WorldWideScience

Sample records for winds carry moisture

  1. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...

  2. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  3. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  4. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  5. The Influence of Soil Moisture and Wind on Rainfall Distribution and Intensity in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. David; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    1998-01-01

    Land surface processes play a key role in water and energy budgets of the hydrological cycle. For example, the distribution of soil moisture will affect sensible and latent heat fluxes, which in turn may dramatically influence the location and intensity of precipitation. However, mean wind conditions also strongly influence the distribution of precipitation. The relative importance of soil moisture and wind on rainfall location and intensity remains uncertain. Here, we examine the influence of soil moisture distribution and wind distribution on precipitation in the Florida peninsula using the 3-D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model Coupled with the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. This study utilizes data collected on 27 July 1991 in central Florida during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CaPE). The idealized numerical experiments consider a block of land (the Florida peninsula) bordered on the east and on the west by ocean. The initial soil moisture distribution is derived from an offline PLACE simulation, and the initial environmental wind profile is determined from the CaPE sounding network. Using the factor separation technique, the precise contribution of soil moisture and wind to rainfall distribution and intensity is determined.

  6. Evaluation of the Influence of Wind-Driven Rain on Moisture in Cellular Concrete Wall Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsabry A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-stationary moisture level of a cellular concrete wall board in a heated utility building located in the northern part of the town of Brest (Belarus, depending on the climatic influence, was assessed in this work. The results were obtained both in a calculation experiment and a physical test. It was observed that the main reason for the high moisture levels in cellular concrete is wind-driven rain intensifying the process of free capillary moisture transfer. A comparative analysis of the results of the physical test and the calculation experiment showed that the THSS software elaborated by the authors was able to predict the actual moisture levels of the shielding structure under study accurately enough when precise data concerning the thermal and physical characteristics of the materials as well as the occurring climatic influences were submitted.

  7. Evaluation of the Influence of Wind-Driven Rain on Moisture in Cellular Concrete Wall Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Nikitsin, V. I.; Kofanov, V. A.; Backiel-Brzozowska, B.

    2017-08-01

    The non-stationary moisture level of a cellular concrete wall board in a heated utility building located in the northern part of the town of Brest (Belarus), depending on the climatic influence, was assessed in this work. The results were obtained both in a calculation experiment and a physical test. It was observed that the main reason for the high moisture levels in cellular concrete is wind-driven rain intensifying the process of free capillary moisture transfer. A comparative analysis of the results of the physical test and the calculation experiment showed that the THSS software elaborated by the authors was able to predict the actual moisture levels of the shielding structure under study accurately enough when precise data concerning the thermal and physical characteristics of the materials as well as the occurring climatic influences were submitted.

  8. Moisture convergence using satellite-derived wind fields - A severe local storm case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. J.; Vonder Haar, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    Five-minute interval 1-km resolution SMS visible channel data were used to derive low-level wind fields by tracking small cumulus clouds on NASA's Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System. The satellite-derived wind fields were combined with surface mixing ratios to derive horizontal moisture convergence in the prestorm environment of April 24, 1975. Storms began developing in an area extending from southwest Oklahoma to eastern Tennessee 2 h subsequent to the time of the derived fields. The maximum moisture convergence was computed to be 0.0022 g/kg per sec and areas of low-level convergence of moisture were in general indicative of regions of severe storm genesis. The resultant moisture convergence fields derived from two wind sets 20 min apart were spatially consistent and reflected the mesoscale forcing of ensuing storm development. Results are discussed with regard to possible limitations in quantifying the relationship between low-level flow and between low-level flow and satellite-derived cumulus motion in an antecedent storm environment.

  9. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances.

  10. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  11. Aeolian sediment transport on a beach: Surface moisture, wind fetch, and mean transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B. O.; Davidson-Arnott, R. G. D.; Hesp, P. A.; Namikas, S. L.; Ollerhead, J.; Walker, I. J.

    2009-04-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in wind speed, wind direction, and moisture content are ubiquitous across sandy coastal beaches. Often these factors interact in unknown ways to create complexity that confounds our ability to model sediment transport at any point across the beach as well as our capacity to predict sediment delivery into the adjacent foredunes. This study was designed to measure wind flow and sediment transport over a beach and foredune at Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island National Park, with the express purpose of addressing these complex interactions. Detailed measurements are reported for one stormy day, October 11, 2004, during which meteorological conditions were highly variable. Wind speed ranged from 4 ms - 1 to over 20 ms - 1 , wind direction was highly oblique varying between 60° and 85° from shore perpendicular, and moisture content of the sand surface ranged from a minimum of about 3% (by mass) to complete saturation depending on precipitation, tidal excursion, and storm surge that progressively inundated the beach. The data indicate that short-term variations (i.e., minutes to hours) in sediment transport across this beach arise predominantly because of short-term changes in wind speed, as is expected, but also because of variations in wind direction, precipitation intensity, and tide level. Even slight increases in wind speed are capable of driving more intense saltation events, but this relationship is mediated by other factors on this characteristically narrow beach. As the angle of wind approach becomes more oblique, the fetch distance increases and allows greater opportunity for the saltation system to evolve toward an equilibrium transport state before reaching the foredunes. Whether the theoretically-predicted maximum rate of transport is ever achieved depends on the character of the sand surface (e.g., grain size, slope, roughness, vegetation, moisture content) and on various attributes of the wind field (e.g., average wind

  12. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  13. A simplified model predicting the weight of the load carrying beam in a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    from 20 to 90 m. In addition, it can be seen that for a blade using glass fibre reinforced polymers, the design is controlled by the deflection and thereby the material stiffness in order to avoid the blade to hit the tower. On the other hand if using aluminium, the design will be controlled...... to predict the weight of the load carrying beam when using glassfibre reinforced polymers, carbon fibre reinforced polymers or an aluminium alloy as the construction material. Thereby, it is found that the weight of a glass fibre wind turbine blade is increased from 0.5 to 33 tons when the blade length grows...... by the fatigue resistance in orderto making the material survive the 100 to 500 million load cycles experience of the windturbine blade throughout the lifetime. The aluminium blade is also found to be considerably heavier compared with the composite blades....

  14. Mapping wind erosion hazard in Australia using MODIS-derived ground cover, soil moisture and climate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X; Leys, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes spatial modeling methods to identify wind erosion hazard (WEH) areas across Australia using the recently available time-series products of satellite-derived ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed. We implemented the approach and data sets in a geographic information system to produce WEH maps for Australia at 500 m ground resolution on a monthly basis for the recent thirteen year period (2000–2012). These maps reveal the significant wind erosion hazard areas and their dynamic tendencies at paddock and regional scales. Dust measurements from the DustWatch network were used to validate the model and interpret the dust source areas. The modeled hazard areas and changes were compared with results from a rule-set approach and the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS) model. The study demonstrates that the time series products of ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed can be jointly used to identify landscape erodibility and to map seasonal changes of wind erosion hazard across Australia. The time series wind erosion hazard maps provide detailed and useful information to assist in better targeting areas for investments and continuous monitoring, evaluation and reporting that will lead to reduced wind erosion and improved soil condition

  15. Effect of unbalanced voltage on windings temperature, operational life and load carrying capacity of induction machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P. [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Street 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2008-04-15

    This paper investigates the influence of the CVUF angle on the windings temperature rise and the derating factor of an induction machine supplied with unbalanced voltage. The effect of simultaneous voltage unbalance and harmonics on its operational life is analyzed as well. The results of calculations and experimental investigations are presented for two induction cage machines of rated power 3 and 5.5 kW. (author)

  16. Physically-based modeling of topographic effects on spatial evapotranspiration and soil moisture patterns through radiation and wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simulations with the Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP model are performed to quantify the spatial variability of both potential and actual evapotranspiration (ET, and soil moisture content (SMC caused by topography-induced spatial wind and radiation differences. To obtain the spatially distributed ET/SMC patterns, the field scale SWAP model is applied in a distributed way for both pointwise and catchment wide simulations. An adapted radiation model from r.sun and the physically-based meso-scale wind model METRAS PC are applied to obtain the spatial radiation and wind patterns respectively, which show significant spatial variation and correlation with aspect and elevation respectively. Such topographic dependences and spatial variations further propagate to ET/SMC. A strong spatial, seasonal-dependent, scale-relevant intra-catchment variability in daily/annual ET and less variability in SMC can be observed from the numerical experiments. The study concludes that topography has a significant effect on ET/SMC in the humid region where ET is a energy limited rather than water availability limited process. It affects the spatial runoff generation through spatial radiation and wind, therefore should be applied to inform hydrological model development. In addition, the methodology used in the study can serve as a general method for physically-based ET estimation for data sparse regions.

  17. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fécan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale simulation of the soil-derived dust emission in semi-arid regions needs to account for the influence of the soil moisture on the wind erosion threshold. Soil water retention consists of molecular adsorption on the soil grain surface and capillary forces between the grain. Interparticle capillary forces (characterized by the moisture tension are the main factor responsible for the increase of the wind erosion threshold observed when the soil moisture increases. When the soil moisture content is close to but smaller than the maximum amount of adsorbed water, w' (depending on the soil texture, these capillary forces are considered as not strong enough to significantly increase the erosion threshold. An expression of the moisture tension as a function of soil moisture and w' is derived from retention curves. From this expression, a parametrization of the ratio of the wet to dry erosion thresholds has been developed as a function of soil moisture and soil texture. The coefficients of this parametrization have been determined by using experimental data from the literature. An empirical relationship between w' and soil clay content has been established. The erosion threshold ratios simulated for different soil textures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Aerosols and particles · Hydrology (soil moisture

  18. A time series based method for estimating relative soil moisture with ERS wind scatterometer data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, J.; Su, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The radar backscattering coefficient is mainly determined by surface soil moisture, vegetation and land surface roughness under a given configuration of the satellite sensor. It is observed that the temporal variations of the three variables are different, the variation of vegetation and roughness

  19. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  20. Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of Load-Carrying Performance of a Wind Turbine Considering the Influence of Assembly Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a wind turbine shrink disk is used as the research object to investigate load-carrying performance of a multi-layer interference fit, and the theoretical model and finite element model are constructed. According to those models, a MW-level turbine shrink disk is designed, and a test device is developed to apply torque to this turbine shrink disk by hydraulic jack. Then, the circumferential slip between the contact surfaces is monitored and the slip of all contact surfaces is zero. This conclusion verifies the reasonability of the proposed models. The effect of the key influencing factors, such as machining deviation, assembly clearance and propel stroke, were analyzed. The contact pressure and load torque of the mating surfaces were obtained by building typical models with different parameters using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the minimum assembly clearance and the machining deviation within the machining range have little influence on load-carrying performance of multi-layer interference fit, while having a greater influence on the maximum assembly clearance and the propel stroke. The results also show that the load-carrying performance of a multiple-layer interference fit can be ensured only if the key factors are set within a reasonable design range. To avoid the abnormal operation of equipment caused by insufficient load torque, the propel stroke during practical assembly should be at least 0.95 times the designed propel stroke, which is significant in guiding the design and assembly of the multi-layer interference fit.

  1. Secondary contamination of 30-km zone of the Chernobyl atomic electric plant and adjacent territory due to radionuclides carried by ascending wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.; Gavrilov, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The territory contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic electric plant is a surface source of radioactive aerosols carried into the atmosphere by ascending winds. In this connection, a number of problems arise whose solution is important for assessment of the radiation conditions in the atmosphere near the Earth's surface: (1) calculation of the volume concentration of radionuclides and their fallout on the contaminated and neighboring territory and on this basis determine the potentially dangerous contaminated regions; (2) assessment of the secondary contamination of deactivated territories due to ascending winds and transfer of radionuclides; and (3) determination of the size of the protective (buffer) zones around or near populated areas to ensure low volume concentrations of radionuclides during strong winds. In order to calculate the transfer of radionuclides from a surface source, it is necessary to know its dust intensity, which is the vertical turbulent flux of the radionuclides in the atmosphere layer near the ground Q (Ci · m -2 sec -1 ). A quantity frequently used in practice is Q referred to the contamination density of the surface layer c (Ci/m 2 ) and called the wind ascent intensity α = Q/c. As a rule, the radionuclide wind ascent intensity for a plane source with a nonuniform surface and contamination density may depend on the physical characteristics of the surface as well as on those of the radionuclides and also on the space coordinates x, y and on time. In the present study, the wind ascent intensity was determined by gradient measurements of the mean radionuclide concentration, the wind velocity and air temperature; the conditions during the measurements were assumed to correspond to the case of a plane homogeneous, stationary source of a nondepositing admixture

  2. Weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space and concepts for their realization. [wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, D.; Korb, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space is discussed with emphasis on the requirements for wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data. It is shown that winds are required to realistically depict all atmospheric scales in the tropics and the smaller scales at higher latitudes, where both temperature and wind profiles are necessary. The need for means to estimate air-sea exchanges of sensible and latent heat also is noted. A concept for achieving this through a combination of Lidar cloud top heights and IR cloud top temperatures of cloud streets formed during cold air outbreaks over the warmer ocean is outlined. Recent theoretical feasibility studies concerning the profiling of temperatures, pressure, and humidity by differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) from space and expected accuracies are reviewed. An alternative approach to Doppler Lidar wind measurements also is presented. The concept involves the measurement of the displacement of the aerosol backscatter pattern, at constant heights, between two successive scans of the same area, one ahead of the spacecraft and the other behind it a few minutes later. Finally, an integrated space Lidar system capable of measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and winds which combines the DIAL methods with the aerosol pattern displacement concept is described.

  3. Soil moisture mapping using Sentinel 1 images: the proposed approach and its preliminary validation carried out in view of an operational product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloscia, S.; Pettinato, S.; Santi, E.; Pierdicca, N.; Pulvirenti, L.; Notarnicola, C.; Pace, G.; Reppucci, A.

    2011-11-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop, test and validate a soil moisture (SMC)) algorithm for the GMES Sentinel-1 characteristics, within the framework of an ESA project. The SMC product, to be generated from Sentinel-1 data, requires an algorithm able to process operationally in near-real-time and deliver the product to the GMES services within 3 hours from observations. Two different complementary approaches have been proposed: an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which represented the best compromise between retrieval accuracy and processing time, thus allowing compliance with the timeliness requirements and a Bayesian Multi-temporal approach, allowing an increase of the retrieval accuracy, especially in case where little ancillary data are available, at the cost of computational efficiency, taking advantage of the frequent revisit time achieved by Sentinel-1. The algorithm was validated in several test areas in Italy, US and Australia, and finally in Spain with a 'blind' validation. The Multi-temporal Bayesian algorithm was validated in Central Italy. The validation results are in all cases very much in line with the requirements. However, the blind validation results were penalized by the availability of only VV polarization SAR images and MODIS lowresolution NDVI, although the RMS is slightly > 4%.

  4. Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XingRong; Zhang, ZhiShan; Tan, HuiJuan; Gao, YanHong; Liu, LiChao; Wang, XingPing

    2014-05-01

    The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed.

  5. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  6. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  7. Fate of microplastics and mesoplastics carried by surface currents and wind waves: A numerical model approach in the Sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinsuke; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Tokai, Tadashi

    2017-08-15

    A numerical model was established to reproduce the oceanic transport processes of microplastics and mesoplastics in the Sea of Japan. A particle tracking model, where surface ocean currents were given by a combination of a reanalysis ocean current product and Stokes drift computed separately by a wave model, simulated particle movement. The model results corresponded with the field survey. Modeled results indicated the micro- and mesoplastics are moved northeastward by the Tsushima Current. Subsequently, Stokes drift selectively moves mesoplastics during winter toward the Japanese coast, resulting in increased contributions of mesoplastics south of 39°N. Additionally, Stokes drift also transports micro- and mesoplastics out to the sea area south of the subpolar front where the northeastward Tsushima Current carries them into the open ocean via the Tsugaru and Soya straits. Average transit time of modeled particles in the Sea of Japan is drastically reduced when including Stokes drift in the model. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can be the re......Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1715 - Moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moisture control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... § 154.1715 Moisture control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...

  10. Quasi-geostrophic dynamics in the presence of moisture gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Joy M.; Sukhatme, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The derivation of a quasi-geostrophic (QG) system from the rotating shallow water equations on a midlatitude beta-plane coupled with moisture is presented. Condensation is prescribed to occur whenever the moisture at a point exceeds a prescribed saturation value. It is seen that a slow condensation time scale is required to obtain a consistent set of equations at leading order. Further, since the advecting wind fields are geostrophic, changes in moisture (and hence, precipitation) occur only ...

  11. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...

  12. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results ar...

  13. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  14. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  15. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  16. Moisture Buffer Effect and its Impact on Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Chen, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    The moisture buffer effect of building materials may have great influence on indoor hygrothermal environment. In order to characterize the moisture buffering ability of materials, the basic concept of moisture buffer value (MBV) is adopted. Firstly, a theoretical correction factor is introduced...... in this paper. The moisture uptake/release by hygroscopic materials can be calculated with the factor and the basic MBV. Furthermore, the validation of the correction factor is carried out. The impact of moisture buffering on indoor environment is assessed by using numerical simulations. The results show...

  17. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  18. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  19. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the metmast and Nacelle Windspeed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are identical with the data used for the Risø-I-3246(EN) po......) power curve report. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1] and the wind and yaw correlation is analyzed in accordance to Ref. [2]....

  20. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective o...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...

  1. An Assessment of the Capabilities of the ERS Satellites' Active Microwave Instruments for Monitoring Soil Moisture Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blyth

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the European Remote sensing Satellite (ERS-1 in July 1991 represented an important turning point in the development of Earth observation as it was the first of a series of satellites which would carry high resolution active microwave (radar sensors which could operate through the thickest cloudeover and provide continuity of data for at least a decade. This was of particular relevance to hydrological applications, such as soil moisture monitoring, which generally require frequent satellite observations to monitor changes in state. ERS-1 and its successor ERS-2 carry the active microwave instrument (AMI which operates in 3 modes (synthetic aperture radar, wind scatterometer and wave seatterometer together with the radar altimeter which may all be useful for the observation of soil moisture. This paper assesses the utility of these sensors through a comprehensive review of work in this field. Two approaches to soil moisture retrieval are identified: 1 inversion modelling, where the physical effects of vegetation and soil roughness on radar backscatter are quantified through the use of multi-frequency and/or multi-polarization sensors and 2 change detection where these effects are normalized through frequent satellite observation, the residual effects being attributed to short-term changes in soil moisture. Both approaches will be better supported by the future European Envisat-l satellite which will provide both multi-polarization SAR and low resolution products which should facilitate more frequent temporal observation.

  2. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  3. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  4. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  5. Space-time modeling of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijuan; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2017-11-01

    A physically derived space-time mathematical representation of the soil moisture field is carried out via the soil moisture balance equation driven by stochastic rainfall forcing. The model incorporates spatial diffusion and in its original version, it is shown to be unable to reproduce the relative fast decay in the spatial correlation functions observed in empirical data. This decay resulting from variations in local topography as well as in local soil and vegetation conditions is well reproduced via a jitter process acting multiplicatively over the space-time soil moisture field. The jitter is a multiplicative noise acting on the soil moisture dynamics with the objective to deflate its correlation structure at small spatial scales which are not embedded in the probabilistic structure of the rainfall process that drives the dynamics. These scales of order of several meters to several hundred meters are of great importance in ecohydrologic dynamics. Properties of space-time correlation functions and spectral densities of the model with jitter are explored analytically, and the influence of the jitter parameters, reflecting variabilities of soil moisture at different spatial and temporal scales, is investigated. A case study fitting the derived model to a soil moisture dataset is presented in detail.

  6. Field experiments on airborne moisture transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldengarm, J.; Gids, W.F. de

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the Dutch participation in the IEA Annex XIV “Condensation” field experiments have been carried out to study airbome moisture transport in realistic circumstances. The experiments were done in an unoccupied 3-story dwelling in Leidschendam in the Netherlands. Some of the

  7. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  8. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  9. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1995-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  10. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  11. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  12. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  13. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  14. Moisture rainout fraction over the Indian Ocean during austral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    35

    summer based on 18O/16O ratios of surface sea water, rainwater at .... In other words, the average rainout fraction (fraction of the overhead moisture ..... The highest wind speed and direction are found after 40oS latitude whereas low values.

  15. Effects of moisture on glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    performance of wind turbine blades over their lifetime. Here, environmental moisture conditions were simulated by immersing glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens in salt water for a period of up to 8 years. The mechanical properties of specimens were analyzed before and after immersion to evaluate...

  16. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  17. Calibration of moisture monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    A method for calibrating an aluminum oxide hygrometer against an optical chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer has been established. A theoretical cross-point line of dew points from both hygrometers and a maximum moisture content of 10 ppM/sub v/ are used to define an area for calibrating the sensor probes of the aluminum oxide hygrometer

  18. Microclimate and soil moisture in a silvopastoral system in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the microclimate changes in silvopastoral systems are quantified at different time and spatial scales and compared with single-pasture systems. The study was conducted in a silvopastoral system in São Carlos, Brazil (22°01' South and 47°53' West. The silvopastoral system consisted of grass pastures [Urochloa (sin. Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilik] lined with strips of native trees spaced at 17 m. Continuous microclimate measurements (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and incident photosynthetically active radiation were carried out from September 2010 to September 2012 at two positions of the silvopastoral system (2.0 and 8.5 m from the rows of trees and at a pasture under full sunlight, located in an adjacent area. The soil moisture was monitored weekly from 24 March 2010 to 1 April 2012 at distances of 0.0, 2.0, 4.75, and 8.5 m from the rows of trees. The rows of native trees reduced wind speeds (46% reduction and changed the photosynthetically active radiation incidence pattern on the pasture (up to 40% reduction of incidence at the point nearest to the trees. The combined action of these factors promoted thermal and air humidity changes on the pasture at the different points measured. With respect to soil moisture, there was greater soil moisture removal at the sampling points near the rows of native trees under the silvopastoral system, mainly due to enhanced exploration by tree roots at greater depths in dry spells or early dry periods, when compared with the midpoints between the rows.

  19. Free-Tropospheric Moisture Convergence and Tropical Convective Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is known that quiescent periods with only shallow cumuli prevalent are frequently observed even in the deep Tropics, which is considered from the climatological perspectives as an area harboring vigorous deep convection. It is argued in this work that the free-tropospheric (FT) moisture convergence is a crucial factor for separating the stable maintenance of isolated shallow cumuli in the quiescent periods from the self-sustaining growth of organized convective systems in the dynamic periods over tropical oceans. The analysis is based on a variety of satellite measurements including Aqua AIRS T and q soundings and QuikSCAT surface wind, composited with reference to the time before or after the occurrence of precipitating clouds detected by TRMM PR. The FT moisture convergence and updraft moisture flux at cloud base are then derived from this dataset under large-scale moisture budget constraint (see Figure). Free-tropospheric precipitation efficiency (FTPE), or the ratio of precipitation to updraft moisture flux at cloud base, is introduced as a measure of convective intensity (rather than the population) over the large-scale domain. The following hypothesis is discussed in light of the analysis results. Isolated shallow cumuli would stay shallow when large-scale FT moisture is diverging (although moisture is weakly converging when integrated over the whole troposphere) since an increase in cumulus population would be counteracted by an additional moisture divergence in the FT. When large-scale FT convergence is positive, in contrast, developing clouds would induce a more moisture input and allow an unstable growth to a highly organized convective system. Zero FT moisture convergence may serve as the neutrality separating the negative feedback acting in the quiescent regime from the positive feedback instrumental for the dynamic regime.

  20. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  1. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  2. Moisture Metrics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  3. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  4. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  5. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  6. Settlement determination of operating moisture of autoclaved aerated concrete in different climatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastushkov Pavel Pavlovich

    Full Text Available In the process of operation of buildings the moisture state of enveloping structures materials is changing depending on their construction features, properties of the material, temperature and moisture conditions in the premises, climatic conditions of the construction area. Moisture mode determines the operational properties of the enveloping structures of a building. It directly influences the thermal characteristics of enveloping structure and energy efficiency of the applied materials. The analysis of the methods for calculation of moisture behavior of enclosing structures is carried out. The research relevance of operational moisture of AAC is substantiated. Experimental studies and results of the sorption moisturizing and water vapor permeability of leading marks of aerated concrete are carried out. The authors offer the results of numerical calculations of the moisture behavior of aerated concrete in the walls with mark D400 with facade thermal insulation composite systems - with external plaster layers for different climatic zones of construction.

  7. Validation of wind loading codes by experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1997, full scale measurements of the wind and wind induced pressures were carried out on the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. Simultaneously, a comparative wind tunnel experiment was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. In this paper, the

  8. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  9. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  10. SOIL moisture data intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yann; Rodriguez-Frenandez, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parens, Marie; Molero, Beatriz; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Richaume, Philippe; Bindlish, Rajat; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 6 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underwent significant evolutions as knowledge improved. Other approaches for retrieval at Level 2 over land were also investigated while Level 3 and 4 were initiated. In this présentation these improvements are assessed by inter-comparisons of the current Level 2 (V620) against the previous version (V551) and new products either using neural networks or Level 3. In addition a global evaluation of different SMOS soil moisture (SM) products is performed comparing products with those of model simulations and other satellites (AMSR E/ AMSR2 and ASCAT). Finally, all products were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture (SM). The study demonstrated that the V620 shows a significant improvement (including those at level1 improving level2)) with respect to the earlier version V551. Results also show that neural network based approaches can yield excellent results over areas where other products are poor. Finally, global comparison indicates that SMOS behaves very well when compared to other sensors/approaches and gives consistent results over all surfaces from very dry (African Sahel, Arizona), to wet (tropical rain forests). RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is still an issue even though detection has been greatly improved while RFI sources in several areas of the world are significantly reduced. When compared to other satellite products, the analysis shows that SMOS achieves its expected goals and is globally consistent over different eco climate regions from low to high latitudes and throughout the seasons.

  11. Wind Resource Assessment – Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Courtney, Michael; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a wind resource assessment for the seven test stands at the Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines in Denmark. Calculations have been carried out mainly using wind data from three on-site wind lidars. The generalized wind climates applied in the wind resource calculations for the seven test stands are based on correlations between a short period of on-site wind data from the wind lidars with a long-term reference. The wind resource assessment for the seven ...

  12. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  13. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  14. Moisture transport and Atmospheric circulation in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Cian; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2013-04-01

    Cyclones are an important feature of the Mid-Latitudes and Arctic Climates. They are a main transporter of warm moist energy from the sub tropics to the poles. The Arctic Winter is dominated by highly stable conditions for most of the season due to a low level temperature inversion caused by a radiation deficit at the surface. This temperature inversion is a ubiquitous feature of the Arctic Winter Climate and can persist for up to weeks at a time. The inversion can be destroyed during the passage of a cyclone advecting moisture and warming the surface. In the absence of an inversion, and in the presence of this warm moist air mass, clouds can form quite readily and as such influence the radiative processes and energy budget of the Arctic. Wind stress caused by a passing cyclones also has the tendency to cause break-up of the ice sheet by induced rotation, deformation and divergence at the surface. For these reasons, we wish to understand the mechanisms of warm moisture advection into the Arctic from lower latitudes and how these mechanisms are controlled. The body of work in this area has been growing and gaining momentum in recent years (Stramler et al. 2011; Morrison et al. 2012; Screen et al. 2011). However, there has been no in depth analysis of the underlying dynamics to date. Improving our understanding of Arctic dynamics becomes increasingly important in the context of climate change. Many models agree that a northward shift of the storm track is likely in the future, which could have large impacts in the Arctic, particularly the sea ice. A climatology of six-day forward and backward trajectories starting from multiple heights around 70 N is constructed using the 22 year ECMWF reanalysis dataset (ERA-INT). The data is 6 hourly with a horizontal resolution of 1 degree on 16 pressure levels. Our methodology here is inspired by previous studies examining flow patterns through cyclones in the mid-latitudes. We apply these earlier mid-latitude methods in the

  15. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  16. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  17. Neutron moisture gaging of agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, S.; Janout, Z.; Kovacik, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design is described of a neutron moisture gage which consists of a measuring probe, neutron detector, small electronic recording device and a 241 Am-Be radionuclide source. The neutron detector consists of a surface barrier semiconductor silicon detector and a conversion layer of lithium fluoride. The detection of triton which is the reaction product of lithium with neutrons by the silicon detector is manifested as a voltage pulse. The detector has low sensitivity for fast neutrons and for gamma radiation and is suitable for determining moisture values in large volume samples. Verification and calibration measurements were carried out of chernozem, brown soil and podzolic soils in four series. The results are tabulated. Errors of measurement range between 0.8 to 1.0%. The precision of measurement could be improved by the calibration of the device for any type of soil. (E.S.). 4 tabs., 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  19. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Dept. of Aero Materials Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding.

  20. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sung Hun; Han, Tae Hee

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding

  1. Calculations of condensed moisture escape from a NPP spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratuta, Eh. G.; Yaroshenko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating water losses due to condensed moisture escape with a wind away from a spray pond used for cooling steam turbine condensator water and emergency nuclear reactor cooling is developed. The method is based on solving a three-dimensional equation of single drop motion, assuming that during the whole flight only gravity and aerodynamic resistance forces act on a drop. The basic parameter variation ranges are the following: 0-18 m/s wind velocity, 0.04-0.12 MPa pressure drop at the nozzle output, 1-2 m height of sprayers above the pond mirror. The given method permits to determine both the amount of circulation water loss and the local liquid flow rate distribution pattern as well as the area around the pond receiving the escaped moisture that is necessary for estimating the ecological situation near a NPP

  2. Microwave emission measurements of sea surface roughness, soil moisture, and sea ice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the microwave radiometers to be carried aboard the Nimbus 5 and 6 satellites and proposed for one of the earth observatory satellites, remote measurements of microwave radiation at wavelengths ranging from 0.8 to 21 cm have been made of a variety of the earth's surfaces from the NASA CV-990 A/C. Brightness temperatures of sea water surfaces of varying roughness, of terrain with varying soil moisture, and of sea ice of varying structure were observed. In each case, around truth information was available for correlation with the microwave brightness temperature. The utility of passive microwave radiometry in determining ocean surface wind speeds, at least for values higher than 7 meters/second has been demonstrated. In addition, it was shown that radiometric signatures can be used to determine soil moisture in unvegetated terrain to within five percentage points by weight. Finally, it was demonstrated that first year thick, multi-year, and first year thin sea ice can be distinguished by observing their differing microwave emissivities at various wavelengths.

  3. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture from pan water evaporation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Pooja; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Rao, M Someshwer; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-01-01

    A continuous and reliable time series data of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is an important requirement for the wider applicability of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. This requires routine sampling of atmospheric moisture by an appropriate technique and analysis of moisture for its isotopic composition. We have, therefore, used a much simpler method based on an isotope mass balance approach to derive the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture using a class-A drying evaporation pan. We have carried out the study by collecting water samples from a class-A drying evaporation pan and also by collecting atmospheric moisture using the cryogenic trap method at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India, during a pre-monsoon period. We compared the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture obtained by using the class-A drying evaporation pan method with the cryogenic trap method. The results obtained from the evaporation pan water compare well with the cryogenic based method. Thus, the study establishes a cost-effective means of maintaining time series data of the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture at meteorological observatories. The conclusions drawn in the present study are based on experiments conducted at Roorkee, India, and may be examined at other regions for its general applicability.

  4. Radioactive droplet moisture transfer from nuclear power plant spray pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elokhin, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Problem on transfer of radioactive droplet moisture with an account of its evaporation from the nuclear power plant spray pool (NPP coolant) is considered. Formulae enabling evaluation of droplet and radioactive water admixture lifetime as a whole, as well as the maximum distance (by wind), over which it can extend, are obtained. Recommendations for decrease in the droplet dispersed composition and reduction in scale of radioactive contamination of underlying surface are given. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Performance of spanish wind turbines. Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1997-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1995 going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  6. Performance of spanish wind turbines. Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1998-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1996 going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author) 4 refs

  7. Neutron moisture measurement in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thony, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This method is generally used for soil moisture determination but also for moisture in building materials. After a review of neutron interaction with matter (elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture and absorption with emission of charged particles) and of the equipment (source, detector and counting), gravimetric and chemical calibration are described and accuracy of measurement is discussed. 5 refs [fr

  8. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  9. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    that are harmful such as growth of house dust mites, surface condensation and mould growth. Therefore a series of experiments has been carried out in a full scale test facility to determine the moisture buffer effect of interior walls of cellular concrete and plaster board constructions. For the cellular concrete......Moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate peaks in the relative humidity (RH) of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. This can help to ensure healthier indoor environments by preventing many processes...... of the changes of moisture content in specimens of the wall composites exposed to the same environment. It was found that the finishes had a big impact on the buffer performance of the underlying materials. Even though the untreated cellular concrete had a very high buffer capacity, the effect was strongly...

  10. Development of density and moisture gauge by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelaviraj, V.; Karasuddhi, P.; Banchornthevakal, V.; Punyachaiya, S.

    1981-08-01

    A combined soil moisture/density gauge using nuclear technique was developed. Simultaneous density and moisture measurements can take place by means of gamma and neutron sources which are attached to the moisture probe. Backscattered gamma radiation giving information on density is detected by a G.M. counter while slow neutron radiation containing moisture information is detected by a boron-lined proportional counter. The instrument makes use of a 30 mCi americium 241-beryllium neutron source and a 10 mCi cesium 137 gamma source. The instrument was calibrated using soil and sand filled in a 200 litre-barrel in laboratory and field work which was carried out to check the correctness of the calibration curves. (author)

  11. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania

    2008-06-01

    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  12. On the Response of a Micro Wind Turbine to Wind-Speed Change

    OpenAIRE

    烏谷, 隆; 渡辺, 公彦; 大屋, 裕二

    2004-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of a wind turbine, it is more effective to use high-speed wind. A method collecting wind to get high-speed wind was experimentally studied. It was found that the brimmed diffuser was a good device to get high-speed wind. The brimmed diffuser accelerated approaching wind, and wind speed near its inlet became about 1.7 times. Using this brimmed diffuser, we have made a new micro wind turbine and been carrying out field experiment. In order realize the properties of the...

  13. An Appropriate Wind Model for Wind Integrated Power Systems Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Speed Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Karki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar. Wind energy is being perceived as a promising alternative. This source of energy technology and its applications have undergone significant research and development over the past decade. As a result, many modern power systems include a significant portion of power generation from wind energy sources. The impact of wind generation on the overall system performance increases substantially as wind penetration in power systems continues to increase to relatively high levels. It becomes increasingly important to accurately model the wind behavior, the interaction with other wind sources and conventional sources, and incorporate the characteristics of the energy demand in order to carry out a realistic evaluation of system reliability. Power systems with high wind penetrations are often connected to multiple wind farms at different geographic locations. Wind speed correlations between the different wind farms largely affect the total wind power generation characteristics of such systems, and therefore should be an important parameter in the wind modeling process. This paper evaluates the effect of the correlation between multiple wind farms on the adequacy indices of wind-integrated systems. The paper also proposes a simple and appropriate probabilistic analytical model that incorporates wind correlations, and can be used for adequacy evaluation of multiple wind-integrated systems.

  14. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.L.; Yeager, J.G.; Ashley, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content on the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria in sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized sludge as well as survival data on bacteria indigenous to sludge. Growth of bacteria was stimulated in sludge during the initial phase of moisture removal by evaporation, but the reduction of moisture content below about 50% by weight caused a proportional decrease in bacterial numbers. The rates of inactivation of bacteria by ionizing radiation in sludge were usually modified to some degree by variations in moisture content. Most bacteria were found to be somewhat protected from ionizing radiation at reduced moisture levels

  15. Digital neutron moisture meter for moisture determination in the cokes and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibovski, R.; Igel'ski, A.; Kiyanya, K.; Kiyanya, S.; Mnikh, Eh.; Sledzevski, R.; Verba, V.

    1979-01-01

    Description is given of the digital neutron moisture gage for measuring water content in coke or in dry building materials. The device can work independently with indication of the results to personnel carrying out control operation and adjustment of the process or as a part of an automated control system with supplying the results of measurements in a form of analogous signals or electric pulses in the preselected code. The moisture gage described consists of two units: measuring probes with containers and the desk with power supply and the system for digital processing of a radiometric signal. The measuring probe consists of the asotopic fast neutrons source; helium proportional counter of slow neutrons and a pulse amplifier. The probe is mounted in the bunker with the material measured and is located inside the protective tube made of the weare-resistant material. To obtain high accuracy of measurements and to obtain the measuring instrument's reading immediately in the units of moisture measurement, the digizal converter circuit for radiometric signals processing is used. The The digital converter circuit cited, can be applied to any calibration dependence of linear type with initial value. The block diagram of the device is given. The device described permits to measure the moisture content in the metallurgy coks and in the building materials in one minute and with the error not more than 0.5% [ru

  16. Wind Turbine Test. Wind Matic WM 17S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 17S, 75 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, structural...

  17. Wind Turbine Test Wind Matic WM 15S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 15S, 55 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, dynamical...

  18. CWEX: Crop/wind-energy experiment: Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large wind turbines perturb mean and turbulent wind characteristics, which modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could create significant changes in surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds ...

  19. Crop/Wind-energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perturbations of mean and turbulent wind characteristics by large wind turbines modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could significantly change surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds of s...

  20. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  1. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  2. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  3. An Experiment on Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Fiordilino, Emilio; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Aglieco, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    We discuss an experiment on wind energy performed with home-made apparatus. The experiment reproduces a laboratory windmill, which can pump water from a lower level to a higher one. By measuring the gain of the gravitational potential energy of the pumped water, one can determine the power extracted from the wind. The activity was carried out with…

  4. NTF – wind speed comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the met mast and Nacelle Wind speed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are the data that are same as used for the power curve report...

  5. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    including combined RF-acoustic antenna installed coaxially with the gondola of the wind power turbine. The work of the technique is synchronized with rotation of blades to eliminate their shielding action. Dangerous in terms of dynamic strength is the wind load pulse, the rise time which is comparable with the period of the natural frequency of the wind turbine elements (blade, tower, rotor, etc.). The amplitude decay of resonant vibrations at critical values of the speed of rotation can be realized through the use of mechanical elastic supports with nonlinear artificial dampers. They have a high coefficient of resistance, but may cause self-excited oscillations. We propose the way to deal with raised vibration of wind turbine elements at the expense of short-term increase of damping in the range of critical rotary axis speeds or during impulsive effects of wind loadings (wind gusts). This is possible through the use of non-linear electromagnetic dampers or active magnetic bearings. Their feature is the possibility of varying the mechanical stiffness and damping properties by changing the electrical parameters of electromagnets. The controlling of these parameters is carried out by the control system (CS) with the information feedback on the spatial-temporal structure of the wind field obtained from IRASS. In the composition of the CS can also be included the rotational speed sensor of the WPT rotor. This approach to the adaptation of wind turbines will allow to reduce vibration and to perform early compensation of the load on their components, which arise under the wind gusts. In addition, corrections about the wind field obtained with IRASS, would increase the mean power of WPT.

  6. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  7. Monitoring Moisture Damage Propagation in GFRP Composites Using Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sabagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites are widely used in infrastructure applications including water structures due to their relatively high durability, high strength to weight ratio, and non-corrosiveness. Here we demonstrate the potential use of carbon nanoparticles dispersed during GFRP composite fabrication to reduce water absorption of GFRP and to enable monitoring of moisture damage propagation in GFRP composites. GFRP coupons incorporating 2.0 wt % carbon nanofibers (CNFs and 2.0 wt % multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated in order to study the effect of moisture damage on mechanical properties of GFRP. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing the GFRP coupons in a seawater bath at two temperatures for a time period of three months. Effects of water immersion on the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of GFRP were investigated. Furthermore, moisture damage in GFRP was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity of the GFRP coupons. It was shown that carbon nanoparticles can provide a means of self-sensing that enables the monitoring of moisture damage in GFRP. Despite the success of the proposed technique, it might not be able to efficiently describe moisture damage propagation in GFRP beyond a specific threshold because of the relatively high electrical conductivity of seawater. Microstructural investigations using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR explained the significance of seawater immersion time and temperature on the different levels of moisture damage in GFRP.

  8. Influence of moisture condition on chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the influence of moisture condition, including moisture content and its distribution, on the chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar. The mortar samples with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6, cured for 1

  9. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  10. The Effects of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mechanical properties were determined for four varieties of soybean (TGX 297-129C, Samsoy1, TGX 306-636C and TGX 536-02D). The hardness, compressive and tensile strength determination were carried out using a Rockwell Hardness machine and tensometer. The effect of moisture content on the hardness ...

  11. Determining seed moisture in Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    The air-oven method with drying times 7 to 8 hours shorter than those now prescribed in the ISTA rules proved adequate for determining moisture contents in acorns of several North American oaks. Schedules of 8 hours at 105°C for Quercus muehlenbergii and 9 hours at 105°C for Q.shumardii and Q.nigra gave moisture contents within three percentage points of those obtained...

  12. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  13. Diagnosing MJO Destabilization and Propagation with the Moisture and MSE Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Eric; Wolding, Brandon

    2015-04-01

    Novel diagnostics obtained as an extension of empirical orthogonal function analysis are used as a composting basis to gain insight into MJO dynamics through examination of reanalysis moisture and moist static energy budgets. The net effect of vertical moisture advection and cloud processes was found to be a modest positive feedback to column moisture anomalies during both enhanced and suppressed phases of the MJO. This positive feedback is regionally strengthened by anomalous surface fluxes of latent heat. The modulation of horizontal synoptic scale eddy mixing acts as a negative feedback to column moisture anomalies, while anomalous winds acting against the mean state moisture gradient aid in eastward propagation. These processes act in a systematic fashion across the Indian Ocean and oceanic regions of the Maritime Continent. The ability to approximately close the MSE budget serves an important role in constraining the moisture budget, whose residual is several times larger than the total and horizontal advective moisture tendencies. Comparison with TRMM precipitation anomalies suggests that the moisture budget residual results from an underestimation by ERAi of variations in both total precipitation and vertical moisture advection associated with the MJO. The results of this study support the concept of the MJO as a moisture-mode. This analysis is extended to examine the impact of boundary layer convergence driven by MJO SST anomalies on the vertically-integrated moisture budget. Results from a coupled version of the SP-CAM suggest that SST-driven moisture convergence anomalies are of a sufficient amplitude to be important for MJO propagation and destabilization, and may help explain why coupled models produce better simulations of the MJO than uncoupled models.

  14. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  15. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  16. Stellar wind theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, D.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of stellar winds as given by the equations of classical fluid dynamics is considered. The equations of momentum and energy describing a steady, spherically symmetric, heat-conducting, viscous stellar wind are cast in a dimensionless form which involves a thermal conduction parameter E and a viscosity parameter γ. An asymptotic analysis is carried out, for fixed γ, in the cases E→O and E→infinity (corresponding to small and large thermal conductivity, respectively), and it is found that it is possible to construct critical solutions for the wind velocity and temperature over the entire flow. The E→O solution represents a wind which emanates from the star at low, subsonic speeds, accelerates through a sonic point, and then approaches a constant asymptotic speed, with its temperature varying as r/sup -4/3/ at large distances r from the star; the E→infinity solution represents a wind which, after reaching an approximately constant speed, with temperature varying as r/sup -2/7/, decelerates through a diffuse shock and approaches a finite pressure at infinity. A categorization is made of all critical stellar wind solutions for given values of γ and E, and actual numerical examples are given. Numerical solutions are obtained by integrating upstream 'from infinity' from initial values of the flow parameters given by appropriate asymptotic expansions. The role of viscosity in stellar wind theory is discussed, viscous and inviscid stellar wind solutions are compared, and it is suggested that with certain limitations, the theory presented may be useful in analyzing winds from solar-type stars

  17. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  18. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  19. Progress in wind tunnel experimental techniques for wind turbine?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingping XIAO; Li CHEN; Qiang WANG; Qiao WANG

    2016-01-01

    Based on the unsteady aerodynamics experiment (UAE) phase VI and the model experiment in controlled conditions (MEXICO) projects and the related research carried out in China Aerodynamic Research and Development Center (CARDC), the recent progress in the wind tunnel experimental techniques for the wind turbine is sum-marized. Measurement techniques commonly used for di?erent types of wind tunnel ex-periments for wind turbine are reviewed. Important research achievements are discussed, such as the wind tunnel disturbance, the equivalence of the airfoil in?ow condition, the three-dimensional (3D) e?ect, the dynamic in?ow in?uence, the ?ow ?eld structure, and the vortex induction. The corresponding research at CARDC and some ideas on the large wind turbine are also introduced.

  20. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  1. Investigation of Wind Turbine Rotor Concepts for Offshore Wind Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyhan, Özlem; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Current plans in offshore wind energy developments call for further reduction of cost of energy. In order to contribute to this goal, several wind turbine rotor concepts have been investigated. Assuming the future offshore wind turbines will operate only in the offshore wind farms, the rotor concepts are not only evaluated for their stand-alone performances and their potential in reducing the loads, but also for their performance in an offshore wind farm. In order to do that, the 10MW reference wind turbine designed in Innwind.EU project is chosen as baseline. Several rotor parameters have been modified and their influences are investigated for offshore wind turbine design purposes. This investigation is carried out as a conceptual parametrical study. All concepts are evaluated numerically with BOT (Blade optimisation tool) software in wind turbine level and with Farmflow software in wind farm level for two wind farm layouts. At the end, all these concepts are compared with each other in terms of their advantages and disadvantages

  2. The effect of salinity and moisture stress on pea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.Abd-El Ghany

    1985-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in the green house in Inchas, Atomic Energy Establishment, to study the effect os salinity and moisture stress on pea plants. Salinity experiments were conducted in 1981/1982, 1982/1983 and 1983/1984 seasons to study the effect of NaCl and/or CaC l 2 as single or mixed salts and radiation combined with salinity. Water stress studies were conducted in 1983/1984 growing season to investigate the effect of soil moisture stress on growth, yield and water use efficiency

  3. Specification of indoor climate design parameters at the assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornienko Sergey Valer’evich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to wide implementation of enveloping structures with increased heat-insulation properties in modern construction here appeared a necessity to assess their moisture conditions. Assessment of moisture conditions of enveloping structures is carried out according to maximum allowable moisture state basing on determining the surface of maximum damping. In relation to it the necessity of additional vapour barrier is checked using moisture balance equation. Though the change of indoor climate parameters in premises is not taken into account in moisture balance equations defined for different seasons. The author improves the method of calculating moisture protective parameters of enclosing structures according to the maximum allowable damping state for a year and a period of moisture accumulation. It is shown in this article that accounting of temperature and relative humidity change of inside air allows specifying calculated parameters of indoor climate in residential and office rooms in assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures for the case of an effective enclosing structure with a façade heat-insulation composite system. Coordinates of the maximum moistened surface of the envelope depends on indoor climate design parameters. It is concluded that the increase of requirements for moisture protection of enclosing structures when using design values of temperature and relative humidity of internal air according to the Russian regulation (SP 50.13330.2012 is not always reasonable. Accounting of changes of indoor climate parameters allows more precise assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures during their design.

  4. A pan-European quantitative assessment of soil loss by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Lugato, Emanuele; Panagos, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious environmental problem often low perceived but resulting in severe soil degradation forms. On the long-term a considerable part of topsoil - rich in nutrient and organic matters - could be removed compromising the agricultural productivity and inducing an increased use of fertilizers. Field scale studies and observations proven that wind erosion is a serious problem in many European sites. The state-of-the-art suggests a scenario where wind erosion locally affects the temperate climate areas of the northern European countries, as well as the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean region. However, observations, field measurements and modelling assessments are extremely limited and unequally distributed across Europe. It implies a lack of knowledge about where and when wind erosion occurs, limiting policy actions aimed at mitigating land degradation. To gain a better understanding about soil degradation process, the Soil Resource Assessment working group of the Joint Research Centre carried out the first pan-European assessments of wind-erodible fraction of soil (EF) (Geoderma, 232, 471-478, 2014) and land susceptibility to wind erosion (Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2318). Today's challenge is to integrate the insights archived by these pan-European assessments, local experiments and field-scale models into a new generation of regional-scale wind erosion models. A GIS version of the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) was developed with the aim to i) move a step forward into the aforementioned challenges, and ii) evaluate the soil loss potential due to wind erosion in the agricoltural land of the EU. The model scheme was designed to describe daily soil loss potential, combining spatiotemporal conditions of soil erodibility, crust factor, soil moisture content, vegetation coverage and wind erosivity at 1 km2 resolution. The average soil loss predicted by GIS-RWEQ in the EU arable land ranges from 0 to 39.9 Mg ha-1 yr

  5. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  6. On the contribution of atmospheric moisture to dew formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Segal, M.

    1988-09-01

    The relative contributions of dewfall (a flux of water vapour from air to surface) and distillation (a flux of water vapour from soil to canopy) to dew formation on closed canopy and bare soil surfaces are assessed, and the dependence of dew amount upon wind speed, absolute temperature, atmospheric stability, relative humidity, soil characteristics and cloudiness, all of which are significant factors, is evaluated. Some of these evaluations provide refinements to similar ones given in Monteith (1961). High dewfall rates are usually ≲0.06 mm hr-1 over canopy or bare soil, though upon a canopy under soil-saturated and air-saturated conditions, rates of dew formation may reach 0.07 0.09 mm hr-1 with contributions from distillation. Various sets of observations are reanalyzed to illustrate the importance of the horizontal advection of moisture in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) to observed high rates of dew formation arising from the atmospheric contribution of water vapour (dewfall). These locally observed high dewfall rates must be the result of small-scale or mesoscale horizontal advection of moisture in the NBL, since the humidity changes within the typically shallow NBL required to balance the loss of water at the surface are not observed. Over extensive areas of uniform surface (horizontal scales ≫10 km), such continuously high dewfall rates could only be balanced by a local supply of atmospheric moisture since advection of moisture would necessarily be small.

  7. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  9. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    pressure and weight data can be "translated" to pore geometry by known physical relationships. In this context, analytical descriptions are important which can relate moisture condensation in pore structures to ambient vapor pressure. Such a description, the extended BET-relation, is presented...... physical parameters, the so-called BET-parameters: The heat property factor, C, and the pore surface, SBET (derived from the so-called uni-molecular moisture content uBET). A software ‘SORP07’ has been developed to handle any calculations made in the paper. For readers who have a special interest...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  10. Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Macelloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the MAP and RAPHAEL projects, airborne experimental campaigns were carried out by the IFAC group in 1999 and 2000, using a multifrequency microwave radiometer at L, C and X bands (1.4, 6.8 and 10 GHz. The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information on agricultural areas to give reliable inputs to the hydrological models. It is well known that microwave emission from soil, mainly at L-band (1.4 GHz, is very well correlated to its moisture content. Two experimental areas in Italy were selected for this project: one was the Toce Valley, Domodossola, in 1999, and the other, the agricultural area of Cerbaia, close to Florence, where flights were performed in 2000. Measurements were carried out on bare soils, corn and wheat fields in different growth stages and on meadows. Ground data of soil moisture (SMC were collected by other research teams involved in the experiments. From the analysis of the data sets, it has been confirmed that L-band is well related to the SMC of a rather deep soil layer, whereas C-band is sensitive to the surface SMC and is more affected by the presence of surface roughness and vegetation, especially at high incidence angles. An algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture, based on the sensitivity to moisture of the brightness temperature at C-band, has been tested using the collected data set. The results of the algorithm, which is able to correct for the effect of vegetation by means of the polarisation index at X-band, have been compared with soil moisture data measured on the ground. Finally, the sensitivity of emission at different frequencies to the soil moisture profile was investigated. Experimental data sets were interpreted by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM and the outputs of the model were used to train an artificial neural network to reproduce the soil moisture content at different depths. Keywords: microwave radiometry, soil moisture

  11. Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture using Semi-Concurrent Radar and Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Ouellette, J. D.; Colliander, A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Walker, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperature both have well-documented sensitivity to surface soil moisture, particularly in the microwave regime. While radiometer-derived soil moisture retrievals have been shown to be stable and accurate, they are only available at coarse spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. Backscatter from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is similarly sensitive to soil moisture but can yield higher spatial resolutions, with pixel sizes about an order of magnitude smaller. Soil moisture retrieval from radar backscatter is more difficult, however, due to the combined sensitivity of radar scattering to surface roughness, vegetation structure, and soil moisture. The algorithm uses a time-series of SAR data to retrieval soil moisture information, constraining the SAR-derived soil moisture estimates with radiometer observations. This effectively combines the high spatial resolution offered by SAR with the precision offered by passive radiometry. The algorithm is a change detection approach which maps changes in the radar backscatter to changes in surface soil moisture. This new algorithm differs from existing retrieval techniques in that it does not require ancillary vegetation information, but assumes vegetation and surface roughness are stable between pairs of consecutive radar overpasses. Furthermore, this method does not require a radar scattering model for the vegetation canopy, nor the use of a training data set. The algorithm works over a long time series, and is constrained by hard bounds which are defined using a coarse-resolution radiometer soil moisture product. The presentation will include soil moisture retrievals from Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) SAR data. Two sets of optimization bounds will constrain the radar change detection algorithm: one defined by SMAP radiometer retrievals and one defined by WindSat radiometer retrievals. Retrieved soil moisture values will be presented on a world map and will

  12. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  13. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  14. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  15. Moisture transport properties of brick – comparison of exposed, impregnated and rendered brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2016-01-01

    In regards to internal insulation of preservation worthy brick façades, external moisture sources, such as wind-driven rain exposure, inevitably has an impact on moisture conditions within the masonry construction. Surface treatments, such as hydrophobation or render, may remedy the impacts...... of external moisture. In the present paper the surface absorption of liquid water on masonry façades of untreated, hydrophobated and rendered brick, are determined experimentally and compared. The experimental work focuses on methods that can be applied on-site, Karsten tube measurements. These measurements...... are supplemented with results from laboratory measurements of water absorption coefficient by partial immersion. Based on obtained measurement results, simulations are made with external liquid water loads for determination of moisture conditions within the masonry of different surface treatments. Experimental...

  16. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Yeager, J G; Ashley, C S

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content of the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized slu...

  17. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  18. Tracing changes in atmospheric moisture supply to the drying Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation over Southwest China (SWC significantly decreased during 1979–2013. The months from July to September (JAS contributed the most to the decrease in precipitation. By tracing moisture sources of JAS precipitation over the SWC region, it is found that most moisture originates in regions from the northern Indian Ocean to SWC and from South China Sea to SWC. The major moisture contributing area is divided into an extended west region, SWC, and an extended east region. The extended west region is mainly influenced by the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM and the westerlies, while the extended east region is mainly influenced by the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM. The extended west, SWC, and extended east regions contribute 48.2, 15.5, and 24.5 % of the moisture for the SWC precipitation, respectively. Moisture supply from the extended west region decreased at a rate of −7.9 mm month−1 decade−1, whereas that from the extended east increased at a rate of 1.4 mm month−1 decade−1, resulting in an overall decrease in moisture supply. Further analysis reveals that the decline of JAS precipitation is mainly caused by change in the seasonal-mean component rather than the transient component of the moisture transport over the SWC region. In addition, the dynamic processes (i.e., changes in wind rather than the thermodynamic processes (i.e., changes in specific humidity are dominant in affecting the seasonal-mean moisture transport. A prevailing easterly anomaly of moisture transport that weakened moisture supply from the Indian Ocean is to a large extent responsible for the precipitation decrease over the SWC region.

  19. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  20. Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.

    2001-06-27

    Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

  1. Wind direction dependent vertical wind shear and surface roughness parameter in two different coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagavathsingh, A.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Sardar Maran, P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface layer parameterizations are important prerequisites for air pollution dispersion analysis. The turbulent flow characteristics vary at coastal and inland sites where the nuclear facilities are situated. Many pollution sources and their dispersion occur within the roughness sub layer in the lower atmosphere. In this study analysis of wind direction dependence vertical wind shear, surface roughness lengths and surface layer wind condition has been carried out at a coastal and the urban coastal site for the different wind flow regime. The differential response of the near coastal and inland urban site SBL parameters (wind shear, roughness length, etc) was examined as a function of wind direction

  2. Research on wind energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available heights; short-term predictions ? CSIR 2012 Slide 9 Innovation & preliminary wind energy technology tree ? South African Industry?s propensity to innovate is in the same league as their counterparts in Europe. To state this differently, South African...? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 18 Modular form of electrification in rural communities Project funded by the Royal Danish Embassy in Pretoria and carried out by: ? eThekwini (Durban) Municipality ? Ris? DTU (Danish National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy...

  3. Characterization of a new open jet wind tunnel to optimize and test vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tourn, Silvana; Pallarès, Jordi; Cuesta, Ildefonso

    2017-01-01

    Based on the increasing interest in urban environmental technologies, the study of small scale vertical axis wind turbines shows motivating challenges. In this paper, we present the characteristics and potentials of a new open jet wind tunnel. It has a nozzle exit area of 1.5 × 1.5 m2, and it can......%. The detailed characterization of the flow carried out indicates that the wind tunnel can be used to test small scale models of wind turbines....

  4. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  5. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  6. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  8. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  9. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  10. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  11. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  12. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  13. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  14. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  15. Measuring spatial and temporal variation in surface moisture on a coastal beach with a near-infrared terrestrial laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Yvonne; Ruessink, Gerben; Brakenhoff, Laura B.; Donker, Jasper J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Wind-alone predictions of aeolian sand deposition on the most seaward coastal dune ridge often exceed measured deposition substantially. Surface moisture is a major factor limiting aeolian transport on sandy beaches, but existing measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of surface moisture content. Here, we present a new method for detecting surface moisture at high temporal and spatial resolution using a near-infrared terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), the RIEGL VZ-400. Because this TLS operates at a wavelength (1550 nm) near a water absorption band, TLS reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface moisture over its full range. Five days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Gravimetric surface moisture samples were used to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal a robust negative relation for the full range of possible surface moisture contents (0%-25%), with a correlation-coefficient squared of 0.85 and a root-mean-square error of 2.7%. This relation holds between 20 and 60 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O (106-107) data points, which we averaged into surface moisture maps with a 1 × 1 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small reflectance disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale moisture trends.

  16. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF ESTIMATING SOIL MOISTURE OVER BARE SOIL USING FULL-POLARIMETRIC ALOS-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sekertekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging system is one of the most effective way for Earth observation. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary results about estimating soil moisture using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data. Full-polarimetric (HH, HV, VV, VH ALOS-2 data, acquired on 22.04.2016 with the incidence angle of 30.4o, were used in the study. Simultaneously with the SAR acquisition, in-situ soil moisture samples over bare agricultural lands were collected and evaluated using gravimetric method. Backscattering coefficients for all polarizations were obtained and linear regression analysis was carried out with in situ moisture measurements. The best correlation coefficient was observed with VV polarization. Cross-polarized backscattering coefficients were not so sensitive to soil moisture content. In the study, it was observed that soil moisture maps can be retrieved with the accuracy about 14% (RMSE.

  17. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  18. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  19. Wind Conditions for Wind Farm Hanstholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Mann, Jakob

    The net annual energy production (AEP) of the Hanstholm Wind Farm is 158 GWh per year for the Siemens SWT-3.6-120 turbine and 140 GWh for the Vestas V112-3.0 turbine. These values have an uncertainty (standard deviation) of 6%. This result is mainly based on the data for Risø DTU’s test station...... at Høvsøre where wind speeds are measured at approximately the same height as the turbines at Hanstholm and where the terrain is similar. On top of that meso-scale modeling has been used to extrapolate the climatology from Høvsøre to Hanstholm increasing the AEP by almost 6% compared to just using...... the Høvsøre climatology directly. This method of extrapolation is rather new, but several older investigations indicate that the wind resource at Hanstholm is slightly higher than at Høvsøre. The work is carried out for Grontmij-Carl Bro according to a contract dated January 18th 2011....

  20. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    soil moisture meter using the NE555 timer and micro controller as a major electronic component ... relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter. ..... the moisture contents showing that the infiltration of.

  1. Tagging moisture sources with Lagrangian and inertial tracers: application to intense atmospheric river events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pérez-Muñuzuri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Lagrangian tracer tools are evaluated for studies on atmospheric moisture sources and pathways. In these methods, a moisture volume is assigned to each particle, which is then advected by the wind flow. Usual Lagrangian methods consider this volume to remain constant and the particle to follow flow path lines exactly. In a different approach, the initial moisture volume can be considered to depend on time as it is advected by the flow due to thermodynamic processes. In this case, the tracer volume drag must be taken into account. Equations have been implemented and moisture convection was taken into account for both Lagrangian and inertial models. We apply these methods to evaluate the intense atmospheric rivers that devastated (i the Pacific Northwest region of the US and (ii the western Iberian Peninsula with flooding rains and intense winds in early November 2006 and 20 May 1994, respectively. We note that the usual Lagrangian method underestimates moisture availability in the continent, while active tracers achieve more realistic results.

  2. Patterns of Precipitation and Streamflow Responses to Moisture Fluxes during Atmospheric Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, B. M.; Wilson, A. M.; Asgari Lamjiri, M.; Ralph, M.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation from landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) have been shown to dominate the hydroclimate of many parts of the world. ARs are associated with saturated, neutrally-stable profiles in the lower atmosphere, in which forced ascent by topography induces precipitation. Understanding the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation over complex terrain during AR-driven precipitation is critical for accurate forcing of distributed hydrologic models and streamflow forecasts. Past studies using radar wind profilers and radiosondes have demonstrated predictability of precipitation rates based on upslope water vapor flux over coastal terrain, with certain levels of moisture flux exhibiting the greatest influence on precipitation. Additionally, these relationships have been extended to show that streamflow in turn responds predictably to upslope vapor flux. However, past studies have focused on individual pairs of profilers and precipitation gauges; the question of how orographic precipitation in ARs is distributed spatially over complex terrain, at different topographic scales, is less well known. Here, we examine profiles of atmospheric moisture transport from radiosondes and wind profilers, against a relatively dense network of precipitation gauges, as well as stream gauges, to assess relationships between upslope moisture flux and the spatial response of precipitation and streamflow. We focus on California's Russian River watershed in the 2016-2017 cool season, when regular radiosonde launches were made at two locations during an active sequence of landfalling ARs. We examine how atmospheric water vapor flux results in precipitation patterns across gauges with different topographic relationships to the prevailing moisture-bearing winds, and conduct a similar comparison of runoff volume response from several unimpaired watersheds in the upper Russian watershed, taking into account antecedent soil moisture conditions that influence runoff generation. Finally

  3. Increase of Steam Moisture in the BWR-Facility KKP 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, Volker

    2002-01-01

    Main steam moisture in a BWR facility is determined by steam quality at core outlet and efficiency of steam separators and steam dryers. Transport of water with steam is accompanied by transport of radionuclides out of RPV resulting in enhanced radiation level in the main steam system. A remarkable increase of main steam moisture started at KKP 1 in 1997. In the following years increase of steam outlet moisture started at lower and lower core mass flow rates. Dose rate in main steam system increased simultaneously. Core mass flow rate and thus thermal power had to be reduced during stretch out operation to keep the main steam moisture below the specified boundary of 0.2 %. This boundary also guarantees, that radiological exposure remains far below approved values. The increase of main steam moisture corresponds with the application of low leakage core loading. Low leakage core loading results in enhanced steam generation in the center and in reduced steam generation in the outer zones of the core. It can be shown, that the uneven steam generation in the core became stronger over the years. Therefore, steam quality at inlet of the outer steam separators was getting lower. This resulted in higher carry over of water in this steam separators and steam dryers, thus explaining the increasing main steam moisture. KKP 1 started in 2000 with spectral shift operation. As one should expect, this resulted in reduced steam moisture. It remains the question of steam moisture in case of stretch out operation. Countermeasures are briefly discussed. (authors)

  4. Uncertainty Assessment of Space-Borne Passive Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quets, Jan; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Reichle, Rolf; Cosh, Michael; van der Schalie, Robin; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with passive soil moisture retrieval is hard to quantify, and known to be underlain by various, diverse, and complex causes. Factors affecting space-borne retrieved soil moisture estimation include: (i) the optimization or inversion method applied to the radiative transfer model (RTM), such as e.g. the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), or the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), (ii) the selection of the observed brightness temperatures (Tbs), e.g. polarization and incidence angle, (iii) the definition of the cost function and the impact of prior information in it, and (iv) the RTM parameterization (e.g. parameterizations officially used by the SMOS L2 and SMAP L2 retrieval products, ECMWF-based SMOS assimilation product, SMAP L4 assimilation product, and perturbations from those configurations). This study aims at disentangling the relative importance of the above-mentioned sources of uncertainty, by carrying out soil moisture retrieval experiments, using SMOS Tb observations in different settings, of which some are mentioned above. The ensemble uncertainties are evaluated at 11 reference CalVal sites, over a time period of more than 5 years. These experimental retrievals were inter-compared, and further confronted with in situ soil moisture measurements and operational SMOS L2 retrievals, using commonly used skill metrics to quantify the temporal uncertainty in the retrievals.

  5. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  6. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  7. Wake characteristics of wind turbines in utility-scale wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Foti, Daniel; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of turbine wakes is affected by turbine operating conditions, ambient atmospheric turbulent flows, and wakes from upwind turbines. Investigations of the wake from a single turbine have been extensively carried out in the literature. Studies on the wake dynamics in utility-scale wind farms are relatively limited. In this work, we employ large-eddy simulation with an actuator surface or actuator line model for turbine blades to investigate the wake dynamics in utility-scale wind farms. Simulations of three wind farms, i.e., the Horns Rev wind farm in Denmark, Pleasant Valley wind farm in Minnesota, and the Vantage wind farm in Washington are carried out. The computed power shows a good agreement with measurements. Analysis of the wake dynamics in the three wind farms is underway and will be presented in the conference. This work was support by Xcel Energy (RD4-13). The computational resources were provided by National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  8. Pre-feasibility study of 80mw onshore wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a pre-feasibility study of 80MW onshore wind farm in the KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) province previously known as NWFP (North West Frontier) Province of Pakistan. The realistic data of wind speed is collected from Laboratory of Meteorology and Climatology (University of the Punjab) to study the feasibility of wind farm. Detailed analysis of wind turbines from four different manufacturers is carried out together with justifications of selecting a particular wind turbine. Issues related to site selection, wind farm civil foundation, recommendations for a particular choice of tower along with environmental effects are presented. Wind data analysis is carried out by using WINDROSE PRO software to determine the resultant direction of wind at the selected site for wind farm layout. The wind distribution at hub height of the wind turbine is calculated and is used to compute annual power production by the wind farm using power curves of the wind turbine. Electrical network integration issues of wind farm to the external grid are studied and the optimum point of connection is proposed. Finally, economic analysis of the whole wind farm project depending upon the LCC (Life Cycle Cost Analysis) is presented and the feasibility of the project from the investor's point of view is identified. The study concludes that the cost per kilowatt hour of electricity generated by this wind power plant will be 10.4 PKR/kWh and the payback period for the whole project is about 11.2 years. (author)

  9. Pre-Feasibility Study of 80MW Onshore Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Almas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a pre-feasibility study of 80MW onshore wind farm in the KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province previously known as NWFP (North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The realistic data of wind speed is collected from Laboratory of Meteorology & Climatology (University of the Punjab to study the feasibility of wind farm. Detailed analysis of wind turbines from four different manufacturers is carried out together with justifications of selecting a particular wind turbine. Issues related to site selection, wind farm civil foundation, recommendations for a particular choice of tower along with environmental effects are presented. Wind data analysis is carried out by using WINDROSE PRO software to determine the resultant direction of wind at the selected site for wind farm layout. The wind distribution at hub height of the wind turbine is calculated and is used to compute annual power production by the wind farm using power curves of the wind turbine. Electrical network integration issues of wind farm to the external grid are studied and the optimum point of connection is proposed. Finally, economic analysis of the whole wind farm project depending upon the LCC (Life Cycle Cost Analysis is presented and the feasibility of the project from the investor?s point of view is identified. The study concludes that the cost per kilowatt hour of electricity generated by this wind power plant will be 10.4 PKR/kWh and the payback period for the whole project is about 11.2 years

  10. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains...

  11. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  12. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    The wind energy industry has demonstrated its maturity and technical reliability. Because it will play an increasing role on the power generation market, the question of the cost and profitability of the wind energy has become of prime importance. Two main traps must be avoided: the first should be to deny the present and future economical interest of wind energy because of its supplementary cost with respect to conventional power generation techniques. The second trap should be to underestimate the economical progresses that wind energy must carry on to ensure its large scale development. Therefore, some advantageous pricing and regulatory conditions are necessary to allow the development of this emerging energy source. This document presents: the cost of a wind power project (initial investment, financial incentives); the profitability of a project (cost of a kWh of wind power origin, retail price, warranty of power supply capacity, indirect environmental costs, value of decentralized production); economical interest of wind power (energy efficiency, employment, financial advantages for the local economy); and who are the investors. (J.S.)

  13. Wind-driven rain as a boundary condition for HAM simulations: analysis of simplified modelling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Roels, Staf

    2007-01-01

    While the numerical simulation of moisture transfer inside building components is currently undergoing standardisation, the modelling of the atmospheric boundary conditions has received far less attention. This article analyses the modelling of the wind-driven-rain load on building facades...... though: the full variability with the perpendicular wind speed and horizontal rain intensity should be preserved, where feasible, for improved estimations of the moisture transfer in building components. In the concluding section, it is moreover shown that the dependence of the surface moisture transfer...

  14. On the "well-mixed" assumption and numerical 2-D tracing of atmospheric moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water vapour tracers (WVTs are an elegant tool to determine source–sink relations of moisture "online" in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs. However, it is sometimes desirable to establish such relations "offline" based on already existing atmospheric data (e.g. reanalysis data. One simple and frequently applied offline method is 2-D moisture tracing. It makes use of the "well-mixed" assumption, which allows for treating the vertical dimension integratively. Here we scrutinise the "well-mixed" assumption and 2-D moisture tracing by means of analytical considerations in combination with AGCM-WVT simulations. We find that vertically well-mixed conditions are seldom met. Due to the presence of vertical inhomogeneities, 2-D moisture tracing (i neglects a significant degree of fast-recycling, and (ii results in erroneous advection where the direction of the horizontal winds varies vertically. The latter is not so much the case in the extratropics, but in the tropics this can lead to large errors. For example, computed by 2-D moisture tracing, the fraction of precipitation in the western Sahel that originates from beyond the Sahara is ~40%, whereas the fraction that originates from the tropical and Southern Atlantic is only ~4%. According to full (i.e. 3-D moisture tracing, however, both regions contribute roughly equally, showing that the errors introduced by the 2-D approximation can be substantial.

  15. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  16. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  18. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  19. Repowering of wind farms - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivedh, B.S. [Quality Engineering and Software Technologies, Bangalore (India); Devi, R.P.K. [College of Engineering. Power Systems Engineering, Guindy (India); Sreevalsan, E. [Gamesa Wind Turbines India Private Limited, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the study is to devise a method for assessing the repowering potential and to improve the energy output from the wind farms and also to understand the impact on the power quality due to repowering. With repowering, the first-generation wind turbines can be replaced with modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. To carry-out the study an old wind farm located at Kayathar, Tamilnadu is selected. The wind farm was commissioned in 1990's with a capacity of 7.35MW, which consists of 36 Wind Turbines each with the capacity of 200kW and 225kW. The present annual energy generation of the wind farm is 7350MWhr with the plant load factor of 11.41%. The intent of this study is to predict the annual energy output of the wind farm after the repowering using WAsP (Wind Atlas Analysis Application Program). Further this study analyses the power quality issues of the various Wind Turbines. In addition, the main feeder, in which the wind farm which is taken for the study also modeled and the impact on power quality due to repowering also studied. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB. The results are analyzed to understand the significance of repowering to overcome the energy crisis of the nation since the best locations for wind in India are occupied by old wind turbines. The following are the observations and conclusions from the above study. Plant load factor (PLF) increased to 24 %, Energy yield increased to more than 4 times and the capacity of the wind farm became double. And in the view of power quality, comparing to the existing Feeder, Repowered Feeder having less reactive power consumption, voltage variations and flickers except the harmonic distortion. (Author)

  20. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results

  1. Evaluation of the DeepWind concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Borg, Michael; Gonzales Seabra, Luis Alberto

    The report describes the DeepWind 5 MW conceptual design as a baseline for results obtained in the scientific and technical work packages of the DeepWind project. A comparison of DeepWi nd with existing VAWTs and paper projects are carried out and the evaluation of the concept in terms of cost...

  2. Optimization of airborne wind energy generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel results related to an innovative airborne wind energy technology, named Kitenergy, for the conversion of high-altitude wind energy into electricity. The research activities carried out in the last five years, including theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and

  3. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration......), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years...

  4. Modeling soil moisture memory in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, S.; Miller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Antecedent soil conditions create an ecosystem's "memory" of past rainfall events. Such soil moisture memory effects may be observed over a range of timescales, from daily to yearly, and lead to feedbacks between hydrological and ecosystem processes. In this study, we modeled the soil moisture memory effect on savanna ecosystems in California, Arizona, and Africa, using a system dynamics model created to simulate the ecohydrological processes at the plot-scale. The model was carefully calibrated using soil moisture and evapotranspiration data collected at three study sites. The model was then used to simulate scenarios with various initial soil moisture conditions and antecedent precipitation regimes, in order to study the soil moisture memory effects on the evapotranspiration of understory and overstory species. Based on the model results, soil texture and antecedent precipitation regime impact the redistribution of water within soil layers, potentially causing deeper soil layers to influence the ecosystem for a longer time. Of all the study areas modeled, soil moisture memory of California savanna ecosystem site is replenished and dries out most rapidly. Thus soil moisture memory could not maintain the high rate evapotranspiration for more than a few days without incoming rainfall event. On the contrary, soil moisture memory of Arizona savanna ecosystem site lasts the longest time. The plants with different root depths respond to different memory effects; shallow-rooted species mainly respond to the soil moisture memory in the shallow soil. The growing season of grass is largely depended on the soil moisture memory of the top 25cm soil layer. Grass transpiration is sensitive to the antecedent precipitation events within daily to weekly timescale. Deep-rooted plants have different responses since these species can access to the deeper soil moisture memory with longer time duration Soil moisture memory does not have obvious impacts on the phenology of woody plants

  5. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić; Vesna Lelas; Zoran Herceg; Marija Badanjak

    2010-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food) and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as...

  6. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions. Monitoring of w...

  7. A practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture content using combined satellite and meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Pei; Li, Zhao-Liang; Duan, Si-Bo; Gao, Mao-Fang; Huo, Hong-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Soil moisture has long been recognized as one of the essential variables in the water cycle and energy budget between Earth's surface and atmosphere. The present study develops a practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture using combined satellite images and gridded meteorological products. In this approach, soil moisture over the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) clear-sky pixels are estimated from the Vegetation Index/Temperature (VIT) trapezoid scheme in which theoretical dry and wet edges were determined pixel to pixel by China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) meteorological products, including air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and specific humidity. For cloudy pixels, soil moisture values are derived by the calculation of surface and aerodynamic resistances from wind speed. The approach is capable of filling the soil moisture gaps over remaining cloudy pixels by traditional optical/thermal infrared methods, allowing for a spatially complete soil moisture map over large areas. Evaluation over agricultural fields indicates that the proposed approach can produce an overall generally reasonable distribution of all-weather soil moisture. An acceptable accuracy between the estimated all-weather soil moisture and in-situ measurements at different depths could be found with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) varying from 0.067 m3/m3 to 0.079 m3/m3 and a slight bias ranging from 0.004 m3/m3 to -0.011 m3/m3. The proposed approach reveals significant potential to derive all-weather soil moisture using currently available satellite images and meteorological products at a regional or global scale in future developments.

  8. NORDTEST Project on Moisture Buffer Value of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Building materials and furnishing used in contact with indoor air have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. Very low humidity can be alleviated in winter, as well as can high indoor humidity in summer and during high occupancy loads. Thus, materials can...... have been carried out on various typical building materials. The paper gives an account on the definition of the Moisture Buffer Value, it outlines the content of the test protocol, and it gives some examples of results from the Round Robin Tests....... being completed, to develop a definition, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. Apart from the definition of the term Moisture Buffer Value, the project also declares a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested. Finally as a part of the project, some Round Robin Tests...

  9. Temporal and spatial variabilities in the surface moisture content of a fine-grained beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikas, S. L.; Edwards, B. L.; Bitton, M. C. A.; Booth, J. L.; Zhu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined spatial and temporal variations in the surface moisture content of a fine-grained beach at Padre Island, Texas, USA. Surface moisture measurements were collected on a 27 × 24 m grid that extended from the dune toe to the upper foreshore. The grid was surveyed at 2 to 4 h intervals for two tidal cycles, generating 17 maps of the spatial distribution of surface moisture. Simultaneous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, tidal elevation, and water table elevation were used to interpret observed changes in surface moisture. It was found that the spatial distribution of surface moisture was broadly characterized by a cross-shore gradient of high to low content moving landward from the swash zone. The distribution of surface moisture was conceptualized in terms of three zones: saturated (> 25%), intermediate or transitional (5-25%), and dry (< 5%). The position of the saturated zone corresponded to the uppermost swash zone and therefore shifted in accordance with tidal elevation. Moisture contents in the intermediate and dry zones were primarily related to variation in water table depth (which was in turn controlled by tidal elevation) and to a lesser extent by evaporation. Signals associated with atmospheric processes such as evaporation were muted by the minimal degree of variation in atmospheric parameters experienced during most of the study period, but were apparent for the last few hours. The observed spatial and temporal variations in moisture content correspond reasonably well with observations of key controlling processes, but more work is needed to fully characterize this process suite.

  10. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  11. Portable neutron moisture gage for the moisture determination of structure parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisch, M.

    1985-01-01

    For determining the moisture of structure parts during building or before repairing a portable neutron moisture gage consisting of a neutron probe and pulse analyzer has been developed. The measuring process, calibration, and prerequisites of application are briefly discussed

  12. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream%Consumerism and the Sister Carrie''s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  13. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  14. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  15. The Sources of Moisture in the Sand Dunes – The Example of the Western Sahara Dune Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudzka Elwira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic and meteorological conditions may limit the aeolian transport within barchans. An explanation of that issue was the main goal of the investigation held in Western Sahara dune fields located around Tarfaya and Laâyoune. Particular attention was paid to the factors causing the moisture content rising of the sand dune surface layer, which could influence the wind threshold shear velocity in the aeolian transport. The wetted surface layer of sand, when receiving moisture from precipitation or suspensions, reduces the aeolian transport, even in case of wind velocity above 4-5 m s-1. Fog and dew condensation does not affect the moisture of deeper sand layers, what occurs after rainfall.

  16. Offshore Wind Farm Clusters - Towards new integrated Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Peña, Alfredo

    In EERA DTOC testing of existing wind farm wake models against four validation data test sets from large offshore wind farms is carried out. This includes Horns Rev-1 in the North Sea, Lillgrund in the Baltic Sea, Roedsand-2 in the Baltic Sea and from 10 large offshore wind farms in Northern Euro...

  17. Prescribed wind shear modelling with the actuator line technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Troldborg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A method for prescribing arbitrary steady atmospheric wind shear profiles combined with CFD is presented. The method is furthermore combined with the actuator line technique governing the aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine. Computation are carried out on a wind turbine exposed to a representative...

  18. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  20. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  1. Validation of soil moisture ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface soil moisture state controls the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. High-resolution observations of soil moisture will lead to improved flood forecasts, especially for intermediate to large watersheds where most flood damage occurs. Soil moisture is also key in d...

  2. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet; Panda, Rabindra K.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Jana, Raghavendra Belur

    2016-01-01

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected

  3. Equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels produced with veneer inclusion and different types of adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different statistical models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels exposed to different conditions of air temperature and relative humidity, And also to evaluate the influence of the adhesive and veneer inclusion in the equilibrium moisture content. The panels were produced with three different adhesive types (phenol-formaldehyde - FF, melamine-urea-formaldehyde - MUF, and phenol-melamine-urea-formaldehyde - PMUF and with and without veneer inclusion. The evaluation of the equilibrium moisture content of the panels was carried out at temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C and relative humidity of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%. The modeling of equilibrium moisture content was performed using the statistical non-linear and polynomial models. In general, the polynomial models are most indicated for determining the equilibrium moisture content of OSB. The models adjusted only with air relative humidity presented the best precision measurements. The type of adhesive affected the equilibrium moisture content of the panels, being observed for adhesives PMUF and FF the same trend of variation, and the highest values obtained for the panels produced with adhesive MUF. The veneer inclusion decreased the equilibrium moisture content only in the panels with MUF adhesive.

  4. Predicting moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine by microwave scanning of sawn timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Hagman, O.; Fjellner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of calibrating a prediction model for the moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using microwave sensors. The material was initially of green moisture content and was thereafter dried in several steps to zero moisture content. At each step, all the pieces were weighed, scanned with a microwave sensor (Satimo 9,4GHz), and computed tomography (CT)-scanned with a medical CT scanner (Siemens Somatom AR.T.). The output variables from the microwave sensor were used as predictors, and CT images that correlated with known moisture content were used as response variables. Multivariate models to predict average moisture content and density were calibrated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models for average moisture content and density were applied at the pixel level, and the distribution was visualized. The results show that it is possible to predict both moisture content distribution and density distribution with high accuracy using microwave sensors. (author)

  5. Cost optimization of wind turbines for large-scale offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuglsang, P.; Thomsen, K.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains a preliminary investigation of site specific design of off-shore wind turbines for a large off-shore wind farm project at Roedsand that is currently being proposed by ELKRAFT/SEAS. The results were found using a design tool for wind turbines that involve numerical optimization and aeroelastic calculations of response. The wind climate was modeled in detail and a cost function was used to estimate costs from manufacture and installation. Cost of energy is higher for off-shore installations. A comparison of an off-shore wind farm site with a typical stand alone on-shore site showed an increase of the annual production of 28% due to the difference in wind climate. Extreme loads and blade fatigue loads were nearly identical, however,fatigue loads on other main components increased significantly. Optimizations were carried out to find the optimum overall off-shore wind turbine design. A wind turbine for the off-shore wind farm should be different compared with a stand-alone on-shore wind turbine. The overall design changed were increased swept area and rated power combined with reduced rotor speed and tower height. Cost was reduced by 12% for the final 5D/14D off-shore wind turbine from 0.306 DKr/kWh to 0.270 DKr/kWh. These figures include capital costs from manufacture and installation but not on-going costs from maintenance. These results make off-shore wind farms more competitive and comparable to the reference on-shore stand-alone wind turbine. A corresponding reduction of cost of energy could not be found for the stand alone on-shore wind turbine. Furthermore the fatigue loads on wind turbines in on-shore wind farms will increase and cost of energy will increase in favor of off-shore wind farms. (au) EFP-95; EU-JOULE-3; 21 tabs., 7 ills., 8 refs

  6. Vegetation-induced turbulence influencing evapotranspiration-soil moisture coupling: Implications for semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, E.; Kirchner, J. W.; Entekhabi, D.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes is an important component of land-atmosphere interactions controlling hydrology-climate feedback processes. Important as this relationship is, it remains empirical and physical mechanisms governing its dynamics are insufficiently studied. This is particularly of importance for semiarid regions (currently comprising about half of the Earth's land surface) where the shallow surface soil layer is the primary source of ET and direct evaporation from bare soil is likely a large component of the total flux. Hence, ET-soil moisture coupling in these regions is hypothesized to be strongly influenced by soil evaporation and associated mechanisms. Motivated by recent progress in mechanistic modeling of localized heat and mass exchange rates from bare soil surfaces covered by cylindrical bluff-body elements, we developed a physically based ET model explicitly incorporating coupled impacts of soil moisture and vegetation-induced turbulence in the near-surface region. Model predictions of ET and its partitioning were in good agreement with measured data and suggest that the strength and nature of ET-soil moisture interactions in sparsely vegetated areas are strongly influenced by aerodynamic (rather than radiative) forcing namely wind speed and near-surface turbulence generation as a function of vegetation type and cover fraction. The results demonstrated that the relationship between ET and soil moisture varies from a nonlinear function (the dual regime behavior) to a single moisture-limited regime (linear relationship) by increasing wind velocity and enhancing turbulence generation in the near-surface region (small-scale woody vegetation species of low cover fraction). Potential benefits of this study for improving accuracy and predictive capabilities of remote sensing techniques when applied to semiarid environments will also be discussed.

  7. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Re-Circulatory Vegetable Moisturizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Sunmonu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A re-circulatory vegetable moisturizer for preventing wilting in vegetables was developed and its performance evaluation carried out. Freshly harvested Amaranthus vegetables were used for the experiments. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored daily. The vitamin A of this produce was determined at intervals of two days for 9 days. The effects of the storage parameters (temperature and relative humidity on the nutritional value of the produce were determined using statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Further analysis by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT was carried out to compare the means. The vegetable moisturizer was evaluated by comparing the change in nutritional (vitamin A of Amaranthus vegetable with hand wetting system and no wetting condition. The results showed that the moisturizer had higher mean vitamin A content (4.93mg/100gcompared to the mean vitamin A content of the manual wetting (4.88mg/100g and no wetting condition (4.57mg/100g. The sensory characteristics showed that the Moisturizer was more desirable when compared to the manual wetting and no wetting condition after nine days. It was concluded that the Moisturizer preserved the nutritional and sensory characteristics (texture and colour better than the manual and no wetting condition as a result of lower temperature, higher relative humidity and better water draining of the Moisturizer.

  8. Soil drying and wind erosion as affected by different types of shelterbelts planted in the desert region of western Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.P.; Rao, G.G.S.N.; Gupta, G.N.; Rao, B.V.R.

    1983-03-01

    Studies on the effects of 8-year-old shelterbelt plantations indicate a general reduction in wind velocity, wind erosion and evaporative loss of moisture from fields protected with Prosopis juliflora, Cassia siamea and Acacia tortilis. Cassia siamea shelterbelts are the most effective in checking wind erosion and delaying drying of the soil. (Refs. 13).

  9. Possibilities for wind energy on the Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J; Rathmann, O; Lundsager, P [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents an extensive feasibility study regarding the introduction of wind energy in the energy supply of the Kola peninsula in north-western Russia that was carried out during 1996-97. The study covers as well grid connected wind turbines as autonomous systems and a wind atlas was prepared. Special emphasis is put on non-technical activities and objectives like financing models, international funding and a sound politic support. The wind resources on the Kola peninsula are excellent and there are still no reasons to why wind energy installations couldn`t be carried out successfully. Recommendations for starting this development are presented. (au)

  10. IMPER: Characterization of the wind field over a large wind turbine rotor - final report; Improved performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Wagner, R.

    2012-01-15

    A modern wind turbine rotor with a contemporary rotor size would easily with the tips penetrate the air between 116 m and 30 m and herby experience effects of different wind. With current rules on power performance measurements such as IEC 61400-121 the reference wind speed is measured at hub height, an oversimplification of the wind energy power over the rotor disk area is carried out. The project comprised a number of innovative and coordinated measurements on a full scale turbine with remote sensing technology and simulations on a 500 kW wind turbine for the effects of wind field characterization. The objective with the present report is to give a short overview of the different experiments carried out and results obtained within the final phase of this project. (Author)

  11. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  12. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  13. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available outcomes of HVS tests where the moisture condition of the pavement or specific layers in the pavement is under investigation for a specific test. Practical guidance is then provided on the potential systems (how to manage the moisture – hardware) as well...

  14. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  15. 7 CFR 868.307 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.307 Section 868.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Application of Standards § 868.307 Moisture. Water content in milled rice as determined by an FGIS approved...

  16. Integrated Heat Air & Moisture Modeling and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a recently developed Heat Air & Moisture Laboratory in SimuLink. The simulation laboratory facilitates the integration of the following models: (1) a whole building model; (2) Heating Venting and Air-Conditioning and primary systems; (3) 2D indoor airflow, 3D Heat Air & Moisture

  17. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  18. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  19. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...

  20. Logging effects on soil moisture losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1978-01-01

    Abstract - The depletion of soil moisture within the surface 15 feet by an isolated mature sugar pine and an adjacent uncut forest in the California Sierra Nevada was measured by the neutron method every 2 weeks for 5 consecutive summers. Soil moisture recharge was measured periodically during the intervening winters. Groundwater fluctuations within the surface 50...

  1. Multiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Baker, Brett; Renzullo, Luigi; Searle, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in land surface processes and as such there has been a recent increase in the number and resolution of satellite soil moisture observations and the development of land surface process models with ever increasing resolution. Despite these developments, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. A recently developed mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the rover, offers opportunities to overcome this scale issue. This paper describes methods, results and testing of soil moisture estimates produced using rover surveys on a range of scales that are commensurate with model and satellite retrievals. Our investigation involved static cosmic-ray neutron sensors and rover surveys across both broad (36 × 36 km at 9 km resolution) and intensive (10 × 10 km at 1 km resolution) scales in a cropping district in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. We describe approaches for converting rover survey neutron counts to soil moisture and discuss the factors controlling soil moisture variability. We use independent gravimetric and modelled soil moisture estimates collected across both space and time to validate rover soil moisture products. Measurements revealed that temporal patterns in soil moisture were preserved through time and regression modelling approaches were utilised to produce time series of property-scale soil moisture which may also have applications in calibration and validation studies or local farm management. Intensive-scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution while broad-scale surveys produced soil moisture estimates at 9 km resolution. We conclude that the multiscale soil moisture products produced in this study are well suited to future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer-scale soil moisture models.

  2. Wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1976-08-26

    The invention is concerned with a wind-power plant whose rotor axis is pivoted in the supporting structure and swingable around an axis of tilt, forming an angle with the rotor axis and the vertical axis, and allowing precession of the rotor. On changes of wind direction an electric positioning device is moving the rotor axis into the new direction in such a way that no precession forces are exerted on the supporting structure and this one may very easily be held. Instead of one rotor, also a type with two coaxial, co-planar countercurrent rotors may be used. Each of the two countercurrent rotors is carrying a number of magnetic poles, distributed all over the circumference, acting together with the magnetic poles of the other rotor. At least the poles of one rotor have electric line windings being connected by leads with a collector so that the two rotors form the two parts of a power generator being each rotatable with respect to the other ('stator' and 'rotor').

  3. The ASCAT soil moisture product. A Review of its specifications, validation results, and emerging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sebastian; Kidd, Richard [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Dept. of Geodesy and Geoinformation] [and others

    2013-02-15

    Many physical, chemical and biological processes taking place at the land surface are strongly influenced by the amount of water stored within the upper soil layers. Therefore, many scientific disciplines require soil moisture observations for developing, evaluating and improving their models. One of these disciplines is meteorology where soil moisture is important due to its control on the exchange of heat and water between the soil and the lower atmosphere. Soil moisture observations may thus help to improve the forecasts of air temperature, air humidity and precipitation. However, until recently, soil moisture observations had only been available over a limited number of regional soil moisture networks. This has hampered scientific progress as regards the characterisation of land surface processes not just in meteorology but many other scientific disciplines as well. Fortunately, in recent years, satellite soil moisture data have increasingly become available. One of the freely available global soil moisture data sets is derived from the backscatter measurements acquired by the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) that is a C-band active microwave remote sensing instrument flown on board of the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellite series. ASCAT was designed to observe wind speed and direction over the oceans and was initially not foreseen for monitoring soil moisture over land. Yet, as argued in this review paper, the characteristics of the ASCAT instrument, most importantly its wavelength (5.7 cm), its high radiometric accuracy, and its multiple-viewing capabilities make it an attractive sensor for measuring soil moisture. Moreover, given the operational status of ASCAT, and its promising long-term prospects, many geoscientific applications might benefit from using ASCAT soil moisture data. Nonetheless, the ASCAT soil moisture product is relatively complex, requiring a good understanding of its properties before it can be successfully used in applications. To

  4. The ASCAT Soil Moisture Product: A Review of its Specifications, Validation Results, and Emerging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Wagner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many physical, chemical and biological processes taking place at the land surface are strongly influenced by the amount of water stored within the upper soil layers. Therefore, many scientific disciplines require soil moisture observations for developing, evaluating and improving their models. One of these disciplines is meteorology where soil moisture is important due to its control on the exchange of heat and water between the soil and the lower atmosphere. Soil moisture observations may thus help to improve the forecasts of air temperature, air humidity and precipitation. However, until recently, soil moisture observations had only been available over a limited number of regional soil moisture networks. This has hampered scientific progress as regards the characterisation of land surface processes not just in meteorology but many other scientific disciplines as well. Fortunately, in recent years, satellite soil moisture data have increasingly become available. One of the freely available global soil moisture data sets is derived from the backscatter measurements acquired by the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT that is a C-band active microwave remote sensing instrument flown on board of the Meteorological Operational (METOP satellite series. ASCAT was designed to observe wind speed and direction over the oceans and was initially not foreseen for monitoring soil moisture over land. Yet, as argued in this review paper, the characteristics of the ASCAT instrument, most importantly its wavelength (5.7 cm, its high radiometric accuracy, and its multiple-viewing capabilities make it an attractive sensor for measuring soil moisture. Moreover, given the operational status of ASCAT, and its promising long-term prospects, many geoscientific applications might benefit from using ASCAT soil moisture data. Nonetheless, the ASCAT soil moisture product is relatively complex, requiring a good understanding of its properties before it can be successfully used in

  5. Estimation of Soil Moisture in an Alpine Catchment with RADARSAT2 Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pasolli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture retrieval is one of the most challenging problems in the context of biophysical parameter estimation from remotely sensed data. Typically, microwave signals are used thanks to their sensitivity to variations in the water content of soil. However, especially in the Alps, the presence of vegetation and the heterogeneity of topography may significantly affect the microwave signal, thus increasing the complexity of the retrieval. In this paper, the effectiveness of RADARSAT2 SAR images for the estimation of soil moisture in an alpine catchment is investigated. We first carry out a sensitivity analysis of the SAR signal to the moisture content of soil and other target properties (e.g., topography and vegetation. Then we propose a technique for estimating soil moisture based on the Support Vector Regression algorithm and the integration of ancillary data. Preliminary results are discussed both in terms of accuracy over point measurements and effectiveness in handling spatially distributed data.

  6. Prediction of moisture variation during composting process: A comparison of mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping; Cao, Hongliang; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    This study was carried out to develop and compare three models for simulating the moisture content during composting. Model 1 described changes in water content using mass balance, while Model 2 introduced a liquid-gas transferred water term. Model 3 predicted changes in moisture content without complex degradation kinetics. Average deviations for Model 1-3 were 8.909, 7.422 and 5.374 kg m(-3) while standard deviations were 10.299, 8.374 and 6.095, respectively. The results showed that Model 1 is complex and involves more state variables, but can be used to reveal the effect of humidity on moisture content. Model 2 tested the hypothesis of liquid-gas transfer and was shown to be capable of predicting moisture content during composting. Model 3 could predict water content well without considering degradation kinetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.

    1993-07-01

    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  8. A real-scale helical coil winding trial of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Tamaki, T.; Asano, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yamauchi, T.; Uchida, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Yamagiwa, T.; Suzuki, S.; Miyoshi, R.; Sasa, H.; Watanabe, S.; Tatemura, M.; Hatada, N.; Yamaguchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Yanagi, N.; Satow, T.; Yamamoto, J.; Motojima, O.

    1995-01-01

    A real-scale helical coil winding trial of the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been conducted for a study of coil winding configuration and winding methods and for exhibiting the state of the art. It includes construction and test run of a specifically designed winding machine and development of various manufacturing methods for accurate coil winding. It has been carried out in Hitachi Works before in situ winding, and has provided much needed engineering data for construction of the LHD. (orig.)

  9. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  10. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  11. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  12. Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development...... is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land...... based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively...

  13. Soil surface moisture estimation over a semi-arid region using ENVISAT ASAR radar data for soil evaporation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zribi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a method for the evaluation of soil evaporation, using soil moisture estimations based on radar satellite measurements. We present firstly an approach for the estimation and monitoring of soil moisture in a semi-arid region in North Africa, using ENVISAT ASAR images, over two types of vegetation covers. The first mapping process is dedicated solely to the monitoring of moisture variability related to rainfall events, over areas in the "non-irrigated olive tree" class of land use. The developed approach is based on a simple linear relationship between soil moisture and the backscattered radar signal normalised at a reference incidence angle. The second process is proposed over wheat fields, using an analysis of moisture variability due to both rainfall and irrigation. A semi-empirical model, based on the water-cloud model for vegetation correction, is used to retrieve soil moisture from the radar signal. Moisture mapping is carried out over wheat fields, showing high variability between irrigated and non-irrigated wheat covers. This analysis is based on a large database, including both ENVISAT ASAR and simultaneously acquired ground-truth measurements (moisture, vegetation, roughness, during the 2008–2009 vegetation cycle. Finally, a semi-empirical approach is proposed in order to relate surface moisture to the difference between soil evaporation and the climate demand, as defined by the potential evaporation. Mapping of the soil evaporation is proposed.

  14. Wind Predictions Upstream Wind Turbines from a LiDAR Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Le Clainche

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new method to predict the wind velocity upstream a horizontal axis wind turbine from a set of light detection and ranging (LiDAR measurements. The method uses higher order dynamic mode decomposition (HODMD to construct a reduced order model (ROM that can be extrapolated in space. LiDAR measurements have been carried out upstream a wind turbine at six different planes perpendicular to the wind turbine axis. This new HODMD-based ROM predicts with high accuracy the wind velocity during a timespan of 24 h in a plane of measurements that is more than 225 m far away from the wind turbine. Moreover, the technique introduced is general and obtained with an almost negligible computational cost. This fact makes it possible to extend its application to both vertical axis wind turbines and real-time operation.

  15. MoisturEC: A New R Program for Moisture Content Estimation from Electrical Conductivity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Werkema, Dale; Lane, John W

    2018-03-06

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data-analysis tools are needed to "translate" geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user-friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil-moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two- and three-dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

  17. Operational Mapping of Soil Moisture Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Application to the Touch Basin (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean François Desprats

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is a key parameter in different environmental applications, suchas hydrology and natural risk assessment. In this paper, surface soil moisture mappingwas carried out over a basin in France using satellite synthetic aperture radar (SARimages acquired in 2006 and 2007 by C-band (5.3 GHz sensors. The comparisonbetween soil moisture estimated from SAR data and in situ measurements shows goodagreement, with a mapping accuracy better than 3%. This result shows that themonitoring of soil moisture from SAR images is possible in operational phase. Moreover,moistures simulated by the operational Météo-France ISBA soil-vegetation-atmospheretransfer model in the SIM-Safran-ISBA-Modcou chain were compared to radar moistureestimates to validate its pertinence. The difference between ISBA simulations and radarestimates fluctuates between 0.4 and 10% (RMSE. The comparison between ISBA andgravimetric measurements of the 12 March 2007 shows a RMSE of about 6%. Generally,these results are very encouraging. Results show also that the soil moisture estimatedfrom SAR images is not correlated with the textural units defined in the European Soil Geographical Database (SGDBE at 1:1000000 scale. However, dependence was observed between texture maps and ISBA moisture. This dependence is induced by the use of the texture map as an input parameter in the ISBA model. Even if this parameter is very important for soil moisture estimations, radar results shown that the textural map scale at 1:1000000 is not appropriate to differentiate moistures zones.

  18. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  19. Integration of wind power in the Danish generation system. EC wind power penetration study, phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-06-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has asked utilities in the member countries to carry out a coordinated study of the wind energy potential. The main objective is to show the consequences for the future electricity system when integrating wind power production covering 5, 10 or 15% of total demand. In addition to the best estimate scenario believed to be operational, some additional calculations have been carried out: wind power production as a negative load only (not operational for the total system); different levels of investment in wind farms. The methodology is based on the following steps: define a reference scenario for year 2000; define an alternative scenario with a certain amount of wind power production; calculate time-series for electrical load and district heating from combined heat/power production; calculate time-series for wind power production; make economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis; show environmental differences. Incorporation of wind power into the ELSAM power system, with the wind energy meeting, about 5% of demand will give rise to additional control capacity, or call for new contracts with neighbouring countries. The study includes estimated network investments. The simulations have been made with the SIM and SLUMP computer programmes. The economic analyses and the sensitivity analyses have been carried out using spreadsheets. The conclusion concerning profitability - based on the best estimate assumptions - is that the studied wind power scenarios are unprofitable. (EG)

  20. Moroccan wind farm potential feasibility. Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, Abdellatif; Ait Babram, Mohamed; Elwarraki, Elmostafa; Enzili, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for the technical feasibility of wind farm potentials is proposed. • The wind resources of two different sites in Morocco are compared. • Comparison between short and long term data using multivariate analysis is made. • Geographic information system implementation. • A 10 MW wind farm is designed and optimized. - Abstract: The subject of this paper is the elaboration of a methodology to study the technical feasibility of a wind farm potential. The implementation of this methodology allows a comparison between the wind resources of two different sites in Morocco. One site is located in the region of Essaouira, whereas the other one is located in the region of Safi. The comparison is based on real wind data collected from two masts at the heights of 30, 50, and 60 m. Each of the masts is installed at one of the mentioned potential sites over a fixed time period, lasting fifteen months for the first site, and eight months for the second one. The aim is the determination of the most applicable site presenting a good potential for a statistical study in order to predict long-term wind behaviors. Thus, the geographical situation study of the chosen site including topography, roughness and obstacles, is carried out. Furthermore, the wind resource using data, generated by the measuring masts, is evaluated. Finally, the areas which present great wind potential are located and the wind farm turbine locations are optimized by using the WAsP software.

  1. Moisture Sources and Life Cycle of Convective Systems over Western Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiry Sayuri Sakamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes life cycle and moisture sources of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs observed over western Colombia. Results show that, in general, MCS are more frequent during boreal summer and autumn, and particularly, systems observed in summer season present longer life and larger extension. On the continent, MCS genesis is strongly affected by sea breeze and diurnal heating and presents a peak from 15 to 18 LST. For oceanic systems, the main genesis period is later, from 00 to 03 LST. Continental and oceanic systems present a tendency of westward displacement. Analysis using a Lagrangian approach implemented to estimate air parcel trajectories suggests that, during boreal winter, the main moisture sources are from the Caribbean Sea and tropical north Atlantic, possibly resulting from the moisture-laden trade winds and the land-ocean temperature contrast over northern South America. In summer, it is clear the influence of ITCZ positioning with moisture particles traveling from the tropical Atlantic over Amazonian river basin. In Autumn, Chilean-Peruvian Pacific is the main moisture source, confirming the importance of Chocó low level jet to MCS genesis.

  2. Effect of Moisture Content of Paper Material on Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser technology has been used in industrial processes for several decades. The most advanced development and implementation took place in laser welding and cutting of metals in automotive and ship building industries. However, there is high potential to apply laser processing to other materials in various industrial fields. One of these potential fields could be paper industry to fulfill the demand for high quality, fast and reliable cutting technology. Difficulties in industrial application of laser cutting for paper industry are associated to lack of basic information, awareness of technology and its application possibilities. Nowadays possibilities of using laser cutting for paper materials are widened and high automation level of equipment has made this technology more interesting for manufacturing processes. Promising area of laser cutting application at paper making machines is longitudinal cutting of paper web (edge trimming). There are few locations at a paper making machine where edge trimming is usually done: wet press section, calender or rewinder. Paper web is characterized with different moisture content at different points of the paper making machine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content of paper material on laser cutting parameters. Effect of moisture content on cellulose fibers, laser absorption and energy needed for cutting is described as well. Laser cutting tests were carried out using CO2 laser.

  3. The potential of SMAP soil moisture data for analyzing droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, E.; Das, N. N.; Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of the onset and the end of droughts are important for socioeconomic planning. Different datasets and tools are either available or being generated for drought analysis to recognize the status of drought. The aim of this study is to understand the potential of the SMAP soil moisture (SM) data for identification of onset, persistence and withdrawal of droughts over the Contiguous United States. We are using the SMAP-passive level 3 soil moisture observations and the United States Drought Monitor (http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu) data for understanding the relation between change in SM and drought severity. The daily observed SM data are temporally averaged to match the weekly drought monitor data and subsequently the weekly, monthly, 3 monthly and 6 monthly change in SM and drought severity were estimated. The analyses suggested that the change in SM and drought severity are correlated especially over the mid-west and west coast of USA at monthly and longer time scales. The spatial pattern of the SM change maps clearly indicated the regions that are moving between different levels of drought severity. Further, the time series of effective saturation [Se =(θ-θr)/(θs-θr)] indicated the temporal dynamics of drought conditions over California which is recovering from a long-term drought. Additional analyses are being carried out to develop statistics between drought severity and soil moisture level.

  4. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  5. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  6. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  7. Integrated simulation challenges with the DeepWind floating vertical axis wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Borg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences and challenges with concurrently carrying out numerical model development, integrated simulations and design of a novel floating vertical axis wind turbine, the DeepWind concept. The floating VAWT modelling capabilities of the aero-hydro-elastic HAWC2 simulation...

  8. NOAA Soil Moisture Products System (SMOPS) Daily Blended Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) combines soil moisture retrievals from multiple satellite sensors to provide a global soil moisture map with...

  9. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  10. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  11. Development of a neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron moisture gauge fabricated for measuring the moisture content of coke is described. It has an americium-beryllium source placed beside a boron coated neutron counter which is a slow neutron detector. The fast neutrons emitted by the radioactive source are slowed down by the hydrogen nuclei present in the material either as bound hydrogen or as a hydrogen of the water. Measure of the slowed down i.e. thermal neutrons (their density) is proportional to the total hydrogen content of the material. The instrument is installed as an ''on-line'' measuring device to estimate the moisture content of coke at the weighing hopper feeding the skip car. The accuracy of measurement is dependent on the moisture content, i.e. higher accuracy is obtained for higher moisture content. At low moisture content, the effect of the bound hydrogen other than that of the water on low moisture readings is pronounced. Effect of bulk density on the accuracy of measurement is not very significant as long as the coke size is constant. The error is in the range of +- 1.1%. (M.G.B.)

  12. Moisture monitoring and control system engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.E.; Fadeff, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 50 years, a wide variety of chemical compounds have been placed in the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) on the Hanford Site. A concern relating to chemical stability, chemical control, and safe storage of the waste is the potential for propagating reactions as a result of ferrocyanide-oxidizer and organic-oxidizer concentrations in the SSTS. Propagating reactions in fuel-nitrate mixtures are precluded if the amounts of fuel and moisture present in the waste are within specified limits. Because most credible ignition sources occur near the waste surface, the main emphasis of this study is toward monitoring and controlling moisture in the top 14 cm (5.5 in.) of waste. The purpose of this engineering study is to recommend a moisture monitoring and control system for use in SSTs containing sludge and saltcake. This study includes recommendations for: (1) monitoring and controlling moisture in SSTs; (2) the fundamental design criteria for a moisture monitoring and control system; and (3) criteria for the deployment of a moisture monitoring and control system in hanford Site SSTs. To support system recommendations, technical bases for selecting and using a moisture monitoring and control system are presented. Key functional requirements and a conceptual design are included to enhance system development and establish design criteria

  13. Land Potential Productivity and Population Carrying Capacity of Yan’an City

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The productivity attenuation method is adopted to calculate land potential productivity of counties of Yan’an City and calculate population carrying capacity at current productivity level. Rsults shows that high photosynthetic potential productivity area and high light and temperature potential productivity area are mainly situated in the north, while high climatic potential area and high land potential productivity area are mainly concentrated in the south. From solar radiation, moisture a...

  14. Soil Moisture and Turgidity of Selected Robusta Coffee Clones on Alluvial Plain with Seasonal Rainfall Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Observation on the seasonal variations of hydrological condition and turgidity of selected Robusta coffee clones has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember. The aim was to evaluate the effect of hydrological variation on the coffee plants and the degree of soil moisture effect on plant performance. Experimental site overlays on alluvial plain, + 45 m a.s.l., 8o 15’ South with D rainfall type. Observation was conducted by survey method at the experimental plots of organic fertilizer and nitogen treatments on selected Robusta coffee clones derived from rooted cuttings, i.e. BP 436, BP 42, BP 936 and BP 358. Observation was only conducted at the experimental blocks of organic matter trials of 20 l/tree/year at nitrogen (Urea application of locally recommanded rate during the subsequent years of 1999 to 2001. Parameters observed included plant turgidity and soil moisture content of three different depths, i.e. 0—20, 20—40 and 40—60 cm and the weather. Observation was carried out in five replicates designed as blocks of barn manure treatment and N-fertilizer of recommended rate as basal fertilizer. The results showed that meteorological condition and soil moisture of experimental site through the years have seasonal patterns following the seasonal pattern of rainfall. Compared to other meteorological characteristics, relative humidity dominantly determined evaporation and plant turgidity. Plant turgi-dity was not only determined by soil moisture condition, but also atmospheric demand. When relative humidity (RH was relatively high, plant turgidity was relatively stable although soil moisture of surface layers was very low, and the reversal when soil moisture content was high plant turgidity was controlled by atmospheric demand (relative humidity. With a 3—4 dry month period, relative turgidity of the coffee plants was relatively stable above 82%, except when soil

  15. Moisture-related mechanical properties of softwood: 3D micromechanical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Computational micromechanical analysis of the influence of moisture, density and microstructure of latewood on its hydroelastic and shrinkage properties is carried out. The elastic properties of cell sublayers have been determined using the unit cell models as for fiber reinforced composites (two....... The results for elastic properties of cell sublayers obtained from the unit cell models, from the self-consistent method and Halpin-Tsai equations are compared, and good agreement between these methods was observed. A computational technique, based on the representation of moisture effect as equivalent...... temperature-caused effects, has been developed and employed to the modeling of the moisture-related changes of the elastic properties of cell layers. A series of computational experiments have been carried out. In the simulations, it was observed that the shrinkage coefficients of longitudinal direction...

  16. Cone penetrometer moisture probe acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer moisture probe and the verification method used (Appendix C)

  17. Design of Moisture Content Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Wang, L.

    In this paper, a method for measuring the moisture content of grain was presented based on single chip microcomputer and capacitive sensor. The working principle of measuring moisture content is introduced and a concentric cylinder type of capacitive sensor is designed, the signal processing circuits of system are described in details. System is tested in practice and discussions are made on the various factors affecting the capacitive measuring of grain moisture based on the practical experiments, experiment results showed that the system has high measuring accuracy and good controlling capacity.

  18. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  19. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  20. Soil moisture content with global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, K.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The potential greenhouse-gas-induced changes in soil moisture, particularly the desiccation of the Northern Hemisphere contents in summer, are discussed. To check the conclusions based on climate models the authors have used long-term measurements of contemporary soil moisture in the USSR and reconstructions of soil moisture for the last two epochs that were warmer than the present, namely, the Holocene optimum, 5,000-6,000 years ago, and the last interglacial, about 125,000 years ago. The analysis shows that there is a considerable disagreement between the model results and the empirical data

  1. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  2. MoisturEC: an R application for geostatistical estimation of moisture content from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Werkema, D. D.; Lane, J. W., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical parameter for agriculture, water supply, and management of landfills. Whereas direct data (as from TDR or soil moisture probes) provide localized point scale information, it is often more desirable to produce 2D and/or 3D estimates of soil moisture from noninvasive measurements. To this end, geophysical methods for indirectly assessing soil moisture have great potential, yet are limited in terms of quantitative interpretation due to uncertainty in petrophysical transformations and inherent limitations in resolution. Simple tools to produce soil moisture estimates from geophysical data are lacking. We present a new standalone program, MoisturEC, for estimating moisture content distributions from electrical conductivity data. The program uses an indicator kriging method within a geostatistical framework to incorporate hard data (as from moisture probes) and soft data (as from electrical resistivity imaging or electromagnetic induction) to produce estimates of moisture content and uncertainty. The program features data visualization and output options as well as a module for calibrating electrical conductivity with moisture content to improve estimates. The user-friendly program is written in R - a widely used, cross-platform, open source programming language that lends itself to further development and customization. We demonstrate use of the program with a numerical experiment as well as a controlled field irrigation experiment. Results produced from the combined geostatistical framework of MoisturEC show improved estimates of moisture content compared to those generated from individual datasets. This application provides a convenient and efficient means for integrating various data types and has broad utility to soil moisture monitoring in landfills, agriculture, and other problems.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis on heavy metals partitioning impacted by moisture during the MSW incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanguo; Li Qinghai; Jia Jinyan; Meng Aihong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Partitioning of HMs affected by moisture was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. ► Increase in moisture and in temperature was opposite impact on HMs contribution. ► The extent of temperature decreased by increase in moisture determines the impact. - Abstract: A thermodynamic calculation was carried out to predict the behavior and speciation of heavy metals (HMs), Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd, during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration with the different moisture levels. The calculation was based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the multi-components and multi-phases closed system reaching chemical equilibrium. The calculation also indicated the reaction directions and tendencies of HMs components. The impacts of chlorine additives (No PVC, 1%PVC, and 5%PVC) and moisture on the behavior of HMs were investigated at different temperature levels in the system (750 °C, 950 °C, and 1150 °C). Furthermore, because the incineration temperature falls down with the increase in moisture in waste, the co-influence of moisture and temperature in combusting MSW on the HMs was also studied with the given chlorine (as 1%PVC + 0.5%NaCl). The results showed that in the non-chlorine system, the impact of the moisture on Pb, Zn, and Cu was not significant, and the ratio of compound transformation was less than 10%, except the Cd compounds at 950 °C and 1150 °C. In the system with low chlorine (as 1%PVC) at constant temperature, the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferred to oxides, and when the content of chlorine rose up (as 5%PVC), the ratio of the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferring to oxides fell down noticeably. When the moisture varied together with the temperature, the Zn and Cu compounds transferred from chlorides to oxides with increase in moisture as well as decrease in temperature. At the temperature of 700–1000 °C, the impact of temperature on Pb and Cd was little and the moisture was the main factor

  4. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  5. Wind farm project economics : value of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs.

  6. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  7. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  8. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, Michael; Botterud, Audun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  9. Wind of opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the move towards the offshore exploitation of wind energy in Europe, and presents information on existing offshore wind energy projects and proposed wind turbine prototypes for offshore operation. The building of the first major offshore wind project at Vindeby, the use of rock socketed monopile foundations for pile drilling and erection of the wind turbines from a mobile jack-up barge, the costs of wind turbines, the fatigue loads on the support structures due to the wind loading, and the offshore wind market in the UK and Europe are discussed. (UK)

  10. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  11. Wind farms production: Control and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fouly, Tarek Hussein Mostafa

    Wind energy resources, unlike dispatchable central station generation, produce power dependable on external irregular source and that is the incident wind speed which does not always blow when electricity is needed. This results in the variability, unpredictability, and uncertainty of wind resources. Therefore, the integration of wind facilities to utility electrical grid presents a major challenge to power system operator. Such integration has significant impact on the optimum power flow, transmission congestion, power quality issues, system stability, load dispatch, and economic analysis. Due to the irregular nature of wind power production, accurate prediction represents the major challenge to power system operators. Therefore, in this thesis two novel models are proposed for wind speed and wind power prediction. One proposed model is dedicated to short-term prediction (one-hour ahead) and the other involves medium term prediction (one-day ahead). The accuracy of the proposed models is revealed by comparing their results with the corresponding values of a reference prediction model referred to as the persistent model. Utility grid operation is not only impacted by the uncertainty of the future production of wind farms, but also by the variability of their current production and how the active and reactive power exchange with the grid is controlled. To address this particular task, a control technique for wind turbines, driven by doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs), is developed to regulate the terminal voltage by equally sharing the generated/absorbed reactive power between the rotor-side and the gridside converters. To highlight the impact of the new developed technique in reducing the power loss in the generator set, an economic analysis is carried out. Moreover, a new aggregated model for wind farms is proposed that accounts for the irregularity of the incident wind distribution throughout the farm layout. Specifically, this model includes the wake effect

  12. Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain with CFD wakes: Paper presented at EWEA 2015, Europe's Premier Wind Energy Event, 17 - 20 November 2015, Paris, France

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J.; Stoevesandt, B.

    2015-01-01

    For a complex terrain site in Bahia, Brazil, 28 CFDRANS simulations were carried out, representing the relevant states of a wind rose with three degrees resolution. The resulting wind fields provide the background wind for the layout optimization of a wind farm with 64 wind turbines based on the AEP. The underlying wake model was deduced from CFD-RANS simulation results of an isolated actuator disk. We find that a hybrid optimization algorithm that combines genetic and gradient-based optimize...

  13. Heat and Moisture transport of socks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárková, P.; Glombíková, V.; Havelka, A.

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the liquid moisture transport and thermal properties is essential for understanding physiological comfort of clothes. This study reports on an experimental investigation of moisture management transport and thermal transport on the physiological comfort of commercially available socks. There are subjective evaluation and objective measurements. Subjective evaluation of the physiological comfort of socks is based on individual sensory perception of probands during and after physical exertion. Objective measurements were performed according to standardized methods using Moisture Management tester for measuring the humidity parameters and C-term TCi analyzer for thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity. The obtained values of liquid moisture transport and thermal properties were related to the material composition and structure of the tested socks. In summary, these results show that objective measurement corresponds with probands feelings.

  14. Moisture Control Guidance for Commercial and Public ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems due to insufficient moisture control. EPA will be producing a document entitled

  15. Moisture separator reheaters for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Michizo; Yonemura, Katsutoshi

    1974-01-01

    In the light water reactor plants using BWRS or PWRS, the pressure and temperature of steam at the inlet of turbines are low, and the steam is moist, as compared with the case of thermal power plants. Therefore, moisture separator/reheaters are used between high and low pressure turbines. The steam from a high pressure turbine enters a manifold, and goes zigzag through vertical plate separator elements, its moisture is removed from the steam. Then, after being reheated with the steam bled from the high pressure turbine and directly from a reactor, the steam is fed into a low pressure turbine. The development and test made on the components of a moisture separaotr/reheater and the overall model experiment are described together with the mechanism of moisture separation and reheating. (Mori, K.)

  16. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  17. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  18. Moisture transport and equilibrium in organic coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, van der G.K.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2000-01-01

    Improving coating performance in regard of protection of substrates and structures against moisturerelated degradation requires detailed knowledge of underlying transport mechanisms. In this paper a review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic

  19. Moisture Transfer in Ventilated Facade Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olshevskyi Vyacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the phenomenon of moisture transfer in the designs of ventilated facades (VF. The main ways of moisture transfer are defined. The negative factors connected with moisture accumulation and excessive moistening of insulation are given. The physical processes occurring in the gap of the building envelope due to saturation of air with water vapor are described. The dependence of the intensity of the mass transfer on the air velocity in the layer is considered. Much attention is paid to the selection of the optimum design of the facade, namely a system with or without grooved lines. The dependence of velocity and temperature on the width of the ventilated gap is established empirically for the constructions with open and closed grooves. Expediency of a design without grooves to effectively remove moisture is determined.

  20. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  1. Advanced moisture modeling of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Long term moisture exposure has been shown to affect the mechanical performance of polymeric composite structures. This reduction : in mechanical performance must be considered during product design in order to ensure long term structure survival. In...

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Trackbed Moisture Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    In this initial phase, conducted from March 2015 through December 2016, Vista Clara and its subcontractor Zetica Rail successfully developed and tested a man-portable, non-invasive spot-check nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) moisture sensor that dire...

  3. A Unilateral Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Sensor for Nondestructive Wood Moisture Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Deng-jie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (UMR sensor was designed to measure wood moisture nondestructively. The sensor consisted of a unilateral magnet, an anti-eddy current module, a radiofrequency (RF coil and an impedance matching and tuning circuit. The sensor produced a static magnetic field of 71.1 mT (resonant frequency:3.027 MHz in a 50 mm×50 mm plane locating 75 mm above the sensor's surface. Preliminary nondestructive measurement of wood moisture was carried out with the sensor. The moisture distribution in the radical direction of a cylindrical wood sample was scanned. Variations in transverse relaxation time (T2 from the bark to core were obtained. Evaporation of moisture during wood drying was also measured with the UMR sensor. Experimental results showed that:the peak of long T2 component in the T2 spectrum moved to left and the peak integral area decreased gradually during drying. The integral area was proportional to the moisture content of the sample. The work presents a portable UMR device for wood research which may potentially be used for nondestructive moisture measurement on living trees in situ.

  4. Comparative experimental and theoretical investigations of the DM neutron moisture probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Povl Lebeck; Haahr, Vagner

    1967-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the Danish produced DM subsurface moisture probe have been carried out at the Research Establishment Risö, and the results obtained are presented in this paper. The DM probe contains an Am-Be fast neutron source and has a glass scintillator containing...

  5. Evaluation of ECMWF's soil moisture analyses using observations on the Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; de Rosnay, P.; Wen, J.; Wang, Lichun; Zeng, Yijian

    2013-01-01

    An analysis is carried out for two hydrologically contrasting but thermodynamically similar areas on the Tibetan Plateau, to evaluate soil moisture analysis based on the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) previous optimum interpolation scheme and the current point‐wise

  6. A comparison between two algorithms for the retrieval of soil moisture using AMSR-E data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparison between two algorithms for estimating soil moisture with microwave satellite data was carried out by using the datasets collected on the four Agricultural Research Service (ARS) watershed sites in the US from 2002 to 2009. These sites collectively represent a wide range of ground condit...

  7. The influence of moisture content on the water vapour resistance of surface coated spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, E.T.; Ulriksen, L.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Two series of cup tests are carried out. The first series is performed on spruce specimens having moisture transport in either radial direction (R-direction) or in tangential direction (T-direction). The T-direction tests are made as wet cup tests having 93 %RH inside the cups, while the R-direct...

  8. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon's coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreyndip, Nkongho Ayuketang; Joseph, Ebobenow; David, Afungchui

    2016-11-01

    For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon's coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe) are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983-2013) and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi's most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs.

  9. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.J.; Schmugge, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10–20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1–5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations

  10. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  11. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  12. An overview of the measurements of soil moisture and modeling of moisture flux in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture and calculations of moisture transfer in the soil medium and at the air-soil interface were performed over a 15-km by 15-km test site during FIFE in 1987 and 1989. The measurements included intensive soil moisture sampling at the ground level and surveys at aircraft altitudes by several passive and active microwave sensors as well as a gamma radiation device.

  13. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...

  14. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.

  15. The economics of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of a recent study carried out among wind energy manufacturers and developers regarding the current generation costs of wind energy projects in Europe, the factors that most influence them, as well as the reasons behind their recent increase and their expected future evolution. The research finds that the generation costs of an onshore wind farm are between 4.5 and 8.7 EURcent/kWh; 6-11.1 EURcent/kWh when located offshore, with the number of full hours and the level of capital cost being the most influencing elements. Generation costs have increased by more than 20% over the last 3 years mainly due to a rise of the price of certain strategic raw materials at a time when the global demand has boomed. However, the competitive position of wind energy investments vis-a-vis other technologies has not been altered. In the long-term, one would expect production costs go down; whether this will be enough to offset the higher price of inputs will largely depend on the application of correct policies, like R and D in new materials, O and M with remote-control devices, offshore wind turbines and substructures; introduction of advanced siting and forecasting techniques; access to adequate funding; and long-term legal stability. (author)

  16. The economics of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This article presents the outcomes of a recent study carried out among wind energy manufacturers and developers regarding the current generation costs of wind energy projects in Europe, the factors that most influence them, as well as the reasons behind their recent increase and their expected future evolution. The research finds that the generation costs of an onshore wind farm are between 4.5 and 8.7 EURcent/kWh; 6-11.1 EURcent/kWh when located offshore, with the number of full hours and the level of capital cost being the most influencing elements. Generation costs have increased by more than 20% over the last 3 years mainly due to a rise of the price of certain strategic raw materials at a time when the global demand has boomed. However, the competitive position of wind energy investments vis-a-vis other technologies has not been altered. In the long-term, one would expect production costs go down; whether this will be enough to offset the higher price of inputs will largely depend on the application of correct policies, like R and D in new materials, O and M with remote-control devices, offshore wind turbines and substructures; introduction of advanced siting and forecasting techniques; access to adequate funding; and long-term legal stability. (author)

  17. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  18. The study of forms of bonding marshmallow moisture with different composition by method of thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow is a sugar confectionary product with increased sugar content and energy value because of the significant content of carbohydrates, in particular sugar-sand. The main drawback of marshmallow is the rapid process of its drying during storage due to the crystallization of sucrose and the gradual removal of moisture from the product. A method for obtaining marshmallow without sugar on the basis of high-conversion glucose syrup. In the work, experimental studies were carried out to determine the content and ratio of free and bound forms of moisture in marshmallow on the basis of sugars and on the basis of  high-conversion glucose syrup by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetry (TG. To study the patterns of thermal effects on the properties of marshmallow samples, the non-isothermal analysis method and the synchronous thermal analysis instrument (TG-DTA / DSC of the STA 449 F3 Jupiter were used. In the process of thermal exposure, the samples decompose sugars and other organic compounds, as a result of which the sample weight decreases due to evaporation of moisture. The process of dehydration in a control sample of marshmallow using sugar occurs in a less wide temperature range than in a sample of marshmallow on the basis of  high-conversion glucose syrup, which indicates a greater degree of moisture bonding in the developed sample. A quantitative evaluation of the forms of moisture bonding in the samples was carried out using the experimental curves obtained by the TG method. From the temperature curves, the endothermic effects were determined, which correspond to the release of moisture with different forms and energies. Substitution of sugar for treacle in the formula of marshmallow reduces the share of free moisture and increases the safety of the product without signs of staling.

  19. The Importance of Moisture in Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Film Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eperon, Giles E; Habisreutinger, Severin N; Leijtens, Tomas; Bruijnaers, Bardo J; van Franeker, Jacobus J; deQuilettes, Dane W; Pathak, Sandeep; Sutton, Rebecca J; Grancini, Giulia; Ginger, David S; Janssen, Rene A J; Petrozza, Annamaria; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-09-22

    Moisture, in the form of ambient humidity, has a significant impact on methylammonium lead halide perovskite films. In particular, due to the hygroscopic nature of the methylammonium component, moisture plays a significant role during film formation. This issue has so far not been well understood and neither has the impact of moisture on the physical properties of resultant films. Herein, we carry out a comprehensive and well-controlled study of the effect of moisture exposure on methylammonium lead halide perovskite film formation and properties. We find that films formed in higher humidity atmospheres have a less continuous morphology but significantly improved photoluminescence, and that film formation is faster. In photovoltaic devices, we find that exposure to moisture, either in the precursor solution or in the atmosphere during formation, results in significantly improved open-circuit voltages and hence overall device performance. We then find that by post-treating dry films with moisture exposure, we can enhance photovoltaic performance and photoluminescence in a similar way. The enhanced photoluminescence and open-circuit voltage imply that the material quality is improved in films that have been exposed to moisture. We determine that this improvement stems from a reduction in trap density in the films, which we postulate to be due to the partial solvation of the methylammonium component and "self-healing" of the perovskite lattice. This work highlights the importance of controlled moisture exposure when fabricating high-performance perovskite devices and provides guidelines for the optimum environment for fabrication. Moreover, we note that often an unintentional water exposure is likely responsible for the high performance of solar cells produced in some laboratories, whereas careful synthesis and fabrication in a dry environment will lead to lower-performing devices.

  20. Moisture performance properties of exterior sheathing products made of spruce plywood or OSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojanen, T.; Ahonen, J. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-02-01

    Plywood and OSB (Oriented Strand Board) are building boards that are made of timber and glue and that have good structural strength. OSB is a relatively new product that is produced from various timber materials and even some wastewood can be used as raw material for this product. Due to the easy access of raw material and economical reasons, the use of OSB has been highly increasing. The moisture safety of the building envelope depends on the properties of the building products. The moisture performance properties of the sheathing boards have not got enough attention, too often these wood based materials are equated without considering the real properties and their effect on the overall moisture performance. This research was carried out to experimentally determine the material properties and performance characteristics that have an effect on the moisture performance of building structures where OSB or spruce plywood are applied as exterior sheathing boards. A relatively representative amount of samples were used to study the moisture properties of European OSB and plywood products and a comparison to one Canadian OSB and one plywood product was done. All the products used in this research were meant to be used also as exterior sheathing boards. The results shows clearly the differences between OSB and plywood products. The products are not interchangeable. The main differences can be found from the vapour permeability levels that have an effect on the drying efficiency of building structures. The products have different performance criteria, and the climate conditions and moisture loads have to be studied to evaluate their suitability and moisture safety aspects in different applications. Water repellent features and drying efficiency are somewhat opposite properties of the products and the dimensional changes under varying moisture contents can set some boundary conditions when the optimum solution for the exterior sheathing is considered. (orig.)

  1. The Effect of Moisture of the Raw Material on the Properties Briquettes for Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At logging and at the subsequent wood and wood semi-products treatment the fine grained loose waste is arising, e.g. wood dust, saw dust, shavings, chips, bark etc. One of possibilities of its meaningful utilization is the briquetting technology, which product are briquettes determined for energetic utilization (combustion. This report contains the results of tests carried out with the aim to assess the influence of moisture on the briquettes final properties. For the tests the platan tree chips of four moisture levels, namely 5.7 %, 7.7 %, 15.7 % and 23.9 % were used. The basic physical-mechanical properties were the evaluation criteria. Following properties were determined: ash amount, gross calorific value, total moisture content, density, rupture force, length, diameter, weight and mechanical durability. From the results of carried out tests it follows that the best properties were reached at briquettes made from chips of moisture 7.7 %. At higher or lower moisture the briquettes properties were sharply failing (namely rupture force and density.

  2. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  3. The current wind energy programme in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Foli, U.; Sesto, E.; Vigotti, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, the main activities in the field of wind energy are carried out by two state-owned organizations, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), and two major wind turbine generator manufacturers, Alenia/WEST and Riva Calzoni, within the framework of a national programme which is supervized by the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. The work currently under way concerns both wind power plant siting and the development and testing of Italian-made wind turbine generators ranging from 5 to 1500 kW in power. In addition, programmes aimed at constructing wind-farms made up of medium-sized machines (200-400 kW) have recently been launched

  4. Wind energy for a sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    of both the wind energy related research activities and the wind energy industry, as installed capacity has been increasing in most of the developed and developing countries. The DTU Wind Energy department carries the heritage of the Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy by leading the research......Wind energy is on the forefront of sustainable technologies related to the production of electricity from green sources that combine the efficiency of meeting the demand for growth and the ethical responsibility for environmental protection. The last decades have seen an unprecedented growth...... developments in all sectors related to planning, installing and operating modern wind farms at land and offshore. With as many as 8 sections the department combines specialists at different thematic categories, ranging from meteorology, aeroelastic design and composite materials to electrical grids and test...

  5. Winds of change: First Nations in the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulliere, Marc [TWN Wind Power Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    TWN Wind Power is a First Nations company which aims at providing First Nation communities with the opportunity to develop small wind power projects to produce energy without harming their environment. Through its work in energy production, the company creates jobs and revenues in addition to protecting First Nations against electricity rate increases. The objective of this paper is to present a successful wind turbine project. This Band school wind turbine project consisted of installing a 5 kW wind turbine at a school in Keremeos and educating students in renewable energies field. The project was planned to be completed in October 2011. In addition to this project, TWN Wind Power has also completed other projects in Oklahoma, South Dakota, British Columbia, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan successfully. This presentation highlighted the work carried out by TWN Wind Power to develop wind energy projects within First Nations communities.

  6. Winds of change: First Nations in the supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulliere, Marc

    2011-01-01

    TWN Wind Power is a First Nations company which aims at providing First Nation communities with the opportunity to develop small wind power projects to produce energy without harming their environment. Through its work in energy production, the company creates jobs and revenues in addition to protecting First Nations against electricity rate increases. The objective of this paper is to present a successful wind turbine project. This Band school wind turbine project consisted of installing a 5 kW wind turbine at a school in Keremeos and educating students in renewable energies field. The project was planned to be completed in October 2011. In addition to this project, TWN Wind Power has also completed other projects in Oklahoma, South Dakota, British Columbia, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan successfully. This presentation highlighted the work carried out by TWN Wind Power to develop wind energy projects within First Nations communities.

  7. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  8. 40 CFR 75.37 - Missing data procedures for moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missing data procedures for moisture... data procedures for moisture. (a) The owner or operator of a unit with a continuous moisture monitoring system shall substitute for missing moisture data using the procedures of this section. (b) Where no...

  9. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  10. Design and Test of a Soil Profile Moisture Sensor Based on Sensitive Soil Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Qian, Hongzhou; Cao, Weixing; Ni, Jun

    2018-01-01

    To meet the demand of intelligent irrigation for accurate moisture sensing in the soil vertical profile, a soil profile moisture sensor was designed based on the principle of high-frequency capacitance. The sensor consists of five groups of sensing probes, a data processor, and some accessory components. Low-resistivity copper rings were used as components of the sensing probes. Composable simulation of the sensor’s sensing probes was carried out using a high-frequency structure simulator. According to the effective radiation range of electric field intensity, width and spacing of copper ring were set to 30 mm and 40 mm, respectively. A parallel resonance circuit of voltage-controlled oscillator and high-frequency inductance-capacitance (LC) was designed for signal frequency division and conditioning. A data processor was used to process moisture-related frequency signals for soil profile moisture sensing. The sensor was able to detect real-time soil moisture at the depths of 20, 30, and 50 cm and conduct online inversion of moisture in the soil layer between 0–100 cm. According to the calibration results, the degree of fitting (R2) between the sensor’s measuring frequency and the volumetric moisture content of soil sample was 0.99 and the relative error of the sensor consistency test was 0–1.17%. Field tests in different loam soils showed that measured soil moisture from our sensor reproduced the observed soil moisture dynamic well, with an R2 of 0.96 and a root mean square error of 0.04. In a sensor accuracy test, the R2 between the measured value of the proposed sensor and that of the Diviner2000 portable soil moisture monitoring system was higher than 0.85, with a relative error smaller than 5%. The R2 between measured values and inversed soil moisture values for other soil layers were consistently higher than 0.8. According to calibration test and field test, this sensor, which features low cost, good operability, and high integration, is qualified for

  11. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  12. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet

    2016-05-05

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected at two nested scale extents (0.5 km and 3 km) to understand the trend of soil moisture variability across these scales. This ground-based soil moisture sampling was conducted in the 500 km2 Rana watershed situated in eastern India. The study area is characterized as sub-humid, sub-tropical climate with average annual rainfall of about 1456 mm. Three 3x3 km square grids were sampled intensively once a day at 49 locations each, at a spacing of 0.5 km. These intensive sampling locations were selected on the basis of different topography, soil properties and vegetation characteristics. In addition, measurements were also made at 9 locations around each intensive sampling grid at 3 km spacing to cover a 9x9 km square grid. Intensive fine scale soil moisture sampling as well as coarser scale samplings were made using both impedance probes and gravimetric analyses in the study watershed. The ground-based soil moisture samplings were conducted during the day, concurrent with the SMAP descending overpass. Analysis of soil moisture spatial variability in terms of areal mean soil moisture and the statistics of higher-order moments, i.e., the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation are presented. Results showed that the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of measured soil moisture decreased with extent scale by increasing mean soil moisture. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  13. Determining Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Elwin G. Smith; Burton C. English

    1982-01-01

    Wind erosion is defined as the movement of soil particles resulting from strong turbulent winds. The movement of soil particles can be categorized as suspension, saltation, or surface creep. Fine soil particles can be suspended in the atmosphere and carried for great distances. Particles too large to be suspended move in a jumping action along the soil surface, known as saltation. Heavier particles have a rolling movement along the surface and this type of erosion is surface creep.

  14. Wind Farms Community Engagement Good Practice Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Haggett, Claire; Rudolph, David Philipp

    2014-01-01

    This report sets out the findings of a review of community engagement for wind farm developments. We focus in particular on the engagement carried out by developers with communities. The aims of the study were to evaluate current good practice for engaging people in decision making about on......- and offshore wind farms in different European countries; to evaluate the effect that different practices have on public opinion and acceptance; and to make relevant recommendations for Scottish policy and planning....

  15. Design Study of Fully Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two fully superconducting generators employing MgB2 armature winding, with YBCO and MgB2 field winding respectively, are presented and analyzed. The ac loss in armature winding is estimated, and a simple comparative study is carried out. The results show that both electromagnetic...... designs for fully superconducting generators are promising with respect to the power density. However, the cost of removing ac loss in armature winding is as high as $900 000. It is also noted that with the current price of YBCO tape, the generator employing MgB 2 field winding would have lower cost....

  16. Isolated systems with wind power. Main report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, Henrik W.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to study the development of methods and guidelines rather than "universal solutions" for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. The main specific objective of the project is to develop and present amore unified and generally applicable...... approach for assessing the technical and economical feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. As a part of the project the following tasks were carried out: Review of literature, fieldmeasurements in Egypt, development of an inventory of small isolated systems, overview of end...... for Isolated Systems with Wind Power, applicable for international organisations such as donoragencies and development banks....

  17. Advanced Offshore Wind Energy - Atlantic Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-11-04

    This project developed relationships among the lead institution, U of Delaware, wind industry participants from 11 companies, and two other universities in the region. The participating regional universities were University of Maryland and Old Dominion University. Research was carried out in six major areas: Analysis and documentation of extreme oceanic wind events & their impact on design parameters, calibration of corrosivity estimates measured on a coastal turbine, measurment and modeling of tower structures, measurement and modeling of the tribology of major drive components, and gearbox conditioning monitoring using acoustic sensors. The project also had several educational goals, including establishing a course in wind energy and training graduate students. Going beyond these goals, three new courses were developed, a graduate certificate program in wind power was developed and approved, and an exchange program in wind energy was established with Danish Technical University. Related to the installation of a Gamesa G90 turbine on campus and a Gamesa-UD research program established in part due to this award, several additional research projects have been carried out based on mutual industry-university interests, and funded by turbine revenues. This award and the Gamesa partnership have jointly led to seven graduate students receiving full safety and climb training, to become “research climbers” as part of their wind power training, and contributing to on-turbine research. As a result of the educational program, already six graduate students have taken jobs in the US wind industry.

  18. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  19. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  20. Quality Assurance of Rice and Paddy Moisture Measurements in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhaneti, T.; Keawprasert, T.; Puuntharo, P.; Triarun, W.

    2017-10-01

    A bilateral comparison in moisture measurement between the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) and the Central Bureau of Weights and Measures (CBWM) was organized for quality assuring of rice and paddy moisture measurement in Thailand. The bilateral comparison was conducted by using the same batch of sample and moisture meter as transfer device. It consisted of two parts: moisture measurement in rice and in paddy. A rice moisture meter belonging to CBWM and rice standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 10 %, 12 %, 14 % and 16 % at NIMT, were used for rice moisture comparison, while a paddy moisture meter belonging to NIMT and paddy standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 12 %, 14 %, 16 % and 18 % at CBWM, were used for paddy moisture comparison. Both laboratories measured the moisture content of a sample by using the standard method in ISO 712 and used that sample to calibrate a moisture meter by means of the method based on ISO 7700-1. Since the moisture content of the sample can change during the comparison, correction values in moisture content between the standard value and the reading value from the moisture meter are used as calibration results for the comparison evaluation. For the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value measured by the two laboratories vary from 0.18 % to 0.46 %, with their combined comparison uncertainty of 0.37 % (k= 2). The main contribution to the difference comes from the standard values from both laboratories differing from 0.27 % to 0.53 %, as the rice standard was found to drift in moisture content less than 0.05 %. Similarly to the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value for the paddy moisture measurement range from 0.08 % to 0.56 % with the combined comparison uncertainty of 0.38 % (k = 2), whereas the stability in moisture content of the paddy sample at NIMT was found to be within 0.12 %.

  1. Effects of moisture barrier and initial moisture content on the storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two factors examined were moisture barrier at three levels namely: thick lining, thin lining and non-lining. The other factor included initial moisture content of the produce, namely, turgid and partially wilted. Partial wilting of the produce was achieved by exposing freshly harvested materials at ambient temperature to dry ...

  2. Effectiveness of modified 1-hour air-oven moisture methods for determining popcorn moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the most commonly used approved grain moisture air-oven reference methods are the air oven method ASAE S352.2, which requires long heating time (72-h) for unground samples, and the AACC 44-15.02 air-oven method, which dries a ground sample for 1 hr, but there is specific moisture measurement ...

  3. TradeWind Deliverable 5.1: Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemström, Bettina; Uski-Joutsenvuo, Sanna; Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the main activities and results of Work Package 5 – Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids in the TradeWind project. VTT is the leader of Work Package 5 and carries the overall responsibility of this report. The work is based on power...... flow simulations with a grid and market model developed in TradeWind Work Package 3, led by Sintef Energy Research. VTT, Sintef Energy Research and Risø have carried out the simulations of the different scenarios, analysed the results and written Chapter 4 about the impact of wind power on cross...

  4. SMES for wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    copper oxide (BSCCO), Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) and Magnesium diboride (MgB 2)] is carried out. The assessed attributes include superconducting transition temperature (Tc), critical current density (Jc ), the irreversibility field (H*) and the superconducting critical field (Hc). Chapter 4 presents the design of a solenoid shaped 1MJ MgB2 SMES. This SMES is used to mitigate the problem of momentary interruptions on a wind turbine. The total length of superconducting wire required for a 1MJ solenoid is calculated to be 21km. The maximum wire lengths currently available are 6km thus we hypothesize that either wire lengths have to be increased or work has to be done on MgB2 superconducting splice technology for multifilament wire. Another design consisting of 8 solenoids storing 120 kJ each is presented. The stress analysis on the proposed coil is performed using finite element analysis exhibiting the safety of the proposed design. Chapter 5 presents the design of a toroid shaped 20MJ MgB2 SMES. This is used to mitigate the problem of sustained interruptions on a wind turbine. The toroid coil is chosen since the magnetic field could be completely contained within the coil, thus reducing stray magnetic fields. A combination of genetic algorithm and nonlinear programming is used in determining the design. In Chapter 6, the different methods of operation of the SMES are examined. The Voltage Source Convertor (VSC) based SMES topology was chosen based on its ease of switching. The VSC switching strategy is based on a sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique. EMTDC/PSCAD software was used to demonstrate the efficacy of the VSC based SMES coupled to a wind turbine. The wind generator was modeled as an induction machine feeding into a load. The simulation results established that SMES connected to wind turbines improved output quality. Although the efficacy of SMES for wind energy has been stated previously in other work, this chapter specifically demonstrates through

  5. Abstraction carrying code and resource-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenegildo, Manuel V.; Albert Albiol, Elvira; López García, Pedro; Puebla Sánchez, Alvaro Germán

    2005-01-01

    Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) is a general approach to mobile code safety in which the code supplier augments the program with a certifícate (or proof). The intended benefit is that the program consumer can locally validate the certifícate w.r.t. the "untrusted" program by means of a certifícate checker—a process which should be much simpler, eíñcient, and automatic than generating the original proof. Abstraction Carrying Code (ACC) is an enabling technology for PCC in which an abstract mod...

  6. Structure of the urban moisture field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, D.L.; Dirks, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    In the 26 July 1974 case study in St. Louis as a part of Project METROMEX, aircraft and surface network stations were used to determine specific humidity and potential temperature patterns near the surface and at two levels within the mixing layer. From the data acquired at these three levels, three-dimensional analyses of the moisture fields in the mixing layer were constructed. The mesoscale dry regions observed throughout the mixing layer correspond to the more impervious surfaces of the urban area. From energy budget considerations, latent heat fluxes are small over these impervious surfaces owing to the large runoff of precipitation and the lack of moisture retention capabilities. Hence, urbanization obviously alters the local energy budget. Surface boundary layer conditions are determined by heat and moisture fluxes. A new internal boundary layer within the city is formed after the breakdown of the radiation inversion in order to compensate for the alteration of sensible heat and latent heat energies. Hence, isolated semistagnant urban air is replenished by moisture only as quickly as evapotranspiration from impervious surfaces will allow. The city surface, therefore, is not a sink of moisture, but rather a reduced source relative to rural areas

  7. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  8. Performance of spanish wind turbines; Estadisticas de produccion de parques eolicos en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, C

    1995-07-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  9. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  10. Wind energy options in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkesteijn, L.A.G.; Havinga, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    Next to a study of the title subject attention is paid to the quantification of the wind energy potential and the conditions under which such potentials can be realized. The options are influenced by technical-economical, planning and socio-political factors, which are summarized in appendix 1 and discussed in chapter three. Results of interviews with experts in the field of wind energy can be found in appendix 2. Based on the impacts on the wind energy potential four wind energy development scenarios are compared in chapter four. The reference scenario is based on the present wind energy policy in the Netherlands. The other three scenarios are the Price-scenario (higher societal appreciation of electricity generated by wind power), the Site-scenario (matters of site selection and planning), and a Combined-scenario (combination of the Price- and the Site-scenario). For each scenario potential estimations were made for the years 2000, 2010, 2015, and restricted estimations for the year 2025. It is concluded that within 25 years 2,500 MW wind power can be realized on land and 6,000 MW on water. The main problems for the location on land and inland waterways are the planning restrictions, and for sea locations the limiting factor is the high cost price. Recommendations to the Dutch government to realize the potentials concern the facts that social advantages of wind energy should be part of the price of the energy, more sites should be made available for the application of wind energy, more research has to be carried out on the possibility of locating wind power generating systems at sea, and the social basis for wind energy should be maintained and even increased. 18 figs., 5 app., 47 refs

  11. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangying; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xinkai; Guo, Wenshan; Ding, Jinfeng; Li, Chunyan

    2018-01-01

    Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June) had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November) and the over-wintering stage (December-February). Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  12. Downscaling near-surface soil moisture from field to plot scale: A comparative analysis under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasta, Paolo; Penna, Daniele; Brocca, Luca; Zuecco, Giulia; Romano, Nunzio

    2018-02-01

    Indirect measurements of field-scale (hectometer grid-size) spatial-average near-surface soil moisture are becoming increasingly available by exploiting new-generation ground-based and satellite sensors. Nonetheless, modeling applications for water resources management require knowledge of plot-scale (1-5 m grid-size) soil moisture by using measurements through spatially-distributed sensor network systems. Since efforts to fulfill such requirements are not always possible due to time and budget constraints, alternative approaches are desirable. In this study, we explore the feasibility of determining spatial-average soil moisture and soil moisture patterns given the knowledge of long-term records of climate forcing data and topographic attributes. A downscaling approach is proposed that couples two different models: the Eco-Hydrological Bucket and Equilibrium Moisture from Topography. This approach helps identify the relative importance of two compound topographic indexes in explaining the spatial variation of soil moisture patterns, indicating valley- and hillslope-dependence controlled by lateral flow and radiative processes, respectively. The integrated model also detects temporal instability if the dominant type of topographic dependence changes with spatial-average soil moisture. Model application was carried out at three sites in different parts of Italy, each characterized by different environmental conditions. Prior calibration was performed by using sparse and sporadic soil moisture values measured by portable time domain reflectometry devices. Cross-site comparisons offer different interpretations in the explained spatial variation of soil moisture patterns, with time-invariant valley-dependence (site in northern Italy) and hillslope-dependence (site in southern Italy). The sources of soil moisture spatial variation at the site in central Italy are time-variant within the year and the seasonal change of topographic dependence can be conveniently

  13. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Xu

    Full Text Available Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November and the over-wintering stage (December-February. Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  14. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  15. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . Illnesses common among housepets — ... get an infection that can be passed to people. Safely Caring for Your Pet Here are some tips to help your family ...

  16. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  17. Magnetoacoustic waves in current-carrying plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1980-04-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of magnetoacoustic waves in non-uniform, current-carrying plasmas are reviewed. Dissipative MHD and collisionless theories are considered. Also discussed is the use of magnetoacoustic waves in plasma diagnostics and plasma heating

  18. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  19. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  20. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  1. Investigation on wind turbine wakes: wind tunnel tests and field experiments with LIDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, Giacomo; Wu, Ting; Cöeffé, Juliette; Porté-Agel, Fernando; WIRE Team

    2011-11-01

    An investigation on the interaction between atmospheric boundary layer flow and wind turbines is carried out with wind tunnel and LIDAR measurements. The former were carried out using hot-wire anemometry and multi-hole pressure probes in the wake of a three-bladed miniature wind turbine. The wind turbine wake is characterized by a strong velocity defect in the proximity of the rotor, and its recovery is found to depend on the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles). Field experiments were performed using three wind LIDARs. Bi-dimensional scans are performed in order to analyse the wake wind field with different atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements with two or three LIDARs allow the reconstruction of multi-component velocity fields. Both LIDAR and wind tunnel measurements highlight an increased turbulence level at the wake boundary for heights comparable to the top-tip of the blades; this flow feature can produce dangerous fatigue loads on following wind turbines.

  2. Will surface winds weaken in response to global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Foltz, Gregory R.; Soden, Brian J.; Huang, Gang; He, Jie; Dong, Changming

    2016-12-01

    The surface Walker and tropical tropospheric circulations have been inferred to slow down from historical observations and model projections, yet analysis of large-scale surface wind predictions is lacking. Satellite measurements of surface wind speed indicate strengthening trends averaged over the global and tropical oceans that are supported by precipitation and evaporation changes. Here we use corrected anemometer-based observations to show that the surface wind speed has not decreased in the averaged tropical oceans, despite its reduction in the region of the Walker circulation. Historical simulations and future projections for climate change also suggest a near-zero wind speed trend averaged in space, regardless of the Walker cell change. In the tropics, the sea surface temperature pattern effect acts against the large-scale circulation slow-down. For higher latitudes, the surface winds shift poleward along with the eddy-driven mid-latitude westerlies, resulting in a very small contribution to the global change in surface wind speed. Despite its importance for surface wind speed change, the influence of the SST pattern change on global-mean rainfall is insignificant since it cannot substantially alter the global energy balance. As a result, the precipitation response to global warming remains ‘muted’ relative to atmospheric moisture increase. Our results therefore show consistency between projections and observations of surface winds and precipitation.

  3. Validation and Scaling of Soil Moisture in a Semi-Arid Environment: SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Cosh, Michael H.; Misra, Sidharth; Jackson, Thomas J.; Crow, Wade T.; Chan, Steven; Bindlish, Rajat; Chae, Chun; Holifield Collins, Chandra; Yueh, Simon H.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission conducted the SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15) in order to support the calibration and validation activities of SMAP soil moisture data products. The main goals of the experiment were to address issues regarding the spatial disaggregation methodologies for improvement of soil moisture products and validation of the in situ measurement upscaling techniques. To support these objectives high-resolution soil moisture maps were acquired with the airborne PALS (Passive Active L-band Sensor) instrument over an area in southeast Arizona that includes the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW), and intensive ground sampling was carried out to augment the permanent in situ instrumentation. The objective of the paper was to establish the correspondence and relationship between the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of soil moisture on the ground and the coarse resolution radiometer-based soil moisture retrievals of SMAP. The high-resolution mapping conducted with PALS provided the required connection between the in situ measurements and SMAP retrievals. The in situ measurements were used to validate the PALS soil moisture acquired at 1-km resolution. Based on the information from a dense network of rain gauges in the study area, the in situ soil moisture measurements did not capture all the precipitation events accurately. That is, the PALS and SMAP soil moisture estimates responded to precipitation events detected by rain gauges, which were in some cases not detected by the in situ soil moisture sensors. It was also concluded that the spatial distribution of the soil moisture resulted from the relatively small spatial extents of the typical convective storms in this region was not completely captured with the in situ stations. After removing those cases (approximately10 of the observations) the following metrics were obtained: RMSD (root mean square difference) of0.016m3m3 and correlation of 0.83. The

  4. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    . In the isothermal tests the material samples were exposed to the same change in the relative humidity of the ambient air on both sides, while the samples were exposed to variations in relative humidity only on the cold side in the non-isothermal tests. The results of these rather different measurement principles...... lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...

  5. Moisture Forecast Bias Correction in GEOS DAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods rely on numerous assumptions about the errors involved in measuring and forecasting atmospheric fields. One of the more disturbing of these is that short-term model forecasts are assumed to be unbiased. In case of atmospheric moisture, for example, observational evidence shows that the systematic component of errors in forecasts and analyses is often of the same order of magnitude as the random component. we have implemented a sequential algorithm for estimating forecast moisture bias from rawinsonde data in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The algorithm is designed to remove the systematic component of analysis errors and can be easily incorporated in an existing statistical data assimilation system. We will present results of initial experiments that show a significant reduction of bias in the GEOS DAS moisture analyses.

  6. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  7. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  8. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  9. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  10. Condensation of atmospheric moisture from tropical maritime air masses as a freshwater resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, R D; Worzel, J L

    1967-09-15

    A method is proposed whereby potable water may be obtained by condensing moisture from the atmosphere in suitable seashore or island areas. Deep, cold, offshore seawater is used as a source of cold and is pumped to condensers set up on shore to intercept the flow of highly humid, tropical, maritime air masses. This air, when cooled, condenses moisture, which is conducted away and stored for use as a water supply. Windmill-driven generators would supply low-cost power for the operation. Side benefits are derived by using the nutritious deep water to support aquiculture in nearby lagoons or to enhance the productivity of the outfall area. Additional benefits are derived from the condenser as an air-conditioning device for nearby residents. The islands of the Caribbean are used as an example of a location in the trade-winds belt where nearly optimum conditions for the operation of this system can be found.

  11. Monitoring Ingress of Moisture in Structural Concrete Using a Novel Optical-Based Sensor Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, T L; Cox, M A C; Boswell, L F; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V

    2006-01-01

    The detection of moisture ingress in concrete is important for structural monitoring and in this work is realised by monitoring the shift in the characteristic wavelength of a fibre Bragg grating-based sensor. The sensor relies upon a moisture-sensitive polymer layer deposited on the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and the strain induced on it as a result of polymer swelling is monitored. Moisture ingress experiments were carried out using two such optical fibre sensors, placed at varying distances from the edge of the face of standard concrete cubes to the inner part of the concrete sample and subjected to water at a constant temperature. Information on the properties of different types of concrete and thus potentially on the migration of dissolved salts and their effect on reinforcement bars within concrete can be obtained

  12. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on equilibrium moisture content of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yong; Wang Jun; Jin Shuifeng; Teng Bin

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of irradiation on the EMC (equilibrium moisture content) of rice. Irradiation dose was included in three widely used models for EMC, the parameters in models based on the experimental data, and correlation coefficient, mean relative error and standard error of moisture were studied for the better model. Experimental results show that gamma irradiation dose affects the values of EMC of grain at the same relative humidity and temperature of ambient. Values of the EMC decreased with increass of γ-rays irradiation dose during both adsorption and desorption process. Based on the correlation coefficient, mean relative error and standard error of moisture, the modified Chung-Pfost equation and the modified Henderson equation were found to fit the desorption and adsorption isotherms for rough rice grain in the range of experimental conditions. (authors)

  13. On-line determination of moisture in coke on conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millen, M.J.; Rafter, P.T.; Sowerby, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    A fast neutron and γ-ray transmission technique is being developed for the on-line determination of moisture in coke on conveyor belts. Calculations show that the technique is capable of determining coke moisture to within 0.3 wt% for coke thicknesses down to 50 mm provided that count rates are measured to within 0.1% relative. Laboratory measurements on static and moving coke samples showed that coke moisture can be determined to within 0.25 and 0.45 wt% for crushed and lump coke, respectively. It is planned to carry out a long-term plant trial of the technique on lump coke feed to the No. 3 blast furnace at BHP, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. (author)

  14. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-62-000] Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC...

  15. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC...

  16. Development of nuclear density and moisture gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huaian; Zhu Dichen; Jiang Yulan; Yin Xiling; Li Jianwen; Cheng Jianbing; Yan Haiqing

    1993-01-01

    The model MT5012 nuclear density and moisture gauge is an advanced portable meter to inspect the compactness of a highway roadbed and pavement foundation. It has perfect functions and the advantage of quickness, accuracy and non-destruction. It is also applicable to civil engineering, such as railway, airport and embankment. The model MT5022 nuclear density and moisture gauge is a mobile meter for continuous inspection and control of the compactness of a highway and pavement foundation. It can be installed on road roller, wheelbarrow and other traffic machines while working, and is more efficient than the portable ones

  17. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  18. Comparison of time domain reflectometry, capacitance methods and neutron scattering in soil moisture measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorasani, A.; Mousavi Shalmani, M. A.; Piervali Bieranvand, N.

    2011-01-01

    An accurate, precise, fast and ease as well as the ability for measurements in depth are the characteristics that are desirable in measuring soil moisture methods. To compare methods (time domain reflectometry and capacitance) with neutron scattering for soil water monitoring, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design (Split Split plot) on tomato with three replications on the experimental field of International Atomic Energy Agency (Seibersdorf-Austria). The treatment instruments for the soil moisture monitoring (main factor) consist of neutron gauge, Diviner 2000, time domain reflectometer and an EnviroScan and different irrigation systems (first sub factor) consist of trickle and furrow irrigations and different depths of soil (second sub factor) consist of 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The results showed that for the neutron gauge and time domain reflectometer the amount of soil moisture in both of trickle and furrow irrigations were the same, but the significant differences were recorded in Diviner 2000 and EnviroScan measurements. The results of this study showed that the neutron gauge is an acceptable and reliable means with the modern technology, with a precision of ±2 mm in 450 mm soil water to a depth of 1.5 meter and can be considered as the most practical method for measuring soil moisture profiles and irrigation planning program. The time domain reflectometer method in most mineral soils, without the need for calibration, with an accuracy ±0.01m 3 m -3 has a good performance in soil moisture and electrical conductivity measurements. The Diviner 2000 and EnviroScan are not well suitable for the above conditions for several reasons such as much higher soil moisture and a large error measurement and also its sensitivity to the soil gap and to the small change in the soil moisture in comparison with the neutron gauge and the time domain reflectometer methods.

  19. An Arduino Based Citizen Science Soil Moisture Sensor in Support of SMAP and GLOBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; Das, N. N.; Rajasekaran, E.; Jeyaram, R.; Lohrli, C.; Hovhannesian, H.; Fairbanks, G.

    2017-12-01

    Citizen science allows individuals anywhere in the world to engage in science by collecting environmental variables. One of the longest running platforms for the collection of in situ variables is the GLOBE program, which is international in scope and encourages students and citizen scientists alike to collect in situ measurements. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission, which has been acquiring global soil moisture measurements every 3 days of the top 5 cm of the soil since 2015, has partnered with the GLOBE program to engage students from around the world to collect in situ soil moisture and help validate SMAP measurements. The current GLOBE SMAP soil moisture protocol consists in collecting a soil sample, weighing, drying and weighing it again in order to determine the amount of water in the soil. Preparation and soil sample collection can take up to 20 minutes and drying can take up to 3 days. We have hence developed a soil moisture measurement device based on Arduino- microcontrollers along with off-the-shelf and homemade sensors that are accurate, robust, inexpensive and quick and easy to use so that they can be implemented by the GLOBE community and citizen scientists alike. In addition, we have developed a phone app, which interfaces with the Arduino, displays the soil moisture value and send the measurement to the GLOBE database. This talk will discuss building, calibration and validation of the soil moisture measuring device and assessing the quality of the measurements collected. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Dust emission parameterization scheme over the MENA region: Sensitivity analysis to soil moisture and soil texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherboudj, Imen; Beegum, S. Naseema; Marticorena, Beatrice; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-10-01

    The mineral dust emissions from arid/semiarid soils were simulated over the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region using the dust parameterization scheme proposed by Alfaro and Gomes (2001), to quantify the effect of the soil moisture and clay fraction in the emissions. For this purpose, an extensive data set of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity soil moisture, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind speed at 10 m height, Food Agricultural Organization soil texture maps, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and erodibility of the soil surface were collected for the a period of 3 years, from 2010 to 2013. Though the considered data sets have different temporal and spatial resolution, efforts have been made to make them consistent in time and space. At first, the simulated sandblasting flux over the region were validated qualitatively using MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth and EUMETSAT MSG (Meteosat Seciond Generation) dust product from SEVIRI (Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) and quantitatively based on the available ground-based measurements of near-surface particulate mass concentrations (PM10) collected over four stations in the MENA region. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the effect of soil moisture and clay fraction on the emissions flux. The results showed that soil moisture and soil texture have significant roles in the dust emissions over the MENA region, particularly over the Arabian Peninsula. An inversely proportional dependency is observed between the soil moisture and the sandblasting flux, where a steep reduction in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual reduction is observed at high friction velocity. Conversely, a directly proportional dependency is observed between the soil clay fraction and the sandblasting flux where a steep increase in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual increase is

  1. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  2. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  3. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  4. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  5. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Flowers

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  6. Active Power Dispatch Method for a Wind Farm Central Controller Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Su, Chi; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing integration of the wind power into the power system, wind farm are required to be controlled as a single unit and have all the same control tasks as conventional power plants. The wind farm central controller receives control orders from Transmission System Operator (TSO), the...... Optimization (PSO) is used to obtain the optimal wind power for each wind turbine. A case study is carried out. The available wind power of the wind farm was compared between the traditional dispatch method and the proposed dispatch method with the consideration of the wake effect....

  7. Diagnostics of Electric Equipment Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Branovitsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology and results of the investigations pertaining to study of influence of short-circuited turns on transient electrical processes in electric motor windings. Dependence of their damped speed and value of the difference signal, obtained at reciprocal subtraction of damped oscillation curves in absence and in presence of short-circuited turns, on number of turns in the tested windings. It has been determined that damped oscillation curves, immediately attributed to short-circuited turns, have peak values along temporary axis which are areas of the largest transient process sensitivity to КЗ turns.Methodology for diagnostics of single- and three-phase electric motor windings and also other electric equipment, being realized in DO-1 device, has been developed in the paper. The men­tioned device makes it possible to carry out visual comparison and quantitative analysis of damped oscillation curves in the tested windings with standard ones which are set in the device memory and their difference signals.

  8. Neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) and moisture contents in the Green River, Utah, UMTRA disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides the basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) request to discontinue neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) at the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal cell and decommission the neutron access holes. After 3 years of monitoring the disposal cell, the DOE has determined that the NMM method is not suitable for determining changes in moisture content in the disposal cell. Existing tailings moisture contents in the disposal cell result in a low seepage flux. The combination of a low seepage flux and geochemical retardation by foundation materials underneath the disposal cell ensures that the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards will not be exceeded within the design life of the disposal cell. To assess the effectiveness of the NMM method for monitoring moisture contents In the disposal cell at Green River, the DOE subsequently conducted a field study and a review of historical and new literature. The literature review allowed the DOE to identify performance criteria for the NMM method. Findings of these studies suggest that: The NMM method is not sensitive to the low moisture contents found in the disposal cell.; there is an insufficient range of moisture contents in the disposal cell to develop a field calibration curve relating moisture content to neutron counts; it is not possible to collect NMM data from the disposal cell that meet data quality objectives for precision and accuracy developed from performance criteria described in the literature

  9. Errors in the calculation of sub-soil moisture probe by equivalent moisture content technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmipathy, A.V.; Gangadharan, P.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the soil sample required to obtain the saturation response, with a neutron moisture probe is quite large and this poses practical problems of handling and mixing large amounts of samples for absolute laboratory calibration. Hydrogenous materials are used as a substitute for water in the equivalent moisture content technique, for calibration of soil moisture probes. In this it is assumed that only hydrogen of the bulk sample is responsible for the slowing down of fast neutrons and the slow neutron countrate is correlated to equivalent water content by considering the hydrogen density of sample. It is observed that the higher atomic number elements present in water equivalent media also affect the response of the soil moisture probe. Hence calculations, as well as experiments, were undertaken to know the order of error introduced by this technique. The thermal and slow neutron flux distribution around the BF 3 counter of a sub-soil moisture probe is calculated using three group diffusion theory. The response of the probe corresponding to different equivalent moisture content of hydrogenous media, is calculated taking into consideration the effective length of BF 3 counter. Soil with hydrogenous media such as polyethylene, sugar and water are considered for calculation, to verify the suitability of these materials as substitute for water during calibration of soil moisture probe. Experiments were conducted, to verify the theoretically calculated values. (author)

  10. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  11. Detection of pressure tube leaks relying on moisture beetles only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchington, J.M.; Choi, A.; Jin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A major decision was made for Pickering NGS A Annulus Gas System (ACS) that detection of a pressure tube (PT) leak should be achieved by using only moisture beetles and that dew point monitors would provide 'early warning' without status to shut down the reactor. Experience with Unit 3 has shown that dew point monitoring of pressure tube leaks was particularly subject to gas leaks and surface adsorption effects. Unit 4 was the first one to be converted during the full scale pressure tube replacement programme. Because of the fundamental change in design philosophy, moisture injection tests were carried out during commissioning to demonstrate that performance matched design. In particular it was necessary to show that leak before break (LBB) would be achieved if a leak occurred in the limiting string. Units 1 and 3 have since been converted. No decision has been taken to convert Pickering B units as gas leaks are small and no significant adsorption effects are anticipated. Hence dew point monitoring will not be impaired. (author)

  12. A study of quantitative radiography for moisture content distributions in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Hino, M.; Horie, T.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum pre-cooling in cut flower or perishable vegetables industry are used for protecting from the deterioration of the perishables during transportation. Some improvements of the pre-cooling way, however, are required for a bruise in plant on the way of handling. Neutron radiography is suitable to detect and observe the bruise in plant, especially, moisture content distributions in leaves, flowers and stalks. Neutron spectrum in irradiation neutron beams is required for obtaining quantitative moisture contents in plant. The neutron spectrum measurements for determination of effective cross-section of water are carried out at CN-3 experimental hole of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) by time of flight method. Moisture content distributions in leaves of chrysanthemum, before and after the vacuum pre-cooling are measured by cold neutron radiography at the experimental hole. The local decreases of moisture contents caused by a bruise on the surface of the leaves are measured quantitatively by the cold neutron radiography. The quantitative changes of the moisture content in the leaves are able to read out from the cold neutron radiography image. (M. Suetake)

  13. The effect of row structure on soil moisture retrieval accuracy from passive microwave data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingming, Zheng; Kai, Zhao; Yangyang, Li; Jianhua, Ren; Yanling, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Row structure causes the anisotropy of microwave brightness temperature (TB) of soil surface, and it also can affect soil moisture retrieval accuracy when its influence is ignored in the inversion model. To study the effect of typical row structure on the retrieved soil moisture and evaluate if there is a need to introduce this effect into the inversion model, two ground-based experiments were carried out in 2011. Based on the observed C-band TB, field soil and vegetation parameters, row structure rough surface assumption (Q p model and discrete model), including the effect of row structure, and flat rough surface assumption (Q p model), ignoring the effect of row structure, are used to model microwave TB of soil surface. Then, soil moisture can be retrieved, respectively, by minimizing the difference of the measured and modeled TB. The results show that soil moisture retrieval accuracy based on the row structure rough surface assumption is approximately 0.02 cm(3)/cm(3) better than the flat rough surface assumption for vegetated soil, as well as 0.015 cm(3)/cm(3) better for bare and wet soil. This result indicates that the effect of row structure cannot be ignored for accurately retrieving soil moisture of farmland surface when C-band is used.

  14. Determination of degree of compacting and of moisture content by radiometric probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinec, J.; Paul, P.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of radiometric probes used for measuring bulk density and moisture content. Surface probes are used in depths of up to 20 cm with an accuracy of 10%, drive-in probes are used to depths of up to 50 cm with a 4% error, depth probes are used for measuring in depths of 30 to 50 cm with an accuracy of roughly 5% and bulk density in depths of 10 to 150 cm may be measured with an accuracy of 2% using a lysimeter. Changes in the bulk density and soil moisture of the subsoil of an airport runway were studied radiometrically in dependence on time and depth. The dependence is represented graphically. The results of radiometric measurements were compared with the conventional method using a lysimeter probe; the comparison showed that the results were lower by about 7% for the moisture content and higher by about 8% for the bulk density. Radiometric measurements for determining bulk density and soil moisture are advantageous in that they allow the measurement of a great number of sites without any major disturbance of the measured material and results are available immediately on measurement. The economic effect is significant in a large number of measurements carried out on a surface having the same chemical composition and similar grain size which does not necessitate calibration of the instruments to be made more than once a week. The NZK-201 probe by Tesla does not provide sufficiently accurate information on the moisture and density of the earths probed

  15. Optimization of protection and calibration of the moisture-density gages troxler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAKOTONDRAVANONA, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of the principle of optimization of the protection and calibration of moisture-density gages TROXLER. The main objectives are the application of radiation protection and the feasibility of a calibration laboratory design. The calibration of density and moisture may confirm the calibration of moisture-density gages TROXLER. The calibration of density consists of the assembly of measurements on three calibration blocks (magnesium, aluminium and magnesium/aluminium) built in the TRACKER. The value of density uncertainty is ±32 Kg.m -3 . The calibration of moisture is carried out on two calibration blocks (magnesium and magnesium/polyethylene)The value of moisture uncertainty is ±16 Kg.m -3 . The design of the laboratory returns to the dose limitation. The laboratory is designed mainly wall out of ordinary concrete, a good attenuator of the gamma radiations and neutron. For the design, the value of term source gamma is 25.77±0.20μSv.h -1 and the value of term source neutron is 7.88±0.35μSv.h -1 are used for the thickness of the walls. The importance of the design makes it possible to attenuate to the maximum doses and rates dose until the total absorption of the radiations. [fr

  16. Determination of moisture content in steams and variation in moisture content with operating boiler level by analyzing sodium content in steam generator water and steam condensate of a nuclear power plant using ion chromatographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dry steam with moisture content less than <1% is the stringent requirements in a steam generator for good health of the turbine. In order to confirm the same, determination of sodium is done in steam generator water and steam condensate using Flame photometer in ppm level and ion chromatograph in ppb level. Depending on the carry over of sodium in steam along with the water droplet (moisture), the moisture content in steam was calculated and was found to be < 1% which is requirements of the system. The paper described the salient features of a PHWR, principle of Ion Chromatography, chemistry parameters of Steam Generators and calculation of moisture content in steam on the basis of sodium analysis. (author)

  17. Wind energy for water pumping in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechang, S.

    1991-01-01

    After 1980, as the supply of conventional energy has not been able to follow the tremendous increase of the production demand in rural areas of China, a renewed interest for the application of wind energy was shown in many places. Therefore, the Chinese government began to pay more attention to wind energy utilization in rural areas. During the last ten years, several R ampersand D tasks for new modern wind pumps were carried out. Among them, three projects are the developments of wind energy screw pump systems (FDG-5 wind pump, FDG-7 wind pump and TFS-5 wind pump). At present, 50 of these wind pumps are working successfully in the rural areas for farmland drainage, salt ponds water lifting and aquatic product breeding, etc. The field tests show that these wind energy screw pump systems are suitable for low lifting head (< 3 meter) and large water flow (50 m/hr to 120 m/hr) operation in the coastal areas. Because the wind energy resource in many rural areas is sufficient for attractive application of wind pumps, and the supply of electricity as well as fuels is insufficient in these areas, the wind pumps will be spread on a rather large scale in the near future. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  18. Study on the influence of attitude angle on lidar wind measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaochen; Dou, Peilin; Xue, Yangyang

    2017-11-01

    When carrying on wind profile measurement of offshore wind farm by shipborne Doppler lidar technique, the ship platform often produces motion response under the action of ocean environment load. In order to measure the performance of shipborne lidar, this paper takes two lidar wind measurement results as the research object, simulating the attitude of the ship in the ocean through the three degree of freedom platform, carrying on the synchronous observation test of the wind profile, giving an example of comparing the wind measurement data of two lidars, and carrying out the linear regression statistical analysis for all the experimental correlation data. The results show that the attitude angle will affect the precision of the lidar, The influence of attitude angle on the accuracy of lidar is uncertain. It is of great significance to the application of shipborne Doppler lidar wind measurement technology in the application of wind resources assessment in offshore wind power projects.

  19. Addressing Social and Institutional Barriers for Wind Energy Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, L; Gonzalez, R; Varela, M [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Ramirez, I; Vicente, F [Consejeria de Medio Ambiente, Agricultura y Agua. Comunidad Autonoma de Murcia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This project has been jointly financed by the European Commission and developed within the Programme Thermie-B. The main tasks to carried out are: Revision of institutional and legal framework. The revision of institutional and legal framework of different participating countries, i. e. their comparison with the rest of the countries with a relevant role in the field of wind energy. Opinion poll carried out on the wind energy. By means of this means, one wants to test public opinion with respect to wind energy. So for such purpose, there are interviews carried out in the municipalities with wind parks, as well as in those where these are in the process of being installed or the project is in its due course. Simulation of wind parks installation. The Wind Park Wandered software tool is a Design and Visualisation tool developed by CINAR, which allows the preview of potential wind parks, evaluating their visual and audio impact. Production and distribution of information on wind energy. For such purpose, we can include the present publication with which one could summarise the main aspects associated with wind energy from its origin, the study of energy source (wind), and the machines that make use of it or the most relevant social and environmental contexts. Organizing informative seminars on the design possibilities of wind parks. At these seminar, one could assess the present wind energy situation in the European context and in each one of the participating countries. And possibilities of presenting WPW software as a design tool for wind parks. (Author) 12 refs.

  20. Addressing Social and Institutional Barriers for Wind Energy Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, L.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M.; Saez, R.; Ramirez, I.; Vicente, F.

    2000-01-01

    This project has been jointly financed by the European Commission and developed within the Programme Thermie- B. The main tasks to carried out are: Revision of institutional and legal framework. The revision of institutional and legal framework of different participating countries, i.e. their comparison with the rest of the countries with a relevant role in the field of wind energy. Opinion poli carried out on the wind energy. By means of this means, one wants to test public opinion with respect to wind energy. So for such purpose, there are interviews carried out in the municipalities with wind parks, as well as in those where these are in the process of being installed or the project is in its due course. Simulation of wind parks installation. The Wind Park Wandered software tool is a Design and Visualisation tool developed by CINAR, which allows the preview of potential wind parks, evaluating their visual and audio impact. Production and distribution of information on wind energy. For such purpose, we can include the present publication with which one could summarise the main aspects associated with wind energy from its origin, the study of energy source (wind), and the machines that make use of it or the most relevant social and environmental contexts. Organising informative seminars on the design possibilities of wind parks. At these seminars, one could assess the present wind energy situation in the European context and in each one of the participating countries. And possibilities of presenting WPW software as a design tool for wind parks. (Author) 12 refs

  1. Wind Power: Growing with the Demand of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengxu; Li Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ History review Looking back upon the human history, China is among the earliest countries which make use of wind energy. It started to use the wind energy to pump water for irrigation very long time ago. Since the establishment of the new China, pilot projects of wind energy generation have been carried out in many areas. In 1975, Tsinghua University and the Inner Mongolia Prairie Research Institute cooperated to develop wind turbines. They developed prototypes of 50/100-W off-grid micro wind turbines. Meanwhile, small wind turbines were also developed in other areas. The wind turbines produced at that time were all in small capacity and did not play important role in power industry.

  2. Concurrent Aeroservoelastic Design and Optimization of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo

    This work develops and investigates methods to integrate controllers in the wind turbine design process and to perform wind turbine optimization. These techniques can exploit the synergy between wind turbine components and generate new design solutions. Two frameworks to perform wind turbine...... optimization design are presented. These tools handle workflows to model a wind turbine and to evaluate loads and performances under specific conditions. Three approaches to evaluate loads are proposed and integrated in the optimization codes. The first method is based on time domain simulations, the second...... simulations, allows the selection of any controller parameter. The methods to evaluate loads and the pole-placement technique are then employed to carry out wind turbine optimization design from an aeroservoelastic prospective. Several analysis of the NREL 5 MW Reference Wind Turbine and the DTU 10 MW...

  3. Moisture dynamics of the northward and eastward propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations: possible role of tropical Indo-west Pacific SST and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prasanth A.; Sahai, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    Boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) has complex spatial structure due to the co-existence of equatorial eastward and off-equatorial northward propagation in the equatorial Indian Ocean. As a result, equatorial Indian Ocean convection has simultaneous northward and eastward (NE), northward only (N-only) and eastward only (E-only) propagations. It is well established that the convection propagates in the direction of increasing moist static energy (MSE). The moisture and MSE budget analysis reveals that the horizontal advection of anomalous MSE contributes to positive MSE tendency, which is in agreement with the horizontal advection of column integrated moisture anomaly. Northward movement of warm SST and the anomalous moisture advected by zonal wind are the major initiative for the northward propagation of convection from the equatorial Indian Ocean in both NE and N-only category. At the same time warm SST anomaly in the equatorial west Pacific along with moisture advection caused by anomalous meridional wind is important for the equatorial eastward branch of NE propagation. As these anomalies in the west Pacific moves northward, equatorial Indian Ocean convection establishes over the equatorial west Pacific. The absence of these processes confines the BSISO in northward direction for N-only category. In the case of E-only movement, warm SST anomaly and moisture advection by zonal component of wind causes the eastward propagation of convection. Boundary layer moisture convergence always remains east of convection center in E-only propagation, while it coincides with convection centre in other two categories. Thus the present study concludes that the difference in underlying SST and atmospheric circulation in tropical Indo-west Pacific oceanic regions encourage the differential propagation of BSISO convection through moisture dynamics.

  4. Turbulent Flow Inside and Above a Wind Farm: A Wind-Tunnel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo P. Chamorro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to better understand boundary layer effects on the flow pattern inside and above a model wind farm under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to characterize the turbulent flow structure at different locations around a 10 by 3 array of model wind turbines aligned with the mean flow and arranged in two different layouts (inter-turbine separation of 5 and 7 rotor diameters in the direction of the mean flow by 4 rotor diameters in its span. Results suggest that the turbulent flow can be characterized in two broad regions. The first, located below the turbine top tip height, has a direct effect on the performance of the turbines. In that region, the turbulent flow statistics appear to reach equilibrium as close as the third to fourth row of wind turbines for both layouts. In the second region, located right above the first one, the flow adjusts slowly. There, two layers can be identified: an internal boundary layer where the flow is affected by both the incoming wind and the wind turbines, and an equilibrium layer, where the flow is fully adjusted to the wind farm. An adjusted logarithmic velocity distribution is observed in the equilibrium layer starting from the sixth row of wind turbines. The effective surface roughness length induced by the wind farm is found to be higher than that predicted by some existing models. Momentum recovery and turbulence intensity are shown to be affected by the wind farm layout. Power spectra show that the signature of the tip vortices, in both streamwise and vertical velocity components, is highly affected by both the relative location in the wind farm and the wind farm layout.

  5. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  6. Water table and the neutron moisture meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvalingam, M [Hull Univ. (UK). Geography Dept.

    1975-12-01

    Measurements with a neutron moisture meter at Westlands, near Hull, showed count rates at capillary saturation to be within the error limits of count rates at full saturation. However, the saturation profiles in themselves were interesting as they indicated not only the zonation of the soil but also differences in drainable porosity when compared to count-rate profiles at the end of November.

  7. Analysis of Joint Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Adding insulation to the interior side of walls of masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw, have known solutions, but wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated versus non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  8. Mechanically controlled moisture removal from greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study was to design and test a system capable of dehumidifying air in a greenhouse when a thermal screen is in use. Dehumidification is required to reduce the risk of fungal diseases and prevent physiological disorders. The most common procedure used to remove moisture from a

  9. Localized leak detection utilizing moisture sensitive tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, P.

    1984-01-01

    Moisture sensitive tape (MST) has been used in various nuclear power plants to detect leaks in reactor piping systems. The sensor assembly consists of MST, transponder, and sensor carrier, and is installed on the exterior of thermal insulation. The components, applications, installation, and purchasing information are discussed in the paper

  10. SOME MOISTURE DEPENDENT THERMAL PROPERTIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity and bulk density of Prosopis africana seeds were determined as a function of moisture content. Specific heat capacity was measured by the method of mixture while the thermal heat conductivity was measured by the guarded hot plate method.

  11. Effect of moisture on tuff stone degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Nijland, T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Tuff stone elements with a large length/width ratio often suffer damage in the form of cracks parallel to the surface and spalling of the outer layer. The response of tuff to moisture might be a reason for this behaviour. This research aimed at verifying if differential dilation between parts with

  12. Effect of moisture on tuffstone weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Nijland, T.G.; Tolboom, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Tuffstone elements with a large length/width ratio, as e.g. mullions, often suffer damage in the form of cracks parallel to the surface and spalling of the outer layer. The response of tuff to moisture might be a reason for this behaviour. This research aimed at verifying if a differential dilation

  13. Nuclear radiation moisture gauge calibration standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described. Each standard has physical characteristics and dimensions effective for representing to a nuclear gauge undergoing calibration, an infinite mass of homogeneous hydrogen content. Calibration standards are discussed which are suitable for use with surface gauges and with depth gauges. (C.F.)

  14. Moisture Content Monitoring of a Timber Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Björngrim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction of modern timber bridges has greatly increased during the last 20 years in Sweden. Wood as a construction material has several advantageous properties, e.g., it is renewable, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing, but it is also susceptible to deterioration. To protect wood from deterioration and ensure the service life, the wood is either treated or somehow covered. This work evaluates a technology to monitor the moisture content in wood constructions. Monitoring the moisture content is important both to verify the constructive protection and for finding areas with elevated levels of moisture which might lead to a microbiological attack of the wood. In this work, a timber bridge was studied. The structure was equipped with six wireless sensors that measured the moisture content of the wood and the relative humidity every hour. Data for 744 days of the bridge are presented in this paper. Results show that the technology used to monitor the bridge generally works; however, there were issues due to communication problems and malfunction of sensors. This technology is promising for monitoring the state of wood constructions, but a more reliable sensor technology is warranted continuous remote monitoring of wood bridges over long periods of time.

  15. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...

  16. Nuclear radiation moisture gauge calibration standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating radiation moisture gauges is described. This standard has little or no affinity for water and accordingly will not take up or give off water under ambient conditions of fluctuating humidity in such a manner as to change the hydrogen content presented to a nuclear gauge undergoing calibration. (O.T.)

  17. Soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  18. Drying of brick as a function of heat flows and analysis of moisture and temperature distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the driving mechanisms for frost damages in brickwork, laboratory tests has been performed on a test brick wall. These test include monitoring of temperature and moisture distribution in the wall as function of the influence of driving rain, wind speed and solar radiation....... After the initial tests the surface of the wall was treated with mortar and a new series of test was performed. The wall with and without treatment performed almost equal during the influence of driving rain, and during the later drying phase, the difference was equally small....

  19. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    important for the implementation of wind energy conversion systems are the macro and micro wind climate, the siting within a micro wind climate and the choice of a wind turbine model most appropriate for the selected site. In the frame of this work, all these important elements are analyzed and a row......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant...

  20. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls

  1. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  2. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  3. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  4. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  5. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  6. Improving streamflow simulations and forecasting performance of SWAT model by assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amol; Ramsankaran, RAAJ

    2017-12-01

    This article presents a study carried out using EnKF based assimilation of coarser-scale SMOS soil moisture retrievals to improve the streamflow simulations and forecasting performance of SWAT model in a large catchment. This study has been carried out in Munneru river catchment, India, which is about 10,156 km2. In this study, an EnkF based new approach is proposed for improving the inherent vertical coupling of soil layers of SWAT hydrological model during soil moisture data assimilation. Evaluation of the vertical error correlation obtained between surface and subsurface layers indicates that the vertical coupling can be improved significantly using ensemble of soil storages compared to the traditional static soil storages based EnKF approach. However, the improvements in the simulated streamflow are moderate, which is due to the limitations in SWAT model in reflecting the profile soil moisture updates in surface runoff computations. Further, it is observed that the durability of streamflow improvements is longer when the assimilation system effectively updates the subsurface flow component. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that the passive microwave-based coarser-scale soil moisture products like SMOS hold significant potential to improve the streamflow estimates when assimilating into large-scale distributed hydrological models operating at a daily time step.

  7. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  8. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  9. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  10. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  11. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  12. Moisture availability limits subalpine tree establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Harvey, Brian J; Rodman, Kyle C; Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of broad-scale disturbance, many temperate coniferous forests experience successful seedling establishment only when abundant seed production coincides with favorable climate. Identifying the frequency of past establishment events and the climate conditions favorable for seedling establishment is essential to understanding how climate warming could affect the frequency of future tree establishment events and therefore future forest composition or even persistence of a forest cover. In the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, research on the sensitivity of establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)-two widely distributed, co-occurring conifers in North America-to climate variability has focused on the alpine treeline ecotone, leaving uncertainty about the sensitivity of these species across much of their elevation distribution. We compared annual germination dates for >450 Engelmann spruce and >500 subalpine fir seedlings collected across a complex topographic-moisture gradient to climate variability in the Colorado Front Range. We found that Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir established episodically with strong synchrony in establishment events across the study area. Broad-scale establishment events occurred in years of high soil moisture availability, which were characterized by above-average snowpack and/or cool and wet summer climatic conditions. In the recent half of the study period (1975-2010), a decrease in the number of fir and spruce establishment events across their distribution coincided with declining snowpack and a multi-decadal trend of rising summer temperature and increasing moisture deficits. Counter to expected and observed increases in tree establishment with climate warming in maritime subalpine forests, our results show that recruitment declines will likely occur across the core of moisture-limited subalpine tree ranges as warming drives increased moisture deficits. © 2018 by the

  13. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  14. Variations in long term wind speed during different decades in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study has been carried out by comparing the extreme wind speeds estimated based on. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for 100 ... Analysis has shown slight upward trend in the annual maximum wind for location off Machilipatnam with ... storm surges and also it affects the offshore marine operations. Several studies were ...

  15. Wind loads on post-panamax container ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of the container configuration on the deck of a 9000+ TEU container ship on wind forces has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests with a 1:450 scale model. An analysis of earlier studies was used to select a series of appropriate loading conditions...

  16. Urban Wind Energy - State of the Art 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    Wind energy in urban areas is a new area and a rather blank page concerning design criteria, aesthetics, concepts, minimizing costs etc. Even though the potential energy in the flow is much higher on the country side or off-shore, the erection of wind turbines in urban areas is carried out and also...

  17. Wind and area potential analysis of the Lower Saxony coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.; Gerdes, G.; Keuper, A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the wind and area potential is carried out for 10 areas at the Lower Saxony coast, on behalf of the Lower Saxony Ministry of the Environment. The processes for determining suitable areas, the wind speeds and the possible amounts of energy are introduced. (orig.) [de

  18. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  19. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  20. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu...

  1. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  2. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  3. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  4. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  5. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  6. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  7. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  8. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.B.; Kristensen, O.J.D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Differentequipment for mounting the accelerometers...... is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use ofaccelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded...... and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on ablade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Øyes blade_EV1...

  9. Offshore and onshore wind turbine wake meandering studied in an ABL wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre; Buckingham, Sophia; Glabeke, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    Scaled wind turbine models have been installed in the VKI L1-B atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at offshore and onshore conditions. Time-resolved measurements were carried out with three component hot wire anemometry and stereo-PIV in the middle vertical plane of the wake up to eleven turbine...... diameter downstream. The results show an earlier wake recovery for the onshore case. The effect of inflow conditions and the wind turbine’s working conditions on wake meandering was investigated. Wake meandering was detected by hot wire anemometry through a low frequency peak in the turbulent power...

  10. Computational Modelling of Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: Selected DTU Wind Energy Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-11-08

    Computational and analytical studies of degradation of wind turbine blade materials at the macro-, micro-, and nanoscale carried out by the modelling team of the Section Composites and Materials Mechanics, Department of Wind Energy, DTU, are reviewed. Examples of the analysis of the microstructural effects on the strength and fatigue life of composites are shown. Computational studies of degradation mechanisms of wind blade composites under tensile and compressive loading are presented. The effect of hybrid and nanoengineered structures on the performance of the composite was studied in computational experiments as well.

  11. Calibration technique for the neutron surface moisture measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.T.; Shreve, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for calibrating the response of a surface neutron moisture measurement probe to material moisture concentration has been devised. Tests to ensure that the probe will function in the expected in-tank operating environment are also outlined

  12. The effect of regional-scale soil-moisture deficits on mesoscale atmospheric dynamics that influence fire severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J.D.

    1994-09-30

    This study employs a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic mesoscale model to evaluate the effects of horizontally heterogeneous soil moisture and vegetation type on the atmosphere during two periods in which wildland fires occurred. Numerical sensitivity simulations demonstrate that evapotranspiration significantly affects the boundary-layer structure embedded in the synoptic-scale circulations. In regions with sufficiently moist soils, evapotranspiration increases the humidity and modifies the diurnally varying temperature near the surface. Occasionally, changes in the humidity and temperature fields can also be seen a significant distance downwind of the moist soil regions. The perturbations in the temperature fields ultimately affect the wind speed and direction over or at the boundaries of the moist-soil regions, but only at certain times during the simulation period. The higher humidity also increases the cloudiness and changes the precipitation amounts, indicating that soil moisture and vegetation may play an important role in modifying the spatial distribution and intensity of precipitation. A lower atmospheric stability index, that is an indicator of the potential for wildland fire, is also calculated from the model results. This index is also sensitive to the horizontal distribution of soil moisture and vegetation, especially in regions with relatively moist soils. While only two periods are examined in this study, the impact of surface inhomogeneities in soil moisture and vegetation type on the atmosphere is expected to be highly dependent on the particular synoptic conditions and upon the distribution of soil moisture.

  13. Analysis and optimal design of moisture sensor for rice grain moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sweety; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Thakare, Vandana Vikas

    2018-04-01

    The analysis and design of a microstrip sensor for accurate determination of moisture content (MC) in rice grains based on oven drying technique, this technique is easy, fast and less time-consuming to other techniques. The sensor is designed with low insertion loss, reflection coefficient and maximum gain is -35dB and 5.88dB at 2.68GHz as well as discussed all the parameters such as axial ratio, maximum gain, smith chart etc, which is helpful for analysis the moisture measurement. The variation in percentage of moisture measurement with magnitude and phase of transmission coefficient is investigated at selected frequencies. The microstrip moisture sensor consists of one layer: substrate FR4, thickness 1.638 is simulated by computer simulated technology microwave studio (CST MWS). It is concluded that the proposed sensor is suitable for development as a complete sensor and to estimate the optimum moisture content of rice grains with accurately, sensitivity, compact, versatile and suitable for determining the moisture content of other crops and agriculture products.

  14. A flash flood early warning system based on rainfall thresholds and daily soil moisture indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    one parallel channel and reservoir, thereby corresponding to 'quick' and 'slow' components of runoff. In the non linear model a wetness/soil moisture index, varying from 0 to 1, was derived to define daily soil moisture catchment conditions and then conveniently linked to a corresponding CN value to use as input to derive the corresponding rainfall threshold for a given day. Finally, rainfall thresholds for flash flooding were derived using an Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph based lumped rainfall-runoff model with the SCS-CN routine for net rainfall. Application of the proposed methodology was carried out with reference to a river basin in Sicily, Italy.

  15. Relationship between Depth of Soil Moisture Assessment and Turgidity of Coffee Plant in Selected Agroclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Observation on the relationship between the depth of soil moisture assessment and turgidity of coffee plant has been carried out at 3 different agroclimates by survey method, i.e. Andungsari experimental station (Andosol soil type, >1.000 m asl. high, and rainfall type of C, Sumberasin experimental station (yellowish-red Mediterranean soil type, 450-500 m asl. high, and rainfall type of C, and Kaliwining experimental station (low humic glei soil type, 45 m asl. high, and rainfall type of D in order to assess the depth of soil moisture through soil profile influencing turgidity of coffee plants at three different agroclimates. The method of assessment is by fitting the relationship between the depth of soil moisture assessment and turgidity of coffee plant and their determination coefficients through the period of dry season up to early rainy season. Plant turgidity is evaluated from its relative water contents of the leaves sampled periodically at the same time as observation of soil moisture content. Plant turgidity is affected by soil moisture condition up to a certain depth which looks to be typical of the agroclimates. At Andungsari experimental station (high land it is necessary to assess soil moisture through the soil profile up to 100 cm deep in order to evaluate water stress of the plants; inversely, at Kaliwining experimental station in order to evaluate water stress of the plants it is just justified from the soil moisture condition of the soil surface layers (0-25 cm. Whereas at Sumberasin experimental station water stress of the plants could be predicted from soil moisture assessment of the surface layer depth or through the deeper layers of the soil profile either. Andungsari-1 and Lini S-795 clones are more resistant to drought than Kartika-2 clone at Andisol soil type with C rainfall type and elevation > 1000 m asl. BP-308 clone showed its response as relatively resistant to drought at yellowish red Mediterranean soil type with C

  16. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  18. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  19. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  20. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  1. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  2. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  3. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  4. Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G.; Jarczynski, Emil D [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh [Cambridge, MA

    2008-09-23

    A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

  5. The general atomic strand winding machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matt, P.

    1976-01-01

    In conjunction with the integrated development of their high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), General Atomic of San Diego, USA, also developed a strand winding system for the horizontal prestressing of pressure vessels. The machine lay-out, its capabilities and the test program carried out in the laboratory and on a full scale pressure vessel model are described. (author)

  6. Aero-Acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun

    2008-01-01

    both for laminar and turbulent flows. Results have shown that sound generation is due to the unsteadiness of the flow field and the spectrum of sound has a strong relation with fluctuating forces on the solid body. Flow and acoustic simulation were also carried out for a wind turbine where general...

  7. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains a comprehensive 3D Navier-Stokes computational study of the characteristics of wakes of wind turbines operating in various flow conditions including interacting wakes between a row of turbines. The computations were carried out using the actuator line technique combined...

  8. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    Wind energy should be an important part of the energy supply mix, both at home and abroad, to provide cleaner air and a more stable fuel supply. Not only can wind energy contribute to solving complex global issues, it also can provide a large market for American technological leadership. Even though utilities are paying more attention to wind in a number of states, there are no plans for major installations of wind power plants in the United States. At the same time, European nations have developed aggressive wind energy development programs, including both ambitious research and development efforts and market incentives. Many countries recognize the importance of the clean energy provided by wind technology and are taking steps to promote their fledgling domestic industries. The emphasis on market incentives is starting to pay off. In 1991, European utilities and developers installed nearly twice as much wind capacity as Americans did. In 1992 the gap will be even greater. This article reviews aggressive incentives offered by European governments to boost their domestic wind industries at home and abroad in this almost $1 billion per year market. By offering substantial incentives - considerably more than the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is proposing - European nations are ensuring dramatic near-term wind energy development and are taking a major step toward dominating the international wind industry of the 21st century

  9. Wind integration in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, W.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation described the role of the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) for Alberta's interconnected electric system with particular reference to wind integration in Alberta. The challenges of wind integration were discussed along with the requirements for implementing the market and operational framework. The AESO is an independent system operator that directs the reliable operation of Alberta's power grid; develops and operates Alberta's real-time wholesale energy market to promote open competition; plans and develops the province's transmission system to ensure reliability; and provides transmission system access for both generation and load customers. Alberta has over 280 power generating station, with a total generating capacity of 11,742 MW, of which 443 is wind generated. Since 2004, the AESO has been working with industry on wind integration issues, such as operating limits, need for mitigation measures and market rules. In April 2006, the AESO implemented a temporary 900 MW reliability threshold to ensure reliability. In 2006, a Wind Forecasting Working Group was created in collaboration with industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association in an effort to integrate as much wind as is feasible without compromising the system reliability or the competitive operation of the market. The challenges facing wind integration include reliability issues; predictability of wind power; the need for dispatchable generation; transmission upgrades; and, defining a market and operational framework for the large wind potential in Alberta. It was noted that 1400 MW of installed wind energy capacity can be accommodated in Alberta with approved transmission upgrades. figs

  10. The study of high precision neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Bao Guanxiong; Sang Hai; Zhu Yuzhen

    1993-01-01

    The principle, structure and calibration experiment of the high precision neutron moisture gauge (insertion type) are described. The gauge has been appraised. The precision of the measuring moisture of coke is lower than 0.5%, and the range of the measuring moisture is 2%-12%. The economic benefit of the gauge application is good

  11. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except when...

  12. Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Schaefli, B.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate on the extent to which precipitation relies on terrestrial evaporation (moisture recycling). In the past, most research focused on moisture recycling within a certain region only. This study makes use of new definitions of moisture recycling to study the complete process

  13. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  14. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  15. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  16. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  17. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  18. Estonian wind climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, Ain

    1999-01-01

    Estonia is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This is a region with intensive cyclonic activity and therefore with a relatively high mean wind speed. Atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variation determine the general character of the Estonian wind regime over the Atlantic Ocean and Eurasia. However, the Baltic sea itself is a very important factor affecting wind climate, it has an especially strong influence on the wind regime in costal areas. The mean energy density (W/m 2 ) is a wind energy characteristic that is proportional to the third power of wind speed and describes energy available in a flow of air through a unit area. The mean energy density is a characteristic which has practical importance in regional assessment of snowdrift, storm damage and wind energy

  19. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    (Technical Report, Danish Technical press, 1970) and by Abild (Technical Report R-522 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1994). A short discussion of the wind storm on the 3rd of December 1999 is included. It is demonstrated how the data can be applied to non-standard situations where the roughness length......Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity, defined as the 50 yr wind speed (10 min averages) under standard conditions, i.e., 10 m over a homogeneous terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m, The sites are Skjern (15 yr......), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide...

  20. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  1. Characterization of a New Open Jet Wind Tunnel to Optimize and Test Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Using Flow Visualization and Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tourn, S.; Gilabert, R.; Sánchez, V.

    Characterize a new open jet wind tunnel and define the uniform test section where performance studies of small VAWTs will be carried out.......Characterize a new open jet wind tunnel and define the uniform test section where performance studies of small VAWTs will be carried out....

  2. Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija, E-mail: danar1405@gmail.com; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali, E-mail: keemsalem@gmail.com; Himawanto, Dwi Aries, E-mail: dwiarieshimawanto@gmail.com [University of Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth’s surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.

  3. European wind power integration study. Periodic report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This periodic report no. 1 describes the work done in the Danish part of the European Wind Power Integration Study in the period until 1.4.1991. The R and D project was initiated January 1, 1989 upon prior establishment of registration equipment at 7 wind farms and at the Tjaereborg turbine. ELSAM and the meteorological service centre in Karup (VTC-Karup) have supplied data for the task. Wind Predictability, Potential and Benefits, Wind Farm - Grid Interface, Distribution System Strength, Wind Farm Cost and Operation, and Co-generation Wind Turbines/Other renewables were measured and modelled. The statistical distribution of the wind speed variations (changes in wind speed from one period of time to another) has been established with great certainty in the report. The wind speed variations follow a Weibull distribution, irrespective of the time intervals with which the data are considered. Duration curves and power distributions for the 7 wind farms have been estimated. Registration equipment for one-minute measurements was chosen in order to clarify the short-term variations in the wind power production. The possibility of working out production forecasts, to be applied in the daily load dispatching, were to be assessed for the total amount of wind power production in Jutland and Funen. The report has examined whether it would be possible to have only one wind measurement and then let it be `guiding` for the total wind farm production. Some simulations are to be carried out in the attempt to set up guidelines for the connection between the strength of distribution systems and the requirements which must be made to the wind farms which are to be places in the system. (EG)

  4. Innovative application of the moisture analyzer for determination of dry mass content of processed cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Janas, Sławomir; Woźniak, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was the presentation of an alternative method of determination of the total dry mass content in processed cheese. The authors claim that the presented method can be used in industry's quality control laboratories for routine testing and for quick in-process control. For the test purposes both reference method of determination of dry mass in processed cheese and moisture analyzer method were used. The tests were carried out for three different kinds of processed cheese. In accordance with the reference method, the sample was placed on a layer of silica sand and dried at the temperature of 102 °C for about 4 h. The moisture analyzer test required method validation, with regard to drying temperature range and mass of the analyzed sample. Optimum drying temperature of 110 °C was determined experimentally. For Hochland cream processed cheese sample, the total dry mass content, obtained using the reference method, was 38.92%, whereas using the moisture analyzer method, it was 38.74%. An average analysis time in case of the moisture analyzer method was 9 min. For the sample of processed cheese with tomatoes, the reference method result was 40.37%, and the alternative method result was 40.67%. For the sample of cream processed cheese with garlic the reference method gave value of 36.88%, and the alternative method, of 37.02%. An average time of those determinations was 16 min. Obtained results confirmed that use of moisture analyzer is effective. Compliant values of dry mass content were obtained for both of the used methods. According to the authors, the fact that the measurement took incomparably less time for moisture analyzer method, is a key criterion of in-process control and final quality control method selection.

  5. Trends in soil moisture and real evapotranspiration in Douro River for the period 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; de Franciscis, Sebastiano; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the evolution of different hydrological variables, such as soil moisture and real evapotranspiration, for the last 30 years, in the Douro Basin, the most extensive basin in the Iberian Peninsula. The different components of the real evaporation, connected to the soil moisture content, can be important when analyzing the intensity of droughts and heat waves, and particularly relevant for the study of the climate change impacts. The real evapotranspiration and soil moisture data are provided by simulations obtained using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model. This model is a large-scale hydrologic model and allows estimates of different variables in the hydrological system of a basin. Land surface is modeled as a grid of large and uniform cells with sub-grid heterogeneity (e.g. land cover), while water influx is local, only depending from the interaction between grid cells and local atmosphere environment. Observational data of temperature and precipitation from Spain02 dataset are used as input variables for VIC model. The simulations have a spatial resolution of about 9 km, and the analysis is carried out on a seasonal time-scale. Additionally, we compare these results with those obtained from a dynamical downscaling driven by ERA-Interim data using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, with the same spatial resolution. The results obtained from Spain02 data show a decrease in soil moisture at different parts of the basin during spring and summer, meanwhile soil moisture seems to be increased for autumn. No significant changes are found for real evapotranspiration. Keywords: real evapotranspiration, soil moisture, Douro Basin, trends, VIC, WRF. Acknowledgements: This work has been financed by the projects P11-RNM-7941 (Junta de Andalucía-Spain) and CGL2013-48539-R (MINECO-Spain, FEDER).

  6. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Instrument for measuring moisture in wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L

    1980-06-01

    A method to determine the moisture content in wood chips, in batch and on-line, has been investigated. The method can be used for frozen and non frozen chips. Samples of wood chips are thawn and dryed with microwaves. During the drying the sample is weighed continously and the rate of drying is measured. The sample is dried t 10 percent moisture content. The result is extrapolated to the drying rate zero. The acccuracy at the method is 1.6 to 1.7 percent for both frozen and non frozen chips. The accuracy of the method is considered acceptable, but sofisticated sampling equipment is necessary. This makes the method too complex to make the instrument marketable.

  8. Radiation safety of soil moisture neutron probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron probe measures sub-surface moisture in soil and other materials by means of high energy neutrons and a slow (thermal) neutron detector. Exposure to radiation, including neutrons, especially at high doses, can cause detrimental health effects. In order to achieve operational radiation safety, there must be compliance with protection and safety standards. The design and manufacture of commercially available neutron moisture gauges are such that risks to the health of the user have been greatly reduced. The major concern is radiation escape from the soil during measurement, especially under dry conditions and when the radius of influence is large. With appropriate work practices as well as good design and manufacture of gauges, recorded occupational doses have been well below recommended annual limits. It can be concluded that the use of neutron gauges poses not only acceptable health and safety risks but, in fact, the risks are negligible. Neutron gauges should not be classified as posing high potential health hazards. (author)

  9. Effects of atmospheric moisture on rock resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R.

    1973-01-01

    This study examines the changes in resistivity of rock samples as induced by atmospheric moisture. Experiments were performed on samples of hematitic sandstone, pyrite, and galena. The sandstone underwent a change in resistivity of four orders of magnitude when it was measured in a vacuum of 500 ntorr and in air of 37% relative humidity. Pyrite and galena showed no variations in resistivity when they were measured under the same conditions. These results, plus others obtained elsewhere, indicate that rocks of the resistive type are affected in their electrical properties by atmospheric moisture, whereas rocks of the conductive type are not. The experimental evidence obtained is difficult to reconcile with a model of aqueous electrolytic conduction on the sample surface. It is instead suggested that adsorbed water molecules alter the surface resistivity in a manner similar to that observed in semiconductors and insulators.

  10. Investigating Wind-Driven Rain Intrusion in Walls with the CARWASh

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Wind-driven rain provides the primary external moisture load for exterior walls.Water absorption by the cladding, runoff, and penetration through the cladding or at details determine how a wall system performs. In this paper we describe a new laboratory facility that can create controlled outdoor and indoor conditions and use it to investigate the water...

  11. Online wind turbine measurement laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Helgesen Pedersen, K.O.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2006-01-01

    conditions, 3) electrical quantities and 4) mechanical loads in terms of strain gauge signals. The data acquisition system has been designed and implemented by Risø together with students and teachers from DTU. It is based on LabVIEW© combined with a MySQL database for data management. The system enables...... calculations and extreme loads estimation in basic wind turbine courses. Power quality analysis is carried out based on high speed sampled, three-phase voltage and current signals. The wide spectrum of sensors enables a detailed study of the correlation between meteorological, mechanical and electrical...

  12. Large superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    and the rotation speed is lowered in order to limit the tip speed of the blades. The ability of superconducting materials to carry high current densities with very small losses might facilitate a new class of generators operating with an air gap flux density considerably higher than conventional generators...... and thereby having a smaller size and weight [1, 2]. A 5 MW superconducting wind turbine generator forms the basics for the feasibility considerations, particularly for the YBCO and MgB2 superconductors entering the commercial market. Initial results indicate that a 5 MW generator with an active weight of 34...

  13. Financing wind plants, taking leasing into special account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltrup, M.

    1993-01-01

    Leasing cannot be managed without a special sort of external financing of wind power plants. Specifically for wind energy, it was found from an investigation of less than a year that an intended erection of a wind power plant should be carried out in the months of September or October, so that the autumn and winter months rich in energy can be used. For the erection of small wind power plants, it was found that taking advantage of the Investment Cost Grant is more sensible than the Operating Cost Grant. (orig./HW) [de

  14. Structural Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengal Ali Nawaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP wind turbine blade was analyzed and compared with Glass fiber reinforced plastic blade (GFRP. Finite element analysis (FEA of blade was carried out using ANSYS. Data for FEA was obtained by using rule of mixture. The shell element in ANSYS was used to simulate the wind turbine blade and to conduct its strength analysis. The structural analysis and comparison of blade deformations proved that BFRP wind turbine blade has better strength compared to GFRP wind turbine blade.

  15. The study of forms of bonding marshmallow moisture with different composition by method of thermal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    G. O. Magomedov; I. V. Plotnikova; I. V. Kuznetsova; I. S. Naumchenko; I. A. Saranov

    2017-01-01

    Marshmallow is a sugar confectionary product with increased sugar content and energy value because of the significant content of carbohydrates, in particular sugar-sand. The main drawback of marshmallow is the rapid process of its drying during storage due to the crystallization of sucrose and the gradual removal of moisture from the product. A method for obtaining marshmallow without sugar on the basis of high-conversion glucose syrup. In the work, experimental studies were carried out to de...

  16. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

  17. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  18. Detecting Vessels Carrying Migrants Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfyridis, A.; Cheng, T.; Vespe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  19. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  20. DETECTING VESSELS CARRYING MIGRANTS USING MACHINE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sfyridis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  1. Seven methods to measure ground moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The correct irrigation methods are of great importance to the deciduous fruit grower. The article discusses seven methods for the measuring of ground humidity. These methods are based on gravimetry, electric resistance, gamma attenuation, neutron humidity measurement, tensiometers and a study of the correlation between ground humidity and water evaporation. At this stage, the last technique is regarded as the most practicle method. Neutron moisture gages might be used if adhered to the regulations of NUCOR

  2. Analysis of Joist Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  3. Automated Greenhouse : Temperature and soil moisture control

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla, Daniela; Tannfelt Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an automated greenhouse was built with the purpose of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures can be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two different sensors, a soil moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to change the temperature and the pump is ...

  4. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  5. SMOS validation of soil moisture and ocen salinity (SMOS) soil moisture over watershed networks in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of soil moisture at large scale has been performed using several satellite-based passive microwave sensors and a variety of retrieval methods. The most recent source of soil moisture is the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. A thorough validation must b...

  6. Anthropogenic warming exacerbates European soil moisture droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.; Wanders, N.; Rakovec, O.; Pan, M.; Zink, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Marx, A.

    2018-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is anticipated to increase soil moisture drought in the future. However, projections are accompanied by large uncertainty due to varying estimates of future warming. Here, using an ensemble of hydrological and land-surface models, forced with bias-corrected downscaled general circulation model output, we estimate the impacts of 1-3 K global mean temperature increases on soil moisture droughts in Europe. Compared to the 1.5 K Paris target, an increase of 3 K—which represents current projected temperature change—is found to increase drought area by 40% (±24%), affecting up to 42% (±22%) more of the population. Furthermore, an event similar to the 2003 drought is shown to become twice as frequent; thus, due to their increased occurrence, events of this magnitude will no longer be classified as extreme. In the absence of effective mitigation, Europe will therefore face unprecedented increases in soil moisture drought, presenting new challenges for adaptation across the continent.

  7. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    In the cellular structure of wood, bound-water diffusion and water-vapor diffusion interact via sorption in a complex moisture-transportation system. At low relative humidities, moisture transport may be modeled by a Fickian diffusion equation with a good approximation. At higher relative......-35% in moisture content. Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate...

  8. Simple grain moisture content determination from microwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraszewski, A.W.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.

    1998-01-01

    Moisture content of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is expressed as a function of the ratio of microwave attenuation and phase shift, measured at 16.8 GHz, and grain temperature. Validation of the calibration equation indicated that moisture content was obtained with an uncertainty less than +/- 0.45% moisture at the 95% confidence level, independent of density variation, at temperatures from -1 degree C to 42 degrees C, and moisture contents from 10% to 19%. Moisture determination does not depend on the layer thickness of the wheat norits bulk density. No differences between two wheat cultivars were observed in the measurement data

  9. A Literature Review on the Study of Moisture in Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    This literature review covers the main chemical and physical interactions between moisture and the polymer matrix. Fickian versus Non-Fickian diffusion behaviors are discussed in approximating the characteristics of moisture sorption. Also, bound water and free water sorbed in polymers are distinguished. Methods to distinguish between bound and free water include differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between moisture sorption and water sorption is considered, as well as the difficulties associated with preventing moisture sorption. Furthermore, specific examples of how moisture sorption influences polymers include natural fiber-polymer composites, starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics, and thermoset polyurethane and epoxies.

  10. CFD modelling of moisture interactions between air and constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Hohota, Raluca

    2005-01-01

    There is a strong demand for accurate moisture modelling since moisture poses a risk for both the constructions and the indoor climate. Thus, in this investigation there is special focus on moisture modelling. The paper describes a new model based on a CFD tool that is enhanced to include both...... detailed modelling of airflows in rooms and heat and moisture transfer in walls by applying them as fluid walls. In a 3D configuration the impact of different boundary conditions are investigated and the results are discussed. The changes of boundary conditions that are studied are velocity, moisture...

  11. New method measures moisture and true dry mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    The moisture content of wood can be determined by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance of free water hydrogen atoms in wood. Nanassy studied NMR curves for six types of wood and obtained the calibration curve by reducing the moisture content in steps by 4% moisture down to ca. 1% moisture and then by gradually wetting the wood. The initial material was fresh wood. For each step he measured the intensity of the free water hydrogen signal. If the sample weight is known the dry matter content (dry weight) and moisture content of the sample can be derived from the measured NMR signal. (J.P.)

  12. Observability of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

  13. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  15. A study on the survey of wind energy resources for potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Kim, Keon Hoon; Yoo, Seung Won; Choi, Chang Joon; Ahn, Jung Jong [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Among the wind energy utilization projects, the siting work for wind turbine installation is one of the most important procedure because the wind energy distribution is very different regionally and wind energy density influences greatly to the feasibility of wind energy utilization. So, the potential sites of wind generating in our country must be surveyed and analyzed the feasibility of wind energy utilization. In addition to this, the technique of wind energy prediction considered of the topography, surface roughness and obstacle condition must be established for the reliable analysis of wind energy utilization. The contents carried out in this project are shown below, 1. Determining of the measuring sites of wind data - Wyoulryung-ri, Youngrag-ri, Gapa-ri in Cheju Province - Heul-ri, Gangwon Province. 2. Analysis of wind energy at measuring sites The characteristics of wind energy at the measured sites were analysed. It will be continued to measure the wind data by wind data logger. 3. A study on wind energy prediction technique It was studied how to obtain the topographic map data for using WAsP(WIndAtlas Analysis and Application Program). (author). 21 refs., 59 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Projected change in East Asian summer monsoon by dynamic downscaling: Moisture budget analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chun-Yong; Shin, Ho-Jeong; Jang, Chan Joo; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2015-02-01

    The summer monsoon considerably affects water resource and natural hazards including flood and drought in East Asia, one of the world's most densely populated area. In this study, we investigate future changes in summer precipitation over East Asia induced by global warming through dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecast model. We have selected a global model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 based on an objective evaluation for East Asian summer monsoon and applied its climate change under Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario to a pseudo global warming method. Unlike the previous studies that focused on a qualitative description of projected precipitation changes over East Asia, this study tried to identify the physical causes of the precipitation changes by analyzing a local moisture budget. Projected changes in precipitation over the eastern foothills area of Tibetan Plateau including Sichuan Basin and Yangtze River displayed a contrasting pattern: a decrease in its northern area and an increase in its southern area. A local moisture budget analysis indicated the precipitation increase over the southern area can be mainly attributed to an increase in horizontal wind convergence and surface evaporation. On the other hand, the precipitation decrease over the northern area can be largely explained by horizontal advection of dry air from the northern continent and by divergent wind flow. Regional changes in future precipitation in East Asia are likely to be attributed to different mechanisms which can be better resolved by regional dynamical downscaling.

  17. Can `loss and damage' carry the load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verchick, Robert R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Even assuming a heroic rush towards carbon reduction and adaptation, some regions of the world will be hammered hard by climate impacts. Thus, a global consensus now sees the need for a supplemental plan to deal with the kind of harms that cannot be avoided-what Parties call `loss and damage'. For a loss-and-damage plan to work, it must be capable of carrying the load, the load being whatever minimal standards that morality and political consensus require. But if residual risk climbs too high, it will fall short of even the most basic expectations. The Paris Agreement calls for holding the rise in global average temperature to `well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels', while working to limit the increase to 1.5°C. How much difference is in that half-degree? From the point of view of residual risk, quite a lot. According to a 2016 study published by the European Geosciences Union, a jump from 1.5°C to 2°C could produce outsize impacts, particularly in tropical latitudes. That difference could mark the line between a plan that is politically and morally defensible and one that is not. At the very least, the difference is enough to inform the design and expectations of any future plan. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  18. Use of Soil Moisture Variability in Artificial Neural Network Retrieval of Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Veenendaal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive microwave remote sensing is one of the most promising techniques for soil moisture retrieval. However, the inversion of soil moisture from brightness temperature observations is not straightforward, as it is influenced by numerous factors such as surface roughness, vegetation cover, and soil texture. Moreover, the relationship between brightness temperature, soil moisture and the factors mentioned above is highly non-linear and ill-posed. Consequently, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs have been used to retrieve soil moisture from microwave data, but with limited success when dealing with data different to that from the training period. In this study, an ANN is tested for its ability to predict soil moisture at 1 km resolution on different dates following training at the same site for a specific date. A novel approach that utilizes information on the variability of soil moisture, in terms of its mean and standard deviation for a (sub region of spatial dimension up to 40 km, is used to improve the current retrieval accuracy of the ANN method. A comparison between the ANN with and without the use of the variability information showed that this enhancement enables the ANN to achieve an average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of around 5.1% v/v when using the variability information, as compared to around 7.5% v/v without it. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrieval was further improved by the division of the target site into smaller regions down to 4 km in size, with the spatial variability of soil moisture calculated from within the smaller region used in the ANN. With the combination of an ANN architecture of a single hidden layer of 20 neurons and the dual-polarized brightness temperatures as input, the proposed use of variability and sub-region methodology achieves an average retrieval accuracy of 3.7% v/v. Although this accuracy is not the lowest as comparing to the research in this field, the main contribution is the ability of ANN in

  19. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forughi, A F; Green, S I; Stoeber, B

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric(®) Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique.

  20. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon’s coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon’s coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983–2013 and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi’s most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs