significant challenges, including dismantling of a Caesium Extraction Facility, Windscale Pile Chimney and retrieval of Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) from storage cells. The challenge for the future is to continue to innovate through utilization of the supply chain and deploy off-the-shelf technologies which have been demonstrated in other industry sectors, thus reducing implementation schedules, cost and maintenance. (authors)

  20. The Windscale Inquiry: the public inquiry system on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the Windscale Inquiry of 1977 and its effect on the public inquiry system. It focusses both on the major influences of the Windscale Inquiry process, and on the participants, their aims, motivations, expectations and achievements. It provides the most detailed examination of the Inquiry to date and, as a result, uncovers aspects of the process while have not been explored previously. The central questions of the thesis are: Was the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry inevitable or could it have reached different conclusions? and did the Windscale Inquiry demonstrate that the public inquiry system could be used by a government to reach a decision which it favoured? The thesis argues that the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry was almost inevitable. In fact it was found that the Inspector had made up his mind in favour of oxide reprocessing before the Inquiry opened. However, this finding does not express fully the Inquiry's impact, because, as the thesis shows, the Inquiry became a mechanism which forced the nuclear industry and the government to explain, and substantially alter, some parts of their policies. The process of bringing the government and industry to account, did not alter the THORP decision, but it demonstrated that any subsequent inquiries could subject nuclear developments to searching criticism and investigation. Indeed it is suggested that the Windscale Inquiry made it impossible for subsequent Governments to proceed with nuclear expansion without subjecting them to the public inquiry process. Part I of the thesis examines the history and structure of the public Inquiry system and the relevant aspects of planning law. Part II describes the history of reprocessing and the themes which led to the public inquiry being established. Part III forms the most detailed part of the thesis and examines the Windscale Inquiry process focussing on the participants and the issues involved. (author)

  1. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  2. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.; Prestwood, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics' trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles

  3. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, C. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Prestwood, J. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics` trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles.

  4. BNFL Sellafield: post audit progress, December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The report of the safety audit at the Sellafield site was published in December 1986. In this, the Health and Safety Executive required British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to make improvements to the site and safety cases have had to be produced. These have now to be assessed by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. BNFL has undertaken programmes of maintenance, refurbishment and replacement of equipment. Much of this work was done in the shut-down maintenance period in the spring and summer. However, more work is needed to bring plants up a condition suitable for operating for the next ten years. BNFL have also started to decontaminate and decommission disused, contaminated, plants. This will generate a large amount of radioactive waste. BNFL have to build plants to containerise and encapsulate the waste prior to disposal. Waste disposal sites to complete the clean-up process are needed. The improvements to the engineering plants, to written procedures and to training, are reported. Changed attitudes are also noted. (U.K.)

  5. The Windscale inquiry and its impact on the national nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    This lecture by the Director of Information Services, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., endeavours to convey something of the flavour of the recent Windscale Inquiry that lasted for 100 days and the results of which encompassed about four million words. It is stated that in at least the short term nuclear power in this country will only expand at a rate that is acceptable to the general public, largely as influenced by members of parliament and the media, including the press. It probably will not expand at a rate acceptable to scientists or deemed necessary by them. The pressure that led to the inquiry will not lessen because the inquiry is over; if anything it will increase. Nevertheless, eventually the nuclear power industry must win and the public will be forced to learn to live with it since the alternative, a society short of energy, is intolerable. Unless the industry has a reasonably consistent work load and a reasonably consistent demand for its products it will become moribund. Comparisons are made with the history of the coal industry. It is believed that one of the main lessons to be learnt form the Windscale Inquiry is that the Nuclear Power Industry's immediate future lies largely in its own hands. An outline is included of the past and probable future work of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. with emphasis on the reprocessing of irradiated oxide fuel. (author)

  6. Some Windscale experience of the underwater examination of water reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.A.; Prestwood, J.; Stuttard, A.

    1981-01-01

    Windscale Nuclear Laboratories have been involved in the underwater post irradiation examination of irradiated water reactor fuel since the early 1970's. Since the work of the laboratories covers a wide range of fuel types, the equipment has had to be capable of handling any design, long or short, circular or square. There has so far been no element of routine work in the tasks performed at Windscale, for in this period fuel assemblies from 9 LWR's and WSGHWR have been examined successfully. Individual jobs have ranged from visual examination which may be carried out at several magnifications, to the complete breakdown of a PWR assembly to its separate rods and grids. Between these limits rod bow and rod diameter have been measured, rod withdrawal forces determined, and eddy current test methods devised. Cutting equipment has been used for a variety of dismantling tasks, and underwater cameras have been employed for monochrome and colour photography, using standard and macro lenses. The equipment is described. (author)

  7. Irish and Scandinavian objection to Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the objection of Ireland and the Scandinavian countries to the radioactive emissions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. This contamination follows the sea currents northward and radioactive material from this plant has been found in seaweed and crustaceans along the coast of Norway. The concentration in lobster from the Irish Sea is much higher than in Norwegian crustaceans and above the action limit set by the EU for the radioactive isotope Technetium 99 in the event of a new atomic accident. British authorities have refused to stop the pollution and even plan to start production of MOX fuel at Sellafield. They say new purification techniques will be developed within three or five years. For Norway, the opposition against Sellafield is a priority

  8. Management of overexposed individuals at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, A.W.; Tagg, B.; Binks, K.; Goodwin, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews of the health of Sellafield employees, including the mortality experience of 10,157 occupationally exposed workers and a cohort of 542 who have received cumulative whole body external doses greater than 500 mSv to the end of 1983 show that, to date, mortality due to cancer is generally lower than the average for England and Wale s. This shows that even at Sellafield, where the highest individual and total routine whole body external radiation exposures in the UK have occurred, there is unlikely to be enough data to ever define precisely the radiation risks associated with occupational whole body radiation exposure and implies that the radiological protection procedures and managerial practices employed at Sellafield may have been successful overall. The impact of a recent report on the effects of preconceptual parental occupational whole body radiation exposure on the health of their children is also discussed. (Author)

  9. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  10. HSE investigation of leukaemia and other cancers in the children of male workers at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents two findings of the U.K. Health and Safety Executive study group responsible for examining the conclusions of the Gardner Report that ''the raised incidence of leukaemia particularly, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, among children near Sellafield was associated with paternal employment and recorded external dose of whole body penetrating radiation during work at the plant before conception''. The HSE report is divided into three:- the Case-only study and the Radiation Dose study, concerned with the 11 case fathers who had worked at Sellafield. The third part, the Case-control study, is an epidemiological study which seeks to identify all cancer cases diagnosed before the age of 25, where the children concerned had been born in West Cumbria to fathers who were Sellafield employees. The search included the whole country from January 1980 to September 1989. (UK)

  11. The Sellafield repository project information programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curd, P J [United Kingdom Nirex Limited (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    The Sellafield Repository Project Information programme has been guided by formal research and by feedback through members of the team. Progress has been made and a significant majority of local people support the project and feel it will benefit the area. (author)

  12. The Sellafield repository project information programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Sellafield Repository Project Information programme has been guided by formal research and by feedback through members of the team. Progress has been made and a significant majority of local people support the project and feel it will benefit the area. (author)

  13. Computer-based training at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartmell, A.; Evans, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL) operate the United Kingdom's spent-fuel receipt, storage, and reprocessing complex at Sellafield. Spent fuel from graphite-moderated CO 2 -cooled Magnox reactors has been reprocessed at Sellafield for 22 yr. Spent fuel from light water and advanced gas reactors is stored pending reprocessing in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant currently being constructed. The range of knowledge and skills needed for plant operation, construction, and commissioning represents a formidable training requirement. In addition, employees need to be acquainted with company practices and procedures. Computer-based training (CBT) is expected to play a significant role in this process. In this paper, current applications of CBT to the filed of nuclear criticality safety are described and plans for the immediate future are outlined

  14. Sellafield Site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. Several categories of emergencies on the Sellafield Site are mentioned; a building emergency which is confined to one building, a Site emergency standby when the effects of a building emergency go outside that building, a Site emergency alert (District Emergency Standby) when a release of activity affects Site operations and could have serious Site effects and a District Emergency Alert when a radioactivity release may interfere with the normal activity of the General Public. A Drigg Emergency Standby situation would operate similarly at the Drigg Site. The detailed arrangements and responsibilities of appointed personnel are set out in this manual. (UK)

  15. Sellafield site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Emergency Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. This manual covers the general principles of the total emergency scheme and those detailed procedures which are not specific to any single department. (U.K.)

  16. The Sellafield contaminated land and groundwater management project: Characterisation of a complex nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruickshak, Julian

    2012-01-01

    The Sellafield site in North West England is one of the oldest and largest nuclear sites in the world, with a 70 year industrial history of processing and power generation. At certain points in time this industrial activity has affected the quality of land on parts of the site and one of the main tasks for Sellafield Ltd is to understand and control the legacy of ground contamination to ensure protection of the workforce, the public and the environment. Sellafield Ltd has recently completed a multi-million Pound investigation of the most complex part of the site in order to understand the impact of the various known and potential sources of contamination. The constraints of working in a challenging operational environment required both the use of tried and tested approaches and experimentation with innovative techniques. As experience was gained during implementation of the project, the characterisation plan was evolved and adapted to ensure a successful outcome. The presentation will outline the role and importance of characterising land and groundwater at Sellafield, explain how the site investigation strategy and techniques were designed to meet the challenge and describe the performance of the investigation in practice. It will conclude with a summary of how the results will be used to better support ongoing safety and environmental management and to aid the development of strategy and planning for the future. (author)

  17. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, M A [ANS Consultants Ltd., Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-01

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author).

  18. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, M.A.

    1991-12-01

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  19. Technical assessment of the significance of Wigner energy for disposal of graphite wastes from the Windscale Piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, R.M.; Wisbey, S.J.; McCarthy, J.

    2001-01-01

    issues raised by Wigner energy and a description of key points from the work undertaken by Nirex to model the release of residual stored energy from packaged irradiated graphite from the Windscale Piles. (author)

  20. Radiation and stillbirths in Sellafield workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In The Lancet (23 October 1999), Dr Louise Parker and colleagues from the Departments of Child Health and Statistics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, report the findings of a new study on stillbirths among offspring of male radiation workers at Sellafield. By linking the birth registration and stillbirth records in Cumbria from 1950 to 1989 to the database of workers at Sellafield, Dr Parker's team examined the stillbirth risk according to the father's exposure to radiation before conception of the child. From the birth documents of 248 097 livebirths and 3715 stillbirths, the team identified 130 stillbirths and 9078 livebirths to wives and partners of male radiation workers employed at Sellafield. Lifetime exposure, and that in the 90 days before conception, was derived from annual-exposure summaries for each worker. Exposures recorded on individual film badges for the fathers of each stillborn child and for four matched controls were also examined. The researchers found that although, as a group, babies of radiation workers were not more likely to be stillborn than babies of other Cumbrian fathers, there was an increased risk of stillbirth with increasing exposure of a father to external radiation. Although confounding factors also associated with stillbirth, such as whether the mother smoked, cannot be completely excluded, the researchers state that 'extensive checks confirmed that the statistical models were a good fit to the data and there was no statistical evidence of unmeasured factors'. However, the researchers are cautious in drawing any conclusions regarding causality. In the Commentary given in The Lancet, Hazel Inskip from the University of Southampton advises that the possible risk of stillbirth should be kept in perspective, and comments that 'there is no obvious mechanism for the association', but does concede that 'the greater increase in risk for stillbirths with neural-tube defects is at least focused on a more specific disorder

  1. Robotics take heat out of reactor. [Windscale AGR decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufford, N

    1986-12-04

    The Windscale prototype reactor is being decommissioned and dismantled. The stages are outlined. The first phase began in 1985 and included construction of a waste packaging plant annexed to the steel dome. The boilers will be cut up and, once decontaminated, probably sold for scrap. The second phase involves dismantling the reactor itself. Much of this will be done by a semi-automatic robot which is being specially built and tested. The robot will have an extendable arm with a manipulator which will be equipped with bolt croppers, shears, a saw and oxypropane cutter. This robot will cut up the pressure vessel in sections ready for encasing in concrete. Lessons learnt from the dismantling will be used in future reactor designs and specifications (eg the need to use steels with fewer impurities, especially cobalt). Ultimate disposal of the concrete waste blocks is undecided. (U.K.).

  2. The reduction of radioactive discharges from Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, D.M.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the continuing efforts of British Nuclear Fuels to reduce the levels of discharges from the Sellafield site. Emphasis is placed on two plants: the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant (SIXEP), commissioned in 1985 and the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP), programmed to be commissioned in 1991. The content matter deals with process and engineering concepts developed to solve problems peculiar to the nuclear industry but will be of interest to any organization faced with the processing, control and containment of hazardous media. (author)

  3. Safeguards By Design - As applied to the Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chare, Peter; Lahogue, Yves; Schwalbach, Peter; Smejkal, Andreas; Patel, Bharat [European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy, Directorate E - Nuclear Safeguards, Euroforum, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2011-12-15

    Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS) is a new facility that has been constructed on the site of Sellafield. The design work started in early 2001 and active commissioning commenced with the introduction of the first nuclear material which arrived in the building early 2011. The store has been designed for the long term storage of Plutonium product (PuO2) from Thorp and Magnox, MOX residue powder from Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) as well as pellet, powder or granular PuO2 residues from the older stores on the Sellafield site. This paper describes the application of Safeguards By Design commencing at the early design stage based upon the Safeguards Approach to be applied by DG ENER at the Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS). The approach had been developed based upon the requirements for implementing Commission Regulation 302(2005) and the technical measures to be implemented in order to meet Article 77(a) of the Euratom Treaty. In order to meet these requirements a close dialogue was established between the different interested parties and the design team for the installation of instrumentation with associated cabling in order to implement the agreed safeguards measures. Early contacts at the design stage facilitated the inclusion of installed safeguards supplied instrumentation into the overall design and facility construction. The equipment and cabling supplied by Euratom was incorporated into the planning and construction phases. This ensured that upon plant completion the safeguards tools were commissioned and ready for the verification of the first nuclear material to be introduced into SPRS. Detailed discussions at the early stages of the design phase raised the profile of nuclear material safeguards and made certain that the necessary instrumentation infrastructure was incorporated into the plant infrastructure.

  4. Radiological protection challenges at B.N.G. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallard, R.; Anderson, B.; Hutton, E.

    2006-01-01

    The UK Nuclear Industry is in the midst of a period of intense change with the formation of a national body to manage the clean up of Nuclear facilities. Previous owners of nuclear sites have become contractors and the emphasis has switched from production facilities for power or reprocessing to decommissioning and clean up. Many of the older facilities were not designed for decommissioning and now require attention to reduce risks. Sellafield represents a microcosm of the industry with operating and production facilities, waste storage facilities and plants awaiting or undergoing decommissioning. The experience already gained in decommissioning of redundant facilities over the last decade is being used to develop an accelerated response to clean up of the past. The major challenge is to accommodate the changes whilst monitoring and improving Radiological standards and performance. This paper describes a number of issues to which the site must be managed to ensure that the current Radiological performance is maintained and improved. The dose control arrangements for some 6000 radiation workers on the site requires a change in approach as we move towards localised project based systems with an increasingly mobile workforce. Work is proceeding to introduce a new generation of short term dose control equipment with an emphasis on safety culture and management responsibilities for dose control. The achievement and demonstration of ALARP in these circumstances, is being reviewed in situations where timescale, overall risk to public and workforce and exposure to non radiological hazards are factors. Clean up requires more attention to clearance of materials and this aspect has an increasing profile to recognize the need to balance risk and expenditure. The paper will review the current Radiological Protection challenges to the changing Nuclear Industry using the Sellafield site as the prime example and will discuss achievements and areas where further work is necessary

  5. Sellafield visitor centre: techniques for bringing technology to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1993-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc undertakes a full range of fuel cycle services and is committed to an open-door policy in explaining its operations of the public; for which its Visitor's Centre at Sellafield is the flagship. The existing Centre was opened in 1988 and replaced an earlier, smaller, facility. In total, more than 1 000 000 visitors have been welcomed to Sellafield and the Site is now recognized as the largest tourist attraction in the region. This creates a high level of responsibility to the local area, to which Sellafield responds through its many community and education based projects. (author)

  6. BNFL Sellafield assessment of public radiation exposure due to liquid effluents from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Individual (critical group) doses resulting from liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works have been derived in a form normalised to unit radionuclide discharge rates. This has been done for the purpose of providing a basis for predicting doses in the event of nuclear fuel from a future Sizewell 'B' power station being reprocessed. These doses would have to be reviewed in the light of prevailing circumstances at the time when the actual discharges are known. (author)

  7. Allen diesel standby sets at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, G.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the extension and improvement plans for the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd reprocessing facilities at Sellafield, three Allen diesel engines have been installed for essential standby duty. They are 16-cylinder V-form engines with a continuous rating of 2,832 bhp and drive a 2000kW 11,000 volt 3 phase 50Hz salient pole synchronous alternator at 750r/min. They are arranged for running in parallel and with the public electricity mains supply and are also controlled to operate as standby in the event of mains failure. To prevent radioactive contamination from the atmosphere, primary and secondary air filtration has been supplied for each engine. Other operational facilities and safeguards are mentioned and the cooling system described. (U.K.)

  8. The nuclear reactor accident at Windscale - October, 1957: Environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutit, J.F.; Marley, W.G.; Russell, R.S.

    1960-01-01

    The nature and cause of the nuclear reactor accident at Windscale in October, 1957, have been described in the summary report of the Committee of Inquiry set up by the Atomic Energy Authority. This report was published in a Command Paper Atomic Energy Office, 1957). The events leading up to the accident occurred on the 8th October, during a routine release of the energy which had become stored in the graphite moderator as a result of the normal operation of the reactor. The Committee concluded that the accident had been caused by local overheating of the uranium fuel elements, the canning of which then failed exposing the uranium and allowing it to oxidize. The temperatures in the affected channels continued to rise, leading to the combustion of the graphite. The amount of radioactivity released during the accident is not known precisely, but approximate estimates were made from the measurements of the radioactive iodine deposited on the ground in this country, and from measurements on air filters obtained both in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe

  9. The nuclear reactor accident at Windscale - October, 1957: Environmental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutit, J F; Marley, W G; Russell, R S

    1960-12-01

    The nature and cause of the nuclear reactor accident at Windscale in October, 1957, have been described in the summary report of the Committee of Inquiry set up by the Atomic Energy Authority. This report was published in a Command Paper Atomic Energy Office, 1957). The events leading up to the accident occurred on the 8th October, during a routine release of the energy which had become stored in the graphite moderator as a result of the normal operation of the reactor. The Committee concluded that the accident had been caused by local overheating of the uranium fuel elements, the canning of which then failed exposing the uranium and allowing it to oxidize. The temperatures in the affected channels continued to rise, leading to the combustion of the graphite. The amount of radioactivity released during the accident is not known precisely, but approximate estimates were made from the measurements of the radioactive iodine deposited on the ground in this country, and from measurements on air filters obtained both in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe.

  10. Overview of the management of solid low level radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Rob [British Nuclear Fuels, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Hagger, Richard C. [BNFL, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the United Kingdom in ner-surface facilities for over 40 years. This has mainly been at the Drigg disposal site on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometres to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site also receives waste from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. This paper is principally from the perspective of a disposal facility operator. Firstly the regulatory framework to low level waste disposal is outlined. This is then followed by a review of practices and projects associated with the Sellafield and Drigg sits and also some of the supporting technical work.

  11. The wide range in-core neutron measurement system used in the Windscale AGR concluding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.; Budd, J.; Wilson, I.

    1982-06-01

    The Windscale AGR Concluding Experiments included a comparison of theoretical and experimental power transients and required measurements of neutron flux as a function of position and time within the reactor core. These measurements were specified to cover as wide as possible working range and had to be made against the in-core gamma background of up to 4 x 10 7 R(hr) - 1 . The detectors were required to operate in special, channels cooled by reactor inlet carbon dioxide and the overall system needed a response time such that it could follow transients with doubling times down to 2s with an accuracy of 2 or 3%. These problems were solved by the use of gas ion fission chambers operating in the current fluctuation or Campbelling mode with unusually low filling pressures and fitted with special trilaminax mineral insulated cables. Ten detectors were built and nine were installed in the reactor, three in each of three special stringers at different radial positions. The paper describes the specification against which this system was built, the design process for the detectors, and commissioning experiments together with some of the problems which were encountered. (U.K.)

  12. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  13. Safety audit of BNFL Sellafield 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The BNFL Sellafield site involved is the complex of buildings concerned with reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from the UK Magnox reactors. It includes facilities for the receipt and storage underwater of spent fuel from the power stations, the subsequent chemical separation of re-usable elements of uranium and plutonium from the radioactive waste, storage of the more radioactive of these wastes on the site and discharge to sea or atmosphere, or disposal at the nearby Drigg site of those wastes which are of very low-radioactive content. The audit (conducted in 1986) was undertaken to establish the physical state of the plant, to investigate the management policies and priorities and the supporting advisory structure and to determine the cause and severity of incidents (eg leaks) by a comprehensive study of those occuring since 1979. Some buildings have been studied in more detail than others. Volume 1 of the audit report covers details of how the audit was planned and carried out, the engineering audit, a review of procedures, an analysis of incidents, the findings as to the actions that need to be taken by BNFL, a general summary and the conclusions. Volume 2 contains more technical and detailed papers relating to the inspection on which the judgements presented in Volume 1 are based. (U.K.)

  14. The Windscale file. A lay-guide to living (and dying) with a nuclear neighbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Greenpeace have commissioned four reports from 'The Political Ecology Research Group' associated with the import of spent nuclear fuel to the UK and the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel rods at Windscale. Since 1980 Greenpeace has campaigned against these activities. This booklet based on these four reports has been produced to translate their findings into a more popular and readable form. (U.K.)

  15. Irish and Scandinavian objection to Sellafield; Norden protesterer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-07-01

    The article deals with the objection of Ireland and the Scandinavian countries to the radioactive emissions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. This contamination follows the sea currents northward and radioactive material from this plant has been found in seaweed and crustaceans along the coast of Norway. The concentration in lobster from the Irish Sea is much higher than in Norwegian crustaceans and above the action limit set by the EU for the radioactive isotope Technetium 99 in the event of a new atomic accident. British authorities have refused to stop the pollution and even plan to start production of MOX fuel at Sellafield. They say new purification techniques will be developed within three or five years. For Norway, the opposition against Sellafield is a priority.

  16. 'Goody, goody, we're going to Sellafield'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Bob

    1993-01-01

    In the early eighties British Nuclear Fuels' Sellafield plant was hit by two events. An unscheduled release of radioactivity onto the beaches near Sellafield attracted headline news, although it subsequently became clear that the risk of any resulting harm to the public was extremely remote. There was inevitably a great deal of adverse publicity. Local tourism levels were said to have fallen during the next twelve months, and there were many calls for Sellafield's operations to be restricted or stopped. Something clearly had to be done. And so much has been done that during the last seven years, Sellafield, Britain's largest nuclear fuel recycling plant and the country's largest nuclear facility, has become a major tourist attraction. This rather strange development began in 1984 with a major review of our PR strategy. Alternative strategies were researched as a result of which a strategy was developed to help build credibility through an open door/open information policy and inviting the public to visit Sellafield and see for themselves. As a part of the strategy a public relations programme, including a major national advertising campaign on television and in the press, began in 1986 and has played a major part in developing visitor numbers to Sellafield ever since. From 29,000 in 1985, to 65,000 in 1986, to 104,000 in 1987. In fact the number of visitors increased so dramatically in 1987 that the company decided to replace the overrun exhibition centre with a new 5 million pound Visitors Centre which, opened in 1988, has over the years become the flagship for our open door/open information strategy

  17. 'Goody, goody, we're going to Sellafield'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bob [British Nuclear Fuels pic, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    In the early eighties British Nuclear Fuels' Sellafield plant was hit by two events. An unscheduled release of radioactivity onto the beaches near Sellafield attracted headline news, although it subsequently became clear that the risk of any resulting harm to the public was extremely remote. There was inevitably a great deal of adverse publicity. Local tourism levels were said to have fallen during the next twelve months, and there were many calls for Sellafield's operations to be restricted or stopped. Something clearly had to be done. And so much has been done that during the last seven years, Sellafield, Britain's largest nuclear fuel recycling plant and the country's largest nuclear facility, has become a major tourist attraction. This rather strange development began in 1984 with a major review of our PR strategy. Alternative strategies were researched as a result of which a strategy was developed to help build credibility through an open door/open information policy and inviting the public to visit Sellafield and see for themselves. As a part of the strategy a public relations programme, including a major national advertising campaign on television and in the press, began in 1986 and has played a major part in developing visitor numbers to Sellafield ever since. From 29,000 in 1985, to 65,000 in 1986, to 104,000 in 1987. In fact the number of visitors increased so dramatically in 1987 that the company decided to replace the overrun exhibition centre with a new 5 million pound Visitors Centre which, opened in 1988, has over the years become the flagship for our open door/open information strategy.

  18. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 6. The chronology of discharges of caesium-137, plutonium and americium-241 from BNFL Sellafield, as recorded in lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J D; Cambray, R S

    1985-04-01

    A study has been made of the radionuclide content of lake sediments from Cumbria in order to determine the history of discharges of /sup 137/Cs and actinides from the Sellafield works of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sediment cores have been taken from Ullswater and Grasmere, which are remote from Sellafield, in order to establish the behaviour of nuclear weapon fallout nuclides. Cores have also been taken from Barfield Tarn, which is 19 km SE of Sellafield but close to the sea, and from Ponsonby and Harnsey Moss Tarns, close to Sellafield. All sediments were analysed for /sup 137/Cs and sup(239+240)Pu. Additional measurements of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 241/Am were made on samples from the closer tarns. The sediment cores were dated by the /sup 210/Pb method and, where appropriate, by the /sup 137/Cs technique also. The amounts of /sup 137/Cs and sup(239+240)Pu in sediments from Barfield Tarn could be accounted for by fallout from nuclear weapons, although the levels of /sup 241/Am were marginally greater. However in Harnsey Moss Tarn the levels of actinides indicated that they were derived mainly from material originally discharged to sea from Sellafield. Sediment from Ponsonby Tarn contained material derived mainly from discharges to atmosphere.

  19. The wide range in-core neutron measurement system used in the Windscale AGR concluding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.; Budd, J.; Wilson, I.

    1982-06-01

    The Windscale AGR concluding experiments included a comparison of theoretical and experimental power transients and required measurements of neutron flux as a function of position and time within the reactor core. These measurements were specified to cover a working range as wide as possible and had to be made against the in-core gamma background of up to 4 x 10 7 R(hr) - 1 . The detectors were required to operate in special channels cooled by reactor inlet CO 2 and the overall system needed a response time such that it could follow transients with doubling times down to 2s with an accuracy of 2 or 3%. These problems were solved by the use of gas ion fission chambers operating in the current fluctuation or ''Campbelling'' mode. Their neutron to gamma sensitivity ratio was optimised by the use of unusually low filling pressures and they were fitted with special ''trilaminax'' mineral insulated cables to minimise the effects of electrical interference at the 100 kHz channel centre frequency. Ten detectors were built and nine were installed in the reactor, three in each of three special stringers at different radial positions. All were processed and tested for operation at 350 deg. C and their fissile coatings (430 μg cm - 1 of natural uranium) were matched to give individual neutron sensitivities with a population spread better than +- 6% about the mean. The mean absolute sensitivities were determined to about +- 5% against manganese foils in the NESTOR reactor at AEE Winfrith. The detectors were complemented by special signal processing channels which provided current fluctuation sensitivity and appropriate output signals to the experiment data acquisition system. These channels also permitted dc measurement of chamber current for more precise flux determination near reactor full power

  20. Decontamination and Decommissioning Experience at a Sellafield Uranium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Built in the 1950's, this plant was originally designed to purify depleted uranyl nitrate solution arising from reprocessing operations at the Primary Separation and Head End Plant (Fig. 1). The facility was used for various purposes throughout its life cycle such as research, development and trial based processes. Test rigs were operated in the building from the 1970's until 1984 to support development of the process and equipment now used at Sellafield's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). The extensive decommissioning program for this facility began over 15 years ago. Many challenges have been overcome throughout this program such as decommissioning the four main process cells, which were very highly alpha contaminated. The cells contained vessels and pipeline systems that were contaminated to such levels that workers had to use pressurized suits to enter the cells. Since decommissioning at Sellafield was in its infancy, this project has trialed various decontamination/decommissioning methods and techniques in order to progress the project, and this has provided valuable learning for other decommissioning projects. The project has included characterization, decontamination, dismantling, waste handling, and is now ready for demolition during late 2005, early 2006. This will be the first major facility within the historic Separation Area at Sellafield to be demolished down to base slab level. The lessons learnt from this project will directly benefit numerous decommissioning projects as the cleanup at Sellafield continues. (authors)

  1. Sellafield waste radionuclides in Irish sea intertidal and salt marsh sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, A B; Scott, R D

    1993-09-01

    Low level liquid radioactive waste discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in north west England had generated environmental inventories of about 3 × 10(16) Bq of(137)Cs, 6.8 × 10(14) Bq of(239,240)Pu and 8.9 × 10(14) Bq of(241)Am by 1990. Most of the(239,240)Pu and(241)Am and about 10% of the(137)Cs has been retained in a deposit of fine marine sediment close to the discharge point. The quantities of radionuclides discharged annually from Sellafield decreased by two orders of magnitude from the mid-1970s to 1990 but estimated critical group internal and external exposure decreased by less than one order of magnitude over this period. This indicates that during the period of reduced discharges, radionuclides already in the environment from previous releases continued to contribute to the critical group exposure and highlights the need to understand processes controlling the environmental distribution of the radionuclides.Redistribution of the contaminated marine sediment is potentially of major significance in this context, in particular if it results in transport of radionuclides to intertidal areas, where contact with the human population is relatively likely.A review is presented of published work relating to Sellafield waste radionuclides in Irish Sea sediments. Data on temporal and spatial trends in radionuclide concentrations and activity ratios are collated from a number of sources to show that the dominant mechanism of radionuclide supply to intertidal areas is by redistribution of the contaminated marine sediment. The implications of this mechanism of supply for trends in critical group radiation exposure are considered.

  2. Results of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.; Snee, M.P.; Hall, A.J.; Powell, C.A.; Downes, S.

    1990-01-01

    The raised incidence of leukaemia, particularly, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among children near Sellafield was associated with paternal employment and recorded external dose of whole body penetrating radiation during work at the plant before conception. The association can explain statistically the observed geographical excess. This result suggests an effect of ionising radiation on fathers that may be leukaemogenic in their offspring, though other, less likely, explanations are possible. (author)

  3. Design aspects of water usage in the Windscale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wharton, J.; Bullock, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The safeguard requirements of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant place unique constraints on a designer which, in turn, affect the scope for the exercise of water economy. These constraints are examined within the context of the British Nuclear Fuels Limited reprocessing plants at Windscale and indicate the scope for water conservation. The plants and their design principles are described with particular reference to water services and usage. Progressive design development is discussed to illustrate the increasing importance of water economy. (author)

  4. The Safety Assessment of Long term Interim Storage at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchan, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    The Sellafield site comprises a wide range of nuclear facilities, including operating facilities associated with the Magnox reprocessing programme, the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) and a range of waste treatment plants. The operational life of some of the site facilities currently extends to 2120, requiring the retrieval, treatment, consolidation and safe extended storage of a variety of radioactive materials. Sellafield has utilised its existing safety assessment processes to inform and prioritise studies into beyond design basis events and resilience evaluation required following Fukushima by UK regulators and industry bodies such as WANO. There are significant differences between NPPs, for which the ENSREG 'stress tests' were originally intended, and the Sellafield site which is instead centered around two reprocessing facilities (Magnox and THORP), with a supporting infrastructure of waste processing and storage facilities, coupled with a legacy of high hazard older facilities. In the former case the consequences of a catastrophic failure are promptly realised, leading to significant problems such as fuel failure / meltdown in AGRs and LWRs respectively in the event of complete loss of cooling. At Sellafield, the processes are carried out at comparatively low temperatures and pressures with relatively low rates of change following any loss of cooling. Instead the consequences of catastrophic failure at Sellafield are more directly related to the very large inventories of radioactive materials, including high level liquid wastes and unprocessed fuels, present in specific plants and to the condition of the ageing assets, holding legacy wastes. The paper will consider how a number of analysis techniques have been used to establish a safety case for fault and accident conditions, i.e. design basis analysis (DBA), probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) and severe accident analysis (SAA) DBA is focused on the key safety measures for those initiating faults

  5. Roll up, roll up and see a Sellafield exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Virginia.

    1986-01-01

    Since July 1986 a commercial advertising campaign has been encouraging people to visit the BNFL plant at Sellafield to find out for themselves what goes on there. As a result it is now a flourishing tourist attraction. Casual visitors can visit the Ehibition Centre and go on a bus tour of the site lasting an hour. Pre-booked visitors can go on a five hour tour which looks at the processes in detail. The object is to open up the site so that people can be better informed and can make up their minds about the merits or otherwise of Sellafield, and nuclear power in general, with a knowledge of the facts. (UK)

  6. Current meter observations near the Sellafield pipeline, 1984-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.R.; Norris, S.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level liquid radioactive wastes are discharged into the north-east Irish Sea, under authorization, from the Sellafield reprocessing plant run by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The effluent contains a range of radionuclides including caesium-137. The discharges are monitored and assessed by the Aquatic Environment Protection Division which is part of the Ministry of agriculture, Food and Fisheries. The results from the Sellafield current meter mooring in the Irish Sea from December 1983 to December 1986 are presented. The aim was to assess long-term tidal and residual current conditions under a variety of wind and current combinations as part of the assessment of the distribution of discharged radionuclides. The instrumentation is described briefly. Periods of data loss (due to meter failure or loss) and the data processing are explained. The results of the current metering are presented. (U.K.)

  7. Magnox Swarf Storage Silo Liquor Effluent Management -Sellafield Site, Cumbria, UK - Legacy radioactive waste storage - 59271

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Clere, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Sellafield Magnox Swarf Storage Silo (MSSS) was constructed to provide an underwater storage facility for irradiated magnox cladding metal Swarf, as well as miscellaneous beta-gamma waste from several sources. Liquid effluent arisings from hazard reduction activities at this facility represent the toughest effluent treatment challenge within the company's Legacy Ponds and Silos portfolio. The key requirement for hazard reduction has generated many substantial challenges as the facility is readied for decommissioning. This has demanded the production of carefully thought out strategies for managing, and overcoming, the key difficulties to be encountered as hazard reduction progresses. The complexity associated with preparing for waste retrievals from the Magnox Swarf Storage Silo, has also generated the demand for a mix of creativity and perseverance to meet the challenges and make progress. Challenging the status quo and willingness to accept change is not easy and the road to overall hazard reduction for the high hazard MSSS facility will demand the skills and investment of individuals, teams, and entire facility work-forces. The first steps on this road have been taken with the successful introduction of liquor management operations, however much more is yet to be achieved. Clear communication, investing in stakeholder management, perseverance in the face of difficulty and a structured yet flexible programme delivery approach, will ensure the continued success of tackling the complex challenges of treating liquid effluent from a legacy fuel storage silo at the Sellafield Site. (authors)

  8. Development of a Hydrogeological Model of the Borrowdale Volcanics at Sellafield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Lunn, A. D.; Mackay, R.

    This work has arisen out of recent developments within the radioactive waste research programme managed by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, UK (HMIP)*, to develop an integrated flow and transport model for the potential deep radioactive waste repository at Sellafield. One of the largest sources of uncertainty in model predictions, is the characterisation of the hydrogeological properties of the underlying strata, in particular, of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) within which the repository is to be located. Analysis of the available borehole data (that released by the proponent company, Nirex, by December 1995) for the BVG formation has indicated a dual regime consisting of flow within faults and flow within the matrix (or an equivalent porous medium containing micro-fractures). Significant relationships between permeability, depth and the presence and orientation of faults have been identified; they account for a variation of up to 6 orders of magnitude in mean permeability measurements. This can be explained in part by the effect of the orientation of the current maximum principal stress directions within the BVG: however, it is likely that permeability is also dependent on the existence of fracture families, which cannot be effectively identified from the data currently available. These analyses have enabled considerable insight to be gained into the dominant features of flow within the BVG. The conceptual hydrogeological model derived here will have a significant effect on the outcome and reliability of future radionuclide transport predictions in the Sellafield area.

  9. A welcoming approach to winning support [public relations policy at the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The public relations policy of British Nuclear Fuels with respect to the Sellafield reprocessing centre is described. Key factors in reassuring the public on the safety of the plant have been the opening of an exhibition centre and a widely advertised open invitation to visit Sellafield together with a commitment to an open information policy and the promotion of understanding through the use of less technical language. An improvement in public confidence in Sellafield is reported. (U.K.)

  10. The Windscale Inquiry - A U.K. Exercise in Nuclear Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, Harold.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the Public Inquiry opened on 14 June 1977 concerning extenssion of the Windscale plant and the events preceding it. Four issues were considered: the implications of the proposed development for public safety; those for other aspects of the national interest; those of plant construction and operation for the environment: the measures that could be adopted under existing U.K. legislation, particularly under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 to control waste disposal, and under the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to provide for the safety of operations, and finally, other implications for the locality. (NEA) [fr

  11. Windscale inquiry. A selected list of material based on the DOE/DTp library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, C M [comp.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear debate, far from being concluded by the Windscale decision, was in fact opened up and its scope widened to take into account the political, international, environmental and social issues involved. This debate continues and the selection of literature presented here aims to illustrate all aspects of the Inquiry and its implications. The material is presented in two main sections. Section A is concerned with the Inquiry itself: the proceedings, the report and the government's decision. Section B presents a selection of the literature and debate that resulted.

  12. Occupational exposure at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.; Partington, C.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield employs approximately 6500 people in a wide range of activities involving radioactive materials. The exposure to personnel over the period 1978-1989 is reviewed. Information is presented on collective and average dose exposure which both show significant downward trends. The current annual collective dose for reprocessing operations is 21.4 man Sv and the average whole body exposure 3.7 mSv.y -1 , taking account of both internal and external exposure. The introduction of radiological design targets for new plants and the use of formal ALARP assessments on projects has contributed substantially to the observed reduction in dose uptake. Experience also indicates that significant dose reduction can be achieved by heightening the awareness of both managers and workers of the dose implications of their work and working methods. (author)

  13. Experience with a servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine installed in a new shielded active facility at Windscale Nuclear Power Development Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, A.; Hindmarch, P.; Gravenor, J.G.; Rhodes, D.

    1982-03-01

    An Instron model 1273 servo-hydraulic machine has been installed within a lead-shielded cell at Windscale in order to provide a facility capable of performing a wide range of mechanical tests on nuclear reactor structural materials and fuel assembly components. This particular type of machine was chosen because it has design features associated with the load frame, location of the actuator and adjustment and clamping of the cross-head that are especially well suited to remote operation within a shielded cell. The design of the testing facility is described and the programmes of work that have been completed over the past 11/2 years of operation are reviewed. (author)

  14. The regulation of technetium-99 discharges at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayall, A.

    2002-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent Magnox fuel at BNFL Sellafield produces a liquid waste concentrate containing technetium-99 and other, more radiotoxic, radionuclides such as plutonium and americium. The concentrate is known as medium active concentrate (MAC). Prior to 1981, MAC was discharged to sea untreated after several years' storage, during which short-lived radionuclides underwent radioactive decay. In the early 1980s, discharges of MAC were suspended and it was retained in storage tanks, pending the construction of a plant to remove the radionuclides of greatest radiological concern (these did not include technetium- 99). The Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant started operation in 1994 and began to clear the backlog of stored waste MAC, as well as current arisings from Magnox reprocessing. As a consequence technetium-99 was once more discharged to sea. Subsequently, concentrations of this radionuclide in the marine environment increased. In particular, there was a significant increase in the concentration of technetium-99 in lobster in the Irish Sea. An increase in technetium-99 has also been detected at locations far distant from Sellafield, e.g. in Scandinavian coastal waters, albeit at very low concentrations. This dispersal of technetium- 99 throughout the Irish Sea and further afield has therefore caused concern, although the radiological impact is low. This paper examines the nature and source of the technetium-99 in sea discharges at Sellafield and the levels of past and current discharges as well as their impact. It goes on to describe the Environment Agency's recent proposals on the future regulation of technetium-99 discharges and how these should lead to substantial reductions in not only technetium-99 discharges, but also of other radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90. (author)

  15. The geology and hydrogeology of Sellafield: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplow, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Nirex is responsible for providing and managing a national facility for solid intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste. Geological and hydrogeological investigations have been in progress at Sellafield in west Cumbria since 1989 aimed at determining whether or not the site is suitable for such a deep repository. Geological investigations have included the drilling of 20 deep boreholes with over 20 000 metres of drilling, together with almost 2000 line kilometres of seismic surveys and over 8000 line kilometres of airborne geophysical surveys. Hydrogeological testing and groundwater sampling and testing have provided additional information on the ground conditions at the site. (author)

  16. Measurement of sulphur-35 in the coolant gas of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, F.J.

    1978-03-01

    Sulphur is an important element in some food chains and the release of radioactive sulphur to the environment must be closely controlled if the chemical form is such that it is available or potentially available for entering food chains. The presence of sulphur-35 in the coolant gas of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor warranted a study to assess the quantity and chemical form of the radioactive sulphur in order to estimate the magnitude of the potential environmental hazard which might arise from the release of coolant gas from Civil Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors. A combination of gas chromatographic and radiochemical analyses revealed carbonyl sulphide to be the only sulphur-35 compound present in the coolant gas of the Windscale Reactor. The concentration of carbonyl sulphide was found to lie in the range 40 to 100 x 10 -9 parts by volume and the sulphur-35 specific activity was about 20 mCi per gramme. The analytical techniques are described in detail. The sulphur-35 appears to be derived from the sulphur and chlorine impurities in the graphite. A method for the preparation of carbonyl sulphide labelled with sulphur-35 is described. (author)

  17. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: local community attitudes and the Black Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.; Berhout, F.G.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation below draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points. (author)

  18. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: local community attitudes and the Black Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macgill, S M; Berhout, F G

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points.

  19. Radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK: site selection, geological and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its investigation work at a site owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd near Sellafield. Planning permission was sought in 1994 for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at the site. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in the 34 chapters of this book and separate abstracts have been written for each contribution. (UK)

  20. Progress in the development of tooling and dismantling methodologies for the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.T.; Wareing, M.I.; Dixon, C.

    1998-01-01

    Decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) is a major UK reactor decommissioning project co-funded by the UK Government, the European Commission and Magnox Electric. WAGR was a CO 2 cooled, graphite moderated reactor which served as a test bed for the development of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor technology in the UK. It operated from 1963 until shutdown in 1981. AEA Technology plc are currently the Managing Agents on behalf of UKAEA for the WAGR decommissioning project and are responsible for the co-ordination of the project up to the point when the contents of the reactor core and associated radioactive materials are removed and either disposed of or packaged for disposal at some time in the future. Decommissioning has progressed to the point where the reactor has been dismantled down to the level of the hot gas collection manifold with the removal of the top biological shield, the refuelling standpipes and the top section of the reactor pressure vessel. The 4 heat exchangers have also been removed and committed to shallow land burial. This paper describes the work carried out by AEA Technology under separate contracts of UKAEA in developing some of the equipment and deployment methods for the next phase of active operations required in preparation for the dismantling of the core structure. Most recent work has concentrated on the development of specialist tooling for removal of items of operational waste stored within the reactor core, equipment for cutting and removal of the highly radioactive stainless steel 'loop' pressure tubes, diamond wire cutting equipment for sectioning large diameter pipework, and equipment for dismantling the reactor neutron shield. The paper emphasises the process of adaptation and extension of existing technologies for cost-effective application in the decommissioning environment, the need for adequate forward planning of decommissioning methodologies together with large-scale 'mock-up' testing of equipment to

  1. Science design for two shafts in phase 1a of the proposed rock characterisation facility at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, P.; Proughten, A.J.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, United Kingdom Nirex planned to begin construction of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Sellafield as part of it's ongoing assessment of the suitability of the site as a host for a deep radioactive waste repository. The RCF was to have addressed issues relating to the geology, hydrogeology and geomechanical behaviour of the site by collecting data for testing predictive models and acquiring information only available from an underground situation. In March 1997, the UK Government refused permission for Nirex to begin construction and work at Sellafield was wound down. However, the science design for Phase 1a of the RCF, two vertical access shafts, was completed to provide a set of conceptual designs which address the issues identified by Nirex. By using Sellafield as an example, the designs contribute to a series of reports which demonstrate an approach to validation using an underground facility. This paper describes the Science Design for data collection during shaft construction, which began with the information requirements specified by Nirex on the basis of it's conceptual models and predictive work. It describes the scientific measurements designed to acquire this information and the process of combining the individual measurements into test plans for each shaft. Measurements were planned in the shafts themselves and in boreholes drilled from the shafts. They were designed to provide data on formation porosity and permeability, the geochemistry of formation water and the nature of the fresh-water salt-water interface, shaft inflow, the influence of geological structures on performance, and geomechanical responses to shaft excavation. A key element of the design process was the development of test plans, requiring the co-ordination and integration of the construction and science activities so that both could be carried out in a timely and cost-effective manner

  2. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuras, Oliver, E-mail: oku@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Paul B.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Oxby, Lucy S. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Uhlemann, Sebastian [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Geophysics, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chambers, Jonathan E. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Graham, James [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Smith, Nicholas T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Atherton, Nick [Sellafield Ltd, Albion Square, Swingpump Lane, Whitehaven CA28 7NE (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. - Graphical abstract: 3D fractional resistivity change (resistivity change Δρ divided by baseline resistivity ρ{sub 0}) image showing results of Stage 1 silo liquor simulant injection. The black line delineates the preferential flow path; green cylinders show regions of historic contamination found in sediment cores from ERT boreholes. - Highlights: • 4D geoelectrical monitoring at Sellafield detected and tracked simulated silo leaks. • ERT revealed likely pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the subsurface. • The method can reduce uncertainty in subsurface process models at nuclear sites. • Has been applied in this form at a UK nuclear licensed site for the first time • Study demonstrates value of 4D geophysics for nuclear decommissioning.

  3. Microscopical examination of carbon deposits formed in the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, D.J.; Chatwin, W.H.; Pearce, J.H.

    1980-12-01

    Methods are described of sampling and examining carbon deposits on fuel cladding in the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor. Deposition is observed on fuel cladding in both the reactor core and experimental loops in carbon dioxide coolants containing various amounts of carbon monoxide and methane. Deposit distribution over the cladding surface indicated that nucleation is dependent on local surface conditions. Microscopical examination showed that deposit thickness increases by carbon filament growth into the coolant gas stream and that the process can be markedly influenced by metallic impurities. There is evidence that nickel can play a particularly significant role in deposition in loop experiments but similar effects have not been observed in the reactor core. (author)

  4. Development of techniques to dispose of the Windscale AGR heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, H.; Wakefield, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    In a gas-cooled nuclear power plant the gas side of the heat exchanger tubes becomes contaminated with radioactive deposits carried from the reactor in the coolant stream. In order to dispose of the heat exchangers in the safest and most cost-effective way during plant decommissioning, the deposits have to be removed. In situ chemical decontamination is considered to be the only viable method. This paper describes the research and development of chemical decontamination methods for the Windscale AGR heat exchangers, and the testing of a selected method on an in situ superheater. The research involved characterization of tube corrosion and radioactivity deposits, laboratory testing of chemical reagents on actual tube samples, and the provision and operation of a plant to apply the selected reagent. Disposal of radioactive effluent is an important consideration in chemical decontamination and in the present case was the major factor in determining the process

  5. Windscale: a case history in the political art of muddling through

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter concentrates mainly upon those factors which preceded and eventually led to the Windscale Inquiry (into the BNFL proposal to construct a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel from reactors using oxide fuels). This will help to illustrate some of the many covert themes which permeated the Inquiry as an exercise in conflict-management, and hopefully should assist in the understanding of the limitations of this form of decision-making process. The chapter will conclude with a comment upon the role of the Inquiry in the wider political context of the British energy 'debate' and upon the likely implications of the Inquiry for future decision-making ventures on similar technological developments. (author)

  6. The Nirex Sellafield site investigation: the role of geophysical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir Wood, R.; Woo, G.; MacMillan, G.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the methods by which geophysical data are interpreted, and used to characterize the 3-D geology of a site for potential storage of radioactive waste. The report focuses on the NIREX site investigation at Sellafield, for which geophysical observations provide a significant component of the structural geological understanding. In outlining the basic technical principles of seismic data processing and interpretation, and borehole logging, an attempt has been made to identify errors, uncertainties, and the implicit use of expert judgement. To enhance the reliability of a radiological probabilistic risk assessment, recommendations are proposed for independent use of the primary NIREX geophysical site investigation data in characterizing the site geology. These recommendations include quantitative procedures for undertaking an uncertainty audit using a combination of statistical analysis and expert judgement. (author)

  7. Reactor accidents and the actions of fire brigades. Plea for nuclear phaseout. An analytic report on Leipzig, Windscale, Chernobyl and Fukushima; Reaktorunfaelle und die Handlungen der Feuerwehr. Plaedoyer fuer den Atomausstieg. Ein Analysebericht zu Leipzig, Windscale, Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffler, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    The report covers the historically first fire brigade action at the ''uranium machine'' on June 23th 1942 in Leipzig, and the fire brigade actions in Windscale (October 11, 1957), Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi. Further issues are the behavior of the media, selected features of the fire brigade actions, and a discussion of questions concerning the preparedness of the fire brigades.

  8. Changing the Rules on Fuel Export at Sellafield's First Fuel Storage Pond - 12065

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, Derek [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1949/50 to receive, store and de-can fuel and isotopes from the Windscale Piles. Following closure of the Piles in 1957, plant operations were scaled down until fuel processing eventually ceased in 1962. The facility has held an inventory of metal fuel both from the Piles and from other programmes since that time. The pond is currently undergoing remediation and removal of the fuel is a key step in that process, unfortunately the fuel export infrastructure on the plant is no longer functional and due to the size and limited lifting capability, the plant is not compatible with today's large volume heavy export flasks. The baseline scheme for the plant is to package fuel into a small capacity flask and transfer it to another facility for treatment and repackaging into a flask compatible with other facilities on site. Due to programme priorities the repackaging facility is not available to do this work for several years causing a delay to the work. In an effort accelerate the programme the Metal Fuel Pilot Project (MFPP) was initiated to challenge the norms for fuel transfer and develop a new methodology for transferring the fuel. In developing a transfer scheme the team had to overcome challenges associated with unknown fuel condition, transfers outside of bulk containment, pyro-phoricity and oxidisation hazards as well as developing remote control and recovery systems for equipment not designed for this purpose. A combination of novel engineering and enhanced operational controls were developed which resulted in the successful export of the first fuel to leave the Pile Fuel Storage Pond in over 40 years. The learning from the pilot project is now being considered by the main project team to see how the new methodology can be applied to the full inventory of the pond. (author)

  9. Emission of fission products and other activities during the accident to Windscale Pile no. 1 in October 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1981-07-01

    Information on the release of activity from Windscale during the accident of October 1957 is reviewed, and some previously unpublished data are given. The activities of 131 I released to atmosphere, retained on the pile filters and washed out of the pile are compared with the activity in the channels involved in the fire. The information on the physical form of the released activity is summarised. (author)

  10. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Oliver; Wilkinson, Paul B; Meldrum, Philip I; Oxby, Lucy S; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan E; Binley, Andrew; Graham, James; Smith, Nicholas T; Atherton, Nick

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Sellafield controversy: The state of local attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.; Phipps, S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have presented some of the key findings of a local survey, attempted to provide plausible interpretations of them, and illustrated some of their relevance in a contemporary policy context. The authors recognize that they have touched upon only the surface of the complex of factors which generate people's attitudes and opinions. BNFL may be assured of a bedrock of local support; its position is under no serious threat or overwhelming pressure from local communities. As the authors see it, the need now is to improve the basis on which a more thorough assessment of local attitudes might be made. A priority in a more thorough assessment would be to adopt a different structure to the questionnaire - one which would allow respondents greater freedom of expression and, in turn, provide data from which it would be possible to gain deeper insight into the more complex issues of attitudes and opinion formation. A more rigorous sampling method might also be adopted, as well as pursuing a longitudinal approach to research in order to achieve a fuller understanding - studying the Sellafield case as it develops and the effect of related events

  12. DNA instability, paternal irradiation and leukaemia in children around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The chemical instability of DNA under physiological conditions requires that cells have highly developed processes for repairing stochastic single-strand damage. It is proposed here that provided ionising-radiation-induced single-strand damage does not occur at a rate sufficient to perturb the dynamic steady state between degradation and repair, it can be regarded as 'irrelevant' to biological effect, leaving double-strand damage and DNA-protein crosslinks as 'relevant' damage to biological effect. At dose rates of ∼ 0.05 Gy/min low-LET radiation the rate of induced single-strand damage equals that of the spontaneous damage, and in this region a transition, with increasing dose-rate, from constant effect to increasing effect, will be expected. This is observed in studies of specific locus mutation by radiation in the male mouse. The application of this biophysical principle governing the influence of radiation dose-rate, to the association observed between paternal preconceptional dose to Sellafield workers and childhood leukaemia in their offspring, shows that the likelihood of a casual relationship is extremely remote. (author)

  13. Approach to customer qualification of the BNFL Sellafield Mox Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, P.

    2003-01-01

    BNFL started plutonium commissioning of its Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) in December 2001, with the first MOX pellets being produced in May 2002. SMP was designed to manufacture a range of both PWR and BWR fuel types for a number of different customers. During commissioning and early MOX fuel manufacturing BNFL has been demonstrating its ability to both automatically manufacture and inspect MOX fuel to meet the requirements of different customers' specifications and fuel types. The qualification project consisted of common and project specific qualification. Common qualification was carried out to demonstrate BNFL could meet several customers' requirements during the same qualification test. Project specific qualification was carried out for one customer only as the fabrication or inspection equipment was specific to their fuel type. An example is the fuel assembly process. The reasons for BNFL carrying out common qualification were: - Develop a common qualified process to meet different customer specifications. - Minimise future qualifications prior to starting future fuel campaigns. - Ensure BNFL understands and effectively manages different customer requirements in SMP. BNFL has approached qualification of SMP systematically. Firstly the inspection system was qualified, and once completed the inspection system was then used in the qualification of the manufacturing process. (orig.)

  14. Criticality safety philosophy for the Sellafield MOX plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, Jane; Gulliford, Jim

    2003-01-01

    The Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) has been operational since 2001, blending plutonium dioxide from THORP reprocessing operations, with uranium dioxide to produce Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel elements. In handling the quantities of fuel associated with a commercial fuel fabrication plant, it is necessary to impose criticality controls. Plutonium dioxide (PuO 2 ), uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) and recycled MOX are mixed together in batches. An Engineered Protection System (EPS) prevents the production of MOX powder in excess of 20w/o Pu(fissile)/(Pu+U), achieved through the combination of a weight-based' system and a diverse 'neutron monitoring' radiometric system. The 'neutron monitoring' component of the EPS determines the fissile enrichment of the batch of MOX powder, based on pessimistic isotopic requirements of the PuO 2 feedstock powder. Guaranteeing the maximum MOX enrichment of 20w/o Pu(fissile)/(Pu + U) at an early stage of the fuel manufacturing process enables the criticality safety assessor to demonstrate that normal operations are deterministically safe. This paper describes in detail the EPS at the front end of plant and the engineered and operational protection in downstream areas. In addition plant operational experience in producing the first fuel assemblies is discussed. (author)

  15. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    distribution of species. For instance, the density of moose is very low in the most contaminated western parts of Norway, whereas a considerable fraction of red deer is found in these areas. Consumption restrictions will probably be needed for moose, red deer and roe deer in many areas. As part of the report 'Nasjonalt risikobilde' (national threat assessment), the described Sellafield scenario is used to exemplify a nuclear threat scenario for Norway. It will look at wider consequences of such an accident, such as the impact on health, economy and society. The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB) is leading the work on the national threat assessment and the report is due in 2011. (Author)

  16. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    regional distribution of species. For instance, the density of moose is very low in the most contaminated western parts of Norway, whereas a considerable fraction of red deer is found in these areas. Consumption restrictions will probably be needed for moose, red deer and roe deer in many areas. As part of the report 'Nasjonalt risikobilde' (national threat assessment), the described Sellafield scenario is used to exemplify a nuclear threat scenario for Norway. It will look at wider consequences of such an accident, such as the impact on health, economy and society. The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB) is leading the work on the national threat assessment and the report is due in 2011. (Author)

  17. Remote handling equipment for the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.; Birss, I.R.; Fish, G.

    1984-01-01

    A decision to decommission the Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor was taken shortly after reactor shutdown in 1981. The fuel has now been discharged and the decommissioning programme will last about 10-12 years. The paper describes the programme and objectives and deals with methods of handling and disposing of the radioactive waste material. The main new facility required is a Waste Packaging Building adjacent to the existing reactor in which the waste boxes will be filled, active waste encapsulated in concrete and the boxes cleaned, swabbed and monitored to comply with IAEA transport regulations. The handling machine concept and features are described. The assaying and packaging of the waste material, the control of box movement and the process of concrete encapsulation is described. The paper concludes with a description of the development programme to support the Project. The tasks include a study of cutting techniques, production and control of dust and smoke, viewing and lighting methods, filtration, decontamination and fixing of contamination

  18. An assessment of the radiological impact of the Windscale reactor fire, October 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, M.J.; Linsley, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The assessment described has involved a review of previously unpublished data, in order to establish the quantities of nuclides released from materials undergoing irradiation in the pile at the time of the fire. Of these additional nuclides, only polonium-210 has been shown to make a significant contribution to the estimate of the collective effective dose equivalent to the population from the Windscale fire. The previous estimate of 1.2 x 10 3 man Sv for the collective effective dose equivalent commitment to the population of the UK and Northern Europe has been increased by 67% to 2.0 x 10 3 man Sv. This change is within the range of uncertainty of the original estimate. The influence of the addition on the theoretical estimate of the upper limit of possible health effects is discussed in this addendum and its foreword. With the inclusion of the additional nuclides, the inhalation pathway has become the overall largest contributor to this population dose, followed by the milk ingestion pathway; the largest nuclide contribution comes from iodine-131, followed by polonium-210. Some perspective may be provided on the contribution due to polonium-210 by noting that it is approximately one-tenth of that arising annually due to naturally occurring polonium-210, and less than one-hundredth of that due annually to the total natural background radiation. (author)

  19. Scoping studies on the effect of quaternary climate change on the hydrogeology in the Sellafield potential repository zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heathcote, J.A. [Entec UK Ltd., Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The present investigations in the vicinity of the Sellafield potential repository zone have provided data on groundwater pressure and salinity to a depth of some 2000 m, for a section extending from the hills to the east of the zone, to the coast. As part of the process of demonstrating the suitability of the site for a deep repository, work has been undertaken to reconcile these observations of pressure and salinity with an understanding of the hydrogeology of the site. It is considered possible that the long glacial history of the site may in part be responsible for present observations. This work documents some preliminary studies to determine the possible magnitude of such glacial effects. 4 refs, 2 figs.

  20. Scoping studies on the effect of quaternary climate change on the hydrogeology in the Sellafield potential repository zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heathcote, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The present investigations in the vicinity of the Sellafield potential repository zone have provided data on groundwater pressure and salinity to a depth of some 2000 m, for a section extending from the hills to the east of the zone, to the coast. As part of the process of demonstrating the suitability of the site for a deep repository, work has been undertaken to reconcile these observations of pressure and salinity with an understanding of the hydrogeology of the site. It is considered possible that the long glacial history of the site may in part be responsible for present observations. This work documents some preliminary studies to determine the possible magnitude of such glacial effects. 4 refs, 2 figs

  1. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  2. The storage of liquid high level waste at BNFL, Sellafield. Addendum to February 2000 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    On 18 February 2000 the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published a report on the work of its Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NIl) in regulating the storage of liquid high level waste at the BNFL Sellafield site. Within the report NIl gave two undertakings. One was to publish an addendum around 1 year later covering its assessment of the new safety case for the storage plant and the second was to publish a further addendum when progress had been made with options studies for reducing the stocks of liquid high level waste (HLW), also referred to as highly active liquor (HAL), to a buffer level. A progress report was published in February 2001 which included a summary of the assessment of the new safety case and NIl's regulatory action to enforce liquid HLW stock reductions. This addendum provides a more detailed update on the position reached based on consideration of BNFL's responses to the recommendations from the February 2000 HLW report since its publication. It embodies the two addenda referred to above integrated into a single document for publication

  3. Acoustic monitoring to support plant life extension at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, M. de; Hovhanessian, G.

    2015-01-01

    Tensioned steel wires are widely used in civil engineering structures. They can, however, be vulnerable to corrosion. To reduce the probability of corrosion, sophisticated protection systems are used. Extensive inspection and maintenance regimes are also able to be implemented to confirm that the design strength is available over the lifetime of the wires. These regimes include tests to confirm the condition of post-tensioning cables or stay cables, which can verify the overall performance of the structure. This paper presents a technology to detect and locate wire failures in tensioned cables for use on a wide variety of pre-stressed or post tensioned structures, where they have increased confidence in the structures and reduced maintenance costs. This methodology is the continuous acoustic monitoring technology which uses distinctive acoustic characteristics of wire breaks to separate them from other acoustic activity on the structure. With a combination of instrumentation, data acquisition and data management, it is possible to identify a wire break event, as well as to locate the position and time of the failure. Over 10 years' experience of acoustic monitoring for this application with several independent and blind tests, shows that even in noisy environments the acoustic monitoring method is able to identify and locate wire breaks in fully grouted and partially grouted tendons, stay cables and suspension cables. The design (number of sensors and location) is very important to be sure to cover all wires in the structure. This paper explains the principles of the systems and shows them in practice on a case study of a project in a pre-stressed roof structure of an active tank farm at Sellafield site

  4. Dose due to man-made radionuclides in terrestrial wild foods near Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulker, M.J.; Jackson, D.; McKay, K.; John, C.; Leonard, D.R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological dose implications for consumers of wild foods around Sellafield have been assessed. Habits were surveyed from 72 households, mostly within a few kilometres of Sellafield. A few people were included who lived further away but collect wild foods close to Sellafield. Dose estimates were based on measured gamma emitters, as well as 239 Pu, 241 Am, 14 C and 129 I in selected samples. In all cases, doses were dominated by 137 Cs. One infant was identified who consumed wild food, giving an estimated effective dose of 0.3 μSv a -1 . In the age group 2 to 10 years a mean dose of 0.51 μSv a -1 , and a maximum of 2.8 μSv a -1 , were estimated. Intakes by adults were higher and resulted in more radiologically significant doses. The extreme individual received a dose of 32 μSv a -1 largely due to consumption of honey that included contributions from the Chernobyl accident, and hedgerow fruits. This is comparable to doses to the critical group for consumption of conventional agricultural produce close to the Sellafield site. The 97.5th percentile dose, for all age groups of consumers taken together, was 16.6 μSv a -1 , or 6.2 μSv a -1 if the contributions from Chernobyl are excluded. Considering the contributions from different foods to the whole group of 181 wild food consumers, the rank order is honey, blackberries and venison. (author)

  5. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe, in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  6. Actinide discharges from Sellafield - a summary of behaviour in the environment and the radiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Martin, A.; Thorne, M.C.

    1985-05-01

    This report provides a summary of: information on the quantities of actinides discharged from Sellafield, their distribution in the environment and the radiological implications; potential long-term trends and exposure pathways that may require investigation; and research in progress and requirements for further research. (author)

  7. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe - in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  8. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield - 59014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, Angela

    2012-01-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Sellafield Ltd is managed by NMP (Nuclear Management Partners), a consortium of URS, AMEC and AREVA and is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When the activity of Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of an integrated company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). This paper will describe the management approach that is being taken and the planning tools that are being applied by the Site owners in delivering an integrated change programme across the Decommissioning Directorate. The paper will explain how the management approach to change uses Peer Assist, Rapid Improvement Events, Organisational Review Self Evaluation, Value Stream Analysis and Accelerated Improvement Events as improvement tools. Use of these has enabled down-sizing of the organisation, driven out hundreds of man day efficiencies within the maintenance and asset management areas, improved the management of spares reducing annual costs by Pounds 1000's, improved Commercial practices by fast tracking the preparation of invitations to tender for critical contracts, rolled back radiological control areas and enabled quicker access to the work-face at a reduced cost. This paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Directorate Programme Office has implemented planning tools such as governance, identification of opportunities, benefit evaluation and prioritisation and sanction of the optimum improvements and how through the use of a balanced scorecard, delivery of the improvements has been measured ensuring that the targets are met. Finally, the paper will discuss how the

  9. Seminar on Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents: Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings of seminar on comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents (Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl) are divided into 5 parts bearing on: part 1: accident source terms; part 2: atmospheric dispersion, resuspension, chemical and physical forms of contamination; part 3: environmental contamination and transfer; part 4: radiological implications for man and his environment; part 5: countermeasures

  10. Consequences of Windscale accident (October 1957) and study of the validity of the Sutton's mathematical model of atmospheric diffusion (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.

    1960-01-01

    The reactor accident that happens at the number 1 pile of Windscale in 1957 was followed by a discharge of radioactive products into the atmosphere from the 1.X.1957 at 4.30 PM to the 12.X.1957 at 3.10 PM. On october the 11 th it was possible to say that there was no more risk either of external irradiation or inhalation. But in adopting a M.A.C. of 0,1 μcurie of iodine 131 per litre of milk, the Authority had to control the milk delivery till november 23 rd on a 500 km 2 area. On the other hand, this exceptional accident permit to verify that Sutton's atmospheric diffusion model could give an easy means to foresee, with a sufficient approximation, the consequences of a dispersion of radioactive products into the atmosphere. (author) [fr

  11. Reconstructing the history of 14C discharges from Sellafield. Part 2. Aquatic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.T.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Naysmith, F.H.; Anderson, R.; Naysmith, P.; Kershaw, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to 1984, the reported marine 14 C discharges from Sellafield were estimates: 0.2 TBq per annum from 1952 to 1969 and 1 TBq per annum until 1984 when measurements commenced. The relationship between the net excess 14 C activity in annually collected Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis) seaweed samples and the annual discharges (estimated and measured) implies that the discharges were not as constant as the estimates. Based on the relationship between post-1984 measured discharges and the excess 14 C in the seaweed, two simple empirical models were used to re-calculate the discharges between 1967 and 1984. Gamma-spectrometry measurements on the seaweed also indicate that Porphyra is a sensitive indicator of changes in discharge of other radionuclides, brought about by the introduction of new waste clean-up technologies within Sellafield. (author)

  12. Assessment of prospective foodchain doses from radioactive discharges from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Tucker, S.; Webbe-Wood, D.; Mondon, K.; Hunt, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the method used by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) to assess the potential impact of proposed radioactive discharges from the Sellafield nuclear site on food and determine their acceptability. It explains aspects of a cautious method that has been adopted to reflect the UK government policy and uncertainties related to people's habits with regard to food production and consumption. Two types of ingestion doses are considered in this method: 'possible' and 'probable' doses. The method is specifically applied to Sellafield discharge limits and calculated possible and probable ingestion doses are presented and discussed. Estimated critical group ingestion doses are below the dose limit and constraint set for members of the public. The method may be subject to future amendments to take account of changes in government policy and the outcome of a recent Consultative Exercise on Dose Assessments carried out by FSA. Uncertainties inherent in dose assessments are discussed and quantified wherever possible

  13. Developing a Step Wise Approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning at Sellafield Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Developing a Step Wise Approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning at Sellafield Ltd: • Understand the challenge; • Understand preferred direction of travel; • Characterisation - enabling waste led decommissioning; • Engaging stakeholders; • Focus on the true drivers - alternative ILW approach; • Alternative ILW approach - simplification of waste handling process; • Manage future challenges; • Fit for purpose transport package for decommissioning wastes; • Risk based management framework

  14. The development of quality assurance systems for radioactive waste at BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    BNFL reprocesses spent fuel as Sellafield, in West Cumbria, where it is a site licence requirement for formal QA arrangements to be established in respect of nuclear safety related plant. The forms of radioactive waste which are generated on site: HLW, ILW and LLW are made up of arisings which can be solid, liquid or gaseous. This paper discusses how implementation of the company's QA policy has been achieved by formally documenting and establishing the controls needed to manage plant, processes and people

  15. The discharges from Sellafield how big a risk for the Irish population?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O` Flaherty, T [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland (Ireland)

    1996-10-01

    The site operated by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) at Sellafield in Cumbria was established just after World War II to produce plutonium for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Plutonium was obtained by extracting it from nuclear fuel which had been irradiated in an early type of nuclear reactor. This procedure was the forerunner of what ultimately became the main commercial activity at Sellafield, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to recover re-usable uranium and plutonium An unavoidable consequence of nuclear fuel reprocessing is the necessity to discharge from the site very large volumes of low-level radioactive waste in liquid form. In the case of Sellafield this waste is discharged into the Irish Sea. Due to a plant malfunction the rates of discharge greatly increased in the mid-1970s, and became a matter of serious concern to the people of Ireland and to successive Irish Governments. In more recent years the rates of discharge have fallen again to lower levels, but this has not diminished concern in Ireland to any significant degree. This paper summarises the results of Irish monitoring of radioactivity levels in the Irish Sea which has been in progress since the late 1970s. From these results it quantifies the radiation doses received by people in Ireland in consequence of the discharges from Sellafield, and estimates the degree of risk of increased cancer levels in the Irish population as a result. The RPII`s monitoring programme has been expanded since 1993 in the light of the bringing into operation of the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) and now includes the monitoring of gaseous discharges to the atmosphere. The paper includes some initial results of this expanded programme.

  16. Unjustifiable exposures: Sellafield radioactive contamination of the rivers Lune and Wyre, Lancashire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Paul; Green Patrick.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination along the banks of the rivers Lune and Wyre in Lancashire, due to legally permitted discharges from Sellafield Reprocessing Plant, demonstrate that communities, such as houseboat dwellers living in the area are receiving over half the recommended site specific dose limit. Exposures are based on gamma dose rates and it is recommended that the limit is reduced from 500 uSv per year to 200 uSv per year. (UK)

  17. UK public attitudes to the nuclear industry: the effect of the Sellafield visitor centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Rogers, J.

    1993-01-01

    Public support for the nuclear industry appears to be growing in the UK at a time when environmental awareness is also prominent. Perceived advantages from nuclear power range from conservation of scare fossil reserves through to maintaining a worldwide technical competitiveness. Within the UK, the Sellafield Visitors Centre has proved to be a large tourist attraction, as well as successfully presenting information in a form that is easy to understand. (author)

  18. Application of the ALARP principle to a major refurbishment project at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, W.R.; Coates, R.

    1989-01-01

    A formalised structured approach to the ALARP principle has been developed and is being applied to occupational radiation exposure on a major refurbishment project at Sellafield. The processes consider the conceptual and subsequent detailed design stages, planning and operational control and incorporates a dose feedback and review system. The approach has led to significant dose savings so far on the project, with recorded doses being significantly less than the doses estimated at the preliminary assessment stage. (author)

  19. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1983-12-01

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  20. The Storage of Power Development and Research Reactor Fuel at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.; Callaghan, A.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Sellafield Limited has extensive experience of building and operating spent nuclear fuel storage facilities on the Sellafield site. Since the first operation in 1952, a total of six storage facilities have been built in support of reprocessing spent fuel. Currently, four of these facilities are operational and two are undergoing decommissioning activities. Whilst the routine spent fuel operations are primarily associated with managing Magnox, Advanced Gas Reactor and LWR fuel from power generation reactors, management services to other fuel types are offered. Examples of these services include the storage of British naval training reactor fuel; the reprocessing of two skips of aluminium clad uranium metal fuel from Swedish AB SVAFO and the management of fuel from the UK Power Development Programme. The current paper provides an account of the management of the UK's Power Development Programme fuel stored on the Sellafield site. The fuel has been pond stored for up to 42 years and periodic inspection during this time has revealed no significant deterioration of the fuel, particularly that which has been containerised during its storage period. The paper also outlines some of the issues associated with the recovery and transfer of long stored fuel and assessment of the fuel storage can longevity if the material is not reprocessed. (author)

  1. Developments in safety and operations culture in BNFL's thorp reprocessing plant, Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kett, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the best descriptions of Culture is 'how we do things around here'. In a stable organisation it is extremely difficult to change any type of culture, whether it is an operations, customer service or safety culture. To change culture one of two elements are essential. There must be either a significant external pressure felt by all in the organisation or a change in senior management, with authority to set a new direction for the organisation. BNFL had a unique opportunity through the commissioning and operation of the Thorp Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield to shape a new Safety and Operations Culture. Both the key elements for change were present. Thorp was a high profile flagship plant that had attracted multinational investment. It incorporated new technology. The workforce had volunteered to operate the plant. A strong senior management team was specially selected. The plant was being commissioned in an environment where there was significant opposition by 'anti nuclear' groups. It was essential to both BNFL and the wider international nuclear community that Thorp was commissioned and operated safely. A strong operating culture was developed with safety as the corner stone. The culture comprises three key components. Rigorous plant safety case and risk assessments before work commences and modifications to the plant occur; A high level of involvement by all levels of the workforce in both operations and safety matters; Strong supportive leadership which does not allow safety standards to be compromised and encourages open debate on how to improve. During commissioning and early operation of Thorp the robustness of the Safety and Operations Culture was demonstrated. On several occasions, despite intense commercial pressure, operations were halted until the situation was resolved both technically and procedurally. This paper describes how the Safety and Operations Culture was developed. The key factors for success include recruitment, team selection

  2. Nuclear-reactor accidents: Chernobyl, TMI, and Windscale. January 1974-September 1988 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1974-September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radiological consequences of nuclear-reactor accidents. The citations cover specifically the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR, the Three Mile Island (TMI) reactor in the US, and the Windscale reactor in the UK. Included are detection and monitoring of the fallout, the resultant runoff into rivers, lakes, and the sea, the radiation effects on people, and the transfrontier radioactive contamination of the environment. (Contains 105 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Nirex 97 an assessment of the post-closure performance of a deep waste repository at Sellafield. Volume 1: hydrogeological model development - conceptual basis and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degnan, P.; Littleboy, A.

    1997-01-01

    United Kingdom Nirex Limited ('Nirex') is responsible for providing and managing facilities for the safe disposal of intermediate and certain low-level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW respectively). Government policy is that the preferred disposal route for such wastes is a deep geological repository. The repository concept aims to use a combination of natural and engineered barriers to achieve the necessary degree of long-term isolation and containment of the radioactive wastes. Since 1987, Nirex has carried out an extensive technical programme directed at the science of safe disposal. The work comprises a research programme into the long-term performance of waste forms and the engineered and natural barriers, including the characterisation of candidate geological settings to assess their suitability to host a deep waste repository ('DWR'). Between mid-1991 and March 1997 the geological characterisation programme was concentrated on establishing the suitability, or otherwise, of a candidate site at Sellafield, West Cumbria. In July 1994, as part of a detailed site investigation programme, Nirex applied for planning permission to develop an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Longlands Farm near Sellafield. This application was rejected by the planning authority and Nirex's appeal against that decision led to a local planning inquiry which ran from September 1995 until February 1996. In line with the Inspector's Report, in March 1997 the Nirex appeal was dismissed by the Secretary of State for the Environment. The Company's response to that decision, and its readiness to contribute to the new government's review of the way forward, are described in the Nirex Annual Report for 1996-97. This report - Nirex 97 - is founded on the understanding developed through the Nirex technical programme. It reports the outcome of an assessment of the post-closure safety performance, over hundreds of thousands of years, of a repository system located in a potential

  4. Applicability of Learning From Experience to Sellafield Post-Operation Clean Out and Decommissioning Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytournel, Bertrand; Clement, Gilles; Macpherson, Ian; Dunlop, Alister

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear cycle facilities, such as recycling plants, over the world differ in their design and operation history. Transferability of Learning From Experience (LFE), Best Practices and Decommissioning tools and techniques may not appear as relevant as it would be for a fleet of reactors. Moreover Regulatory, Economic and Social Drivers may differ from one country to another. Technical Drivers being comparable, AREVA and Sellafield Ltd (SL) have conducted various benchmarks and technical peer reviews to consider LFE from AREVA's Post-Operation Clean Out (POCO) and Decommissioning projects (such as UP2-400 on the La Hague site) and those performed for customers (such as CEA's UP1 on the Marcoule site). The intention is that Sellafield can benefit from AREVA experience and incorporate some recommendations in their own programmes. These reviews highlighted not only that investigation tools and methods as well as Decommissioning techniques are fully transferable, but also that strategic, technical and organizational key recommendations are applicable. 1. End-state definition (for each programme step) has a strong impact on POCO and Decommissioning scenarios. 2. A waste-driven strategy is essential for the overall programme cost and schedule management, and it avoids detrimental activities and short-term decisions made under pressure that may have negative impacts on the Programme. 3. Safety issues associated with POCO and decommissioning programmes are different from the commercial operations environment. 4. An extensive characterization plan (with physical and radiological surveys and active sampling) is essential to underpin the final POCO / decommissioning scenario and build a plant configuration baseline that will be updated as the decommissioning progresses. 5. Transition from operations to decommissioning requires a major change in culture; the organization must adapt to the new decommissioning environment. 6. Securing specific competencies, resources and

  5. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E.; Thompson, G.; Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D.

    2001-11-01

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  6. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France); Thompson, G. [IRSS, Cambridge (United States); Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D

    2001-11-15

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  7. Alpha-emitting 'hot particles' in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittall, A.J.; Tossell, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In a survey of environmental samples in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, two alpha-emitting radioactive particles were found in samples of grass. One particle appears to be of mineral origin, the other was not definitively identified, but may be a fragment of fuel cladding. Conservative estimates of the activities of these particles are very low. The abundance of radioactive particles in the terrestrial food chain appears to be low, with no evidence for any alpha-emitting hot particles in foodstuffs for consumption by humans. Results suggest that there is no significant dose to man through inhalation or ingestion pathways. (author)

  8. Hydrogeochemical evidence supporting models for groundwater flow around Sellafield, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, A.E.; Noy, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, United Kingdom Nirex Limited has investigated a site near Sellafield, north-west England to assess its suitability as the potential location for a deep underground repository for the disposal of intermediate- level, and some low-level, solid radioactive waste. Groundwater flow at the site was simulated using a variety of computer codes, based upon conceptual models of the hydrogeological system. Chemical data for groundwaters aided the development of these conceptual models, and also provided a check upon the computer models' validity. Mineralogical information can be accommodated within the conceptual and theoretical framework. The results of the investigation are presented. (author)

  9. Consequences in Norway of a hypothetical accident at Sellafield: Potential release - transport and fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytre-Eide, M. A.; Standring, W.J.F.; Amundsen, I.; Sickel, M.; Liland, A.; Saltbones, J.; Bartnicki, J.; Haakenstad, H.; Salbu, B.

    2009-03-01

    This report focuses on transport and fallout from 'worst-case' scenarios based on a hypothetical accident at the B215 facility for storing Highly Active Liquors (HAL) at Sellafield. The scenarios involve an atmospheric release of between 0.1-10 % of the total HAL inventory; only transport and fallout of 137 Cs is considered in this case study. Simulations resulted in between 0.1-50 times the maximum 137 Cs fallout experienced in the most contaminated areas in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

  10. Causality of relationship between paternal radiation exposure and leukaemia incidence in the children of Sellafield workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Mairs, R.J.; Barrett, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this letter the author comments on K.E. Baverstock's case (1991) against the likelihood of a causal relationship between reported leukemia incidence and paternal radiation dose in the children of Sellafield workers, and emphasizes the desirability of devising experimental tests of the germ-cell line damage hypothesis as well as the evaluation of its plausibility. Particular reference is made to the role played by dose-rates and by the two-hit model for childhood acute leukemia. (Letter to the Editor)

  11. A survey of habits of people living close to the Sellafield nuclear processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.H.; Fulker, M.J.; Jones, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey has been carried out of the habits of people living within 3 km of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. The survey included estimates of consumption rates of foodstuffs for a range of ages and of time spent indoors, outdoors and away from home. A high proportion of those interviewed were farmers and they provided additional data on time spent in the various farming activities. A comparison is made of the food consumption rates and generalised values recommended for critical groups by the NRPB and MAFF. (author)

  12. BNFL's progress in addressing the findings of the ''Safety audit of BNFL Sellafield 1986''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An audit of the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield site, and in particular the reprocessing plant, was carried out by the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate in the first half of 1986 following a series of incidents. The outcome was a set of requirements on BNFL to bring about significant improvements in many procedural and engineering aspects. Details of BNFL's response are given in this report. Areas where BNFL needs to continue to focus attention in the future are identified, but an overall satisfactory response to the audit findings is recorded. (UK)

  13. Assessment of the radiological impact of the Windscale reactor fire, October 1957. Addendum to report NRPB R135

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, M J; Linsley, G S

    1983-01-01

    The assessment described has involved a review of previously unpublished data, in order to establish the quantities of nuclides released from materials undergoing irradiation in the pile at the time of the fire. Of these additional nuclides, only polonium-210 has been shown to make a significant contribution to the estimate of the collective effective dose equivalent to the population from the Windscale fire. The previous estimate of 1.2 x 10/sup 3/ man Sv for the collective effective dose equivalent commitment to the population of the UK and Northern Europe has been increased by 67% to 2.0 x 10/sup 3/ man Sv. This change is within the range of uncertainty of the original estimate. The influence of the addition on the theoretical estimate of the upper limit of possible health effects is discussed in this addendum and its foreword. With the inclusion of the additional nuclides, the inhalation pathway has become the overall largest contributor to this population dose, followed by the milk ingestion pathway; the largest nuclide contribution comes from iodine-131, followed by polonium-210. Some perspective may be provided on the contribution due to polonium-210 by noting that it is approximately one-tenth of that arising annually due to naturally occurring polonium-210, and less than one-hundredth of that due annually to the total natural background radiation.

  14. The radiological impact of Sellafield on coastal communities around the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1993-11-01

    The inhabitants of coastal regions bordering the Irish Sea may be exposed to radionuclides, of Sellafield origin, through a variety of pathways. An assessment of the magnitude of these doses and the regional differences is presented in this report. The assessment has considered exposures arising from the seafood, beach, intertidal and sea-spray transfer pathways. The spatial differences in the doses received through each pathway and the future evolution of the doses are determined by the predicted difference in the behaviour of individual radionuclides in the Irish Sea. Difference in the degree to which radionuclides adsorb onto sediments give rise to characteristic patterns in which 137 Cs is more uniformly distributed than the actinides and in which 137 Cs responds to the decreasing discharge rate from Sellafield more readily than the actinides. Thus, pathways in which the dose depends on the concentrations of 137 Cs, such as external irradiation over beaches, show smaller regional differences than do pathways whose dose depends on the concentrations of actinides, such as the ingestion of molluscs. The 137 Cs-controlled pathways are predicted to decline in the future in response to discharge rates much more rapidly than the actinide-controlled pathways which are subject to the influence of remobilisation processes. (Author)

  15. The radiological impact of Sellafield on coastal communities around the Irish Sea: a summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    The inhabitants of coastal regions bordering the Irish Sea are exposed to radionuclides, of Sellafield origin, through a variety of pathways. An assessment of the magnitude of the resulting radiation doses and the regional differences is presented in this report. The assessment has considered exposures arising from the seafood, beach and sea-spray transfer pathways. The spatial differences in the doses received through each pathway and the future evolution of the doses are determined by the predicted difference in the behaviour of individual radionuclides in the Irish Sea. Differences in the degree to which radionuclides adsorb onto sediments give rise to characteristic patterns in which 137 Cs is more uniformly distributed than the actinides and in which 137 Cs responds to the decreasing discharge rate from Sellafield more readily than the actinides. In the future, the contributions of 137 Cs to the radiological dose are predicted to decline, in response to discharge rates, much more rapidly than the contribution of the actinides which are subject to the influence of remobilisation processes. (author)

  16. A glacial model for TIME4 applicable to the Sellafield and Dounreay areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G.S.; Broadgate, M.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides input data for TIME4 Version 2.0 which has been developed for use at Sellafield and Dounreay. This report presents a review of the available data on the disposition of tills and other glacial deposits and landforms in the regions around Sellafield and Dounreay. This information is supplemented by the use of satellite imagery which has allowed the delineation of glacial flowlines on a regional basis. The glacial data is used as a constraint for the modelling of ice sheet behaviour. The physical basis of the model used has been developed previously but is presented for reference in this report. Modifications, notably the use of a nested topographic grid to improve resolution around the site, are described. Output from the model includes ice-front position, relative sea-level, erosion and deposition and sub-glacial discharge as a function of time and position along a transect. Additional information relating to the surface slope of the ice sheet is also included. (Author)

  17. Developing ceramic based technology for the immobilisation of waste on the Sellafield site - 16049

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scales, C.R.; Maddrell, E.R.; Dowson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    National Nuclear Laboratory, in collaboration with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, is developing hot isostatic press (HIP) based ceramic technology for the immobilisation of a diverse range of wastes arising from nuclear fuel processing activities on the Sellafield site. Wasteform compositions have been identified and validated for the immobilisation of these plutonium containing wastes and residues in glass-ceramic and ceramic forms. A full scale inactive facility has been constructed at NNL's Workington Laboratory to support the demonstration of the technology. Validation of the inactive wasteform development using plutonium has been carried out at ANSTO's Lucas Heights facility. A feasibility study has been conducted to evaluate the construction and operation of a plutonium active pilot facility which would demonstrate the immobilisation of actual residues in the NNL Central Lab. This could form the basis of a facility to treat the plutonium wastes and residues in their entirety. The technology is being explored for the immobilisation of additional wastes arising on the Sellafield site taking advantage of the investment already made in skills and facilities. (authors)

  18. Scoping assessment of groundwater doses to biota at the Sellafield site, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Gleizon, P.; Coleman, I.A.; Watts, S.J.; Batlle, L.V.; Smith, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    In the current climate of investigating the impact of discharges from the nuclear industry on non-human biota, much attention has been given to biota in marine and terrestrial environments in receipt of authorised discharges of liquid and gaseous effluent. Relatively little attention to date has been given to the exposure of biota to groundwater containing man-made radio-nuclides. This area of interest is growing especially in the field of nuclear waste repositories. A scoping assessment has been performed here to determine the impacts due to radiological contamination on organisms living within or coming into contact with groundwater at the Sellafield site, UK. The following potential exposure routes to biota were identified: 1) Organisms living within groundwater; 2) Groundwater discharges to the surface at beach springs (i.e. emerging above the low water line; 3) Groundwater discharges to nearby surface water bodies (e.g. rivers); 4) Groundwater discharges directly to the Irish Sea.. In order to evaluate impacts on organisms living within, contacting or ingesting groundwater, it was necessary to determine the activity concentration of radio-nuclides in the groundwater. For time periods up to 2120, modeling of contaminant release from in-ground inventories and transport in groundwater was carried out for this scoping study using a relatively simple assessment methodology with the MONDRIAN modeling suite. Screening assessments of radiological impacts upon wildlife have been performed for liquid discharges to groundwater from the Sellafield Ltd reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria. Impacts have been considered for biota at sites within reach of the groundwater flow network. Most calculated total weighted absorbed doses appear to be of no radiological significance whatsoever in relation to the new Environment Agency freshwater ecosystem trigger level (40 microGy h -1 ), thereby obviating the need to conduct further investigations. The one exception to this is

  19. The management of solid radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg: individual reports in order of building number. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An audit was carried out of the solid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste at the Sellafield and Drigg sites of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to establish the state of waste management. The audit was undertaken by a joint team of inspectors from the HSE's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and HM Inspectorate of Pollution in line with their respective responsibilities for regulation of the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The report records each solid waste facility and the conditions of storage observed by the team. The report reflects the views of the audit team. It should not be read as the definitive HMIP or NII judgement of the site's performance on waste matters. This continues to be based upon day to day interaction between allocated site inspectors and site managers. However, the recommendations of the team have been endorsed by HMIP and NII and accepted by BNFL. The report is published in two volumes. Volume 1 describes the aims and extent of the audit, the method of working and the findings and recommendations made. The reports on individual buildings are presented in Volume 2. These describe the waste management arrangements observed by members of the audit team. Where shortcomings are identified these have been brought to the attention of BNFL, and to the nominated site inspectors of HMIP and NII, in order that appropriate action may be considered to rectify the position. Where observations have lead to specific recommendations, these are indicated in Volume 2 at the point of arising. The recommendations are presented in full in Volume 1. Volume 1 also includes the overall conclusions of the audit and the recommendations which have been made as a result of the observations described in Volume 2. (UK)

  20. 137Cs uptake by sheep grazing tidally-inundated and inland pastures near the Sellafield reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Field investigations into the transfer of 137 Cs from pasture to sheep tissues have been made at two contrasting sites in west Cumbria, close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These were a saltmarsh bordering on the Esk estuary in 1982 and inland pastures close to the perimeter of the works in 1984. 137 Cs concentrations of sampled vegetation from the saltmarsh were generally two orders of magnitude greater than from the inland pasture due to its inundation with 137 Cs associated with silt. The relatively high 137 Cs content of soil/silt compared to that of vegetation at each site meant that soil contamination of vegetation sometimes accounted for a substantial proportion of its 137 Cs activity (up to 99% on the saltmarsh and 67% on the inland pastures). Considerable seasonal changes occurred in the extent of 137 Cs contamination on the inland pastures, with late winter and early spring levels being up to 20-fold higher than those of the summer. 137 Cs concentrations in tissues of lambs from the saltmarsh were consistently higher than for ewes; this was not true for sheep from the inland pastures. 137 Cs concentrations in kidney were found to be higher than in all other tissues, both in the study flocks and in one of the controls. Transfer coefficients (calculated by dividing the 137 Cs concentration of fresh tissue by the daily intake of 137 Cs) were significantly (P 137 Cs activity due to soil/silt contamination was removed from the estimates of daily intake leaving 137 Cs associated with the vegetation only to contribute to the transfer coefficients. Further studies are required to determine the availability of 137 Cs associated with soil/silt particles which are ingested by animals. (author)

  1. The Specification of Cement Powders for Waste Encapsulation Processes at Sellafield site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.; Borwick, J.; Cann, G.; Hayes, M.; McLuckie, B.; Jowsey, J.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements are described for Portland Cement (CEM I), Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) and Fly Ash (FA) powders used for the encapsulation of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (ILW) in UK, with particular reference to Sellafield site encapsulation processes. Differences between the powders used by the UK nuclear industry and the equivalent British and European cement standards are explained. Research over the last 20 years to respond to changes in the performance of these powders is summarised and options for dealing with potential future changes are discussed. These include the use of special blends of GGBS to achieve the desired flow properties or alternatively poly-carboxylate super-plasticizers to produce grouts with consistent performance using cement powders with a wide range of composition. (authors)

  2. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: what Seascale said about the Black Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macgill, S M

    1986-07-01

    The paper investigates reaction to the Black Report by the inhabitants of Seascale, the community whose situation - in terms of leukaemia incidence and proximity to Sellafield - was the focus of interest of that Report. The paper draws on an original interview-based social survey among the inhabitants of Seascale. As well as routine examination of response frequencies, a new methodological tool for reconstructing aggregate patterns of a large number of multiple character responses (from the Galois connections between response categories) is used as primary basis for interpretative analysis. It is found that the Black Report was received in Seascale with a mixture of confusion, satisfaction, deferred judgement and sharp criticism, and implications of this finding for the risk perception research field, as well as for policy makers, are brought out.

  3. The management of solid radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Waste management at British Nuclear Fuel's (BNFL) Sellafield and Drigg sites has been assessed using an audit of solid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste, undertaken by a joint inspection team from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and the Inspectorate of Pollution. The conditions of waste storage and record keeping observed by the team are reported for each solid waste facility. Radioactive waste management was found to be variable, with a number of storage facilities less than satisfactory. BNFL were shown to be making strenuous efforts to rectify this. Record keeping was found to be satisfactory for all current and recent waste storage. Historic waste accumulations, however, have yet to be quantified and characterised. (UK)

  4. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: what Seascale said about the Black Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.

    1986-07-01

    The paper investigates reaction to the Black Report by the inhabitants of Seascale, the community whose situation - in terms of leukaemia incidence and proximity to Sellafield - was the focus of interest of that Report. The paper draws on an original interview-based social survey among the inhabitants of Seascale. As well as routine examination of response frequencies, a new methodological tool for reconstructing aggregate patterns of a large number of multiple character responses (from the Galois connections between response categories) is used as primary basis for interpretative analysis. It is found that the Black Report was received in Seascale with a mixture of confusion, satisfaction, deferred judgement and sharp criticism, and implications of this finding for the risk perception research field, as well as for policy makers, are brought out. (author)

  5. Development of a Systematic Approach to Post-Operation Clean Out at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, Ian; Dunlop, Alister

    2016-01-01

    Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) relates to the activities undertaken directly after commercial operations cease to remove residual activity and facilitate decommissioning of a nuclear facility. Historically the transition of Sellafield facilities has proved sub-optimal resulting in loss of critical plant knowledge, additional cost and protracted delivery timelines. The move from reprocessing in Magnox and Thorp to POCO is a significant transition facing the site, with a large number of diverse facilities scheduled to cease operations over the next 15 years. In order to ensure that the facilities are dealt with in a consistent manner, that supports both Site and Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) strategies, the POCO programme has been established across the Sellafield Operations Division. Primary aims of the POCO programme are: - Risk and Hazard Reduction; - Enabling redeployment of resource and capability; - Life-cycle cost reduction; - Enhanced Reputation. Transition preparations will cover process, organisation, technology and information. Knowledge is a key output of POCO: the creation of records of the plant configuration and status to enable and support the safe and effective eventual decommissioning of the plant. The consistent approach that has been developed will: - Ensure the smooth transition from operations into POCO, and then into surveillance and maintenance. - Maximise the potential of facilities to support other site activities prior to POCO. - Optimise the facility schedules within the overall POCO programme, to ensure timely decoupling. - Define and manage the resource demands and capabilities prior to and during POCO. - Provide a baseline configuration for each facility at the end of the POCO phase. - Encourage and enable knowledge management to ensure that subsequent decommissioning activities are informed and supported. - Look for opportunities to progress housekeeping and co-processing activities so as to reduce inventory and make best

  6. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, Angela

    2013-01-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Now operated by Sellafield Ltd, under the management of Parent Body Organisation Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), a consortium of URS Washington Division, AMEC and AREVA is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of a company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. This paper will describe the management success by the Site owners in delivering a successful change programme. The paper will explain how the site has transitioned to the INPO Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM) and how through the use of a change maturity matrix has contributed to the accelerated reduction in high risk high hazard nuclear facilities. The paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Programme Office has facilitated and coordinated the Governance and assured delivery of the change plan and how successful application of visual management has aided the communication of its progress. Finally, the paper will discuss how the Delivery Schedules have proved critical for presenting the change plan to Key Stakeholders, Government Owners and Powerful Regulators. Overall, this paper provides an insight into how a massive change programme is being managed within one of the world's highest regulated industries. (authors)

  7. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, Angela [Change Manager, Decommissioning, Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. Now operated by Sellafield Ltd, under the management of Parent Body Organisation Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), a consortium of URS Washington Division, AMEC and AREVA is focussed on the decommissioning of historical facilities. When Decommissioning commenced in the late 1980's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. Now through the implementation of a company change programme, emphasis has shifted towards accelerated risk and hazard reduction of degraded legacy plants with nuclear inventory whilst ensuring value for money for the customer, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. This paper will describe the management success by the Site owners in delivering a successful change programme. The paper will explain how the site has transitioned to the INPO Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM) and how through the use of a change maturity matrix has contributed to the accelerated reduction in high risk high hazard nuclear facilities. The paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Programme Office has facilitated and coordinated the Governance and assured delivery of the change plan and how successful application of visual management has aided the communication of its progress. Finally, the paper will discuss how the Delivery Schedules have proved critical for presenting the change plan to Key Stakeholders, Government Owners and Powerful Regulators. Overall, this paper provides an insight into how a massive change programme is being managed within one of the world's highest regulated industries. (authors)

  8. Ventilation design for containment and the effects on energy consumption at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doig, R.; Scattergood, B.; Standring, T.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear reprocessing plants are designed to contain some radioactive process, minimise the risk of loss of containment and to limit the discharge of material to the environment. The physical containment systems, provided by the building and process vessels, are generally insufficient measures on their own to safeguard against release of contamination. This passive' containment must be enhanced by an active' containment - the ventilation system. The ventilation system is designed to provide a depression gradient so that air flows from areas of lesser to greater contamination potential and thereby limit the possibility of migration of contamination. The ventilation design is dominated by the extract system, which is used to create the differential pressures required to obtain the desired depression gradient. The resultant, contaminated, exhaust air requires considerable clean-up equipment to treat it prior to discharge to atmosphere. Within the nuclear industry, safety has always been paramount and will continue to be so, however, in recent years additional requirements have grown in importance and one of these has been energy conservation. At the same time, pressure has increased from the industry regulators to reduce discharges to atmosphere. A case study has been carried out on an existing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, to review energy consumption and potential savings. This review was based on operational experience and evolution in containment and ventilation design which have occurred in intervening years. Completed in 1984, at a capital cost in excess of Pound 300m, the Fuel Handling Plant (FHP) at Sellafield, has one of the largest heating and ventilation systems in Europe. Costing approximately Pound 11m, the various ventilation systems comprise some 27 individual sub-systems using 58 fans, some 1,000 dampers and approximately 10 miles of ductwork spread over three buildings (integrated to form one whole). (UK)

  9. Alpha-emitting nuclides in commercial fish species caught in the vicinity of Windscale, United Kingdom, and their radiological significance to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Lovett, M.B.; Harvey, B.R.; Ibbett, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of a number of alpha-emitting nuclides have been determined in the tissues of several commercial fish species caught in the vicinity of the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale. All tissues analysed were found to contain 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am, but 242 Cm and 244 Cm could only be reliably detected in the liver samples of some fish. Fish of the same species, but taken from the North Sea, have also been analysed for some naturally occurring alpha-emitting nuclides. Whereas uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) could be detected in bone samples of fish, neither could be reliably detected in samples of muscle: in contrast, 210 Po was readily detected in samples of liver, muscle and bone. Commercial fish fillets from the Irish Sea, including the Windscale area, are also routinely monitored for alpha-emitting nuclides, and their radiological significance to man is briefly discussed. Comments are also made on the significance of the naturally occurring nuclides. (author)

  10. Working for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This video looks at the work of the UKAEA which is concerned with environmental protection and covers 4 projects, the routine monitoring which ensures a constant check on the safe operation of nuclear plant, research into the ways radioactivity released routinely into the Irish Sea from Sellafield returns to land. Computer modelling of the large scale behaviour of radioactive releases to the environment and research into the behaviour of released chemicals and heavy metals into the food chain. (author)

  11. A comparison between the risks of childhood leukaemia from parental exposure to radiation in the Sellafield workforce and those displayed among the Japanese bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The cases of childhood leukaemia found near the Sellafield plant and those observed in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using a relative risk model. The leukaemia relative risk coefficients for total paternal (whole-body) pre-conception exposure for the Sellafield children are found to be about 50 to 80 times higher than the (gonadal) coefficients applying to the offspring of the bomb survivors. This difference is statistically significant, and in particular the risk coefficients for the Sellafield cohort are significantly positive, unlike those for the Japanese. If the assumption is made that the excess relative risk estimated from the Sellafield data lasts for the whole of the life of the offspring, the apparent population leukaemia risk to the first-generation offspring (for an England and Wales population) would be between 4% Sv -1 and 5% Sv -1 . (author)

  12. A design study for a fission product fixation plant and storage at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.M.; Ridley, G.; Adler, D.G.

    1961-01-01

    A flowsheet for a production plant has been worked out and the problems of designing a reliable production plant utilising it have been assessed. The properties of current glass compositions have been considered in relation to problems of permanent storage for periods of 800 to 1000 years and various storage proposals assessed. The performance of the preferred type of storage, i.e. dry storage in natural draught air-cooled vaults, has been estimated and consideration given to a number of variables affecting the optimum design. The design problems of a storage of the required life have been investigated in relation to suitable types of site and proposals made as to the types of construction to be used. Design work on tunnel loading facilities has been carried to the state of demonstrating feasibility. The capital costs and the economics of this type of waste storage have been investigated for unalloyed Magnox fuel and brief consideration given to alloyed and cermet fuels. Attention has been given to development problems of the whole system where they arise. (author)

  13. The Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR) Decommissioning Project A Close Out Report for WAGR Decommissioning Campaigns 1 to 10 - 12474

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, Chris [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The reactor core of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) has been dismantled as part of an ongoing decommissioning project. The WAGR operated until 1981 as a development reactor for the British Commercial Advanced Gas cooled Reactor (CAGR) power programme. Decommissioning began in 1982 with the removal of fuel from the reactor core which was completed in 1983. Subsequently, a significant amount of engineering work was carried out, including removal of equipment external to the reactor and initial manual dismantling operations at the top of the reactor, in preparation for the removal of the reactor core itself. Modification of the facility structure and construction of the waste packaging plant served to provide a waste route for the reactor components. The reactor core was dismantled on a 'top-down' basis in a series of 'campaigns' related to discrete reactor components. This report describes the facility, the modifications undertaken to facilitate its decommissioning and the strategies employed to recognise the successful decommissioning of the reactor. Early decommissioning tasks at the top of the reactor were undertaken manually but the main of the decommissioning tasks were carried remotely, with deployment systems comprising of little more than crane like devices, intelligently interfaced into the existing structure. The tooling deployed from the 3 tonne capacity (3te) hoist consisted either purely mechanical devices or those being electrically controlled from a 'push-button' panel positioned at the operator control stations, there was no degree of autonomy in the 3te hoist or any of the tools deployed from it. Whilst the ATC was able to provide some tele-robotic capabilities these were very limited and required a good degree of driver input which due to the operating philosophy at WAGR was not utilised. The WAGR box proved a successful waste package, adaptable through the use of waste box furniture specific to the

  14. The application of research and technology in the Highly Active Liquor storage and treatment facilities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    At the Sellafield nuclear site, Highly Active Liquor (HAL) produced from Magnox and Oxide reprocessing operations is evaporated and interim stored in the Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) complex prior to vitrification in one of three Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) processing lines. These plants are integral to the current commercial activities at Sellafield and also in safely discharging liabilities in the future. The management and operation of HALES and WVP are subject to significant regulatory and public scrutiny and there is the requirement to deliver a reduction in the HAL volumes stored in HALES in accordance with a regulator imposed HAL stock reduction specification. In delivering the required reduction BNFL has faced a number of technical and operational challenges which have resulted in the development and execution of significant programmes of research and development and technical and engineering projects. The key challenges faced are briefly presented. (author)

  15. An assessment of the radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulker, M.J.; McKay, K.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive monitoring of conventional agricultural produce in the vicinity of the BNFL Sellafield plant is undertaken, by both the operator and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to determine levels of radioactivity and douses arising to the consumer Monitoring is also undertaken, albeit less extensively, for market garden and domestic produce. By contrast, few data exist with respect to levels of radioactivity in 'wild foods' (e.g. hedgerow fruits, field mushrooms etc.) or associated consumption habits. It has been postulated that such foodstuffs could contribute an appreciable radiation exposure dose to groups of high level consumers, potentially including members of the existing identified critical group for local agricultural produce. This paper assess the actual radiological significance of wild foods collected near Sellafield. (author)

  16. Plant Measurement, Sampling and Analysis for Accountancy Purposes with Particular Reference to Separation Plants at Windscale; Mesures, Echantillonnages et Analyses en Usine a des Fins Comptables, Notamment dans les Installations de Separation de Windscale; Izmereniya, vzyatie obraztsov i analizy v tselyakh ucheta na opyte ustanovki razdeleniya radioizotopov v uindskejle; Medicion, Muestreo y Analisis para Fines Contables, Especialmente en las Plantas de Separacion de Windscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, A. S.; Elliott, F.; Powell, R.; Swinburn, K. A. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale and Calder Works, Cumberland (United Kingdom)

    1966-02-15

    All figures for special materials accountancy purposes contain one or more of three parameters, namely plant measurement, sampling and analysis. For plant measurements it is best to use weighings wherever possible, e.g. the plutonium in the feed to the New Separation Plant is based on the weight of uranium rods fed. Methods used for measuring volumes are discussed, e.g. (a) pneumercator, and (b) tracer method using radioactive caesium. Judged accuracies and precisions of each method are given. The sampling of solutions in a batch process is done by using evacuated tubes after thorough homogenization of the solution. For ''flowing'' streams, where high accuracy is required, a continuous sampler has been devised and is used on the feed to the New Separation Plant. Drilling of metal ingots is the normal sampling method at Windscale, whereas for other solids the method is to homogenize as far as possible (e.g. a Y cone blender is used for plutonium oxide) and then sample. For the chemical analysis, the precision required of the method depends on the number of determinations in each accounting period. Thus a large number of analyses are required for an accurate but imprecise method. It may be more economical to use fewer determinations with a more precise method. Methods for determining plutonium are discussed in detail, e.g. (a) radiochemistry, (b) colorimetrically using thoronol, (c) plutonium separation, complexing with EDTA and back titration of the excess EDTA, (d) titrimetry (e) isotope dilution followed by mass spectrometry and (f) differential spectrometry. Methods for determining uranium are outlined, e.g. (a) gravimetry as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, (b) ether extraction followed by gravimetry or colorimetry, (c) titrimetry, (d) isotope dilution followed by mass spectrometry and (e) enrichment determination by mass spectrometry or line shift emission spectrography. With all accounting methods standards are used to give quality control and to show any inaccuracy which

  17. GeoMelt{sup R} ICV{sup TM} Treatment of Sellafield Pond Solids Waste - 13414

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witwer, Keith; Woosley, Steve; Campbell, Brett [Kurion, Inc., GeoMelt Division, 3015 Horn Rapids Road, Richland, Washington (United States); Wong, Martin; Hill, Joanne [AMEC Inc., Birchwood Park, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Kurion, Inc., in partnership with AMEC Ltd., is demonstrating its GeoMelt{sup R} In-Container Vitrification (ICV){sup TM} Technology to Sellafield Ltd. (SL). SL is evaluating the proposition of directly converting a container (skip/box/drum) of raw solid ILW into an immobilized waste form using thermal treatment, such that the resulting product is suitable for interim storage at Sellafield and subsequent disposal at a future Geological Disposal Facility. Potential SL feed streams include sludges, ion-exchange media, sand, plutonium contaminated material, concrete, uranium, fuel cladding, soils, metals, and decommissioning wastes. The solid wastes have significant proportions of metallic constituents in the form of containers, plant equipment, structural material and swarf arising from the nuclear operations at Sellafield. GeoMelt's proprietary ICV process was selected for demonstration, with the focus being high and reactive metal wastes arising from solid ILW material. A composite surrogate recipe was used to demonstrate the technology towards treating waste forms of diverse types and shapes, as well as those considered difficult to process; all the while requiring few (if any) pre-treatment activities. Key strategic objectives, along with their success criterion, were established by SL for this testing, namely: 1. Passivate and stabilize the raw waste simulant, as demonstrated by the entire quantity of material being vitrified, 2. Immobilize the radiological and chemo-toxic species, as demonstrated via indicative mass balance using elemental analyses from an array of samples, 3. Production of an inert and durable product as evidenced by transformation of reactive metals to their inert oxide forms and satisfactory leachability results using PCT testing. Two tests were performed using the GeoMelt Demonstration Unit located at AMEC's Birchwood Park Facilities in the UK. Post-melt examination of the first test indicated some of the waste simulant had not

  18. Childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma near large rural construction sites, with a comparison with Sellafield nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, L.J.; Dickson, M.; Stiller, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether population mixing produced by large, non-nuclear construction projects in rural areas is associated with an increase in childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A study was undertaken of the incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among children living near large construction projects in Britain since 1945, situated more than 20 km from a population centre, involving a workforce of more than 1000, and built over three or more calendar years. A 37% excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at 0-14 years of age was recorded during construction and the following calendar year. The excesses were greater at times when construction workers and operating staff overlapped (72%), particularly in areas of relatively high social class. For several sites the excesses were similar to or greater than that near the nuclear site of Sellafield (67%), which is distinctive in its large workforce with many construction workers. Seascale, near Sellafield, with a ninefold increase had an unusually high proportion of residents in social class I. The findings support the infection hypothesis and reinforce the view that the excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma near Sellafield has a similar explanation. (author)

  19. Accumulation of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon ((14)C) in Irish Sea and West of Scotland intertidal shells and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Kieran M; Muir, Graham K P; Cook, Gordon T; MacKinnon, Gillian; Howe, John A; Heymans, Johanna J; Xu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry produces radioactive waste at various stages of the fuel cycle. In the United Kingdom, spent fuel is reprocessed at the Sellafield facility in Cumbria on the North West coast of England. Waste generated at the site comprises a wide range of radionuclides including radiocarbon ((14)C) which is disposed of in various forms including highly soluble inorganic carbon within the low level liquid radioactive effluent, via pipelines into the Irish Sea. This (14)C is rapidly incorporated into the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) reservoir and marine calcifying organisms, e.g. molluscs, readily utilise DIC for shell formation. This study investigated a number of sites located in Irish Sea and West of Scotland intertidal zones. Results indicate (14)C enrichment above ambient background levels in shell material at least as far as Port Appin, 265 km north of Sellafield. Of the commonly found species (blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and common periwinkle (Littorina littorea)), mussels were found to be the most highly enriched in (14)C due to the surface environment they inhabit and their feeding behaviour. Whole mussel shell activities appear to have been decreasing in response to reduced discharge activities since the early 2000s but in contrast, there is evidence of continuing enrichment of the carbonate sediment component due to in-situ shell erosion, as well as indications of particle transport of fine (14)C-enriched material close to Sellafield. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Model validation and the role of the proposed Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield. Proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, H.

    1996-01-01

    Proof of Evidence is given by an expert witness on behalf of Greenpeace Ltd as part of their submission to a Planning Inquiry in 1995 hearing the application of UK Nirex Ltd for permission to construct an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site near Sellafield. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste. An examination of the groundwater flow models used by Nirex and the procedure for their validation have led to the following conclusions: no evidence has been presented by Nirex to show that the construction of the RCF will improve the confidence they claim to have in the site; the prospects are slim for validating the models of present groundwater flow so that they satisfy the criteria to meet the risk target; it is extremely unlikely that results from the RCF will increase confidence in a safety assessment of this site; all the evidence available to date suggests that the risk assessment is not, and will not become, robust to variations in flux through the repository. (1 figure; 8 references). (UK)

  1. Germline minisatellite mutations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawn, E Janet; Curwen, Gillian B; Rees, Gwen S; Jonas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Germline minisatellite mutation rates were investigated in male workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. DNA samples from 160 families with 255 offspring were analysed for mutations at eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern hybridisation. No significant difference was observed between the paternal mutation rate of 5.0% (37 mutations in 736 alleles) for control fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 9 mSv and that of 5.8% (66 in 1137 alleles) for exposed fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 194 mSv. Subgrouping the exposed fathers into two dose groups with means of 111 mSv and 274 mSv revealed paternal mutation rates of 6.0% (32 mutations in 536 alleles) and 5.7% (34 mutations in 601 alleles), respectively, neither of which was significantly different in comparisons with the rate for the control fathers. Maternal mutation rates of 1.6% (12 mutations in 742 alleles) for the partners of control fathers and 1.7% (19 mutations in 1133 alleles) for partners of exposed fathers were not significantly different. This study provides evidence that paternal preconceptional occupational radiation exposure does not increase the germline minisatellite mutation rate and therefore refutes suggestions that such exposure could result in a destabilisation of the germline that can be passed on to future generations. (paper)

  2. Doses to Terrestrial Biota in the Vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria, UK (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D.; Johnson, M.S.; Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R

    2000-07-01

    Source terms and corresponding radionuclide activity concentrations in biota for {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am have been assessed for three semi-natural ecosystems in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Estimates of absorbed doses (mGy.d{sup -1}) have been calculated. Doses to key indicator species, Oniscus asellus (detritivorous invertebrate), Carabus violaceous (predatory invertebrate) and Apodemus sylvaticus (granivorous wood mouse) are discussed with reference to the 1 mGy.d{sup -1} level, below which it is postulated that no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem occur. Implications for the 'critical group' and 'reference model' approaches for a framework of radiological environmental protection are discussed. The need to assess the most highly exposed species is advanced. New research focused on the application of biomarker techniques as a mechanism for determining the interactions and effects of environmental contaminants on ecosystem structure and functioning is presented. (author)

  3. Measurement of artificial radionuclides in whole diets around the BNF plc reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondon, K.J.; Walters, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food has conducted a duplicate diet study around the BNF reprocessing plant of Sellafield in Cumbria. Samples were collected from adults and children. The results of analyses for a number of artificial radionuclides are reported; dose calculations using actual food intakes have also been made. Samples were obtained in both winter (phase 1) and summer (phase 11), between which times the Chernobyl accident occurred, making site-specific dose assessment from caesium isotopes difficult in summer samples. Control diets were collected from a coastal area in Lancashire. Average annual doses based on pre-Chernobyl sampling ranged from 2 μSv in control children to 14 μSv in study adults. This range increased to 9-50 μSv in the second phase of the study. Maximum individual doses were 86 μSv in phase 1 and 102 μ in phase 11, these being well within the government's target dose for members of the public. (author)

  4. The safeguards on-site laboratory at Sellafield. Five years operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duinslaeger, L.; Belle, P. van; Mayer, K.; Casteleyn, K.; Abousahl, S.; Daures, P.; Eberle, H.; Enright, T.; Guiot, A.; Hild, M.; Horta Domenech, J.; Lajarge, P.; Laurent, P.; Le Terrier, A.; Lynch, B.; Marucci, M.; Millet, S.; Ottmar, H.; Richir, P.; Street, S.; Vallet, P.; Zuleger, E. [European Commission, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2004-06-01

    The start of operation of the large reprocessing facilities led Euratom Safeguards to a new approach for verification analysis of samples taken at the facility: the installation of on-site laboratories. The availability of analytical capabilities for independent verification measurements at the site of these facilities offers obvious advantages in view of timeliness of results. The 'On-Site Laboratory' (OSL) at the BNFL Sellafield site was the first ever and entered into operation in 1999. For almost five years, the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has been operating the laboratory under routine conditions. During this period, more than one thousand safeguards samples were analysed. The experience gained in the management, logistics and operation of the OSL allow a critical review based on a significant period in time. This includes also aspects of training of staff, maintenance of equipment, flow of information, and improvements in the efficiency. The analytical issues are of key importance: based on the operational experience, the measurement methods were adapted (changing boundary conditions), the distribution of samples according to material type changed (start up of MOS fabrication plant), and the cutback in resources triggered a further streamlining of the analytical efforts. (orig.)

  5. A new approach to the criticality safety assessment of PCM at BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sam; Kirkwood, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) arises as a solid waste on the Sellafield Site and is packaged into 200 litre drums which are placed into interim surface storage arrays. These wastes may also contain 235 U. The traditional approach to criticality safety has been based on ''worst-case'' reactivity modelling. This has recently led to a number of difficulties by implying that the 230 g (Pu + 235 U) drum limit is very important for criticality safety and the assay instruments used to demonstrate compliance with the limit need a high level of safety reliability. Also, the reliability and accuracy of the assay results of historical or legacy PCM became an issue. The new focus on substantiation of safety related equipment in BNFL has highlighted reliability shortfalls for the assay instruments. To overcome these shortfalls, additional operational practices on the PCM handling regimes were introduced to give increased confidence in the fissile assay results. These practices significantly delayed processing PCM waste stocks and resulted in significant additional operator dose uptake. Thus there were strong reasons to improve the existing approach. This paper describes a new approach to the criticality modelling of PCM. (author)

  6. Nirex 97 an assessment of the post-closure performance of a deep waste repository at Sellafield. Volume 2; hydrogeological conceptual model development - effective parameters and calibration appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.; Watson, S.

    1997-01-01

    United Kingdom Nirex Limited ('Nirex') is responsible for providing and managing facilities for the safe disposal of intermediate and certain low-level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW respectively). Government policy is that the preferred disposal route for such wastes is a deep geological repository. The repository concept aims to use a combination of natural and engineered barriers to achieve the necessary degree of long-term isolation and containment of the radioactive wastes. Since 1987, Nirex has carried out an extensive technical programme directed at the science of safe disposal. The work comprises a research programme into the long-term performance of waste forms and the engineered and natural barriers, including the characterisation of candidate geological settings to assess their suitability to host a deep waste repository ('DWR'). Between mid-1991 and March 1997 the geological characterisation programme was concentrated on establishing the suitability, or otherwise, of a candidate site at Sellafield, West Cumbria. In July 1994, as part of a detailed site investigation programme, Nirex applied for planning permission to develop an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Longlands Farm near Sellafield. This application was rejected by the planning authority and Nirex's appeal against that decision led to a local planning inquiry which ran from September 1995 until February 1996. In line with the Inspector's Report, in March 1997 the Nirex appeal was dismissed by the Secretary of State for the Environment. The Company's response to that decision, and its readiness to contribute to the new government's review of the way forward, are described in the Nirex Annual Report for 1996-97. This report - Nirex 97 - is founded on the understanding developed through the Nirex technical programme. It reports the outcome of an assessment of the post-closure safety performance, over hundreds of thousands of years, of a repository system located in a potential

  7. Nirex 97 an assessment of the post-closure performance of a deep waste repository at Sellafield. Volume 3; the groundwater pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.; Chambers, A.; Jackson, C.

    1997-01-01

    United Kingdom Nirex Limited ('Nirex') is responsible for providing and managing facilities for the safe disposal of intermediate and certain low-level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW respectively). Government policy is that the preferred disposal route for such wastes is a deep geological repository. The repository concept aims to use a combination of natural and engineered barriers to achieve the necessary degree of long-term isolation and containment of the radioactive wastes. Since 1987, Nirex has carried out an extensive technical programme directed at the science of safe disposal. The work comprises a research programme into the long-term performance of waste forms and the engineered and natural barriers, including the characterisation of candidate geological settings to assess their suitability to host a deep waste repository ('DWR'). Between mid-1991 and March 1997 the geological characterisation programme was concentrated on establishing the suitability, or otherwise, of a candidate site at Sellafield, West Cumbria. In July 1994, as part of a detailed site investigation programme, Nirex applied for planning permission to develop an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Longlands Farm near Sellafield. This application was rejected by the planning authority and Nirex's appeal against that decision led to a local planning inquiry which ran from September 1995 until February 1996. In line with the Inspector's Report, in March 1997 the Nirex appeal was dismissed by the Secretary of State for the Environment. The Company's response to that decision, and its readiness to contribute to the new government's review of the way forward, are described in the Nirex Annual Report for 1996-97. This report - Nirex 97 - is founded on the understanding developed through the Nirex technical programme. It reports the outcome of an assessment of the post-closure safety performance, over hundreds of thousands of years, of a repository system located in a potential

  8. Nirex 97 an assessment of the post-closure performance of a deep waste repository at Sellafield. Volume 2; hydrogeological conceptual model development - effective parameters and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.; Watson, S.

    1997-01-01

    United Kingdom Nirex Limited ('Nirex') is responsible for providing and managing facilities for the safe disposal of intermediate and certain low-level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW respectively). Government policy is that the preferred disposal route for such wastes is a deep geological repository. The repository concept aims to use a combination of natural and engineered barriers to achieve the necessary degree of long-term isolation and containment of the radioactive wastes. Since 1987, Nirex has carried out an extensive technical programme directed at the science of safe disposal. The work comprises a research programme into the long-term performance of waste forms and the engineered and natural barriers, including the characterisation of candidate geological settings to assess their suitability to host a deep waste repository ('DWR'). Between mid-1991 and March 1997 the geological characterisation programme was concentrated on establishing the suitability, or otherwise, of a candidate site at Sellafield, West Cumbria. In July 1994, as part of a detailed site investigation programme, Nirex applied for planning permission to develop an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Longlands Farm near Sellafield. This application was rejected by the planning authority and Nirex's appeal against that decision led to a local planning inquiry which ran from September 1995 until February 1996. In line with the Inspector's Report, in March 1997 the Nirex appeal was dismissed by the Secretary of State for the Environment. The Company's response to that decision, and its readiness to contribute to the new government's review of the way forward, are described in the Nirex Annual Report for 1996-97. This report - Nirex 97 - is founded on the understanding developed through the Nirex technical programme. It reports the outcome of an assessment of the post-closure safety performance, over hundreds of thousands of years, of a repository system located in a potential

  9. Statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations: first quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As a requirement of the 1974 Health and Safety at Work Act, the United Kingdom Health and Safety Inspectorate is required to publish reports of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations. This report covers the period 1st January to 31st March 1994. Two incidents are reported for Dungeness A Power Station, one at the Amersham International building on site at Harwell Laboratory, one at AEA Technology's Windscale Plant and one at British Nuclear Fuels Limited's Sellafield site. (UK)

  10. The evaluation, design and implementation of an automated storage and retrieval system for uranium trioxide powder (UO3) at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitt, C.R.; Mather, K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper initially sets out the methods used to evaluate the requirements for an automated system to store and retrieve drums of radioactive Uranium Trioxide (UO3) power arising from the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield Cumbria. This is followed by a description of the configuration of storage vaults used and of the development of a Self Guided Vehicle (SGV) to operate remotely within these vaults. The system evolved is based on a combination of well proven mechanical equipment and control techniques and the implementation of the design together with testing and control procedures are described. (author)

  11. The thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield: three years of active operation in the chemical separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at British Nuclear Fuels' Sellafield site started operating in March 1994 with the shearing of its first irradiated fuel. In January 1995 the Chemical Separation part of the plant commenced processing the irradiated fuel feed solution that had been produced in the previous year by the Head End plant. By the Spring of 1998 over 1400 t of irradiated fuel has been reprocessed in Thorp, and the plant is being steadily and successfully ramped up to its normal operating throughput. The performance of the Thorp Chemical Separation Plant has been excellent, with the solvent extraction contactors performing as predicted by the extensive development programme. In particular the uranium-plutonium separation stage, which received intensive development to deal with the effects of the fission product technetium, has given an overall separation performance well in excess of the minimum flowsheet requirement. Decontamination of the uranium and plutonium products from fission products has in general been better than flowsheet requirements and the solvent extraction equipment has operated stably under the automatic controls developed during the R and D programme. Discharges of contaminants to waste streams have generally been in line with, or better than, expectation. This paper compares with flowsheet predictions a range of the key fission product and transuranic decontamination factors achieved in Thorp, shows how waste stream discharges are a small fraction of Sellafield Site discharge limits, demonstrates how uranium - plutonium separation performance has compared with expectation and summarises the overall performance of the Chemical Separation Plant. (author)

  12. Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, N.C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Schwarz, R.R.; Bingham, P.A.; Stennett, M.C.; Corkhill, C.L.; Heath, P.G.; Hand, R.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); James, M.; Pearson, A. [Sellafield Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Morgan, S. [Sellafield Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GR (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L{sub 3} edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution under N{sub 2} atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

  13. Consequences of Windscale accident (October 1957) and study of the validity of the Sutton's mathematical model of atmospheric diffusion (1960); Etude des consequences de l'accident de Windscale (Octobre 1957) et de la validite du modele mathematique de diffusion atmospherique de Sutton (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doury, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (S.C.R.G.R.) Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Martin, J J [Electricite de France (EDF)(S.L.P.R.), 37 - Chinon (France)

    1960-07-01

    The reactor accident that happens at the number 1 pile of Windscale in 1957 was followed by a discharge of radioactive products into the atmosphere from the 1.X.1957 at 4.30 PM to the 12.X.1957 at 3.10 PM. On october the 11{sup th} it was possible to say that there was no more risk either of external irradiation or inhalation. But in adopting a M.A.C. of 0,1 {mu}curie of iodine 131 per litre of milk, the Authority had to control the milk delivery till november 23{sup rd} on a 500 km{sup 2} area. On the other hand, this exceptional accident permit to verify that Sutton's atmospheric diffusion model could give an easy means to foresee, with a sufficient approximation, the consequences of a dispersion of radioactive products into the atmosphere. (author) [French] L'accident survenu a la pile numero 1 de Windscale en 1957 a entraine l'emission de matieres radioactives dans l'atmosphere du 10 octobre a 16h30 au 12 octobre a 15h10. Le 11 octobre, on pouvait dire qu'il n'y avait plus de risque d'irradiation externe ni de danger par inhalation. Mais en adoptant une C.M.A. de 0,1 {mu}curie d'iode 131 par litre de lait, les autorites ont du reglementer la consommation du lait jusqu'au 23 novembre sur une etendue d'environ 500 km{sup 2}. D'autre part, cet accident exceptionnel a permis de verifier que le modele de diffusion atmospherique de Sutton pouvait fournir un moyen commode de prevoir avec une approximation suffisante les consequences d'une dispersion de produits radioactifs dans l'atmosphere. (auteur)

  14. CHEMVAL project. Critical evaluation of the CHEMVAL thermodynamic database with respect to its contents and relevance to radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield and Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report is concerned with assessing the applicability of the CHEMVAL Thermodynamic Database (Version 3.0) to studies of radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield and Dounreay. Comparisons are drawn with similar listings produced elsewhere and suggestions made for database enhancement. The feasibility of extending the database to take into account simulations at elevated temperatures is also addressed. (author)

  15. Planning and plutonium. Evidence of the Town and Country Planning Association to the Public Inquiry into an oxide reprocessing plant at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The case of the Town and Country Planning Association of Great Britain at the Public Inquiry into the proposed uranium oxide reprocessing plant at Windscale, Cumbria, in the summer of 1977, is presented. The bulk of the book consists of the evidence of the Association's eight witnesses, several of whom have international reputations in their field. The main matters covered by the evidence are the economics of nuclear power compared with other sources of energy; energy demand and supply forecasts in the UK, and the timing and length of the so-called energy gap, together with alternative ways of filling it and the prospects for coal, oil and gas; the risks of proliferation of nuclear weapons; the hazards of low-level radiation to the environment, the general public and workers in nuclear installations, and the inadequacy of current standards; the need for environmental impact analysis before approval is given to major nuclear installations, with reference to United States and British experience; the national, regional and local planning considerations such as employment, housing and visual impact. The evidence is put into context with introductory material on the purpose and terms of reference of the Inquiry, the main events leading up to it, and a general statement of the Association's case. The book ends with a philosophical comment on the alternatives to a plutonium future

  16. A comparison of predicted and measured graphite moderator behaviour during 16 years' operation of the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, N.

    1980-01-01

    The Windscale AGR has operated since January 1963 at a cumulative load factor of nearly 70% during which time the peak irradiation damage dose has built up to more than 5x10 n/cm 2 (equivalent DIDO nickel), well beyond its original design life. This paper recounts the findings of monitoring measurements on the moderator at high exposure levels with regard to radiolytic oxidation and various aspects of dimensional change behaviour. It is shown that the measured dimensional changes are in good agreement with predictions based on small specimens irradiated in MTR's, thus confirming the absence of any size effect and adding confidence to predictive methods. However, recent measurements of channel straightness show that the observed distortions are only about 10% of the maximum predictions, perhaps due to localised creep at the brick ends creating flats which impart some stability to the columns of moderator bricks. The magnitude of radiolytic oxidation determined by trepanning specimens from the core in 1976 was found to be only about 5%, whereas it was thought possible that peak weight losses would conceivably be as high as 11% due to the depleted concentration of methane inhibitor reaching the brick interior by diffusion processes. It has subsequently been shown by calculation that this result is consistent with the existence of radial pressure drops across the moderator brick walls giving greater penetration of methane inhibitor. (author)

  17. The identification of an homogenous critical group using statistical extreme-value theory: application to laverbread consumers and the Windscale effluent discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, S.

    1974-04-01

    The International Commission of Radiological Protection states that a critical group should be representative of those individuals in the population expected to receive the highest dose. The appropriate dose limit should then be applied to the mean dose of this group. The edible seaweed Porphyra (laverbread) has been identified as the link in the critical exposure pathway limiting discharges of controlled low-level radioactive liquid waste from Windscale. The frequency distributions of the largest values of samples of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 male and female, child and adult consumers of laverbread are determined from the parent distributions by Monte Carlo sampling methods. From these results the extreme-value distribution of adult males of samples of 30 is taken to be a good estimate of the critical group, from which the median consumption rate of laverbread consumed per day is 55 g. The annual collective organ dose delivered to the lower large intestine of the total laverbread consumer group is estimated to be 266 man-rem. (author)

  18. Subsurface geology, geochemistry, and water flow at a Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Sellafield. Supplementary proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed comments are made on behalf of Greenpeace Ltd in a Supplementary Proof of Evidence presented to a Planning Inquiry in 1995 in support of their objections to an application by UK Nirex Ltd for permission to construct an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site near Sellafield. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste. The principal points of disagreement with Nirex concern: the promise of the site; the oxidation state of the natural groundwater and uranium solubility; effects of possible future earthquakes; the interpretation of flow potential; the application of fluid flow modelling and the parameters used in it. (1 figure; 21 references). (UK)

  19. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  20. Dose reduction and the application of the ALARP principle to occupational exposure at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.; Coates, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents information on the application of the ALARP principle to Dose Reduction at the British Nuclear Fuels plc site at Sellafield in Cumbria. The development of the Operational methods employed to effect dose reductions on existing plants and the impact of stringent targets for new plants is described in addition to discussion of the factors initiating the change and the success of the initiatives. (Author)

  1. Accumulation of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon ("1"4C) in Irish Sea and West of Scotland intertidal shells and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Kieran M.; Muir, Graham K.P.; Cook, Gordon T.; MacKinnon, Gillian; Howe, John A.; Heymans, Johanna J.; Xu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry produces radioactive waste at various stages of the fuel cycle. In the United Kingdom, spent fuel is reprocessed at the Sellafield facility in Cumbria on the North West coast of England. Waste generated at the site comprises a wide range of radionuclides including radiocarbon ("1"4C) which is disposed of in various forms including highly soluble inorganic carbon within the low level liquid radioactive effluent, via pipelines into the Irish Sea. This "1"4C is rapidly incorporated into the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) reservoir and marine calcifying organisms, e.g. molluscs, readily utilise DIC for shell formation. This study investigated a number of sites located in Irish Sea and West of Scotland intertidal zones. Results indicate "1"4C enrichment above ambient background levels in shell material at least as far as Port Appin, 265 km north of Sellafield. Of the commonly found species (blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and common periwinkle (Littorina littorea)), mussels were found to be the most highly enriched in "1"4C due to the surface environment they inhabit and their feeding behaviour. Whole mussel shell activities appear to have been decreasing in response to reduced discharge activities since the early 2000s but in contrast, there is evidence of continuing enrichment of the carbonate sediment component due to in-situ shell erosion, as well as indications of particle transport of fine "1"4C-enriched material close to Sellafield. - Highlights: • We measure "1"4C activity in shells and sediment at sites on the UK west coast. • Mussel shell activity varies in response to average "1"4C discharges from Sellafield. • Shell activities reflect species feeding habits and ecological niche. • NE Irish Sea inorganic sediment activity will gradually increase. • Increases in sediment activity will occur at remote sites on the Scottish west coast.

  2. Methods and basic data of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphona among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.; Hall, A.J.; Snee, M.P.; Downes, S.; Powell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The methods and basic data of a case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield are examined for reliability. Fifty-two cases of leukaemia, 22 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 23 of Hodgkins disease occurring in people born in the area and diagnosed there in 1950-85 under the age of 25, and 1001 controls matched for sex and date of birth taken from the same birth registers were used in the study. (author)

  3. Stakeholder participation for the legacy ponds and legacy silos (LP and LS) facility at Sellafield, Cumbria. UK: the nature and effectiveness of the dialogue - 16030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, John

    2009-01-01

    The Legacy Ponds and Silos (LP and S) facilities are part of the UK nuclear legacy located at the Sellafield Site, Cumbria. There are four individual facilities containing nuclear wastes that have accumulated over a period of approximately 50 years. Waste retrieval and conditioning, in preparation for decommissioning, is currently being carried out by the site operator. LP and S have recently proposed a re-engagement with stakeholders following the initial engagement in December 2005. This paper reviews this earlier engagement in terms of the nature of dialogue that was carried out when compared against definitions of deliberation provided in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide those planning future engagement with a better understanding of how the nature of dialogue can vary and uses participation and deliberation as indicators of effective engagement. A concern of those working towards a programme of effective stakeholder participation in 2005 was how to ensure genuine dialogue and stakeholder representation in such a strictly controlled and regulated environment with a technical complexity that challenges technical specialist and lay person alike. LP and S recognised that effective dialogue with stakeholders on the available technical options and their associated societal impacts would form a significant part of this process if options were to prove resilient. However, the challenge presented to LP and S was how to engage stakeholders on a variety of projects, whilst ensuring the output could be used by the projects as part of their technical decision making. Initial contact was made with stakeholders in December 2005, as part of a 'Baseline' Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) study. A BPEO study leads to decisions on waste management based on an integrated assessment of alternative options, on the basis of factors such as the occupational and environmental risks, the environmental impacts, costs and social implications of the options

  4. A new model validation database for evaluating AERMOD, NRPB R91 and ADMS using krypton-85 data from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.; Taylor, J.; Lowles, I.; Emmerson, K.; Parker, T.

    2004-01-01

    The emission of krypton-85 ( 85 Kr) from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations provide a classical passive tracer for the study of atmospheric dispersion. This is because of the persistence of this radioisotope in the atmosphere, due to its long radioactive halflife and inert chemistry; and the low background levels that result due to the limited number of anthropogenic sources globally. The BNFL Sellafield site in Cumbria (UK) is one of the most significant point sources of 85 Kr in the northern hemisphere, with 85 Kr being discharged from two stacks on the site, MAGNOX and THORP. Field experiments have been conducted since October 1996 using a cryogenic distillation technique (Janssens et al., 1986) to quantify the ground level concentration of 85 Kr. This paper reports on the construction of a model validation database to allow evaluation of regulatory atmospheric dispersion models using the measured 85 Kr concentrations as a tracer. The results of the database for local and regional scale dispersion are presented. (orig.)

  5. Radiation doses to members of the public near to Sellafield, Cumbria, from liquid discharges 1952-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D; Lambers, B; Gray, J

    2000-06-01

    Liquid wastes containing low levels of radioactivity have been discharged to the Irish Sea from the nuclear fuel reprocessing site at Sellafield since operations began in the early 1950s, and monitoring of radioactivity in foodstuffs has been undertaken over many years. Based on the best available monitoring data, supplemented by modelled values where necessary, doses to local critical groups have been reassessed using the most recent dosimetry. Contemporary habits data have been used where available, again supplemented by assumed habits where necessary. During the 1950s and 1960s the highest doses were received by individuals consuming Cumbrian Porphyra as laverbread, and peak doses around 0.8 to 1.0 mSv year(-1) have been estimated. During the 1970s and 1980s the critical exposure group switched to consumers of local fish and shellfish, with peak doses possibly reaching 2.5 to 3.0 mSv year(-1). Latterly, doses to all marine-related groups have declined to less than 150 to 200 microSv year(-1). At all times, doses have been within the appropriate limits set for members of the public.

  6. The distribution and transport of Sellafield derived 137Cs and 241Am to western Irish Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, M.E.; Service, M.; Gibson, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sellafield derived 137 Cs and 241 Am were analysed in surficial sediments at 23 sites in the western Irish Sea. Concentrations varied between 3-175 Bq 137 Cs/kg and 1-147 Bq 241 Am/kg. There are two distinct basins in the western Irish Sea separated by an area of restricted depth and this bathymetry is reflected in the radionuclide concentrations. Highest concentrations were found in the northerly samples and substantially lower concentrations further south. This pattern of distribution can be explained by the predominantly northerly residual flow and the existence of seasonal stratification in this area of weak tides. 137 Cs/ 241 Am ratios were also highest in the northern basin, and it is suggested that this is caused by differences in the mechanisms of transport of the two elements. The direct physical migration of contaminated particles from the eastern Irish Sea is the dominant transport mechanism in the north of the study area, whereas transport in the dissolved phase is most important to the southern region. Concentrations of both elements were best correlated with the percentage <15 μm particulate fraction suggesting that particles within this range are most important for direct transport and scavenging from the soluble phase

  7. The development and design of the off-gas treatment system for the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, P.I.; Buckley, C.P.; Miller, W.W.

    1995-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated on 17 January 1994. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant's discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to As Low as Reasonably Practicable. Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met with respect to aerial discharges. It outlines the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. The resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. The principal species requiring treatment in the THORP off-gas system are iodine-129, carbon-14, nitrogen oxides (NOx), fuel dust particles and aerosols containing plutonium or mixed fission products. The paper describes the combination of abatement equipment used in different parts of the plant, including counter-current absorption columns, electrostatic precipitators, dehumidifiers and High Efficiency Particulate Air filters. Because a number of separate off-gas streams are combined before discharge, special depression control systems were developed which have already proved successful during plant commissioning. BNFL is confident that the detailed attention given to the development and design phases of the THORP off-gas system will ensure good performance when the plant moves into fully radioactive operation

  8. The development and design of the off-gas treatment system for the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.I. [British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Buckley, C.P.; Miller, W.W. [British Nuclear Fuels, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    British Nuclear Fuels completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated on 17 January 1994. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant`s discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to As Low as Reasonably Practicable. Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met with respect to aerial discharges. It outlines the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. The resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. The principal species requiring treatment in the THORP off-gas system are iodine-129, carbon-14, nitrogen oxides (NOx), fuel dust particles and aerosols containing plutonium or mixed fission products. The paper describes the combination of abatement equipment used in different parts of the plant, including counter-current absorption columns, electrostatic precipitators, dehumidifiers and High Efficiency Particulate Air filters. Because a number of separate off-gas streams are combined before discharge, special depression control systems were developed which have already proved successful during plant commissioning. BNFL is confident that the detailed attention given to the development and design phases of the THORP off-gas system will ensure good performance when the plant moves into fully radioactive operation.

  9. A comparison of the risk of stillbirth associated with paternal pre-conception irradiation in the Sellafield workforce with that of stillbirth and untoward pregnancy outcome among Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison is made of the relative risks associated with paternal pre-conception irradiation of stillbirth and untoward pregnancy outcome (stillbirths, congenital malformations, neonatal deaths) in the offspring of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and of stillbirth in the offspring of Sellafield workers. It is concluded that the pre-conception exposure risks of stillbirth in the offspring of Sellafield workers are statistically incompatible with the Japanese data at the 5% level. Other human and experimental data relating to the induction of congenital abnormalities are briefly reviewed. (author)

  10. Is the excess risk of childhood leukemia at Sellafield consistent with the experiences of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize briefly selected studies relevant to the difference between the apparent pre-conception radiation-associated leukemia risks in the offspring born in the area near the Sellafield plant and to the atomic bomb survivors. Although no doubt exists about the hypothesis that radiation damages the genetic material in reproductive cells, it is important to recognize how small the effect in the first generation would be based on the various genetic endpoints. Generally only a small fraction of leukemia cases are inherited -- the proportion among all spontaneous cases does not exceed 10 %. Because there is still uncertainty and controversy about the genetic effects of radiation, the possible complex confounding factors are also briefly mentioned. It is clear that the studies of the atomic bomb survivors are pertinent to the possible genetic effect due to radiation-induced mutations in the spermatogonia and oocytes while the observations in Sellafield are, as suggested by Gardner et al. pertinent to the in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. No significant effect of atomic bomb radiation can be shown on the risk of leukemia as well as other genetic effect endpoints, such as the frequency of mutations associated with specific proteins, cytogenetic abnormalities, survival, and so on. (author)

  11. A comparison of the risks of childhood leukaemia from parental pre-conception exposure to radiation in the Sellafield and Dounreay workforces and the Japanese bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The cases of childhood leukemia found among children of the Sellafield (West Cumbria) and Dounreay (Caithness) workforces and those observed in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using exponential and linear forms of a relative risk model and employing dose estimates both for the period 6 months pre-conception and also for total pre-conception doses. The leukemia relative risk coefficients for paternal (whole-body) exposure in these pre-conception periods for children in Caithness are found to be statistically compatible with those of the children of Sellafield workers but also with the (gonadal dose) coefficients applying to the offspring of the bomb survivors. There remains the need to explain adequately the absence of a discernibly raised risk of childhood leukaemia in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors if the statistical association between paternal pre-conception radiation and the raised incidence of childhood leukaemia found in the West Cumbria study represents a causal relationship. (author)

  12. Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joanne; Etherington, George; Pellow, Peter [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of

  13. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria. Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The report discusses the incidence of cancer and leukaemia among young people living in the vicinity of Sellafield. Possible radiation effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer development as well as the risk involved by the general population is considered. Recommendations are provided to improve occupational safety and public health

  14. Sellafield and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1994-01-01

    One aspect of reprocessing, deliberately incorporated into the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the right of Nuclear Weapon States (NWSs) to use civilian nuclear materials, including plutonium, in their weapons programmes. Evidence has slowly emerged over the past few years that the UK has diverted nuclear material, of UK and foreign origin, from civil to military programmes. The most immediate threat is the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). Unless its foreign customers have made special arrangements, the UK could use their plutonium in its nuclear weapons. This link between civil and military plutonium is examined. (author)

  15. The effect of extent of site investigation on the estimation of radiological performance and its relevance to the proposed Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.

    1996-01-01

    Proof of Evidence is given by an expert witness on behalf of Greenpeace Ltd as part of their submission to a Planning Inquiry in 1995 hearing the application of UK Nirex Ltd for permission to construct an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site near Sellafield. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste. The evidence concerns the necessity of establishing an adequate hydrogeological model of the site in advance of the construction of the RCF in order to estimate its radiological performance. This detailed examination of Nirex's approach concludes that it is not apparent that a method for demonstrating the adequacy of the conceptual hydrogeological model has been clearly and openly stated so that it may be agreed in advance of construction with an appropriate authority. (1 figure; 1 table, 12 references). (UK)

  16. The risks of leukaemia and non-cancer mortality in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors and a comparison of leukaemia risks with those in the offspring of the Sellafield workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    The incidence of leukaemia and mortality from various causes other than cancer observed in offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using linear and exponential forms of a relative risk model. Relative risk coefficients for leukaemia as a function of total pre-conception dose in the offspring of the Japanese and those for children of the Sellafield workforce are compared, and statistically significant differences are found. The statistical significance of these differences is no less marked if attention is restricted to those born before the end of 1950 in the Japanese cohort; therefore it is unlikely that the differences between the preconception irradiation leukamia risks in the Japanese and Sellafield datasets are a result of different distributions of parental ages at exposure in the two groups, or of different lengths of time between exposures of spermatogonia and conception. (Author).

  17. The risks of leukaemia and non-cancer mortality in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors and a comparison of leukaemia risks with those in the offspring of the Sellafield workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of leukaemia and mortality from various causes other than cancer observed in offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using linear and exponential forms of a relative risk model. Relative risk coefficients for leukaemia as a function of total pre-conception dose in the offspring of the Japanese and those for children of the Sellafield workforce are compared, and statistically significant differences are found. The statistical significance of these differences is no less marked if attention is restricted to those born before the end of 1950 in the Japanese cohort; therefore it is unlikely that the differences between the preconception irradiation leukamia risks in the Japanese and Sellafield datasets are a result of different distributions of parental ages at exposure in the two groups, or of different lengths of time between exposures of spermatogonia and conception. (Author)

  18. A comparison of the apparent risks of childhood leukaemia from parental exposure to radiation in the six months prior to conception in the Sellafield workforce and the Japanese bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The cases of childhood leukaemia found among children of the Sellafield workforce and those observed in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using both exponential and linear forms of a relative risk model and employing dose estimates for the period 6 months pre-conception. The leukaemia relative risk coefficients for paternal (whole-body) exposure in this pre-conception period for children of Sellafield workers are found to be statistically incompatible with the (gonadal dose) coefficients applying to the offspring of the bomb survivors born in the period May 1946 to December 1946, i.e. born 9 to 16 months after the bombings. The incompatibility does not depend on whether the risks in the Japanese children are assumed to be a function simply of paternal gonadal dose or of combined paternal and maternal gonadal dose. (author)

  19. Transfer of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the coastal waters of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmahon, C.A.; Fegan, M.; Wong, J.; Long, S.C.; Mckittrick, L.; Thomas, K.; Rafferty, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland has monitored levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Irish marine environment for over 20 years. While the primary objective of the monitoring programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from the presence of these radionuclides in the marine environment, the programme also aims to assess the geographical distribution and temporal variations of the radionuclides. The programme involves the routine sampling of and testing for radioactivity in fish, shellfish, seaweed, sediments and seawater. The data generated in the course of this programme, as well as in a separate study of changing plutonium isotopic ratios in Fucus vesiculosus from the west coast of Ireland, are used in this paper to estimate transport times from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to the western Irish Sea and from the Irish Sea to the west coast of Ireland. The results obtained are discussed in the paper and the transfer times estimated for particle-reactive radionuclides (plutonium isotopes) compared with those obtained for more conservative radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 99 Tc). Transfer factors (calculated as the ratio between observed concentrations in the environment and an average discharge rate τ years earlier, where τ is the transport time) are also presented. (author)

  20. The feasibility of using Pu discharges from Sellafield to investigate the sediment dynamics of the Severn Estuary and the Welsh coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, J.A.; Richards, D.A. [School of Geographical Sciences and Bristol Isotope Group, University of Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Decades of nuclear weapons testing and very low level radioactive waste discharges from civil nuclear sites have resulted in a global distribution of Pu isotopes. Given that the sources of these isotopes are spatially and temporally well-known, their distribution throughout the environment can provide insight into the processes that have governed their dispersal. Plutonium-239 and {sup 240}Pu have long half-lives and their atomic abundance ratio is indicative of the source, be it atmospheric fallout or releases from the nuclear industry. Plutonium is also strongly adsorbed on sediments. These characteristics make Pu an excellent tool for monitoring ocean currents, tracking sediment transport and examining the fate of the products of nuclear activities. We intend to exploit the discharges of Pu from Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant to investigate transit times and sediment regime in inter-tidal sediments from proximal (Ravenglass Estuary, Cumbria) and distal (Portishead, North Somerset) sites. Continuing developments in analytical techniques (extraction chromatography and ion exchange) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) permit isotopic analysis at low abundances (on the order of femto-grams), with reasonable efficiency and cost in comparison to traditional radiometric techniques. A major advantage of this technique is the ability to distinguish between {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, which is not possible with alpha-spectrometry due to similar alpha energies. We present initial results using MC-ICP-MS, following methods in Lindahl et al. (2011). Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Alkaline Fe(III) reduction by a novel alkali-tolerant Serratia sp. isolated from surface sediments close to Sellafield nuclear facility, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Clare L; Morris, Katherine; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2012-02-01

    Extensive denitrification resulted in a dramatic increase in pH (from 6.8 to 9.5) in nitrate-impacted, acetate-amended sediment microcosms containing sediment representative of the Sellafield nuclear facility, UK. Denitrification was followed by Fe(III) reduction, indicating the presence of alkali-tolerant, metal-reducing bacteria. A close relative (99% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology) to Serratia liquefaciens dominated progressive enrichment cultures containing Fe(III)-citrate as the sole electron acceptor at pH 9 and was isolated aerobically using solid media. The optimum growth conditions for this facultatively anaerobic Serratia species were investigated, and it was capable of metabolizing a wide range of electron acceptors including oxygen, nitrate, FeGel, Fe-NTA and Fe-citrate and electron donors including acetate, lactate, formate, ethanol, glucose, glycerol and yeast extract at an optimum pH of c. 6.5 at 20 °C. The alkali tolerance of this strain extends the pH range of highly adaptable Fe(III)-reducing Serratia species from mildly acidic pH values associated with acid mine drainage conditions to alkali conditions representative of subsurface sediments stimulated for extensive denitrification and metal reduction. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Provision of NDA instrumentation for the control of operations on plutonium finishing and waste plants at the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, K.R.; Orr, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    On BNFL's Sellafield site a significant number of major plants are involved in the handling, processing and storage of plutonium in various forms including nitrate, oxide and mixed oxide (MOX). Other plants in operation or under construction treat and prepare for storage, plutonium bearing wastes in the form of plutonium contaminated materials -- PCM (transuranic waste -- TRU) or low level waste. Concurrently, a number of old plutonium handling plants are being decommissioned. The safety and cost effectiveness of these widely varying operations has been ensured by the development and installation of a wide range of special radiometric instrumentation. These systems based on a range of neutron counting and high resolution gamma spectrometric techniques -- singly or in combination -- enable BNFL to maintain a detailed and comprehensive picture of the disposition of plutonium within each plant and across the site. This paper describes an overview of the range of plant and paper prove waste measurement systems in this context, highlighting the specific roles of the Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) for real time accountancy and the Decommissioning In-Situ Plutonium Inventory Monitor (DISPIM) for material control during decommissioning

  3. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK).

  4. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK)

  5. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1992-01-01

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by the AEA, BNFL and the CEC at Windermere and the sites of Windscale/Sellafield, where the former Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and the Windscale piles are currently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, results and conclusions on techniques and procedures currently applied in the dismantling of large scale nuclear installations in the European Community

  6. Effects of cellulosic degradation product concentration on actinide sorption on tuffs from the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.; Boult, K.A.; Linklater, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme includes an investigation into the effects of cellulosic degradation products on the sorption of radioelements onto geological materials. Previous batch sorption studies have shown that the presence of high concentrations of both authentic cellulosic degradation products (produced by alkaline degradation of wood/tissue) and the well-characterised simulant, gluconate, can cause marked reductions in actinide sorption. This work has now been extended to cover a range of concentrations of both authentic cellulosic degradation products and their simulants, gluconate and iso-saccharinate. Geological samples were from the proposed Nirex underground radioactive waste disposal site at Sellafied, Cumbria. The nuclides studied were thorium and plutonium. In the presence of gluconate or iso-saccharinate, at concentrations above 10 -4 M, the present work has confirmed the trends shown by earlier experiments, with a significant reduction in actinide sorption (R D values reduced by less than a factor of two), and in some cases the results suggested a slight increase (R D values increased by up to a factor of four). (orig.)

  7. Effects of cellulosic degradation product concentration on actinide sorption on tuffs from the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, Sellafield, Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, G.M.N. [AEA Technology, Decommissioning and Waste Management, Harwell (United Kingdom); Berry, J.A. [AEA Technology, Decommissioning and Waste Management, Harwell (United Kingdom); Bond, K.A. [AEA Technology, Decommissioning and Waste Management, Harwell (United Kingdom); Boult, K.A. [AEA Technology, Decommissioning and Waste Management, Harwell (United Kingdom); Linklater, C.M. [AEA Technology, Decommissioning and Waste Management, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme includes an investigation into the effects of cellulosic degradation products on the sorption of radioelements onto geological materials. Previous batch sorption studies have shown that the presence of high concentrations of both authentic cellulosic degradation products (produced by alkaline degradation of wood/tissue) and the well-characterised simulant, gluconate, can cause marked reductions in actinide sorption. This work has now been extended to cover a range of concentrations of both authentic cellulosic degradation products and their simulants, gluconate and iso-saccharinate. Geological samples were from the proposed Nirex underground radioactive waste disposal site at Sellafied, Cumbria. The nuclides studied were thorium and plutonium. In the presence of gluconate or iso-saccharinate, at concentrations above 10{sup -4} M, the present work has confirmed the trends shown by earlier experiments, with a significant reduction in actinide sorption (R{sub D} values reduced by less than a factor of two), and in some cases the results suggested a slight increase (R{sub D} values increased by up to a factor of four). (orig.)

  8. A comparison of the risks of leukaemia in the offspring of the Sellafield workforce born in Seascale and those born elsewhere in West Cumbria with the risks in the offspring of the Ontario and Scottish workforces and the Japanese bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)); Wakeford, R. (British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom)); Charles, M.W. (Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom). Berkeley Technology Centre)

    1994-09-01

    The cases of childhood leukaemia found among children of the Sellafield (West Cumbria), Ontario and Scottish radiation workers and in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using linear and exponential forms of a relative risk model with total preconception external radiation dose estimates. In particular, the risks among children of the Sellafield workforce born in Seascale and among those born elsewhere in West Cumbria are compared with the risks derived from the other datasets. There is a highly significant inconsistency between the raised paternal preconception exposure excess relative risk coefficients for leukaemia in those children of the Sellafield workforce born in Seascale and the coefficients for children born elsewhere in West Cumbria, those for the offspring of the Ontario or Scottish workforces as well as those for the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors. These incompatabilities are independent of the models used. In contrast to this, the leukaemia excess relative risk coefficients for paternal preconception exposure of those children of the Sellafield workforce born elsewhere in West Cumbria are not significantly elevated and do not differ significantly from those observed in the Japanese, Ontario and Scottish datasets. (author).

  9. A comparison of the risks of leukaemia in the offspring of the Sellafield workforce born in Seascale and those born elsewhere in West Cumbria with the risks in the offspring of the Ontario and Scottish workforces and the Japanese bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Wakeford, R.; Charles, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The cases of childhood leukaemia found among children of the Sellafield (West Cumbria), Ontario and Scottish radiation workers and in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using linear and exponential forms of a relative risk model with total preconception external radiation dose estimates. In particular, the risks among children of the Sellafield workforce born in Seascale and among those born elsewhere in West Cumbria are compared with the risks derived from the other datasets. There is a highly significant inconsistency between the raised paternal preconception exposure excess relative risk coefficients for leukaemia in those children of the Sellafield workforce born in Seascale and the coefficients for children born elsewhere in West Cumbria, those for the offspring of the Ontario or Scottish workforces as well as those for the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors. These incompatabilities are independent of the models used. In contrast to this, the leukaemia excess relative risk coefficients for paternal preconception exposure of those children of the Sellafield workforce born elsewhere in West Cumbria are not significantly elevated and do not differ significantly from those observed in the Japanese, Ontario and Scottish datasets. (author)

  10. Seismic technology of nuclear fuel cycle facilities: A view of BNFL's approach and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, I.R.

    2001-01-01

    The approach BNFL employs in the seismic qualification of its nuclear fuel cycle facilities is described in this paper. The overall seismic qualification process from design to installation and commissioning is considered. The approach for new facilities, such as the Sellafield Mixed Oxide Fuel Plant and Windscale Vitrification Plant Line 3 currently under construction, is examined. (author)

  11. The Role of the Sellafield Ltd Centres of Expertise in Engaging with the Science, Environment and Technology Supply Chain and University Sector to Support Site Operations and Decommissioning in the UK Nuclear Industry - 13018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Ed [Uranium and Reactive Metals Centre of Expertise Lead, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Connor, Donna [Technical Capability Manager, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Keighley, Debbie [Head of Profession, Technical Directorate, Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The development and maintenance of the broad range of the highly technical skills required for safe and successful management of nuclear sites is of vital importance during routine operations, decommissioning and waste treatment activities.. In order to maintain a core team of technical experts, across all of the disciplines required for these tasks, the approach which has been taken by the Sellafield Ltd has been the formation of twenty five Centres of Expertise (CoE), each covering key aspects of the technical skills required for nuclear site operations. Links with the Specialist University Departments: The CoE leads are also responsible for establishing formal links with university departments with specialist skills and facilities relevant to their CoE areas. The objective of these links is to allow these very specialist capabilities within the university sector to be more effectively utilized by the nuclear industry, which benefits both sectors. In addition to the utilization of specialist skills, the university links are providing an important introduction to the nuclear industry for students and researchers. This is designed to develop the pipeline of potential staff, who will be required in the future by both the academic and industrial sectors. (authors)

  12. The Role of the Sellafield Ltd Centres of Expertise in Engaging with the Science, Environment and Technology Supply Chain and University Sector to Support Site Operations and Decommissioning in the UK Nuclear Industry - 13018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, Ed; Connor, Donna; Keighley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    The development and maintenance of the broad range of the highly technical skills required for safe and successful management of nuclear sites is of vital importance during routine operations, decommissioning and waste treatment activities.. In order to maintain a core team of technical experts, across all of the disciplines required for these tasks, the approach which has been taken by the Sellafield Ltd has been the formation of twenty five Centres of Expertise (CoE), each covering key aspects of the technical skills required for nuclear site operations. Links with the Specialist University Departments: The CoE leads are also responsible for establishing formal links with university departments with specialist skills and facilities relevant to their CoE areas. The objective of these links is to allow these very specialist capabilities within the university sector to be more effectively utilized by the nuclear industry, which benefits both sectors. In addition to the utilization of specialist skills, the university links are providing an important introduction to the nuclear industry for students and researchers. This is designed to develop the pipeline of potential staff, who will be required in the future by both the academic and industrial sectors. (authors)

  13. The complex challenge of repairing the gantry steelwork on the first generation magnox storage pond at Sellafield: Legacy Waste Storage, First Generation Magnox Storage Pond - 59133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts into context the challenges that were faced when repairing the Gantry Steelwork of the First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP). The First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) provided fuel storage and de-canning capability from the early 1960's until 1986. A significant programme of work has been underway since the completion of operational activities to support the programmes strategic intent of retrieving and storing all legacy wastes, and remediating the structure of the plant to support decommissioning activities. A key enabler to the retrievals programme is the Pond Skip Handler Machine (SHM), removed from service in 2002 following the discovery of significant signs of corrosion and distress, an inevitable consequence of being located in a coastal, salt laden environment. The SHM provides sole capability to access and retrieve the inventory of over 1000 fuel skips. It is also fundamental to future operations and the deployment of de-sludging equipment to recover significant bulk sludge's from the pond floor. Failure of the SHM steelwork gantry at worst case could potentially result in the Skip Handler Machine being derailed. This has some potential to damage to the pond structure and at worst case may result in local radiological and environmental consequences. This paper will examine the challenges faced by the team as they successfully defined, planned and executed remedial work to a specific aspect of the civil structure, the SHM gantry rail system, using a purpose built refurbishment platform; the Gantry Refurbishment System. The paper will examine how an 'innovative' approach was adopted to resolve the related issues of: - Refurbishing an aged structure to meet extended future operational demands. - The application of pragmatic engineering solutions against current codes and standards including seismic performance; - Provision of safe access for the workforce to undertake the refurbishment work against significant radiological

  14. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Aarkrog, A.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, (Sellafield, Dounreay, Cap de la Hague); (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites, (including Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, GDR, FDR, Netherlands, Sweden, UK, USSR); (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. (author)

  15. Decommissioning in British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, A.

    1988-01-01

    Decommissioning projects at the BNFL Sellafield site have been selected taking the following into account; the need to gain experience in preparation for the decommissioning of the Magnox reactors and for the post Magnox stage; the need to develop larger scale projects; the need to be cost effective and to foster long term safety. The balance between prompt or delayed decommissioning has to consider operator dose uptake and radioactive waste management. The ten year plan for decommissioning at Sellafield is described briefly. Currently decommissioning is of the fuel pond and decanning plant, the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the coprecipitation plant and the uranium recovery plant. (author)

  16. Modelling framework for groundwater flow at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, A.J.; Billington, D.E.; Herbert, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The principal objective of Nirex is to develop a single deep geological repository for the safe disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In safety assessment, use is made of a variety of conceptual models that form the basis for modelling of the pathways by which radionuclides might return to the environment. In this paper, the development of a conceptual model for groundwater flow and transport through fractured rock on the various scales of interest is discussed. The approach is illustrated by considering how some aspects of the conceptual model are developed in particular numerical models. These representations of the conceptual model use fracture network geometries based on realistic rock properties. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  17. Making 'what works' work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2017-01-01

    and a mattress. As such, the paper shows how DR, as an evidence-based method, is established through concrete relations, rather than abstracted and universal principals. It argues that these relations stabilising DR are never enacted once and for all, but require continual work to be held together as a method...... that ‘works’....

  18. Preliminary work for stage 2 decommissioning of B16 pile chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.; Mathews, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Planning of the second stage of decommissioning of the two pile chimneys at Sellafield started while work was underway on the first stage, which involved removal of the sections above the filters. The second stage requires the removal of all radio-active parts and the dismantling of the filter and diffuser sections, and has to be completed by 1997. The planning involved studying the many possible options and their effects on both radiological and industrial safety. This decommissioning project employs a high proportion of civil engineering and construction techniques, which are then developed to eliminate the hazards from radioactive dusts, and to minimise the effect of radiation on operatives working on the project. Much of this equipment is modified forms of standard construction equipment and includes cutting equipment and remotely operated vehicles. The initial phases of the work involve: provision of a waste packaging and access building; provision of temporary ventilation systems to control the dust generated by the work, cutting of 3 m square access doorway through the 1.5 m thick reinforced concrete wall of the chimney; provision of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) to act as a tool carrier for lining stripping work; removal of the thermal lining from the floor and lower walls of the chimney, and installation of precast concrete walls which separate the pile reactor core from the chimney flue. (author)

  19. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts of coordi....../or resources. To accomplish their work, actors have to make the right configuration of these four aspects emerge.......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...

  20. Working alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearle, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Employees may be found working alone in a wide range of occupations. Technological advance, rationalisation and automation mean that more and more frequently. one single person is in charge of several machines, pieces of equipment or different work activities. Employees will be found working alone during work carried out as 'overtime', as part of flexible working hours, on Saturdays, Sundays, Bank Holidays and other statutory leave days, or in situations where their work takes them away from a fixed base (mobile workers). A person may be considered to be 'working alone' whenever it is not possible to offer immediate assistance following an accident or in another critical situation. This article looks at the legal background to lone working and what an employer must do to ensure lone workers are at no greater risk to their health and safety than any other members of the workforce.

  1. Work Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate managerial use of work (or role) overload to increase productivity, the author studied 77 nonclerical white-collar employees and found that work overload had negative effects on productivity, supervisors' ratings, employee attitudes, job satisfaction, and health. He recommends ways for managers and employees to reduce work overload.…

  2. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  3. Performative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beunza, Daniel; Ferraro, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    by attending to the normative and regulative associations of the device. We theorize this route to performativity by proposing the concept of performative work, which designates the necessary institutional work to enable translation and the subsequent adoption of the device. We conclude by considering...... the implications of performative work for the performativity and the institutional work literatures.......Callon’s performativity thesis has illuminated how economic theories and calculative devices shape markets, but has been challenged for its neglect of the organizational, institutional and political context. Our seven-year qualitative study of a large financial data company found that the company...

  4. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplin, W C [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research; Aarkrog, A [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report the likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites; (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. Some of the largest doses from marine pathways are predicted for naturally-occurring radionuclides. In this case, the dominant radionuclide is polonium-210 and the dominant pathway is via consumption of molluscan species. The highest doses from the nuclear industry were due to the operation of the reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Discharges from this site have been decreasing substantially in recent years and, as a consequence, doses have also been reducing. (author).

  5. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  6. Work cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple work cabinet is described for handling materials such as radiopharmaceuticals. The cabinet includes a perforated working surface to which an operator can gain hand and forearm access through an aperture. Clean air is supplied through a high efficiency particulate air filter and withdrawn through the perforated surface. (U.K.)

  7. [Wet work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  8. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  9. Working Collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holder, Anna; Lovett, George

    2009-01-01

    identified as a transformative global force of the last decade, most notably in knowledge and information publishing, communication and creation. This paper presents a structured conversation on changing understandings of collaboration, and the realities of collaborative methodology in architectural work...

  10. Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work is unpleasant and damages instead of builds self-esteem. Family relationships may suffer if both parents want ... with your child, especially if he is very young. You may worry that you will miss some ...

  11. Working hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, G.

    1988-01-01

    The author says ''barehand'' methods, where specially trained utility workers are called in conductive suits to equalize voltage over their bodies, to maintain high-voltage transmission lines are on the rise. Utilities are building lines at higher voltages and selling more power to other utilities, making it highly inconvenient to take the lines out of service. However, some unions view the barehand work with less than enthusiasm. Touching lines energized at hundreds of thousands of volts demands flawless equipment and rigid work procedures followed to the letter. Some local unions contend that adequate safety procedures and training, and appropriate penalties for workplace negligence, should be in place before utilities may do barehand work. The author discusses some of the methods of barehand work and the equipment used, i.e. steel-mesh lineman's suit, bucket truck's boom, helicopters, and robots

  12. Is working memory still working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A D

    2001-11-01

    The current state of A. D. Baddeley and G. J. Hitch's (1974) multicomponent working memory model is reviewed. The phonological and visuospatial subsystems have been extensively investigated, leading both to challenges over interpretation of individual phenomena and to more detailed attempts to model the processes underlying the subsystems. Analysis of the controlling central executive has proved more challenging, leading to a proposed clarification in which the executive is assumed to be a limited capacity attentional system, aided by a newly postulated fourth system, the episodic buffer. Current interest focuses most strongly on the link between working memory and long-term memory and on the processes allowing the integration of information from the component subsystems. The model has proved valuable in accounting for data from a wide range of participant groups under a rich array of task conditions. Working memory does still appear to be working.

  13. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well-defined and memo......Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows...

  14. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  15. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  16. Wetlands Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Linda; Blanchard, Pamela Borne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a biology teacher's search for a cross-curricular project in science, math, history, and environmental science, that would help her students connect what they were learning in the classroom to their everyday life, resulted in an ongoing stewardship project. Working together with the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program…

  17. Work notice

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM

    2005-01-01

    Please note that work to repair the water mains on Route Bloch near Gate C will be carried out between 12 and 30 September 2005. The area between Route Bakker and Gate C will be closed to traffic during this period. You are kindly requested to comply with the road signs in place. Thank you for your understanding. TS-FM Group

  18. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  19. Heart Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sandra R.; Gonzales, Alicia C.

    2017-01-01

    It is not every day that a former student greets a teacher with, "Your course changed my life." The authors are the professor and student of the transformative course. Alicia Gonzales wanted to understand how to work with students to co-construct an environment where persistent problem solving in a technologically rich classroom was the…

  20. Work Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lynne

    1970-01-01

    Excerpts from a talk by Mrs. Ross at the 23rd annual convention of the American School Food Service Association in Detroit, August 5, 1969. A book on work simplification by Mrs. Ross will be available in June from the Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. (Editor)

  1. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  2. An overview of the QA principles and practices applied to the design, construction, commissioning and bringing into service of an intermediate-level waste encapsulation plant at BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the arrangements adopted by BNFL to ensure that a new ILW Encapsulation Plant Project is brought from project conception through to commercial operation within a QA system which complies with the appropriate standards and includes the following: the role of the QA function within BNFL Engineering; the organization of the commissioning process into a formal QA system to satisfy the requirements of the Nuclear Site License; and the preparatory work carried out by the Site's QA organization in the management of R and D, the selection and evaluation of raw material suppliers, and the bringing together of large numbers of particularly complex activities and differing organizations to provide assurance of quality of the ultimate product. The author presents an explanation of the arrangements adopted by BNFL to monitor the achievements of quality objectives and to ensure a comprehensive audit programme is maintained

  3. Sedentary work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dorte; Rosthøj, Susanne; Burr, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between five-year changes in occupational sitting and body mass index (BMI) in working adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from The Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (2005 and 2010, n=3.482). Data on occupational sitting, weight......, height and several potential confounders were self-reported. The association between change in occupational sitting (hours) (categorized as large decrease 2.5 to 7.5 and large increase >7.5) and change in BMI was explored...... by multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: 43.0% men and 36.1% women had high occupational sitting time (≥25h per week) at baseline. 31.8% men and 27.2% women decreased while 30.0% men and 33.0% women increased occupational sitting. The proportion of obese (BMI≥30) increased almost 3% for both genders...

  4. Works notice

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    We would like to inform you that renovation work on the road lighting equipment will take place on the Meyrin site between 19 October and 18 December 2009. During this period, traffic will be disrupted on the Schrödinger, Perrin and Siegbahn roads, ie from Building 274 to Building 188. We request that you comply with the road signs and thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM Group

  5. Working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The film summarizes international cooperation in advancing peaceful applications of atomic energy. It describes: U.S. shipments abroad of radioisotopes; formation of the European Council for Nuclear Research; former president Dwight D. Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' announcement to the UN; first International Conference at the University of Michigan; first shipment abroad by AEC Libraries; UN General Assembly debate on the international agency; the Joint Norwegian-Dutch Atomic Energy Laboratory; atomic energy work of India, Brazil and others; U.S. training of foreign scientists; U.S. agreements with other nations; Geneva 1955 International Conference; approval and signing of the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  6. Working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1958-12-31

    The film summarizes international cooperation in advancing peaceful applications of atomic energy. It describes: U.S. shipments abroad of radioisotopes; formation of the European Council for Nuclear Research; former president Dwight D. Eisenhower`s `Atoms for Peace` announcement to the UN; first International Conference at the University of Michigan; first shipment abroad by AEC Libraries; UN General Assembly debate on the international agency; the Joint Norwegian-Dutch Atomic Energy Laboratory; atomic energy work of India, Brazil and others; U.S. training of foreign scientists; U.S. agreements with other nations; Geneva 1955 International Conference; approval and signing of the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  7. Lice work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benali, Amira; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2018-01-01

    and Nepalese everyday life and show how these are deployed, contested and reconfigured onsite by volunteer tourism actors. By exploring patterns of absences and presences and using the concept of ontological choreography as an analytical resource, we show how the situated lice work of human and non...... at the orphanage. This post-human approach decenters the volunteer and destabilises the host and guest binary, while adding to our understanding of tourism practices as complex and materially distributed endeavours. We first analyse two configurations of head lice enacted through a Western morality of hygiene...

  8. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: • if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer • if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  9. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service Tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  10. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  11. Exact work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeger, J.

    1993-01-01

    Organized criminals also tried to illegally transfer nuclear material through Austria. Two important questions have to be answered after the material is sized by police authorities: What is the composition of the material and where does it come from? By application of a broad range of analytical techniques, which were developed or refined by our experts, it is possible to measure the exact amount and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in any kind of samples. The criminalistic application is only a byproduct of the large scale work on controlling the peaceful application of nuclear energy, which is done in contract with the IAEA in the context of the 'Network of Analytical Laboratories'

  12. The pros and cons of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerzler, P.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses three cases in relation to confidence in nuclear energy: the fire at Windscale, the leaks at Sellafield reprocessing plant; and the Transnuklear/Nukem scandal. The first involved a reactor used for purely military purposes and it has been shown that there has been no verifiable damage to public health as a result of radiation leaks following the fire. Concerning the Sellafield radiation leaks it is stated that the assertion that there is a link between them and an increasing occurrence of leukemia is false. On the other hand, the offences verified in the Transnuklear scandal (bribery and false declarations) are to be severely condemned, although the safety of the population and the environment was never at risk. The author concludes that these events do not alter the fact that the nuclear power plants in the western world have an excellent safety record

  13. Government on the spot over Sellafield's reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 18-year gestation of British Nuclear Fuels' Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) is almost at an end. Only one hurdle seemingly remains - the authorisation to dispose of its wastes. Opponents see this as the last chance to scrap what they regard as an environmental and financial white elephant. BNF's original rationale for THORP has grown increasingly threadbare since it was proposed in the mid-1970s - and the Government may now be forced into a last-minute rethink of the consequences of allowing it to be commissioned. (Author)

  14. Sellafield - the achievements and lessons of 40 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.; Hexter, B.C.; Livesley, G.

    1996-01-01

    BNFL's operations, which support a global nuclear fuel cycle business and serve many companies in Pacific Basin countries, have been the subject of refinement from 40 years of experience. Many of the Company's operating philosophies are consistent with the principles of sustainable development. The paper acknowledges the important role that the nuclear industry can play in satisfying energy demands within economies of diminishing natural resources and societies which are becoming increasingly concerned about their impact on the environment. It explains how reprocessing can meet many of the criteria of sustainable development through recycling and the optimization of resources. It describes how BNFL have reduced the impact of its operations on the environment through the treatment of discharges and the minimization and stabilization of wastes requiring disposal. The establishment of BNFL Engineering Ltd as an outlet to the world markets for BNFL's engineering expertise and technology is covered. The paper looks at the responsible approach that BNFL is taking to liabilities management ensuring that no surprises are left for future generations. BNFL's commitment to the present and future of nuclear electricity generation is illustrated in the extent to which it is committed to making it operations safer and more cost effective through investment in research and development. The paper describes BNFL's commitment to the development of its employees and to the development of the communities in which it operates. The paper considers how BNFL has met its many challenges and draws out examples of sustainable development in practice. (author)

  15. Further assessment of survey results from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1984-02-01

    Contaminated material continues to be found on the beaches, estuaries and salt marshes. An initial apparent fall in the frequency of discovery of highly contaminated samples has not been sustained. In the last week of surveys reported here, a change was noted in the type of contaminated material found. Results averaged on the entire period from 19 November 1983 to 13 February 1984 suggest that about 2 items every kilometre might be found giving a reading in excess of 1 mR/L βγ and 1 item every few kilometres giving a reading in excess of 10 mR/h βγ, with actual contact dose rates possible of about a hundred times higher than apparent instrument readings. A member of the public could pick up an item contaminated in excess of the 10 mR/h βγ or 1000 cps criterion and hold it for sufficiently long to sustain an appreciable dose to the skin surface. These and laboratory studies of contaminated materials confirmed the Board's views that the only situations of concern are those of prolonged handling of debris and contamination of the skin, rather than intake by ingestion or inhalation. (U.K.)

  16. Work team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBE Editorial

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC

  17. Evidence to the Windscale Inquiry on the social and political implications of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Mr.Taylor's paper has the following section headings: preface; my relevant experience; the problem of controversy; the nature of the nuclear power controversy; the role of argument; paranoia and repression; structural inertia and conflict; the internationalisation of the opposition; the place of THORP in the context of an environmental revolution; the effect on THORP; the disposal controversy; the safety controversy; the psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy; nuclear power and symbolic representation; my own view as a social anthropologist (fledgling). (U.K.)

  18. MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING THE COMMISSIONING OF THE WINDSCALE ADVANCED GAS- COOLED REACTOR (WAGR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallie, R R

    1963-06-15

    Some measurements were made on the WAGR fuel in the APEX and HERO facilities in order to derive the loading pattern. The reactor was then loaded, and measurements of the excess reactivity were in good agreement with predictions. Other measurements made were control rod calibrations, reactivity worths of control rods, isothermal temperature coefficient, and pressure drops. (D.L.C.)

  19. Windscale nuclear power development laboratories power ramp experience in the Winfrith SGHWR (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, A.; Sumerling, R.; Stuttard, A.; Bond, G.G.; Howl, D.A.; Fox, W.N.; Cordall, D.; Cornell, R.M.

    SGHWR fuel has sufficient power ramping capability to permit considerable latitude in fuel management schemes. However, beyond some limiting ramping conditions, there is risk of fuel defecting. Controlled ramp experiments were therefore carried out in the reactor in order to determine the defect mechanism and define the fuel operating limitations. Cladding cracks produced during these power ramps are considered to have been a consequence of fission product stress-corrosion attack. A critical stress level for cracking, based on laboratory stress corrosion tests, have been used successfully in conjunction with computer codes to calculate cladding stresses and strains in fuel rods. Initial analysis of the conditions under which a fuel element defected at 11.6 MWd/kgU suggests that the threshold stress for failure may be decreased compared with elements at lower burn-up (5-6 MWd/kgU)

  20. Analysis of Windscale and Bikini atoll sediments for Am-242m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    Bowen and Livingston have recently reported the existence of 242 Am in both 1962 nuclear test debris and in a marine algae sample (kelp) contaminated by nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. The presence of 242m Am (T 1/2 = 152y) was deduced by measuring its daughter product, 242C m. In the case of the fallout debris, the long decay time (25 years) between collection and analysis was argued to preclude the possibility of unsupported 242 Cm being present in the sample. The non-adherence to simple radiometric decay of the 242 Cm measured in two aliquots of the algae sample suggested that a small percentage of the isotope (≈ 3%) was in fact supported by its longer lived parent

  1. Molten fuel/coolant interaction studies: some results obtained with the Windscale small shock tube rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higham, E.J.; Vaughan, G.J.

    1978-02-01

    Experiments are described in which water has been brought into contact with various molten metals in a shock tube, thus simulating the fall of coolant into molten uranium dioxide in a postulated reactor accident. Impact velocities of the water on to the molten material were in the range 5 to 7 m/s. Shock-pulse pressures in the water column after impact and particle size distributions of the dispersed resolidified material that was recovered were measured. The proportion of dispersed material and the size of the shock pulse (by comparison with that expected from water hammer alone) have been used as criteria for the occurrence of a molten fuel/coolant interaction and such interactions of varying degrees of violence have been found for water/aluminium, water/bismuth, water/tin, over a range of temperatures from 350 0 C to 950 0 C, for water/boric oxide, but not for water/magnesium. (author)

  2. Balancing Machine Work, Comfort Work, and Sentimental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria Ie; Hansen, Magnus; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and attention. We investigate ambulance care in three of Denmark’s five healthcare regions, which staff ambulances with emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and physicians. Using the concept of illness trajectory we analyse how the ambulance crews balance machine work, which involves continuously...... monitoring the equipment, comfort work, which is actions taken to relieve the pain or discomfort of the patient, and sentimental work, which is care for the patient’s physical and mental well-being, often verbal in nature. The analysis shows that comfort and sentimental work often takes priority over machine...... work, but also that this has negative consequences. Equipment for use in ambulances should aim at supporting the ambulance crews in competently and dynamically balancing the different types of work and should, consequently, avoid binding the crew’s attention for unbroken periods of time....

  3. Work organisation, technology and working conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Sloten, G. van

    2002-01-01

    The personal computer, computer networks and the Internet have brought the Union into the Information Age. These technological changes have inevitably led to changes in the work environment and the quality of working conditions. For the third time, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has carried out a questionnaire-based survey on working conditions throughout the European Union, covering all Member States. Previous surveys were carried out in 1991 and...

  4. New ways of working and work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudewijns, C.; Gerards, R.; de Grip, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates whether New Ways of Working (NWW) are related to employee work engagement in the Netherlands. We test our hypotheses using a sample of 656 employees from 14 industry sectors and 12 occupational fields. Our study reveals that three facets of NWW positively affect work

  5. Work-family conflicts and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence; David, Emily M

    2009-08-01

    Prior research indicates that work-family conflict interferes with family far more than it interferes with work. Conservation of resources provides a possible explanation: when shifting resources from family is no longer sufficient to maintain satisfactory work performance, then workers must acquire additional resources or reduce investments in work. One source of such additional resources could be high performance peers in the work group. The performance of workers with resource-rich peers may be less adversely affected by work-family conflict. In this study, 136 employees of a wholesale distribution firm (61% women, 62% minority) working in groups of 7 to 11 in manual labor and low-level administrative jobs rated their own work-to-family conflict. Their supervisors rated workers' performance. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that work-to-family conflict increasingly adversely affected job performance as work group performance decreased. Hence, work group performance may be an important moderator of the effects of work-family conflict.

  6. Work Cultures and Work/Family Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sue Campbell

    2001-01-01

    For 179 workers with family responsibilities, flexibility of work was associated with job satisfaction and family well-being, flexible work schedules were not. Supportive supervision was associated only with increased employee citizenship and did not increase work-family balance of those at risk. Family-friendly culture did not appear to benefit…

  7. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  8. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...

  9. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  10. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  11. Alternative Work Schedules: Designing Compatible Work Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Pamela L.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to improve the quality of working life through changes in environmental factors, such as flexible hours, are likely to bring limited and short-term advantages unless the work process itself is well-designed and compatible with the environmental changes. (Author/LBH)

  12. Work organisation, technology and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Sloten, G. van

    2002-01-01

    The personal computer, computer networks and the Internet have brought the Union into the Information Age. These technological changes have inevitably led to changes in the work environment and the quality of working conditions. For the third time, the European Foundation for the Improvement of

  13. Making Work-Based Learning Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Americans seeking employment often face a conundrum: relevant work experience is a prerequisite for many jobs, but it is difficult to gain the required experience without being in the workplace. Work-based learning--activities that occur in workplaces through which youth and adults gain the knowledge, skills, and experience needed for entry or…

  14. Boundary work of dentists in everyday work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Cecilia

    2012-08-01

    The Swedish policy objectives in dental care provision - to meet public demands for dental care and to increase the cost-effectiveness of the service - require dentists to work in teams with dental hygienists and dental nurses. This study focused on the role of dentists in the distribution of work tasks within teams in one Swedish Public Dental Service organisation. Dental clinics were viewed as micro-political arenas in which dentists attempt to demarcate professional boundaries in response to teamwork. Semi-structured interviews, observations and documents were used. The interviewed individuals were seven dentists employed at two clinics, the managers of each clinic and the general manager. The dentists were interviewed to investigate how they defend or blur professional boundaries. They were also observed at work. The clinic managers and the general manager were interviewed to identify their expectations of dentists concerning work division. The documents comprised organisational plans and annual reports. Dentists demarcated professional boundaries by utilising various power resources: treatment responsibility, specialist knowledge, discretion, and avoidance of work considered to be low status work. The dentists also contributed to blurred boundaries between themselves and the other dental professionals by discussing patient treatment, giving and receiving advice, and assisting the others in skill development. Although dentists' boundary work could obstruct implementation of policy objectives, dentists' behaviour contributed to effective collaboration within the teams. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  16. New ways to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Flexible working, work-life balance, family friendliness; all are now familiar terms in today's NHS, and employers, managers and leaders are expected to be forging ahead in improving the working lives for all staff. If you are looking for new ideas to help tackle the challenge, you should try the New Ways to Work website.

  17. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  18. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  19. CTOs at work

    CERN Document Server

    Donaldson, Scott; Donaldson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Scott Donaldson, Stanley Siegel and Gary Donaldson interview many of the world's most influential chief technology officers in CTOs at Work, offering a brand-new companion volume to the highly acclaimed elite At Work books including Coders at Work, CIOS at Work and Venture Capitalists at Work. As the words "at work" suggest, the authors focus on how their interviewees tackle the day-to-day work of the CTO while revealing much more: how they got there, how they manage and allocate projects, and how they interact with business units and ensure that their companies take advantage of technologies,

  20. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2012-01-01

    This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes....... The British sociologist Julia Twigg has introduced and explored the term `bodywork', most recently in Body Work in Health and Social Care - Critical Themes, New Agendas (2011). She extends the term body work from applying to the work that individuals undertake on their own bodies, often as part of regimens...

  1. Work-family harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari,Pralhad

    2018-01-01

    The phenomenon of positively thinking about work and organization during the family hours by a worker is called work-family harmony. On the fag opposite of work-family conflict is work-family harmony. The work extends/intrudes into the family life of the worker, but in a positive way. This kind of positive thinking about the organization helps person's subjective well-being grow and his mental health is also nourished.

  2. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  3. Live to Work or Love to Work: Work Craving and Work Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdylo, Kamila; Baumann, Nicola; Fischbach, Lis; Engeser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the theory of work craving, a workaholic has a craving for self-worth compensatory incentives and an expectation of relief from negative affect experienced through neurotic perfectionism and an obsessive-compulsive style of working. Research has shown that workaholism and work engagement should be considered as two distinct work styles with different health consequences. However, the mechanisms underlying the adoption of these work styles have been neglected. The prese...

  4. Live to work or love to work: work craving and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdylo, Kamila; Baumann, Nicola; Fischbach, Lis; Engeser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to the theory of work craving, a workaholic has a craving for self-worth compensatory incentives and an expectation of relief from negative affect experienced through neurotic perfectionism and an obsessive-compulsive style of working. Research has shown that workaholism and work engagement should be considered as two distinct work styles with different health consequences. However, the mechanisms underlying the adoption of these work styles have been neglected. The present study proposes that work craving and work engagement are differentially associated with self-regulatory competencies and health. In particular, we expected that the working styles mediate the relationships between emotional self-regulation and health. In the cross-sectional study, 469 teachers from German schools completed online administered questionnaires. By means of structural equation modeling, we tested two indirect paths: a) from self-relaxation deficits via work craving to poor health and b) from self-motivation competencies via work engagement to good health. As expected, we found evidence that a) the negative relationship of self-relaxation deficits on health was partially mediated by work craving and b) the positive relationship of self-motivation competencies on health was partially mediated by work engagement. The present study emphasizes the importance of self-regulation competencies for healthy or unhealthy work styles. Whereas work craving was associated with a low ability to down-regulate negative emotions and poor health, work engagement was associated with a high ability to up-regulate positive emotions and good health.

  5. Struggling at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Andersen, Malene Friis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known on how employees at work with mental health problems experience their work environment. This study explores how a selected sample of Danish employees with depressive symptoms experience the interaction with their work environment and how they respond to and deal...... with problems at work. Methods: From a survey study on work and mental health in Denmark, we invited participants for in-depth interviews. Using grounded theory, we conducted 13 semi structured interviews with employees, at work, experiencing depressive symptoms. Findings: Work was pivotal for the informants...... is a key element for employees with depressive symptoms struggling at work. Practitioners and other health and rehabilitation practitioners working with people with depressive symptoms and other mental health problems could inquire about supervisor's behaviour and relation between supervisors and employees...

  6. Making residency work hour rules work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    In July 2011, the ACGME implemented new rules that limit interns to 16 hours of work in a row, but continue to allow 2nd-year and higher resident physicians to work for up to 28 consecutive hours. Whether the ACGME's 2011 work hour limits went too far or did not go far enough has been hotly debated. In this article, we do not seek to re-open the debate about whether these standards get matters exactly right. Instead, we wish to address the issue of effective enforcement. That is, now that new work hour limits have been established, and given that the ACGME has been unable to enforce work hour limits effectively on its own, what is the best way to make sure the new limits are followed in order to reduce harm to residents, patients, and others due to sleep-deprived residents? We focus on three possible national approaches to the problem, one rooted in funding, one rooted in disclosure, and one rooted in tort law. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Work Practice Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    and work practice. To understand these issues a framework of characteristics is identified and termed work practice characteristics to describe important aspects of the hybrid configuration of groupware and situated work practices. Drawing on concepts and work practice studies in the field of computer...... investigation of how groupware is employed to support new ways of working in a large European financial organisation are analysed to illustrate situations with high and low integration of groupware. The framework of work practice characteristics is discussed in the light of these findings and implications...

  8. Domestic Work: Challenges for Decent Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Sanches

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the situation of the domestic workers and focuses on some issues related to its dimension in the world and in Brazil, to their conditions of work and its importance to the labor market and to the households. We aim to demonstrate the relevance of the concept of decent work, promoted by ILO – International Labor Organization, for the domestic work and the need to extend their rights to level them with the other workers. It also highlights the opportunity offered by the next International Labor Conference, in 2010, when one of the issues of the agenda is to discuss the crafting and adoption of international labor standards in the form of a specific convention or recommendation.

  9. Exposure to wet work in working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegel, Tessa G; Nixon, Rosemary L; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-02-01

    The Australian National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance (NHEWS) Survey 2008 was a cross-sectional survey undertaken by Safe Work Australia to inform the development of exposure prevention initiatives for occupational disease. This is a descriptive study of workplace exposures. To assess the occupational and demographic characteristics of workers reporting exposure to wet work. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 4500 workers. Two wet work exposure outcomes (frequent washing of hands and duration of time spent at work with the hands immersed in liquids) were analysed. The response rate for the study was 42.3%. For hand-washing, 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-10.7] reported washing their hands more than 20 times per day. For immersion of hands in liquids, 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1) reported immersion for more than 2 hr per day. Females were more likely to report exposure to frequent hand-washing than males [odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.49-2.61]. Workers in the lowest occupational skill level jobs were more likely to report increased exposure to hands immersed in liquids than those in the highest (OR 6.41, 95% CI 3.78-10.88). Workers reporting skin exposure to chemicals were more likely to report exposure to hand-washing (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.91-4.66) and immersion of the hands in liquids (OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.92-5.74). Specific groups of workers reported high levels of exposure to wet work. There were differences between the profiles of workers reporting frequent hand-washing and workers reporting increased duration of exposure to hands immersed in liquids. We also found a high correlation between wet work and chemical exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. NCPC Commemorative Works Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — The CWC is a complete list of Washington DC's commemorative works on federal land. Each record includes a work's title, location, a short description of its purpose,...

  11. Identity Work and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on identity work and identifies two distinct approaches to incorporating emotion. The majority of empirical studies use emotion to describe the experiences of identity work. In doing so, the authors (a) mention the emotions that people feel in situations...... that trigger identity work, (b) illustrate identity work as an emotional endeavour, and (c) describe the emotional impact of successful and unsuccessful identity work. There is also an emerging literature that examines the mutual constitution of emotions and identity work. These authors address emotional...... labour, affective social identification, emotional attachment and detachment, and humour when studying identity work. This paper suggests that, to understand better the relation between emotions and identity work, future research should examine the role of emotions in problematizing identity...

  12. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  13. Working during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  14. Minimizing Exposure at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticide Health and Safety Information Safe Use Practices Minimizing Exposure at Work Pesticides - Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Personal Protective Equipment for Working

  15. Pregnancy and work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need to stop working or reduce your work hours. Most women are advised to only lift things that weigh under 20 pounds (9 kilograms) during pregnancy. Repetitively lifting heavier amounts often causes back injury or disability.

  16. Interdisciplinary Work in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Rasmussen, Gitte Lyng

    In a Danish school or institutional context there is a variety of professionals working around children’s lives, both as a part of an ordinary child life and when there are cognitive or social challenges connected to this life. Thus, the professionals are often working closely together in both......, combined with their more formal organizational affiliation. In this way, professionals can be working directly within the school or institution, or they can be in a supportive role being formally affiliated to the local council. Both these types of affiliations entail interdisciplinary cooperation......, interdisciplinary work is part of the new vision of how welfare systems can work more effectively and successfully, and in this logic, it is framed as a new standard for working systematically and consistently with cases. Hence, interdisciplinary work also represents a meaningful way of working with cases...

  17. Product Work Breakdown Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okayama, Y; Chirillo, L. D

    1980-01-01

    .... Any such subdivision scheme is a work breakdown structure. Traditional shipbuilders employ work subdivisions by ships functional systems which are natural and appropriate for estimating and for early design stages...

  18. Work-Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasničková, Katarína

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is Work-Life Balance - the reconciliation of professional and personal lives. The primary objective of this work is to analyze employee satisfaction in achieving a balance between the professional and personal life and to develop recommendations for employer on that basis. The theoretical portion of this work defines the issues surrounding Work-Life Balance and tools that employees can use to harmonize the two with an analysis of applications in the Czech Republic a...

  19. To work or not to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patricia van Echtelt; Stella Hoff

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Wel of niet aan het werk. 'More people in paid work' is the central policy objective of the Dutch government in relation to employment. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to know what prevents non-workers from joining the labour process, and what prevents workers

  20. Motivational Orientations in Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtonen, Mari; Olkinuora, Erkki; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lehtinen, Erno

    2008-01-01

    The rapid development in working life during recent decades has changed the structures of work organisations and expectations of employees' work. Differing forms of professional employment and different types of organisational environments likely promote different types of motivational patterns in workers. The aim of this study was to apply a…

  1. Reasoning=working Memoryattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, M.; Krumm, S.; Pick, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between attention, components of working memory, and reasoning. Therefore, twenty working memory tests, two attention tests, and nine intelligence subtests were administered to 135 students. Using structural equation modeling, we were able to replicate a functional model of working memory…

  2. Working hours and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to

  3. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  4. Worth the work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariëlle Cloïn

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Het werken waard. Why do lower educated women work outside the home less often than higher educated women? And why are lower educated women overrepresented in the smallest part-time jobs? Is it not financially worthwhile for lower educated women to work or to work a lot of

  5. Working Group 7 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev S.; Berg J.

    2012-06-10

    The primary subject of working group 7 at the 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop was muon accelerators for a muon collider or neutrino factory. Additionally, this working group included topics that did not fit well into other working groups. Two subjects were discussed by more than one speaker: lattices to create a perfectly integrable nonlinear lattice, and a Penning trap to create antihydrogen.

  6. Introduction: people at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.C.W.; Jonge, de J.; Taris, A.W.; Peeters, M.; Jonge, de J.; Taris, T.

    2014-01-01

    For as long as mankind has existed, people have worked. Needless to say the nature of work has changed tremendously: our ancestors were mostly hunters and collectors, nowadays people work with data, ‘goods’ or other people, or provide services. What has not changed is that we still spend a

  7. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  8. The Good Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2003-01-01

    Examines the working lives of geneticists and journalists to place into perspective what lies behind personal ethics and success. Defines "good work" as productive activity that is valued socially and loved by people engaged in it. Asserts that certain cultural values, social controls, and personal standards are necessary to maintain good work and…

  9. Working with Ted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The author never worked "with" a boss before working with Ted at Brown University. She had always known of Ted--he was Dean at Harvard Graduate School of Education when she was a student there, just beginning her teaching career. Ted arrived at Brown University in September 1984. She was working at Brown in President Howard Swearer's…

  10. Authenticity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Authenticity at work, loosely defined as the degree to which an individual stays true to their core self, has impact on workers in the workplace. This thesis shows that authenticity at work can be measured with a reliable and valid instrument: the IAM Work. Furthermore, results of this thesis show

  11. A Work Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Katherine Murphy

    2002-01-01

    Explains how keeping a work journal can be useful in exploring one's thoughts and feelings about work challenges and work decisions by facilitating self-renewal, change, and job satisfaction. Includes an example that discusses issues of interest to middle career librarians including the challenge of technology, further education, professional…

  12. Work Begins at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Students at Clay County High School (West Virginia) get real-world work experience through the school's comprehensive School-to-Work program, now in its third year. Given the limited job availability in this poor rural area, the school supplements work-site experiences with school-based business enterprises, student construction projects, and…

  13. Work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus

  14. Live to work or love to work: work craving and work engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojdylo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: According to the theory of work craving, a workaholic has a craving for self-worth compensatory incentives and an expectation of relief from negative affect experienced through neurotic perfectionism and an obsessive-compulsive style of working. Research has shown that workaholism and work engagement should be considered as two distinct work styles with different health consequences. However, the mechanisms underlying the adoption of these work styles have been neglected. The present study proposes that work craving and work engagement are differentially associated with self-regulatory competencies and health. In particular, we expected that the working styles mediate the relationships between emotional self-regulation and health. METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, 469 teachers from German schools completed online administered questionnaires. By means of structural equation modeling, we tested two indirect paths: a from self-relaxation deficits via work craving to poor health and b from self-motivation competencies via work engagement to good health. RESULTS: As expected, we found evidence that a the negative relationship of self-relaxation deficits on health was partially mediated by work craving and b the positive relationship of self-motivation competencies on health was partially mediated by work engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The present study emphasizes the importance of self-regulation competencies for healthy or unhealthy work styles. Whereas work craving was associated with a low ability to down-regulate negative emotions and poor health, work engagement was associated with a high ability to up-regulate positive emotions and good health.

  15. Stress at Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Shahrour

    2010-01-01

    One of hardest forms of stresses to avoid is that work place or job stress Job stress refers to stress experienced by an individual at or because of issues at their work place The term work related stress has many meanings and it causes different levels of anxiety. Not all challenges at work can be called stress as some of these challenges drive employees upward, and empower them to learn new skills or push them to work harder to achieve a certain goal. So, this type of challenges cannot be c...

  16. The Ambiguity of Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the current debate among organizational and work-life researchers on the double-sided nature of knowledge work, which offers great freedom and satisfaction on the one hand and the potential to be overly demanding and stressful on the other. This contribution involves...... drawing on the results of an ethnographic case study of a consultancy house; more specifically, it comprises an exploration of the narrative identity work of consultants as they perform work practice stories of self, work, and the organization negotiating why the work they do is both challenging...... and rewarding. The type of knowledge work explored is characterized by its immaterial nature in the sense that the primary input is the competences, knowledge, and commitment of the consultants and the output is the joy, success, and satisfaction of candidates, clients, and collaborators. The article...

  17. Maintenance work management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Nishino, M.; Takeshige, R.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance work management system supports the efficient drawing up of various documents for the maintenance work at nuclear power stations and the speeding up of the permission procedure. In addition, it improves the quality assurance of the safety and reliability of the maintenance work. Key merits of the system are: 1. Efficiently drawing up various documents for the maintenance work by using the stored data for the previous maintenance work and the pipe and instrument diagram (P and ID) data. 2. Supporting the management work for the completion of maintenance work safety by using the isolation information stored on the computer system. 3. Speeding up the permission procedure by electronic mail and electronic permission. 4. Displaying additional information such as the specifications of equipment, maintenance result, and maintenance plan by linking up with the database of another system. 5. Reducing the cost of hardware devices by using client/server network configurations of personal computers and a personal computer server. (author)

  18. Gendered work conditions, health, and work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Meg A; Punnett, Laura; Pyle, Jean L; Cazeca, Dianne; Cooperman, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of nonfaculty university employees examined associations among gendered work conditions (e.g., sexism and discrimination), job demands, and employee job satisfaction and health. Organizational responsiveness and social support were examined as effect modifiers. Comparisons were made by gender and by the male-female ratio in each job category. The relationship of gendered conditions of work to outcomes differed on the basis of respondents' sex and the job sex ratio. Although the same predictors were hypothesized for job satisfaction, physical health, and psychological distress, there were some differing results. The strongest correlate of job satisfaction was social support; perceived sexism in the workplace also contributed for both men and women. Organizational factors associated with psychological distress differed between female- and male-dominated jobs.

  19. Work, Sickness, Absence, and Identity-Work

    OpenAIRE

    Trude Gjernes

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how a group of industrial workers experience long-term sickness absence and how they cope with this situation. The article presents data from in-depth interviews with male industrial workers employed in a Norwegian factory. The findings suggest that the factory workers handle their failing health by engaging in activities other than wage work. They did not accept a social situation characterized by passivity, social isolation, marginalization, or loss of self. The worker...

  20. The farrier's work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfqvist, Lotta; Pinzke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The horse industry in Sweden has rapidly expanded in recent years. This increasing number of horses implies a greater need for more farriers. Shoeing a horse is hard physical work, and includes awkward work postures and repetitive movements. It is well known that hard physical work increases the risk of injuries and musculoskeletal problems. The risk is especially high for musculoskeletal disorders when certain movements are constantly repeated. Heavy or repeated unilateral loads lead to considerable stress on the muscles, which can lead to rupture and fatigue that can cause long term problems. A case study showed that farriers worked 75% of their work time with their backs in bent positions (often more than 70 degrees). Farriers are also exposed to risk factors in their physical environment like dust, noise and poor lighting. Risk of kicks and bites, eye injuries and burns are other factors that make their work environment hazardous. There are only a few studies available that have documented the farriers' working environment and these are not of recent date. A US study from 1984 described kicks and bites from horses, metal splinters in the eyes, heat exhaustion and problematic postures to be perceived as the greatest risks in their work. The back, knees and wrists were the most exposed body regions. There is a need for more current and in-depth studies investigating the farriers' working conditions in order to gain more knowledge of their health and work environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the physical health and work environment of farriers. The investigation will use questionnaires, work load measurements and workplace analysis. The results will serve as a base for improvements concerning the design of the workplace, equipment, tools and aids as well as supplying recommendations about physical exercise and the correct work technique, etc. The results are planned to be incorporated in the education of farriers.

  1. Working around technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark. The aim and contribution of the study is twofold. First, it attempts to revitalise the discussion on technology workaround strategies as responsible professionalism. Second, it will direct attention to and contribute to an understanding of how the normativity embedded in technological development...... expressions of professionals’ active encounter with the complexity of work situations, and can therefore be important signs of professional ethical judgement. Drawing on science and technology studies and the concept of invisible work, the study discusses workaround situations that arise in health care work......This study discusses how professionalism and work ethics influence how health care professionals work around new technologies. When people avoid using technologies, they are not necessarily ceasing to engage in their work activities. The workaround strategies presented here are rather practical...

  2. Extractable Work from Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  3. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  4. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report supplements BNFL's Health and Safety Annual Report and lists 1988 discharges and environmental monitoring for the following sites: Sellafield, Chapelcross, Drigg Storage and Disposal Site, Springfields Works, Capenhurst Works. (UK)

  5. Nuclear energy: work to be done. A report of the General Council to the 1986 TUC Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The paper on nuclear energy is a Report of the General Council to the United Kingdom 1986 TUC Congress. The contents contains four sections on:- 1) control of risks to health, safety and the environment: the TUC role, 2) radioactive waste, 3) Chernobyl reactor accident, and 4) TUC energy policy. The annex contains a report of a fact finding visit to Sellafield reprocessing plant by members of the TUC Radioactive Waste Group.

  6. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte....... Using the CSCW frame­work of coordination mechanisms, we have elicited six general factors influencing the integration of the groupware application in two situations....

  7. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  8. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine fo...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  9. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  10. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...... developmental possibilities, influence and responsibility, but also greater social responsibility for the firm. For firms, the DW promises increased competitiveness and better products. In this paper we present the concept of the DW as one which encourages the development of work, production and organisation...... of the firm and show that the DW is different from mainstream management concepts, as the DW...

  11. Meaning in Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    meaningful is still lacking (Harpaz & Fu, 2002), as are definitions of key terms. Here, I define meaning as the experience that something fits into a wider context or coheres within a larger whole.     I conceptualize meaning in work life as deriving from four factors, each of which helps us contribute...... to something larger than ourselves (Seligman, 2002) through our work. Thus, a person experiences meaning in work life when she... A. is able to use her signature strengths at work (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), B. makes an important contribution to the workplace (Drucker, 1999), C. participates in a productive...

  12. License agreement, employee work

    OpenAIRE

    Poncová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    The rigorous thesis is focused on license agreement and employee work. The aim of the thesis is not only an analysis of the use of a copyrighted work by a person different from the author of the work, but also an analysis of the performance of copyright by a person different from the author of the work. The thesis consists of five chapters. The opening chapter provides a summary of the notion of copyright, its sources at the national and international levels, but also the European Union legis...

  13. KAROSHI (WORK TO DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Toriqul Chaer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When the tide of unemployment hit the USA and Europe, in Japan the opposite phenomenon occurs. In 2002, in Japan deaths were recorded because of excessive works. In this country, the phenomenon of death because of excessive works is called Karoshi. Karoshi is common in Japan.  It becomes deadly syndrome as a consequence of long hours works. The debate about deaths from excessive work already sticking out in Japan since the 70s. The first official case of Karoshi was reported in 1969 when a 29-year-old male worker died because of stroke. It is estimated over ten thousand workers died each year due to death by brain and stroke caused by an overload work. Karoshi often happen to male workers dominantly. The main cause of karoshi is stress due to high pressure in the work environment, and work habits of exceeding a  standard of normal working time (8 hours. In addition, their extra time to work is imbalance with and the salary they earn. In its development, the phenomenon of karoshi contributes to the term salaryman and workaholic.

  14. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    .... Understanding the mechanisms and structures underlying working memory is, hence, one of the most important scientific issues that need to be addressed to improve the efficiency and performance...

  15. Working in virtual knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonijević, Smiljana; Dormans, Stefan; Wyatt, Sally

    2012-01-01

    of routine, often rather lonely activity contrasts sharply with the much more exciting one of teams of scientists working together in a laboratory, collecting samples, analyzing data and sharing ideas. But the reality of scholarly work in the humanities and social sciences has always been otherwise. Scholars...

  16. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  17. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  18. Working with RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Working with RNA is not a special discipline in molecular biology. However, RNA is chemically and structurally different from DNA and a few simple work rules have to be implemented to maintain the integrity of the RNA. Alkaline pH, high temperatures, and heavy metal ions should be avoided when po...

  19. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  20. Computational methods working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.

  1. Performative Work in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of performative work that aims to create experiences for visiting tourists. It reports on qualitative research conducted among frontline employees working in three tourist attractions on the island of Lolland in Denmark, namely Lalandia...

  2. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  3. Control of works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This guidelines has a basic framework of industrial safety organisation, safety management systems, safe work procedures to maintain a safe working environment for all personnel and to prevent any unsafe condition/act endangering the life of personnel engaged for industrial activities

  4. Working Memory and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

  5. Mothers, work and childcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingrid Ooms; Evelien Eggink; Edwin van Gameren

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Moeders, werk en kinderopvang in model. The government wants women to go out to work more. The choices made by women between working and looking after children are accordingly receiving a great deal of attention. This report describes which factors influence these choices by

  6. Families at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Peggy K.

    1988-01-01

    Today, school age and preschool children are more likely to have a working mother and to be living with one parent than in the past. Many families headed by women are living in poverty. Much of the teaching in public schools and many work force benefits are geared to the traditional models of the past. (JOW)

  7. Women's Work in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  8. Working environment committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Vibeke Kristine; Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    In Denmark, a new Working Environment Act was passed in 2010. The assumptions behind the act are that increased flexibility in the organization of OHS work will: 1) enable a more systematic approach, 2) elevate OHS issues to a strategic level within the company, and 3) integrate these concerns...

  9. Group Work. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  10. Unhappy expatriates at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    While some expatriates could feel deeply unhappy trying to deal with the challenges of living and working abroad, few rigorous academic studies have presented evidence of the association between unhappiness among expatriates and their work outcomes. That is surprising since unhappiness could well...... with work adjustment, work performance, work effectiveness, and job satisfaction as well as a strong positive relationship with time to proficiency. These results are discussed in detail and their implications are drawn....... have a substantial effect on performing certain work tasks which is the reason for the foreign assignment. Based on the survey responses of 428 expatriate academics, results of this exploratory study show that unhappiness conceptualised as Subjective Ill-Being (SIB) had a strong negative association......While some expatriates could feel deeply unhappy trying to deal with the challenges of living and working abroad, few rigorous academic studies have presented evidence of the association between unhappiness among expatriates and their work outcomes. That is surprising since unhappiness could well...

  11. Analysis of Undesignated Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Expand Childcare Center hours  Dual-military Co-location Policy  Maternity , Paternity, and Adoption leave o Women in Service  Increase...Distribution unlimited Analysis of Undesignated Work Karan A. Schriver, Edward J. Schmitz, Greggory J. Schell, Hoda Parvin April 2016...designated and undesignated work requirements. Over time, this mix fluctuates, causing changes to the force profile. Undesignated workload has

  12. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  13. Civil engineering work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousyn, Rene; Goubin, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    Although it does not require a specifically new technicality, the Civil Engineering site of a nuclear power plant is a complex work. Considering as an example the power plant currently in construction at Tricastin, the authors describe the main Civil Engineering work and task organization applied to carry it out [fr

  14. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  15. Social Work and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  16. Social Work Agonistes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2008-01-01

    Social work should be founded on a powerful network of diverse practitioners applying the social sciences to advance social welfare today. Instead, social work education operates under the guise of identity politics, reserving its highest appointments for the politically correct and members of under-represented groups, with little concern for…

  17. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  18. Work Values across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  19. COLD-WORKED HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  20. Work and General Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Presentations and other materials are provided from the Asia and the Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Planning and Review Meeting on Work as an Integral Part of General Education. The focus is on how education, through an orientation to work, could help to decrease the gravity of the problems of population…

  1. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  2. Work-life balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Pat

    2011-03-15

    Gay Renouf has opted for a work/life balance; with a chemistry degree she joined the Saskatchewan Research Council out of graduate school in 1986. She first worked on understanding surfactants in emulsions and then dealt more with petroleum engineering issues like pipeline specifications. She is looking at waterfloods in heavy and medium gravity pools and has discovered factors helping to produce heavy oil waterfloods. But all Renouf's life is not devoted to her work: she has been working part-time, spending her free time being a parent, training for marathons and being a running coach. Renouf believes that her passion for running is consistent with her work as a scientist.

  3. Alara and work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstrom, B.

    1989-01-01

    All occupational radiation doses come out as a product of dose rates and exposure time, ie man-hours. In most cases there is not very much to be done about the dose rates, but by means of work management a lot can still be achieved. Non-technical factors which have an influence on the radiation doses are, for instance, work planning and co-ordination, training and know-how, optimization of the work force, health physics practice and time scheduling. These work management factors can be put to use at any nuclear power plant, regardless modern and clean or old and hot. As ALARA through work management in most cases means minimization of man-hours, it is worth while in two senses: One can save radiation doses and one can save money at the same time

  4. [Lifestyle interventions at work?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Carel T J

    2013-01-01

    So far many worksite lifestyle or health promotion programmes have shown only moderate evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, participation in work is in itself an important determinant of health. For this reason ensuring of fitting work and sustained workability should be an aspect of health policy. Workers' health is not only determined by their working environment but also by health practices and lifestyle factors. Under certain preconditions (e.g. on a voluntary basis, confidentiality, integration with health protection) lifestyle interventions during work time can contribute to a healthier working population. As such programmes may result in financial and social benefits for employers, they should be partly responsible for paying the costs. From a societal perspective, governmental commitment to a preventive policy and the involvement of health and income insurance companies are also required.

  5. IPD-Work consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    of countries. The aim of the consortium is to estimate reliably the associations of work-related psychosocial factors with chronic diseases, disability, and mortality. Our findings are highly cited by the occupational health, epidemiology, and clinical medicine research community. However, some of the IPD-Work......'s findings have also generated disagreement as they challenge the importance of job strain as a major target for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention, this is reflected in the critical discussion paper by Choi et al (1). In this invited reply to Choi et al, we aim to (i) describe how IPD-Work seeks......Established in 2008 and comprising over 60 researchers, the IPD-Work (individual-participant data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium is a collaborative research project that uses pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data from multiple cohort studies representing a range...

  6. Innovative Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe; Klausen, Kurt Klaudi

    work behaviour of the employees in a particular empirical setting. Innovative work behaviour has become an important concept in the literature on innovation. Theories on managing change and innovation in public service organizations would suggest that managers have several possibilities when ensuring...... the implementation of innovation. There is, however, still a gap (both empirical and theoretical) in the literature on how managers can contribute to and strengthen the employees’ innovative work behaviour in public service organizations. Therefore, we focus on the following research questions. Which management...... strategies are public managers using in order to create more innovative work behaviour? How do public managers create an innovative climate in the organization which affects the innovative work behaviour positively? In this paper we examine the implementation of innovation in a large Danish municipality...

  7. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Making motherhood work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Thomson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood can be a critical moment in the making of gendered biographies, and in the negotiation of a gendered division of labour within a household. This paper draws on the 'Making of Modern Motherhoods' study, which combined interviews with a diverse group of expectant first time mothers and family case studies in order to build an intergenerational and longitudinal perspective on contemporary mothering situations within the UK. In this paper, the category 'work' is used as a lens through which to encounter new motherhood. After contextualising working motherhood in relation to a sociological literature the paper draws on interviews undertaken with women towards the end of their pregnancy with their first child to reveal something of the emergent collision of working and maternal identities, women's experiences of being pregnant at work including the anticipation and managing of maternity leave. The second part presents a case study, which animates the personal drama involved in reconciling working and maternal commitments, tracing how a woman's feelings about work change over time in negotiation with partner, family and the market. As Sue Sharpe observed in her 1984 book on working mothers, 'full-time mothering has never been accessible to all women in the same way at the same time' (1984: 22. Social class, locality and migration shape a range of cultures of mothering within which work features very differently. Divisions exist between women who share a generational location as well as between women of different generations. This complexity is revealed through a juxtaposition of the voices of mothers and grandmothers, which show how work may both, divide and unite women in the project of motherhood.

  9. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  10. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  11. Progression in work readiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sophie Danneris

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based partly on literature concerning the construction of identities in social work settings (especially Juhila & Abrams 2011, Eskelinen & Olesen 2010) and partly on literature that addresses the dilemmas and challenges in providing evidence about the effectiveness of interventions...... in social work programs (amongst others Boaz & Blewett 2010 and Koivisto 2008). Initially there will be a short presentation of the research topic of my Ph.D. and the central research question related to the project. Following this is a methodological discussion in two levels - the first discussion...... be understood through short narratives about work identity....

  12. FFTF Work Control Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    A centralized Work Control Center (WCC) is responsible for assuring that maintenance and modification of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is performed in accordance with written procedures that ensure design integrity, personnel and public safety, and equipment and system availability for the computerized Master Information Data Acquisition System (MIDAS). Each maintenance task is logged into MIDAS from a Work Request from that has been reviewed and prioritized by the WCC. Thereafter, MIDAS is used to track schedule, manpower and material requirements; authorize field work; and close out the maintenance activity

  13. Work related shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mathiassen, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    and symptoms. Data were analysed by generalised estimating equation and multiple logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: For current upper arm elevation above 90°, a duration increment of 1% of the daily working hours was associated with odds ratios of 1.23 (95% CI 1.10 to 1......Aims: To determine quantitative exposure-response relations between work with highly elevated arms and supraspinatus tendinitis, shoulder pain with disability, and shoulder pain without disability. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a historical cohort of 1886 males from three...... occupational groups. Exposure measurements were performed for four consecutive working days in a random sample of 72 currently employed subjects. Individual work histories were obtained by questionnaire and register data. Health status was ascertained by physical examination blinded towards exposure...

  14. Work and Inertial Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard

    2017-12-01

    A fairly recent paper resolves a large discrepancy in the internal energy utilized to fire a cannon as calculated by two inertial observers. Earth and its small reaction velocity must be considered in the system so that the change in kinetic energy is calculated correctly. This paper uses a car in a similar scenario, but considers the work done by forces acting over distances. An analysis of the system must include all energy interactions, including the work done on the car and especially the (negative) work done on Earth in a moving reference frame. This shows the importance of considering the force on Earth and the distance Earth travels. For calculation of work in inertial reference frames, the center of mass perspective is shown to be useful. We also consider the energy requirements to efficiently accelerate a mass among interacting masses.

  15. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.

  16. Aeromobility and work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Claus

    2006-01-01

    . The boundary between work and tourism is not distinct and there is a very complex connection between travel, work, tourism, and play. He shows that actually, there is a strong ‘material' impact from supposedly ‘immaterial' organisations and this ‘materiality' is particularly linked to the extension of forms......In this paper, the hypothesis is that there is a connection between international aeromobility, knowledge organisations, and environmental impacts. The object is therefore to examine the driving forces, mechanisms, and patterns of meaning behind the increase in international long-distance work...... mobility. The author will draw on a case study which involves two Danish examples of ‘knowledge organisations'. He argues that it is necessary to rethink central concepts of travel, tourism, and working life, in order to understand and describe this kind of international mobility in these organisations...

  17. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Working memory is a basic cognitive mechanism (or set of mechanisms) that is responsible for keeping track of multiple task related goals and subgoals, or integrating multiple sources of information...

  18. Making mediation work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Zeba

    2016-10-26

    Mediation can be an effective way of solving conflict between staff members. It signifies a willingness for people to work together to discuss their differences in a constructive way, before going down the official grievance route.

  19. RadWorks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RadWorks project's overarching objective is the maturation and demonstration of affordable, enabling solutions to the radiation-related challenges presented to...

  20. Ticket To Work

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Captures information on disability beneficiaries that are participating in one of the "the return to work initiative"; to help become self sufficient, and to limit...

  1. Working with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This simple booklet is written primarily to supply information about radiation, its potential dangers and radiation protection, to those working for, or considering taking up employment with, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (U.K.)

  2. Audit of public work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtencir Godinho de Camargo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The municipal public works, especially the reform and small constructions, with mobilization of manpower with up to 20 employees, where it is not mandatory elaboration of Program Conditions and Work Environment in the Construction Industry, are conducted without meeting the regulatory norm, which are motivated by the deficiency in the elaboration of the budget, the bidding documents, in the contract and supervision. The unfamiliarity specialized in the area of the Engineering of Safety of the Work adds to the factors that lead the public agency take unnecessary risks, as the objective responsibility, the labor charges and indemnities for illnesses, accidents or deaths. This article aims to indicate the guidelines for the program to health and safety is applied effectively in public works.

  3. [Nursing work and ergonomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, M H; Robazzi, M L

    2000-12-01

    This text articulates empirical evidence resulting from scientific work with the intention of providing a reflection about the application of ergonomics as a methodological instrument to support improvement of the labor conditions of nursing personnel in hospitals.

  4. Being Pregnant at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby safe. How do you plan your maternity leave? Maternity leave is time you take off from work when you have a baby. When thinking about maternity leave, ask yourself these questions: When do you plan ...

  5. Work-related asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occupational exposure is 16% and for work-exacerbated asthma around 10%.3,4 ... Mohamed Jeebhay is a Professor of Occupational Medicine at the University of Cape Town. He convenes .... (obtain material safety data sheets. (MSDs) for ...

  6. Working with Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Ann

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses working with speakers from business and industry to present career information at the secondary level. Advice for speakers is presented, as well as tips for program coordinators. (CH)

  7. Social Work Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social work research has gathered a greater transparency and clarity of identity in North American and parts of Europe. Furthermore, the rapid emergence of social work research in other European countries, China, India, Japan and elsewhere in Asia and Pacific Rim countries, and gradually in South...... America, has created a need for a collection that can contribute to both shaping and making accessible key and sometimes hard-to-access sources. This four-volume collection answers this need, bringing together key literature in a single resource and structuring it into thematic volumes to enable clear...... understanding of the different aspects involved in the research. Volume One: Historical Trajectories, Purposes and Key Concepts Volume Two: Key Decisions about Research Strategy Volume Three: The Practice of Social Work Research Volume Four: The Contexts of Social Work Research...

  8. Work finishes on CNGS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project is completed. These views are of the l km long CNGS vacuum tube, where particles decay to produce neutrinos, just before it is sealed.

  9. Stay Safe at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Take steps to manage stress. Chronic (ongoing) stress at work or at home can increase your risk of getting sick or hurt. You can reduce stress by planning ahead, noticing when you feel stressed, ...

  10. Work and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to continue in your current job, enjoy career advancement or find other work that suits you better. Important first steps include knowing how to advocate for yourself in the workplace and learning the ways in which reasonable accommodations can help ...

  11. Working with impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Maroesjka Versantvoort; Patricia van Echtelt

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Belemmerd aan het werk The Netherlands was long known as a country with high sickness absenteeism rates and a burgeoning group of people who were unfit for work. In response to this, many policy measures have been introduced in recent decades which attempt to limit the benefit volume and foster the reintegration of people with health impairments. What is the position of the Netherlands today in this regard? The main trends in sickness absenteeism, degree of incapacity for work...

  12. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  13. Existential Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Krill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The existential impact upon social work began in the 1960’s with the emphasis upon freedom, responsibility and a sense of the absurd. It affirmed human potential while faulting the deterministic thinking that was popular with psychological theorists at that time. It was open to the prospects of spirituality, but was less than optimistic concerning great progress among social institutions. It was a forerunner to the strengths-based social work programs of our present day.

  14. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  15. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  16. Work at Building 513

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience, IT Department

  17. Work at Building 513

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period, access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience. IT Department

  18. Multicultural group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  19. Parton Distributions Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, L. de; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data

  20. Job and Work Design

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...

  1. [Working together in gerontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnery, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of care situations notablywith regard to the care of frail dependent elderly people suffering from chronic pathologies, requires a specific approach, a partnership between a nurse and nursing auxiliary and inter-disciplinarity. This work organisation positions the elderly person at the centre of the approach to ensure they are considered as a partner in the care. Improving exchanges and constructing a common understanding are real necessities for professionals working in gerontology.

  2. Work Absence in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Bonato; Lusine Lusinyan

    2004-01-01

    Work absence is a part of an individual's decision concerning hours worked. This paper focuses on sickness absence in Europe and builds on an analytical framework in which absence enters both labor supply and demand considerations, with sickness insurance provisions and labor market institutions affecting the costs of absence. The results from a panel of 18 European countries indicate that absence is higher under generous insurance systems and where employers bear little responsibility for th...

  3. Collective dose to the European Community from nuclear industry effluents discharge in 1978

    CERN Document Server

    Camplin, W C

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...

  4. The radiation exposure of the UK population from liquid effluents discharged from civil nuclear installations in the UK in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Clark, M.J.; Delow, C.E.

    1982-04-01

    The collective effective dose equivalent commitment to the UK population from routine liquid discharges by civil nuclear establishments during 1978 has been estimated at 134 man Sv. The major pathway considered in the assessment was the consumption of seafoods, because most discharges were made directly to sea. Over 90% of this collective dose commitment will be delivered within a few years of the discharges, and caesium-137 from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facility at Windscale (now known as Sellafield) will have made the main contribution to this commitment. These discharges were primarily due to corrosion of nuclear fuel during storage at the reprocessing plant, and there is no simple relationship between the level of collective dose commitment and the amount of energy generated by nuclear means during 1978. (author)

  5. The MOX Demonstration Facility - the stepping stone to commercial MOX production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    The paper provides an insight into MOX fuel and the economic benefits of its use in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). BNFL and AEA are collaborating in the design, construction and operation of a thermal MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) on the AEA Windscale site in Cumbria. The process flowsheet and equipment employed in MDF are discussed and the special precautions required to handle plutonium bearing materials are highlighted. The process flowsheet includes the short binderless route which has been specially developed for use in MDF and results in fuel pellets with an homogeneous structure. MDF is the forerunner to the design and construction of a larger scale Sellafield MOX Plant and hence is the stepping-stone to commercial MOX production. (author)

  6. Communicating risk: news media reportage of a significant nuclear contamination incident in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.P.; Macgill, S.M.

    1988-02-01

    The way the mass media reported a controversial discharge incident at British Nuclear Fuel's reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in November 1983 is discussed. Apart from the Windscale fire in 1957 this was the most serious radiation incident at any nuclear installation in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to use that incident to develop a more complete understanding of the way information about risk is communicated through the news media. Two issues, in particular, are assessed. First, the accuracy of the reports of events and how factual, technical or scientific aspects of risk are portrayed through the news media. Secondly, risk evaluation is studied: what value judgements are made, what sentiments of alarm, danger and hazard are presented. (author)

  7. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A.; Stevens, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  8. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A. [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (United Kingdom); Stevens, A.K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  9. Technocrats and nuclear politics. The influence of professional experts in policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The role of technical experts, especially scientists and engineers, in the development of Britain's civil nuclear energy policy is analysed. It is proposed that civil initiatives came from the integration of technical professions within the bureaucracy of government and quasi-governmental organisations involved in the formulation and implementation of policy. Organisational logic and professional motivation encouraged policies which would lead to occupational autonomy. The first three chapters develop the concept of technical professionalism, Chapters 4-7 then focus on the technocrat's role in providing a spur from their positions within the policy community's bureaucracies that drives top-level policy decisions. These functions are examined in more detail using two case studies, the first concerned with the evolution of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., the second with the Inquiry (in 1977) into the proposal by BNFL to extend its Windscale site (now known as Sellafield) to build the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant. (U.K.)

  10. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distributed Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Kirkegaard, B.; Knudsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Project work has been used for many years at Aalborg University to improve learning of theory and methods given in courses. In a closed environment where the students are forming a group in a single room, the interaction behaviour is more or less given from the natural life. Group work in a distr......Project work has been used for many years at Aalborg University to improve learning of theory and methods given in courses. In a closed environment where the students are forming a group in a single room, the interaction behaviour is more or less given from the natural life. Group work...... in a distributed fashion over the Internet needs more attention to the interaction protocol since the physical group room is not existing. The purpose in this paper is to develop a method for online project work by using the product: Basic Support for Cooperative Work (BSCV). An analysis of a well-proven protocol...... for information exchange in the traditional project environment is performed. A group of teachers and a student group using small project examples test the method. The first test group used a prototype for testing and found the new activity synchronization difficult to adapt, so the method was finally adjusted...

  12. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on nuclear decommissioning was presented by Dr H. Lawton to a meeting of the British Nuclear Energy Society and Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1986. The decommissioning work currently being undertaken on the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR) is briefly described, along with projects in other countries, development work associated with the WAGR operation and costs. (U.K.)

  13. ALARA and work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Perin, M.; Saumon, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the request of Electricite de France (EDF) and Framatome, the Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) developed a three-year research project, between 1991 and 1993, to evaluate the impact of various work management factors that can influence occupational exposures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to assess the effectiveness of protective actions implemented to reduce them. Three different categories of factors have been delineated: those linked to working conditions (such as ergonomic of work areas and protective suits), those characterizing the operators (qualification, experience level, motivation, etc.). In order to quantify the impact of these factors, a detailed survey was carried out in five French NPPs, focusing on three types of operations: primary valves maintenance, decontamination of reactor cavity, and specialized maintenance operations on the steam generator. This survey was augmented by a literature review on the influence of open-quotes hostileclose quotes environment on working conditions. Finally, a specific study was performed in order to quantify the impact of various types of protective suits used in French nuclear installations according to the type of work to be done. All of these factors have been included in a model aiming at quantifying the effectiveness of protection actions, both from dosimetric and economic point of views

  14. Bike 2 Work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Are you a CERN cyclist? If so, join the Bike 2 Work competition that has just started! The more kilometres you travel by bike, the closer you’ll get to winning…   Yngve Inntjore Levinsen works at CERN, in the BE Department, and is one of the many people who travel to work by bike. Convinced by the benefits and the well-being that this mode of transport brings, he decided to promote it by running a competition. “Everyone working at CERN can participate,” says Yngve. “They just need to sign up on the competition website, or via their Facebook login. Then, participants simply have to report regularly the number of kilometres they cover by bike, travelling between home and work, or during the day between different points at CERN. ” The competition began on 1 March and will last all year long. The 2012 results will be announced at the end of the year. Of course, the winner will be the cyclist who has travelled the most kilometres during the ...

  15. ALARA and work management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C. [Centre d`etude sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Perin, M. [Environmental Radiation Protection and Security Dept., Saint-Denis (France); Saumon, P. [Framatome, Lyon (France)

    1995-03-01

    At the request of Electricite de France (EDF) and Framatome, the Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) developed a three-year research project, between 1991 and 1993, to evaluate the impact of various work management factors that can influence occupational exposures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to assess the effectiveness of protective actions implemented to reduce them. Three different categories of factors have been delineated: those linked to working conditions (such as ergonomic of work areas and protective suits), those characterizing the operators (qualification, experience level, motivation, etc.). In order to quantify the impact of these factors, a detailed survey was carried out in five French NPPs, focusing on three types of operations: primary valves maintenance, decontamination of reactor cavity, and specialized maintenance operations on the steam generator. This survey was augmented by a literature review on the influence of {open_quotes}hostile{close_quotes} environment on working conditions. Finally, a specific study was performed in order to quantify the impact of various types of protective suits used in French nuclear installations according to the type of work to be done. All of these factors have been included in a model aiming at quantifying the effectiveness of protection actions, both from dosimetric and economic point of views.

  16. Tunneling works. Tunnel koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higo, M [Hazam Gumi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-25

    A mountain tunneling method for rock-beds used to be applied mainly to construction works in the mountains under few restrictions by environmental problems. However, construction works near residential sreas have been increasing. There are such enviromental problems due to tunneling works as vibration, noise, lowering of ground-water level, and influences on other structures. This report mainly describes the measurement examples of vibration and noise accompanied with blasting and the effects of the measures to lessen such influences. When the tunneling works for the railroad was carried out on the natural ground mainly composed of basalt, vibration of the test blasting was measured at three stations with piezoelectric accelerometers. Then, ordinary blasting, mutistage blasting, and ABM blasting methods were used properly besed on the above results, and only a few complaints were made. In the different works, normal noise and low-frequency sound were mesured at 22 stations around the pit mouth. As countermeasures for noise, sound-proof sheets, walls, and single and double doors were installed and foundto be effective. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Women's work in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonder, Bette R; Bazyk, Susan; Reilly, Bridget; Toyota, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe women's work in Maya communities in the Guatemala Highlands, along with some of the trends accompanying the rapid societal change there. Over the course of six years, observations and interviews focused on two specific groups of women. The first were traditional, home-based women, the second, teachers in a primary school. Resulting transcripts and field notes were analyzed by the researchers to identify themes related to the women's perspectives on work, the patterns of their work activities, and the importance of work in their lives. Women who had been interviewed were asked to reflect on the themes identified. All the women engaged in paid work activities and were responsible for obligatory tasks in the home. The traditional group preserved the tradition of weaving, but remained largely illiterate, while the emerging group was literate, but did not learn to weave. Cultural change is both positive and negative, as described by these women. It is important to understand the particular values of the culture, and to recognize that these may not conform to Western (that is to say U.S.) beliefs and practices.

  18. Distributed Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Kirkegaard, B.; Knudsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    for information exchange in the traditional project environment is performed. A group of teachers and a student group using small project examples test the method. The first test group used a prototype for testing and found the new activity synchronization difficult to adapt, so the method was finally adjusted...... to be very precises and with success used on the second test group. Distributed project work is coming pretty soon and with little improvement in server tools, projects in different topics with a large and inhomogeneous profile of users are realistic.......Project work has been used for many years at Aalborg University to improve learning of theory and methods given in courses. In a closed environment where the students are forming a group in a single room, the interaction behaviour is more or less given from the natural life. Group work...

  19. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...... and psychological aggression. Four papers are included in the thesis and they address the prevalence and long-term consequences of physical and psychological aggression in the form of nasty teasing and violence and/or threats of violence and short-term consequences of bullying at work including physiological stress...... response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions.      The study...

  20. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems.

  1. Reconfigurable assembly work station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yhu-Tin; Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick

    2017-11-14

    A reconfigurable autonomous workstation includes a multi-faced superstructure including a horizontally-arranged frame section supported on a plurality of posts. The posts form a plurality of vertical faces arranged between adjacent pairs of the posts, the faces including first and second faces and a power distribution and position reference face. A controllable robotic arm suspends from the rectangular frame section, and a work table fixedly couples to the power distribution and position reference face. A plurality of conveyor tables are fixedly coupled to the work table including a first conveyor table through the first face and a second conveyor table through the second face. A vision system monitors the work table and each of the conveyor tables. A programmable controller monitors signal inputs from the vision system to identify and determine orientation of the component on the first conveyor table and control the robotic arm to execute an assembly task.

  2. Ethnography at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    to a potential client will be preferred over that of a rival firm. The book shows how detailed ethnography can lead to an understanding of numerous different, but interlocking, theoretical issues. It demonstrates how ethnography can travel beyond the academic realm and be used by business personnel to heighten...... their understanding of their companies' organizational structures, strategies and daily work practices. Asking crucial questions about the role of the anthropologist in the field, "Ethnography at Work" introduces students to ways in which anthropologists study social systems in business....

  3. Connecting work and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2004-01-01

    the foundation for interplay. Concurrently with this, the learners apply a subjective rationale based on their personal expectations and interests in education and work in the course of their lives. Using the three players, school, work place and employee as a starting point, three different rationales upon...... which to base interplay can be deduced. Since viable interplay may not be established based on one rationale alone, we need an institutional framework to mediate between them. This article proposes that a modernized version of the Dual System of vocational education may be best to provide...

  4. Apparel at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerck, Mari

    This dissertation is concerned with work uniforms for women in male-dominated manual occupations. As such, it has analysed parts of the gender-segregated labour market in light of material conditions that dress workers every day. This has been done on the background of a research and development...... and aesthetics have been adapted to the female body and female dress standards. There are several problematic aspects of work clothes and gender that points to premises of standardisation, which do not promote inclusion and recruitment or contribute to retaining women in the gender-segregated labour market...

  5. Motorway maintenance work

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Built 20 years ago, the airport section of the Geneva motorway bypass is now in need of maintenance work and alterations to bring it into line with the new standards. Two-lane traffic will be maintained in both directions during the work, which will be carried out in 2006 and 2007, but there will be various temporary special traffic arrangements in force. We should like to thank you in advance for your understanding. Civil Engineering Department, DAEL, State of Geneva More information: tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch Fewer cars, fewer traffic jams, with www.covoiturage.ch

  6. Between health and work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prendecki Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the concept of work in the context of workers’ health is being considered. Different types of employers and their impact on quality and productivity have been analyzed. The authors mentioned also a very important and frequently occurring problem of mobbing or bullying of employees by supervisors or co-workers. Theoretical considerations have been supported by analysis of available empirical studies. Reference was made to the situation in Poland and in other countries. The last part of the article pointed out the relationship between working time and productivity. Authors quoted interesting insights and examples associated with humans’ laziness, which can achieve exactly the opposite effect.

  7. Wide-web working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, J R

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses the need to improve coalface performance and the all-round benefits that are to be gained by the use of improved systems with better engineering designs. These incorporate the use of stronger, better supports together with more robust and reliable equipment operating in wider working widths. Outlines the progress made over recent years in the Staffordshire Coalfield of the Western Area in seeking evolutionary solutions to coalface mechanization problems that involve efficiency, coalface risks and working conditions, together with some future proposals.

  8. The Work Ethic Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kate

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of "The Work Ethic Game" that focuses on integrity in the workplace. Explains that the game is divided into three categories: legal, judgment, and policy issues. Discusses different personality types in the typical employee population. Includes possibilities for use at different education levels. (DK)

  9. High Performance Work Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this

  10. 2002 Work Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Institute of Nuclear Research

    2002-01-01

    This annual document describes the results for one year of work. Here are presented the goals of the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico, which is promoting and developing the production of high technologies in the nuclear sciences and related disciplines as well as to generate the technologies, products, quality input for academic organizations, health, industrial and commercial that are required. (Author)

  11. Work and leisure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veal, Anthony James; Haworth, John Trevor

    2004-01-01

    ... and quality of life in the spotlight. Profound transformations in the nature and organisation of work are occurring, with potentially far-reaching social and economic consequences. Increasingly, organisations demand greater flexibility from their workforces and are introducing new technologies and practices in response to global competitive pres...

  12. Mindful Social Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaene, Raf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness gets growing attention in the education and practice of social work. It is seen as an important source of inspiration for social work and as a counterbalance for the rationalization of social work. Hick states that mindfulness “is an orientation to our everyday experiences that can be cultivated by means of various exercises and practices. By opening up in a particular way to their internal and external experiences, social workers and clients are better able to understand what is happening to them in both a psychological and sociological sense. With this understanding, people are better able to see the variety of ways in which they can respond. Habitual reactions are more easily avoided, and inner peace and balance are developed” (Hick 2009: 1. Despite this praise of mindfulness as an important source of inspiration and the expectation that its popularity might expand in the next century, it is argued in this essay by Raf Debaene that mindfulness, although possibly very useful in some settings, had very little to do with social work.

  13. Academic Work and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…

  14. Know When Antibiotics Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-15

    This podcast provides a brief background about antibiotics and quick tips to help prevent antibiotic resistance.  Created: 4/15/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  15. Working as a Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    In most STEM industries, teamwork is essential. Engineers, scientists, statisticians, and medical professionals, for example, must communicate with one another and work together. Someday, students may enter the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) workforce, where they also will need to collaborate effectively. This article describes…

  16. Artistic Works for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslikowski, Jerzy

    This paper discusses the nature and function of children's literature and theater. Artistic creative work for children is constituted not only by literature but also by the theater, film, radio and television. Children's literature used to be an art of narration, a verbal text coupled with gesture. Modern, highly technical communication media have…

  17. 2. biophysical work meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The report comprises 18 papers held at the 2nd Biophysical Work Meeting, 11 - 13 September 1991 in Schlema, Germany. The history of biophysics in Germany particularly of radiation biophysics and radon research, measurements of the radiation effects of radon and the derivation of limits, radon balneotherapy and consequences of uranium ore mining are dealt with. (orig.) [de

  18. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2016-01-01

    Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes that can influence the performance of tasks. We are faced with an important

  19. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2016-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes that can influence the performance of tasks. We are faced with an

  20. Empathy in Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Karl; Englander, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    A dominant conceptualization of empathy in social work practice and education, provided by Karen Gerdes and Elizabeth Segal, relies heavily on the simulation theory adopted directly from the cognitive neurosciences. The aim was to critically challenge such a view by reporting on some recent empirical findings from the field in which professional…

  1. 2003 Work Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Institute of Nuclear Research

    2003-01-01

    This annual document describes the results for one year of work. Here are presented the goals of the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico, which is promoting and developing the production of high technologies in the nuclear sciences and related disciplines as well as to generate the technologies, products, quality input for academic organizations, health, industrial and commercial that are required. (Author)

  2. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  3. Gender Inequality at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  4. Solo Librarians Working Collaboratively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    The Elko County School District in Nevada has elementary school librarians that are "solo" librarians. Over the last several years they have worked to collaborate on meeting monthly--even though the district covers 17,100 square miles--and on providing professional development face to face and online. Sharing and collaboration help them…

  5. Reading and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the concept of working memory, with particular reference to a hypothetical subcomponent, the articulatory loop. Discusses the role of the loop in fluent adult reading, then examines the reading performance of adults with deficits in auditory verbal memory, showing that a capacity to articulate is not necessary for the effective…

  6. Learning, Working and Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke

    In the recent years, learning and knowing have emerged as key issues in understanding work organizations. Identifying ways in which learning can be supported in the workplace has been a long standing concern for organization studies and education. The book presents new ways of thinking about...

  7. Making Planning Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Planning for a growth opportunity's success remains a challenge. Under which conditions does planning work, then? This exploratory study investigates the business development tasks and processes that span a growth opportunity's planning phase and its implementation phase and their unique performa...

  8. Navy Public Works Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Bay, Philippines Yokosuka, Japan 4. Organization NAVFAC and the PWC commanding officers recognized that limited maintenance resources and rapidly...suspension suspension to removal ABSENCE ON ONE OR MORE SCHEDULED DAYS OF WORK OR ASSIGNED OVERTIME UNEXCUSED Reprimand Reprimand to Reprimand to TARDINESS 1

  9. Work and Female Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reohr, Janet R.

    In climbing an organizational ladder dominated by males, the professional woman encounters obstacles to the more traditional feminine behaviors and mannerisms to which she may be accustomed. These obstacles may erode her sense of identity, creating difficulties both inside and outside of her work environment. Traditional distinctions between…

  10. Authenticity at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter draws on ethnographic material from creative knowledge work organizations to illustrate the contradictory effects of the ‘connexionist logic’ which are not captured by the text analysis in The New Spirit of Capitalism (NSC). Mainly, the chapter focuses on Boltanski & Chiapello's clai...

  11. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2015-01-01

    Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes which can influence performance of tasks. We are faced with an important

  12. Maternity Protection at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  13. Academic Work and Performativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, John

    2017-01-01

    Neoliberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. This paper…

  14. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P. [et al.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  15. Online Literacies at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Uses examples drawn from research across several sites in tourism and hospitality in which employees are required to interact with technology, in order to highlight issues relating to new online literacies that are now required for efficient work practices and to discuss implications for practice. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy…

  16. Work in the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuze, M.

    2014-01-01

    As media have become dominant players in society’s affairs and, as an industry, represent a powerful economic and symbolic force, it is disheartening to see that work across the creative industries is becoming increasingly precarious. At the same time, media practitioners address this precarity in a

  17. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    stories. We argue that meaning by story making is not always created by coherence and causality; meaning is created by different types of fragmentation: discontinuities, tensions and editing. The objective of this article is to develop and advance antenarrative practice analysis of work stories...

  18. Guided Learning at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Guided learning (questioning, diagrams/analogies, modeling, coaching) was studied through critical incident interviews in five workplaces. Participation in everyday work activities was the most effective contributor to workplace learning. Organizational readiness and the efficacy of guided learning in resolving novel tasks were also important. (SK)

  19. Doing Home Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    of aesthetic analysis of artworks and ethnographic fieldwork (Georgina Born); and 3) the use of generative ethnographic stories as a writing tool (Helen Verran). The latter two, especially, are then employed in analysing the Beirut-based extended exhibition, ‘Home Works: A Forum on Cultural Practices...

  20. Creatvity in Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.; Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram

    2012-01-01

    that they are creative during all stages in the project work. However, it is also significant that the Medialogy students believe that they are more creative in the beginning of their projects and during the design and implementation stages, whereas the analysis is a less creative part. In general, the Medialogy...