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Sample records for windpact program global

  1. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 1-Composite Blades for 80- to 120-Meter Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A.

    2001-04-30

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) implemented the Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program. As part of the WindPACT program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC), was awarded contract number YAM-0-30203-01 to examine Technical Area 1-Blade Scaling, Technical Area 2-Turbine Rotor and Blade Logistics, and Technical Area 3-Self-Erecting Towers. This report documents the results of GEC's Technical Area 1-Blade Scaling. The primary objectives of the Blade-Scaling Study are to assess the scaling of current materials and manufacturing technologies for blades of 40 to 60 meters in length, and to develop scaling curves of estimated cost and mass for rotor blades in that size range.

  2. Alternative Design Study Report: WindPACT Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study; November 1, 2000 -- February 28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore, R.; Lettenmaier, T.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents the Phase I results of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study. Global Energy Concepts, LLC performed this work under a subcontract with NREL. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines to be reduced. Other parts of the WindPACT project have examined blade and logistics scaling, balance-of-station costs, and rotor design. This study was designed to investigate innovative drive train designs.

  3. WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study: June 2000--June 2002 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm, D. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2006-04-01

    This report presents the results of the turbine rotor study completed by Global Energy Concepts (GEC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) project. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy from wind turbines to fall to a target of 3.0 cents/kilowatt-hour in low wind speed sites. The study focused on different rotor configurations and the effect of scale on those rotors.

  4. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rinker, Jennifer [Former National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employee

    2018-04-02

    To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor to NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines.

  5. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 2: Turbine, Rotor and Blade Logistics; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.

    2001-01-01

    Through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) implemented the Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program. This program will explore advanced technologies that may reduce the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines. The initial step in the WindPACT program is a series of preliminary scaling studies intended to determine the optimum sizes for future turbines, help define sizing limits for certain critical technologies, and explore the potential for advanced technologies to contribute to reduced COE as turbine scales increase. This report documents the results of Technical Area 2-Turbine Rotor and Blade Logistics. For this report, we investigated the transportation, assembly, and crane logistics and costs associated with installation of a range of multi-megawatt-scale wind turbines. We focused on using currently available equipment, assembly techniques, and transportation system capabilities and limitations to hypothetically transport and install 50 wind turbines at a facility in south-central South Dakota

  6. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies: Technical Area 4 - Balance-of-Station Cost; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, D. A.; Strawmyer, K. R.; Conley, R. M.; Guidinger J. H.; Wilkie, D. C.; Zellman, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    DOE's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program explores the most advanced wind-generating technologies for improving reliability and decreasing energy costs. The first step in the WindPact program is a scaling study to bound the optimum sizes for wind turbines, to define size limits for certain technologies, and to scale new technologies. The program is divided into four projects: Composite Blades for 80-120-meter Rotors; Turbine, Rotor, and Blade Logistics; Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility; and Balance-of-Station Cost. This report discusses balance-of-station costs, which includes the electrical power collector system, wind turbine foundations, communications and controls, meteorological equipment, access roadways, crane pads, and the maintenance building. The report is based on a conceptual 50-megawatt (MW) wind farm site near Mission, South Dakota. Cost comparisons are provided for four sizes of wind turbines: 750 kilowatt (kW), 2.5 MW, 5.0 MW, and 10.0 MW

  7. Global Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  8. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  9. THE MICROSOFT GLOBAL ORTHO PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Walcher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wide area and thus continental mapping extending beyond national borders is a novel concept in civilian photogrammetry. The Microsoft Global Ortho Program was launched in the Spring of 2009 as a result of Microsoft's need for global geo-data at a high geometric resolution and radiometric excellence. By fall of 2012 more than 10 million km2 of the USA and 14 European countries will have been covered by seamless 30 cm GSD color-, 60 cm GSD false-color infrared ortho-mosaics and a 1 meter GSD digital surface model. The ortho-maps are being published to Microsoft's Bing Maps Internet mapping portal. The Global Ortho Program was designed for highly and unprecedented automated mapping of essentially entire continents. In 2011, exclusive of flight operations, the product output per person has been measured in excess of 275,000 square km per year. We describe research efforts that made this achievement possible. Those include a specially designed aerial sensor (Ultracam G, logistics simulation for fight planning and optimization, in-flight blur detection and subsequent automatic blur removal, modeling and removal of atmospheric and environmental conditions, automated shear detection and DTM refinement, an IT architecture to process >200,000 aerial images/day, and for creating over 1,000,000 km2 ortho-imagery and DSM data in 24 hours. While addressing these issues, we provide ideas how this might affect the future of spatial infrastructure initiatives.

  10. Global Security Program Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretzke, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-25

    The Global Security Directorate mission is to protect against proliferant and unconventional nuclear threats –regardless of origin - and emerging new threats. This mission is accomplished as the Los Alamos National Laboratory staff completes projects for our numerous sponsors. The purpose of this Program Management Plan is to establish and clearly describe the GS program management requirements including instructions that are essential for the successful management of projects in accordance with our sponsor requirements. The detailed information provided in this document applies to all LANL staff and their subcontractors that are performing GS portfolio work. GS management is committed to a culture that ensures effective planning, execution, and achievement of measurable results in accordance with the GS mission. Outcomes of such a culture result in better communication, delegated authority, accountability, and increased emphasis on safely and securely achieving GS objectives.

  11. Global Studies: Hurdles to Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia J.; Masters, Paul E.; Goolsby, Amy

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we examine a new global studies program that departs from the traditional state-centric approach and uses a geocentric, or earth-centered, approach that emphasizes the roles of individuals, grassroots organizations, cultural groups, and international organizations in an attempt to help students conceptualize global events and…

  12. English Curriculum in Global Engineer Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Okitsugu; Bright, Olga; Saika, Takashi

    The educational goal of the Faculty of Global Engineering (FGE) of the Kogakuin University is to prepare the graduates to be global engineers. The requirements for the global engineer are multifold; having the basic and advanced engineering knowledge together with the international communication skills and experiences. The curriculum at the Kogakuin University has been designed and developed over the last ten years. Among others, “Communication Skills for Global Engineers (CSGE) ” and “Engineering Clinic Program (ECP) ” play essential roles, the former providing the students with the communication skills and the latter engineering design skills. An impact on the students studying together with foreign students is so strong and immeasurable. The English they learned in Japan does not work as well as they thought it would, and the attitude of the foreign students toward studying they observe is a kind of “shocking” . The student who joined ECP abroad/CSGE abroad come back to Japan as a very inspired and different person, the first step becoming a global engineer. In this paper, various aspects of the program will be discussed with the problem areas to be further improved being identified.

  13. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  14. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  15. Globalizing Social Justice Education: The Case of The Global Solidarity Network Study e-Broad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Yvonne D.; Kostic, Kevin; Toton, Suzanne C.; Zurek, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the development, implementation, and evaluation of "The Global Solidarity Network Study e-Broad Program (GSNSeBP)", an online social justice educational program that is blended into an onsite academic course. This global electronic program, which was developed through a partnership between Catholic Relief Services (CRS) and…

  16. Global Production: The Case of Offshore Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Jacob; Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1997-01-01

    of software is no exception.In this paper, we present a newly started research project on offshore program-ming, that is the practice of sending software development “offshore,” to India or other low wage areas. The project focuses on the organisation of offshore program-ming and, particularly, on the role...

  17. The US Global Change Data and Information Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) requires massive quantities of highly diverse data and information to improve our understanding of global change processes. The Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) comprises Federal agencies that need to provide reliable data and information for this purpose from existing programs and archives and from new activities designed to improve upon the data and information. This US Global Change Data and Information Management Program Plan commits the participating Federal agencies to work with each other, with academia, and with the international community to make it as easy as possible for researchers and others to access and use global change data and information. Toward this end, the agencies are organizing a Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS), which takes advantage of the mission resources and responsibilities of each agency. Sources for global change data and information are national and international agency programs, including those focused on the USGCRP, such as NASA's Earth Observing System [EOS] and other agency global change initiatives and those contributing to the USGCRP from other agency programs not focused on global change. Data and information include raw data from observation systems, value-added data from data assembly activities, and derived data and information from models and other investigations. Additional data and information are identified from appropriate sources including academia and the international community

  18. U.S. Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcing... Read more The Deepening Story of How Climate Change Threatens Human Health Read more Celebrating the 25th Anniversary of the U.S. Global Change Research... Read more Nomination Period Open for the Sustained National ... more Connecting America’s Communities with Actionable Climate ...

  19. U.S. Global Change Research Program Budget Crosscut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — U.S. Global Change Research Program budget authority for Agency activities in which the primary focus is on:Observations, research, and analysis of climate change...

  20. Global pest management program wins international award

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Miriam Sommers

    2009-01-01

    An agricultural research program managed at Virginia Tech has won an international award for its work with pest-management practices that show economic benefits with minimal impact on health and the environment.

  1. Centre for Global Development Visiting Fellowship Program | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Center for Global Development (CGD), located in Washington DC, is a globally preeminent think tank with unique networking and reach. Its Visiting Fellowship Program offers fellowships to scholars from think tanks and academic research institutions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Over the period from 2012 to2017, ...

  2. Exploring Adolescents' Thinking about Globalization in an International Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined US high school students' thinking about economic and cultural globalization during their participation in an international education program. The findings mapped the students' categories for the two aspects of globalization and showed that the students' positions were shaped by relatively stable narratives characterizing the…

  3. Teaching Global Issues in an Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska, Alina M.; Wingrove-Haugland, Erik; LaMonica, Christopher; Rivero, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In preparing cadets to be officers, the U.S. Coast Guard Academy (CGA) is committed to developing "the whole person." CGA has increasingly developed program-specific ways to achieve educational goals and learning outcomes. While character development and ethical education have long been important learning outcomes, today's CGA curriculum…

  4. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  5. Global warming mitigation strategies and programs for power plant developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.R.

    1992-01-01

    Power plant developers are increasingly being surprised by regulatory agencies requiring them to mitigate the carbon dioxide(CO 2 ) emissions from their proposed power plants, as part of the plant's operating permit conditions. Since carbon dioxide is not a criteria pollutant with a National Ambient Air Quality Standard, power plant developers are often troubled by this additional regulatory requirement. This presentation will describe the contribution that CO 2 makes to global warming, the role of trees and forests as carbon sequesters or sinks, some non-forestry related and forestry related mitigation programs, including the advantages, disadvantages, and some cost estimates for the forestry related CO 2 mitigation programs. As public concern about global warming continues to escalate, it is almost certain that regulatory agencies will increase their focus on CO 2 mitigation

  6. The Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP - 1992/1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Giardini

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations, recognizing natural disasters as a major threat to human life and development, designed the 1990-1999 period as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (UN/IDNDR; UN Res. 42/169/ 1987. Among the IDNDR Demonstration Projects is the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP, launched in 1992 by the International Lithosphere Program (ILP and implemented in the 1992-1999 period. In order to mitigate the risk associated to the recurrence of earthquakes, the GSHAP promoted a regionally coordinated, homogeneous approach to seismic hazard evaluation. To achieve a global dimension, the GSHAP established initially a mosaic of regions and multinational test areas, then expanded to cover whole continents and finally the globe. The GSHAP Global Map of Seismic Hazard integrates the results obtained in the regional areas and depicts Peak-Ground-Acceleration (PGA with 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to a return period of 475 years. All regional results and the Global Map of Seismic Hazard are published in 1999 and available on the GSHAP homepage on http://seismo.ethz.ch/GSHAP/.

  7. Toward a global space exploration program: A stepping stone approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; McKay, Chris; Rummel, John D.; Foing, Bernard H.; Neal, Clive R.; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Ansdell, Megan; Peter, Nicolas; Zarnecki, John; Mackwell, Steve; Perino, Maria Antionetta; Billings, Linda; Mankins, John; Race, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a stepwise approach to achieve a new level of space cooperation that can help develop world-wide capabilities in space science and exploration and support a transition that will lead to a global space exploration program. The proposed stepping stones are intended to transcend cross-cultural barriers, leading to the development of technical interfaces and shared legal frameworks and fostering coordination and cooperation on a broad front. Input for this report was drawn from expertise provided by COSPAR Associates within the international community and via the contacts they maintain in various scientific entities. The report provides a summary and synthesis of science roadmaps and recommendations for planetary exploration produced by many national and international working groups, aiming to encourage and exploit synergies among similar programs. While science and technology represent the core and, often, the drivers for space exploration, several other disciplines and their stakeholders (Earth science, space law, and others) should be more robustly interlinked and involved than they have been to date. The report argues that a shared vision is crucial to this linkage, and to providing a direction that enables new countries and stakeholders to join and engage in the overall space exploration effort. Building a basic space technology capacity within a wider range of countries, ensuring new actors in space act responsibly, and increasing public awareness and engagement are concrete steps that can provide a broader interest in space exploration, worldwide, and build a solid basis for program sustainability. By engaging

  8. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #37: PUBLICATION OF "OUR CHANGING PLANET: THE FY 2002 U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Global Change Research Program is pleased to inform you of the publication of the new Our Changing Planet: The FY 2002 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices of the Committee on Environment and Natural Reso...

  9. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  10. The Geosphere - Biosphere international program and the global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanin, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Geosphere-Biosphere International Program (GBIP) is to achieve a correct approach of the various biogeochemical interactions between the different components of the environment (oceans, atmosphere, biosphere). The main themes are: study of the chemical regulation in the global atmosphere and influence of natural and anthropogenic processes on trace element cycles; influence of the oceanic biogeochemical processes on climates and their response to climatic changes; influence of soil utilization modification (especially coastal) on climates and ecosystems; interaction between vegetation and the water cycle; interaction between climatic changes, ecosystems and agricultural productivity; approaches to climate modelling. French component of the GBIP is presented [fr

  11. DEGAS: Dynamic Exascale Global Address Space Programming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-02-23

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics.

  12. US Global Change Research Program Distributed Cost Budget Interagency Funds Transfer from DOE to NSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhle, Maria [National Science Foundation (NSF), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-22

    These funds were transferred from DOE to NSF as DOE's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program in support of 4 internationalnactivities/programs as approved by the U.S. Global Change Research Program on 14 March 2014. The programs are the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the DIVERSITAS programme, and the World Climate Research Program. All program awards ended as of 09-23-2015.

  13. The carbon-sequestration potential of a global afforestation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Schopfhauser, W.

    1995-01-01

    The authors analyzed the changes in the carbon cycle that could be achieved with a global large-scale afforestation program that is economically, politically and technically feasible. They estimated that of the areas regarded as suitable for large-scale plantations, only about 345 million ha would actually be available for plantations and agroforestry for the sole purpose of sequestering carbon. The maximum annual rate of carbon fixation (1.48 Gt/yr) would only be achieved 60 years after the establishment of the plantation - 1.14 Gt by above-ground biomass and 0.34 Gt by below-ground biomass. Over the periods from 1995 to 2095, a total of 104 Gt of carbon would be sequestered. This is substantially lower than the amount of carbon required to offset current carbon emissions (3.8 Gt/yr) in order to stabilize the carbon content of the atmosphere. 108 refs., 1 fig., 14 tabs

  14. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #8: OUR CHANGING PLANET: THE FY2000 U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This edition of Global Change Research News focuses on the publication of the new OurChanging Planet: The FY2000 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices ofthe President's National Science and Technology Council. It...

  15. Enhancing Global Competitiveness through Experiential Learning: Insights into Successful Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Nabarun

    2010-01-01

    International exposure of students is very essential in today's globalized world. Experiential learning, such as study abroad, plays a major role in developing global competencies in students, making them more marketable globally. This paper highlights one experiential activity that injects global competencies in students, thereby making them more…

  16. Creating and Implementing an Offshore Graduate Program: A Case Study of Leadership and Development of the Global Executive MBA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Marisa L.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the literature on leadership framing to the globalization of higher education to understand the development of the Global Executive MBA program at a large university. The purpose of the study was to provide administrators, educators and university leaders an understanding as to how to respond to globalization and, secondly, to…

  17. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo E; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries ("LMICs"). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program ("TEP"), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP's implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP's social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program's goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program's cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health.

  18. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Scomparini, Luciana Burim; Silva, Uiara Maria Rêgo e; Silva, Angelica Cristine; Doretto, Victoria; de Medeiros Filho, Mauro Victor; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high- and low-middle income countries (“LMICs”). In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs, such as Brazil, these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children). Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders, and general clinical conditions, such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (“TEP”), a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges, and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health. PMID

  19. The Multiplier Effect: The Case for Multi-School, Global Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Rik; Nink, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Multi-school and multi-country programs greatly enhance leadership development and global awareness in students and teachers, while creating better problem solvers, stronger relationships, and wider community impact than any single-school program. That's why Global Youth Leadership Institute (GYLI) and National Association of Independent Schools…

  20. Research Suggestions in the Design of a Global Graduate Business Program Delivered by Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puderbaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the unique areas of concern when establishing an eLearning program in the field of global business. A survey of eLearning and a global management subject matter appears. This paper identifies potential challenges in program design and raises practical concerns for future research. [For the full proceedings,…

  1. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.

  2. Enhancing global health and education in Malawi, Zambia, and the United States through an interprofessional global health exchange program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynda Law; Somerall, D'Ann; Theus, Lisa; Rankin, Sally; Ngoma, Catherine; Chimwaza, Angela

    2014-05-01

    This article describes participant outcomes of an interprofessional collaboration between health professionals and faculty in Malawi, Zambia, and the United States (US). One strategy critical for improving global health and addressing Millennium Development goals is promotion of interprofessional education and collaboration. Program participants included 25 health professionals from Malawi and Zambia, and 19 faculty/health professionals from Alabama and California. African Fellows participated in a 2 week workshop on Interprofessional Education in Alabama followed by 2 weeks working on individual goals with faculty collaborators/mentors. The US Fellows also spent 2 weeks visiting their counterparts in Malawi and Zambia to develop plans for sustainable partnerships. Program evaluations demonstrated participants' satisfaction with the program and indicated that the program promoted interprofessional and cross-cultural understanding; fostered development of long-term sustainable partnerships between health professionals and educators in Zambia and the US; and created increased awareness and use of resources for global health education. © 2014.

  3. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), 118 Stat. 3638, as amended... major airport authority printed its own signs for Global Entry and strategically placed them throughout...

  4. Interviewing Key Informants: Strategic Planning for a Global Public Health Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Karen E.; Kassim, Anisa; Howze, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Goldie

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sustainable Management Development Program (SMDP) partners with low- and middle-resource countries to develop management capacity so that effective global public health programs can be implemented and better health outcomes can be achieved. The program's impact however, was variable. Hence, there…

  5. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  6. Global Partners : University of Saskatchewan Small Grant Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project builds on the experience of the University of Saskatchewan's Global ... Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to ... of Canada (AUCC) to offer academics (graduate students, professors,. ... grants from IDRC to enhance its members' understanding of and engagement with.

  7. NASA/MSFC FY90 Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Fred W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Research supported by the Global Atmospheric Research Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center on atmospheric remote sensing, meteorology, numerical weather forecasting, satellite data analysis, cloud precipitation, atmospheric circulation, atmospheric models and related topics is discussed.

  8. The Study Abroad Experience: A Crucial Element in Globalizing Business School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiero, George A.; Kraten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a fundamental reality of modern business practice. Participation in a study abroad program is a crucial element in helping students become well rounded global business leaders; it is an increasingly important element of a well rounded business curriculum. A semester or summer abroad, properly conceived and designed, can provide…

  9. GLOBEC: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: A component of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    GLOBEC (GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics) is a research initiative proposed by the oceanographic and fisheries communities to address the question of how changes in global environment are expected to affect the abundance and production of animals in the sea. The approach to this problem is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that determine both the abundance of key marine animal populations and their variances in space and time. The assumption is that the physical environment is a major contributor to patterns of abundance and production of marine animals, in large part because the planktonic life stages typical of most marine animals are intrinsically at the mercy of the fluid motions of the medium in which they live. Consequently, the authors reason that a logical approach to predicting the potential impact of a globally changing environment is to understand how the physical environment, both directly and indirectly, contributes to animal abundance and its variability in marine ecosystems. The plans for this coordinated study of of the potential impact of global change on ocean ecosystems dynamics are discussed.

  10. A global study of undergraduate environmental engineering programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, Q.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent analyses of environmental engineering and management (EE and M) field has highlighted its rapidly expanding size and increasingly diverse nature (Hart and Nolan, 1999). The last 30 years have seen growing international recognition that the challenges associated with environmental degradation and sustainable development have important implications for, and connections with, education and research (IUCN, 1970; UNCED, 1992). The concept of environmental education is now widespread in national educational policies, curriculum documents, curriculum development initiatives, and conservation strategies. Reflecting this trend, several universities throughout the world offer a wide range of graduate as well as undergraduate programs in environment. These programs have originated from various academic schools and disciplines (engineering, public policy, business, management, etc) creating considerable diversity of focus, themes emphasized, courses and methods of offerings. The rise of these programs, in part, reflects the growing need for engineers, technologists as well as managers, who are able to understand, contribute to, and manage a wide variety of technology-based programs and organizations. In addition, the large number of environmental engineering research journals, professional associations and international/national conferences point to the rapid growth of this field. This paper will examine the trends in provision, type of program, major curriculum focus of undergraduate environmental engineering and management education and then compare these trends with the emerging trends in the environmental engineering and management research journals of the last decade. (author)

  11. Globalizing Technical Communication Programs: Visions, Challenges, and Emerging Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia

    Speakers Maylath, Mousten and Vandepitte, co-authors of two chapters on what they call the Trans-Atlantic Project, will describe the programmatic framework for establishing the collaborative partnerships in which students studying technical writing in the U.S. work with students studying...... help achieve common program objectives, particularly in regard to intercultural negotiation and mediation processes. In addition, they will describe how they met course-specific objectives. For the technical writing course, such objectives included broadening students' awareness of the needs of readers...... translation in Europe to create procedural documents in Danish, Dutch, English, French, German and/or Italian. They will provide guidelines for  how international partnerships of this kind can be established between technical communication programs and translation programs anywhere, even in the abscence...

  12. The European Dimension of the Global Urban Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenko Pavlo T.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the process of evolutionary formation of the EU Cities Development Program and analyzing the strategic instrumentarium for the urban development within the currently established EU urban policy at the present stage. The key features of the process of formation of the EU urban policy have been analyzed, the main stages of evolutionary formation of the integrated EU Cities Development Program have been defined and described. In the context of ensuring an integrated approach to the sustainable urban development and complementary positioning of urban development in the EU’s territorial development and cohesion strategies, the European Union’s normative and legal framework on urban development was researched. As a result of the conducted research, the strategic instrumentarium of implementation of the EU Cities Development Program has been systematized.

  13. Minority International Research Training Program: Global Collaboration in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElmurry, Beverly J.; Misner, Susan J.; Buseh, Aaron G.

    2003-01-01

    The Minority International Research Training Program pairs minority nursing students with faculty mentors at international sites for short-term research. A total of 26 undergraduate, 22 graduate, and 6 postdoctoral students have participated. Challenges include recruitment, orientation, and preparation of students; identification and preparation…

  14. Implementing Experiential Action Learning in International Management Education: The Global Business Strategic (GLOBUSTRAT) Consulting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Shyam; Agrawal, Jagdish; Krickx, Guido

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical foundations and implementation challenges and outcomes of a unique "hands-on" global consulting program that is integrated into an international EMBA program for mid-career and senior American and European managers. It details the challenges for the integration of experiential action learning, double-loop…

  15. GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: Northwest Atlantic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The specific objective of the meeting was to plan an experiment in the Northwestern Atlantic to study the marine ecosystem and its role, together with that of climate and physical dynamics, in determining fisheries recruitment. The underlying focus of the GLOBEC initiative is to understand the marine ecosystem as it related to marine living resources and to understand how fluctuation in these resources are driven by climate change and exploitation. In this sense the goal is a solid scientific program to provide basic information concerning major fisheries stocks and the environment that sustains them. The plan is to attempt to reach this understanding through a multidisciplinary program that brings to bear new techniques as disparate as numerical fluid dynamic models of ocean circulation, molecular biology and modern acoustic imaging. The effort will also make use of the massive historical data sets on fisheries and the state of the climate in a coordinated manner.

  16. Building a Sustainable Global Surgical Program in an Academic Department of Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linda P; Silverberg, Daniel; Divino, Celia M; Marin, Michael

    Global surgery and volunteerism in surgery has gained significant interest in recent years for general surgery residents across the country. However, there are few well-established long-term surgical programs affiliated with academic institutions. The present report discusses the implementation process and challenges facing an academic institution in building a long-term sustainable global surgery program. As one of the pioneer programs in global surgery for residents, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai global surgery rotation has been successfully running for the last 10 years in a small public hospital in the Dominican Republic. The present report details many key components of implementing a sustainable global surgery program and the evolution of this program over time. Since 2005, 80 general surgery residents have rotated through Juan Pablo Pina Hospital in the Dominican Republic. They have performed a total of 1239 major operations and 740 minor operations. They have also participated in 328 emergency cases. More importantly, this rotation helped shape residents' sense of social responsibility and ownership in their surgical training. Residents have also contributed to the training of local residents in laparoscopic skills and through cultural exchange. As interest in global surgery grows among general surgery residents, it is essential that supporting academic institutions create sustainable and capacity-building rotations for their residents. These programs must address many of the barriers that can hinder maintenance of a sustainable global surgery experience for residents. After 10 years of sending our residents to the Dominican Republic, we have found that it is possible and valuable to incorporate a formal global surgery rotation into a general surgery residency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  18. Managing New Product Development Teams in a Globally Dispersed NPD Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Søren; Keinschmidt, Elko J.; de Brentani, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Globalization is a major market trend today, one characterized by both increased international competition as well as extensive opportunities for firms to expand their operations beyond current boundaries. Effectively dealing with this important change, however, makes the management of global new...... resources, team, and performance. For the empirical analysis, data are collected through a survey of 467 corporate global new product programs (North America and Europe, business-to-business). A structural model testing for the hypothesized effects was substantially supported. The results show that creating...... product development (NPD) a major concern. To ensure success in this complex and competitive endeavor, companies must rely on global NPD teams that make use of the talents and knowledge available in different parts of the global organization. Thus, cohesive and well-functioning global NPD teams become...

  19. Enhancing Global Health Security: US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2018-03-07

    US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements. DPP partners collected data for each PN to further capacity building efforts. Thus far, 9 countries have completed military pandemic plans, 10 have developed national pandemic influenza plans, 9 have developed military support to civil authorities plans, and 11 have developed disaster management strategic work plans. There have been 20 national exercises conducted since 2009. DPP was cited as key in implementation of Ebola response plans in PNs, facilitated development of disaster management agencies in DPP PNs, and trained nearly 800 individuals. DPP enhanced PNs' ability to prepare and respond to crises, fostering relationships between international agencies, and improving civil-military coordination through both national and regional capacity building. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 11).

  20. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  1. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  2. Education projects: an opportunity for student fieldwork in global health academic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Molly V

    2012-01-01

    Universities, especially in higher-income countries, increasingly offer programs in global health. These programs provide different types of fieldwork projects, at home and abroad, including: epidemiological research, community health, and clinical electives. I illustrate how and why education projects offer distinct learning opportunities for global health program fieldwork. As University of California students, we partnered in Tanzania with students from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science (MUHAS) to assist MUHAS faculty with a curricular project. We attended classes, clinical rounds, and community outreach sessions together, where we observed teaching, materials used, and the learning environment; and interviewed and gathered data from current students, alumni, and health professionals during a nationwide survey. We learned together about education of health professionals and health systems in our respective institutions. On the basis of this experience, I suggest some factors that contribute to the productivity of educational projects as global health fieldwork.

  3. Critical interactions between the Global Fund-supported HIV programs and the health system in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atun, Rifat; Pothapregada, Sai Kumar; Kwansah, Janet

    2011-01-01

    of the strengths and weaknesses of the relationship between Global Fund-supported activities and the health system and to identify positive synergies and unintended consequences of integration. Ghana has a well-functioning sector-wide approach to financing its health system, with a strong emphasis on integrated......The support of global health initiatives in recipient countries has been vigorously debated. Critics are concerned that disease-specific programs may be creating vertical and parallel service delivery structures that to some extent undermine health systems. This case study of Ghana aimed to explore...... how the Global Fund-supported HIV program interacts with the health system there and to map the extent and nature of integration of the national disease program across 6 key health systems functions. Qualitative interviews of national stakeholders were conducted to understand the perceptions...

  4. Our changing planet: The FY 1994 US Global Change Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The approach of the US Global Change Research Program recognizes the profound economic and social implications of responding to global envirorunental changes and advances US leadership on this issue. The report outlines a careful blend of ground- and space-based efforts in research, data gathering, and modeling activities, as well as economic research, with both near- and long-term scientific and public policy benefits. In FY 1994, the Program will add an explicit focus on assessment, seeking to improve our understanding of the state of scientific knowledge and the implications of that knowledge for national and international policymaking activities

  5. Our changing planet: The FY 1994 US Global Change Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The approach of the US Global Change Research Program recognizes the profound economic and social implications of responding to global envirorunental changes and advances US leadership on this issue. The report outlines a careful blend of ground- and space-based efforts in research, data gathering, and modeling activities, as well as economic research, with both near- and long-term scientific and public policy benefits. In FY 1994, the Program will add an explicit focus on assessment, seeking to improve our understanding of the state of scientific knowledge and the implications of that knowledge for national and international policymaking activities.

  6. Global health education programming as a model for inter-institutional collaboration in interprofessional health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Michael J; Hafler, Janet P; Sipsma, Heather; Cherlin, Emily

    2014-07-01

    While global health (GH) opportunities have expanded at schools of medicine, nursing, and public health, few examples of interprofessional approaches to GH education have been described. The elective GH program at our university serves as an important opportunity for high-quality interprofessional education. We undertook a qualitative study to examine the experience of student, faculty and administrative leaders of the program. We used content analysis to code responses and analyze data. Among the leadership, key themes fell within the categories of interprofessional education, student-faculty collaboration, professional development, and practical considerations for the development of such programs. The principles described could be considered by institutions seeking to develop meaningful partnerships in an effort to develop or refine interprofessional global health education programs.

  7. Critical interactions between the Global Fund-supported HIV programs and the health system in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Pothapregada, Sai Kumar; Kwansah, Janet; Degbotse, D; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2011-08-01

    The support of global health initiatives in recipient countries has been vigorously debated. Critics are concerned that disease-specific programs may be creating vertical and parallel service delivery structures that to some extent undermine health systems. This case study of Ghana aimed to explore how the Global Fund-supported HIV program interacts with the health system there and to map the extent and nature of integration of the national disease program across 6 key health systems functions. Qualitative interviews of national stakeholders were conducted to understand the perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the relationship between Global Fund-supported activities and the health system and to identify positive synergies and unintended consequences of integration. Ghana has a well-functioning sector-wide approach to financing its health system, with a strong emphasis on integrated care delivery. Ghana has benefited from US $175 million of approved Global Fund support to address the HIV epidemic, accounting for almost 85% of the National AIDS Control Program budget. Investments in infrastructure, human resources, and commodities have enabled HIV interventions to increase exponentially. Global Fund-supported activities have been well integrated into key health system functions to strengthen them, especially financing, planning, service delivery, and demand generation. Yet, with governance and monitoring and evaluation functions, parallel structures to national systems have emerged, leading to inefficiencies. This case study demonstrates that interactions and integration are highly varied across different health system functions, and strong government leadership has facilitated the integration of Global Fund-supported activities within national programs.

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  9. A Student-Led Global Health Education Initiative: Reflections on the Kenyan Village Medical Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Christopher; Asquith, Heidi; Wren, Tom; Mercuri, Stephanie; Brownlow, Sian

    2016-01-01

    The Kenyan Village Medical Education Program is a student-led global health initiative that seeks to improve health outcomes in rural Kenya through culturally appropriate health education. The month-long program, which is organised by the Melbourne University Health Initiative (Australia), is conducted each January in southern rural Kenya. Significance for public health The Kenyan Village Medical Education (KVME) Program is a student-led global health initiative that involves exploring well-established strategies for the prevention of disease through workshops that are conducted in southern rural Kenya. These workshops are tailored to the unique needs and circumstances of rural Kenyan communities, and are delivered to community leaders, as well as to adults and children within the wider community. Aside from the KVME Program’s emphasis on reducing the burden of preventable disease through health education, the positive impact of the KVME Program on the Program’s student volunteers also deserves consideration. Throughout the month-long KVME Program, student volunteers are presented with opportunities to develop their understanding of cultural competency, the social and economic determinants of health, as well as the unique challenges associated with working in resource-poor communities. Importantly, the KVME Program also represents an avenue through which global health leadership can be fostered amongst student volunteers. PMID:27190974

  10. Global Comparative Public Administration: Are Graduate Programs Responding to the Call?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Aroon P.; Mirbel, Wendel; Carrizales, Tony J.

    2018-01-01

    Within the past two decades, globalization has led to increased literature on comparative public administration (CPA) research, and it has enhanced analyses of administrative systems in various societies. Our paper examines CPA education among Master of Public Administration and Master of Public Policy programs in the United States. The findings…

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory Training Capabilities (Possible Applications in the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    The briefing provides an overview of the training capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that can be applied to nonproliferation/responsible science education at nuclear institutes in the Former Soviet Union, as part of the programmatic effort under the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program (GIPP).

  12. Environmental and radiological remediation under Canada's global partnership program 2004-11 - 59185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the '911' attack on the USA in 2001 the international community under Canada's G8 leadership established a $20 billion Global Partnership initiative in 2002 to collaboratively address threats to global security posed by the proliferation and potential terrorist use of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (WMMD) and related materials and knowledge. This major international initiative addressed four priority areas: (1) Chemical Weapon Destruction (2) Nuclear powered submarine eliminations (3) Nuclear and radiological security; and (4) Employment for former weapon scientists. Additionally the initiative has addressed Biological Non- Proliferation. Canada's execution of all these program areas has resulted in substantial environmental benefits aside from the eradication and securing of WMMD. This paper reviews the environmental and radiological remediation achievements of the four primary Global Partnership program areas addressed under Canadian funding 2004 through 2011. (author)

  13. Greenhouse effect. DOE's programs and activities relevant to the global warming phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Robert E. Jr.; Iager, Richard E.; Che, Deborah

    1990-03-01

    While considerable understanding of global climate systems has been gained in the past few years, major sources of uncertainty remain, including the role played by factors such as cloud cover, oceans, and vegetation growth. To help fill these information gaps, DOE undertakes direct research and collects data needed for carbon and climate system models used to predict potential climate changes. These direct research and development efforts represent a requested $28 million in fiscal year 1990 funds, an increase of about $5 million over fiscal year 1989 funding. DOE also conducts a wide range of other research development and demonstration programs it considers indirectly related to the global warming issue, including efforts to increase energy efficiencies, promote conservation, and develop non-fossil energy technologies. For fiscal year 1990, DOE requested about $1.3 billion for these program areas, about $330 million more than the fiscal year 1989 funding level. In these program areas DOE has not established any written criteria or guidance to give special priority to projects on the basis of their relevance or potential impact on global climate change. Senior DOE officials stated that management considers the issue when making funding decisions. In July 1989, the Secretary of Energy established six principles that will form DOE's approach to the global climate change issue, and stated that the issue will be a central part of DOE's efforts to develop a new National Energy Strategy. In addition, several management initiatives have been taken that were related to the issue. These efforts have included compiling an inventory of DOE programs relevant to the issue, organizing a global warming conference, and establishing a DOE Climate Issue Response Group. Public and private organizations, including the Environmental Protection Agency and the World Resources Institute, have made many proposals to address global warming. Generally, the proposals suggested increasing

  14. Cross-Cultural and Global Interdependency Development in STEM Undergraduate Students: Results from Singapore Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Frank; Casco, M.; Martin, J.; Zhang, G.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of study abroad programs is to educate and train future global leaders. This article examines the effectiveness of Clemson University's Singapore Study Abroad program in meeting this goal by exposing students to global perspectives of science technology, engineering and math (STEM) research and learning through an international summer…

  15. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  16. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  17. Training Young Russian Physicians in Uganda: A Unique Program for Introducing Global Health Education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Bulat A; Yausheva, Liliya M; Sadigh, Mitra; Ziganshina, Anna P; Pichugin, Arseniy A; Ziganshin, Ayrat U; Sadigh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Global health is a new concept in Russia. There has been an ongoing academic collaboration between the Yale School of Medicine in the United States and Makerere University College of Health Sciences in Uganda since 2010, and the US Western Connecticut Health Network/University of Vermont College of Medicine since 2012, to introduce global health concepts to Kazan State Medical University (KSMU) in Russia. The purpose was to educate Russian physicians and medical trainees about the practice of clinical medicine and medical education, as well as the general practice of global health in culturally diverse, resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial outcomes of this multi-institutional partnership and to assess the impact of the global health elective on the participants and on KSMU. Participants were selected to attend a 6-week elective in global health at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. The elective consisted of clinical experience, education about Uganda's common diseases, and region-specific sociocultural classes. It included a predeparture orientation and, upon return, completion of a standard questionnaire to assess the program's impact. Since 2010, there have been 20 KSMU members (4 medical students, 4 interns, 9 residents, 2 fellows, and 1 faculty member) who have participated in the program. As a result of the elective, the participants reported increased knowledge of tropical medicine (70%) and HIV/AIDS (75%), and 95% reported increased cultural sensitivity and desire to work with the underserved. The majority noted a very positive impact of their careers (90%) and personal life (80%). KSMU established the first successful collaborative program in global health education in Russia, leading to the integration of tropical medicine and global health courses in medical school curriculum. This elective has proven highly effective in introducing the concept of global health to faculty, fellows, residents, and medical students

  18. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program (TEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Horvath Marques

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high and low-middle income countries (LMICs. In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs such as Brazil these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children. Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders and general clinical conditions such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (TEP, a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost-effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health.

  19. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasing, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co 2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO 2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co 2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  20. NASA/MSFC FY91 Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Fred W. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The reports presented at the annual Marshall Research Review of Earth Science and Applications are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: understanding of atmospheric processes in a variety of spatial and temporal scales; measurements of geophysical parameters; measurements on a global scale from space; the Mission to Planet Earth Program (comprised of and Earth Observation System and the scientific strategy to analyze these data); and satellite data analysis and fundamental studies of atmospheric dynamics.

  1. Experimental results concerning global observables from the CERN SPS heavy ion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.R.

    1990-06-01

    A brief overview is given of experimental results obtained during the initial operation of the heavy-ion program at the CERN SPS during the period 1986--1988. This paper confines itself to a presentation of results on so-called global observables, such as energy flow and multiplicity distributions, and on information extracted from them. Of particular interest among the latter are an estimate of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the energy density attained. 3 refs., 27 figs

  2. MENTOR-VIP: Piloting a global mentoring program for injury and violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Meddings, David; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M

    2009-06-01

    Injuries occur as the result of a confluence of factors: environmental, social, biological, economic, and behavioral. To effectively address the burden of injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, a focus is needed on developing the human resource capacity for injury prevention. MENTOR-VIP is a global mentoring program that the authors developed with this need in mind. MENTOR-VIP approaches developing human resources in injury prevention by providing mentoring opportunities for junior professionals involved in its practice, research, and/or programs. MENTOR-VIP entails a 12-month working relationship between junior injury prevention practitioners (mentees) and more experienced individuals in the field (mentors). Its general objective is to improve global human resource capacity to effectively prevent and control injury and violence through the enhanced development of relevant skills. The program is currently in its pilot phase and is nearing the end of its second formal mentoring cycle, which began on September 1, 2008. This article discusses mentoring professionals as a key strategy to developing the human resource component of capacity, and one which complements existing approaches to capacity development. The authors also provide an overview of the rationale, modalities, objectives, and evaluation of MENTOR-VIP. This article highlights the importance of capacity building in the injury prevention field and situates MENTOR-VIP within the larger context of capacity building for global public health.

  3. Reaching Non-Traditional and Under-Served Communities through Global Astronomy Month Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Global Astronomy Month (GAM), organized each year by Astronomers Without Borders (AWB), has become the world's largest annual celebration of astronomy. Launched as a follow-up to the unprecedented success of the 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009, GAM quickly attracted not only traditional partners in astronomy and space science outreach, but also unusual partners from very different fields. GAM's third annual edition, GAM2012, included worldwide programs for the sight-impaired, astronomy in the arts, and other non-traditional programs. The special planetarium program, OPTICKS, combined elements such as Moonbounce (sending images to the Moon and back) and artistic elements in a unique presentation of the heavens. Programs were developed to present the heavens to the sight-impaired as well. The Cosmic Concert, in which a new musical piece is composed each year, combined with background images of celestial objects, and presented during GAM, has become an annual event. Several astronomy themed art video projects were presented online. AWB's Astropoetry Blog held a very successful contest during GAM2012 that attracted more than 70 entries from 17 countries. Students were engaged by participation in special GAM campaigns of the International Asteroid Search Campaign. AWB and GAM have both developed into platforms where innovative programs can develop, and interdisciplinary collaborations can flourish. As AWB's largest program, GAM brings the audience and resources that provide a boost for these new types of programs. Examples, lessons learned, new projects, and plans for the future of AWB and GAM will be presented.

  4. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  5. Alternative Approaches for Educating Future Global Marketing Professionals: A Comparison of Foreign Study and Research-Intensive Marketing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Peter A.; Melton, Horace L.; Varner, Iris I.; Hoelscher, Mark; Schmidt, Klaus; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2011-01-01

    Using an experiential learning model as a conceptual background, this article discusses characteristics and learning objectives for well-known foreign study programs such as study tours, study abroad, and internships and compares them with a less common overseas program called the "Global Marketing Program" (GMP). GMP involves…

  6. New Community Education Program on Oceans and Global Climate Change: Results from Our Pilot Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Wiener, C.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together) engages elementary school students and their parents and teachers in hands-on science. Through this evening program, we educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their local communities. In the process, we hope to inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and girls, to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. Hawaii and the Pacific Islands will be disproportionately affected by the impacts of global climate change, including rising sea levels, coastal erosion, coral reef degradation and ocean acidification. It is therefore critically important to train ocean and earth scientists within these communities. This two-hour program explores ocean properties and timely environmental topics through six hands-on science activities. Activities are designed so students can see how globally important issues (e.g., climate change and ocean acidification) have local effects (e.g., sea level rise, coastal erosion, coral bleaching) which are particularly relevant to island communities. The Ocean FEST program ends with a career component, drawing parallel between the program activities and the activities done by "real scientists" in their jobs. The take-home message is that we are all scientists, we do science every day, and we can choose to do this as a career. Ocean FEST just completed our pilot year. During the 2009-2010 academic year, we conducted 20 events, including 16 formal events held at elementary schools and 4 informal outreach events. Evaluation data were collected at all formal events. Formative feedback from adult participants (parents, teachers, administrators and volunteers) was solicited through written questionnaires. Students were invited to respond to a survey of five questions both before and after the program to see if there were any changes in content knowledge and career attitudes. In our presentation, we will present our

  7. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives.

  8. Globalizing Space and Earth Science - the International Heliophysical Year Education and Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Morrow, C.; Thompson, B. J.

    2006-08-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) in 2007 & 2008 will celebrate the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and, following its tradition of international research collaboration, will focus on the cross-disciplinary studies of universal processes in the heliosphere. The main goal of IHY Education and Outreach Program is to create more global access to exemplary resources in space and earth science education and public outreach. By taking advantage of the IHY organization with representatives in every nation and in the partnership with the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI), we aim to promote new international partnerships. Our goal is to assist in increasing the visibility and accessibility of exemplary programs and in the identification of formal or informal educational products that would be beneficial to improve the space and earth science knowledge in a given country; leaving a legacy of enhanced global access to resources and of world-wide connectivity between those engaged in education and public outreach efforts that are related to IHY science. Here we describe how to participate in the IHY Education and Outreach Program and the benefits in doing so. Emphasis will be given to the role played by developing countries; not only in selecting useful resources and helping in their translation and adaptation, but also in providing different approaches and techniques in teaching.

  9. Actively station: Effects on global cognition of mature adults and healthy elderly program using eletronic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nascimento Ordonez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games. Participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG n=102 and control group (CG n=22. Protocol: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, the scale of frequency of forgetfulness, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI, the Global Satisfaction with Life Scale, and two scales on learning in the training. Results: The cognitive performance of the TG improved significantly after the program, particularly in the domains of language and memory, and there was a decrease on the anxiety index and frequency of memory complaints, when compared to the CG. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of new stimuli, such as electronic games, can promote improvements in cognition and mood and reduce the frequency of memory complaints.

  10. The NIAID Division of AIDS enterprise information system: integrated decision support for global clinical research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Varghese, Suresh; Virkar, Hemant

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Enterprise Information System (DAIDS-ES) is a web-based system that supports NIAID in the scientific, strategic, and tactical management of its global clinical research programs for HIV/AIDS vaccines, prevention, and therapeutics. Different from most commercial clinical trials information systems, which are typically protocol-driven, the DAIDS-ES was built to exchange information with those types of systems and integrate it in ways that help scientific program directors lead the research effort and keep pace with the complex and ever-changing global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas commercially available clinical trials support systems are not usually disease-focused, DAIDS-ES was specifically designed to capture and incorporate unique scientific, demographic, and logistical aspects of HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and vaccine research in order to provide a rich source of information to guide informed decision-making. Sharing data across its internal components and with external systems, using defined vocabularies, open standards and flexible interfaces, the DAIDS-ES enables NIAID, its global collaborators and stakeholders, access to timely, quality information about NIAID-supported clinical trials which is utilized to: (1) analyze the research portfolio, assess capacity, identify opportunities, and avoid redundancies; (2) help support study safety, quality, ethics, and regulatory compliance; (3) conduct evidence-based policy analysis and business process re-engineering for improved efficiency. This report summarizes how the DAIDS-ES was conceptualized, how it differs from typical clinical trial support systems, the rationale for key design choices, and examples of how it is being used to advance the efficiency and effectiveness of NIAID's HIV/AIDS clinical research programs. PMID:21816958

  11. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linyun; Ma, Xiaogang; Zheng, Jin; Goldstein, Justin; Duggan, Brian; West, Patrick; Aulenbach, Steve; Tilmes, Curt; Fox, Peter

    2014-05-01

    This poster will show how we used a case-driven iterative methodology to develop an ontology to represent the content structure and the associated provenance information in a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). We applied the W3C PROV-O ontology to implement a formal representation of provenance. We argue that the use case-driven, iterative development process and the application of a formal provenance ontology help efficiently incorporate domain knowledge from earth and environmental scientists in a well-structured model interoperable in the context of the Web of Data.

  12. No nation is home alone: understanding the international dimension of homeland security through global transportation security programs

    OpenAIRE

    Tarpey, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Terrorist actors focus on the global transportation system to introduce threats and target attacks. As the lead department for securing the transportation system into the United States, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) works both domestically and internationally to implement programs and foreign assistance activities to secure the global transportation network. This thesis examines DHS’ international role by analyzing programs...

  13. Synergies between Communicable and Noncommunicable Disease Programs to Enhance Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Husain, Muhammad J; Sugerman, David; Hong, Yuling; Saraiya, Mona; Keltz, Jennifer; Asma, Samira

    2017-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Initiatives that advance the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases support the goals of global health security in several ways. First, in addressing health needs that typically require long-term care, these programs can strengthen health delivery and health monitoring systems, which can serve as necessary platforms for emergency preparedness in low-resource environments. Second, by improving population health, the programs might help to reduce susceptibility to infectious outbreaks. Finally, in aiming to reduce the economic burden associated with premature illness and death from noncommunicable diseases, these initiatives contribute to the objectives of international development, thereby helping to improve overall country capacity for emergency response.

  14. Gr-GDHP: A New Architecture for Globalized Dual Heuristic Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiangnan; Ni, Zhen; He, Haibo

    2017-10-01

    Goal representation globalized dual heuristic dynamic programming (Gr-GDHP) method is proposed in this paper. A goal neural network is integrated into the traditional GDHP method providing an internal reinforcement signal and its derivatives to help the control and learning process. From the proposed architecture, it is shown that the obtained internal reinforcement signal and its derivatives can be able to adjust themselves online over time rather than a fixed or predefined function in literature. Furthermore, the obtained derivatives can directly contribute to the objective function of the critic network, whose learning process is thus simplified. Numerical simulation studies are applied to show the performance of the proposed Gr-GDHP method and compare the results with other existing adaptive dynamic programming designs. We also investigate this method on a ball-and-beam balancing system. The statistical simulation results are presented for both the Gr-GDHP and the GDHP methods to demonstrate the improved learning and controlling performance.

  15. A DOCTORAL PROGRAM FOR THE WORLD: GLOBAL TERTIARY EDUCATION AND LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jace Hargis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to share the findings of a highly generalizable investigative feasibility project, whose goal is to enhance the teaching ability of current higher education faculty members. The mission of the project was to introduce a new doctoral degree on Global Education and Leadership (GEL geared toward a ubiquitous, broad approach to assist faculty members in their pursuit of improved teaching and learning. The methods used were to perform an online search identifying 18 different institutions, whose mission focused on both student-centered learning, as well as pursued an active scholarship of teaching and learning agenda; contact 52 key personnel for a visit to share our program; travel to each of eight countries to share the vision of the program in five weeks; and finally to collate results and examine trends and identify host institutions, accreditation steps and start dates. The major result of this experience was the unanimous agreement on the universal unsystematic process of providing tertiary faculty members with the essential andragogical methods to efficiently and effectively become exemplar teachers. Due to the overwhelming uniformity in affirmative response to the program, the key conclusion is to move forward with the doctoral program aggressively.

  16. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  17. Kinetics programs for simulation of tropospheric photochemistry on the global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X.P.

    1993-08-01

    The study of tropospheric kinetics underlies global change because key greenhouse gases are photochemically active. Modeling of tropospheric chemistry on a global scale is essential because some indirect greenhouse gases are short-lived and interact in a non-linear fashion. It is also extremely challenging, however; the global change grid is extensive in both the physical and temporal domains, and critical lower atmospheric species include the organics and their oxidized derivatives, which are numerous. Several types of optimization may be incorporated into kinetics modules to enhance their ability to simulate the complete lower atmospheric gas phase chemical system. (1) The photochemical integrator can be accelerated by avoiding matrix and iterative solutions and by establishing families. Accuracy and mass conservation are sacrificed in the absence of iteration, but atom balancing is restorable post hoc. (2) Chemistry can be arranged upon the massive grid to exploit parallel processing, and solutions to its continuity equations can be automated to permit experimentation with species and reaction lists or family definitions. Costs in programming effort will be incurred in these cases. (3) Complex hydrocarbon decay sequences can be streamlined either through structural lumping methods descended from smog investigations, which require considerable calibration, or by defining surrogates for classes of compounds, with a loss in constituent detail. From among the available options, the most advantageous permutations will vary with the specific nature of any eventual global scale study, and there is likely to be demand for many approaches. Tracer transport codes serve as a foundation upon which tropospheric chemistry packages will be tested. Encroachment of the NO x sphere of influence upon tropical rain forests and the upper free troposphere are two examples of specific problems to which full three-dimensional chemical simulations might be applied

  18. The New Rule Paradigm Shift: Transforming At-Risk Programs by Matching Business Archetypes Strategies in the Global Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    The challenge was given to transform aviation-related programs to keep them from being eliminated. These programs were to be discontinued due to enrollment declines, costs, legislative mandates, lack of administrative support, and drastic state budget reductions. The New Rule was a paradigm shift of focus to the global market for program…

  19. Development and institutionalization of the first online certificate and master program of biomedical informatics in global health in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Patricia J.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Department of Global Health, University of Washington. Seattle, Washington, EE. UU.; Egoavil, Miguel S.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Blas, Magaly M.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Curioso, Walter H.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Department of Biomedical Informatics, School of Medicine, University of Washington. Seattle, Washington, EE. UU.; Zimic, Mirko; Unidad de Bioinformática, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Castagnetto, Jesus M.; Dirección Universitaria de Informática, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Lescano, Andres G.; US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 6 (NAMRU-6). Lima, Perú.; Lopez, Diego M.; Universidad del Cauca. Popayán, Colombia.; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from ...

  20. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  1. Global Access Programs: A Collaborative Approach for Effective Implementation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainge, Debra; Aitken, Suzanne; Corbett, Mark; De-Keyzer, David

    Global access programs (GAPs) provide access to medicinal products for patients with serious medical conditions and no commercially available treatment options. Providing early access to medicines can be challenging for a pharmaceutical company. The demand for a GAP often occurs at a time when other activities are the prime focus, such as delivery of pivotal clinical trials or gaining of marketing authorization. Furthermore, the skills, experience, and infrastructure necessary to implement and manage a successful GAP vary significantly from those required for regular clinical trial execution, and the regulatory environment presents its own challenges, with regulations often poorly defined and with considerable inter-country variation. This article considers the triggers for early access requests and examines the need for companies to develop a global strategy for GAPs in order to respond appropriately to requests for early access. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the processes for GAP set-up, implementation, management, and closure, along with the considerations affecting the type and scope of GAP, such as demand, regulatory feasibility, license status of the product, drug pricing structure, company strategy, costs, and product supply. Also discussed is the need for appropriate personnel to implement and manage the GAP, and when to consider collaboration with an external GAP provider. In summary, GAPs require careful and efficient planning and management, from set-up to closure. Well-run GAPs provide an ethical and regulatory-compliant pathway for access of new treatments to patients with serious conditions and an unmet medical need.

  2. Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Terranova

    Full Text Available Genetic studies have placed the Fgfr1 gene at the top of major ontogenic pathways that enable gastrulation, tissue development and organogenesis. Using genome-wide sequencing and loss and gain of function experiments the present investigation reveals a mechanism that underlies global and direct gene regulation by the nuclear form of FGFR1, ensuring that pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells differentiate into Neuronal Cells in response to Retinoic Acid. Nuclear FGFR1, both alone and with its partner nuclear receptors RXR and Nur77, targets thousands of active genes and controls the expression of pluripotency, homeobox, neuronal and mesodermal genes. Nuclear FGFR1 targets genes in developmental pathways represented by Wnt/β-catenin, CREB, BMP, the cell cycle and cancer-related TP53 pathway, neuroectodermal and mesodermal programing networks, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity pathways. Nuclear FGFR1 targets the consensus sequences of transcription factors known to engage CREB-binding protein, a common coregulator of transcription and established binding partner of nuclear FGFR1. This investigation reveals the role of nuclear FGFR1 as a global genomic programmer of cell, neural and muscle development.

  3. Analyzing the greenhouse gas impact potential of smallholder development actions across a global food security program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewer, Uwe; Nash, Julie; Gurwick, Noel; Bockel, Louis; Galford, Gillian; Richards, Meryl; Costa Junior, Ciniro; White, Julianna; Pirolli, Gillian; Wollenberg, Eva

    2018-04-01

    This article analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact potential of improved management practices and technologies for smallholder agriculture promoted under a global food security development program. Under ‘business-as-usual’ development, global studies on the future of agriculture to 2050 project considerable increases in total food production and cultivated area. Conventional cropland intensification and conversion of natural vegetation typically result in increased GHG emissions and loss of carbon stocks. There is a strong need to understand the potential greenhouse gas impacts of agricultural development programs intended to achieve large-scale change, and to identify pathways of smallholder agricultural development that can achieve food security and agricultural production growth without drastic increases in GHG emissions. In an analysis of 134 crop and livestock production systems in 15 countries with reported impacts on 4.8 million ha, improved management practices and technologies by smallholder farmers significantly reduce GHG emission intensity of agricultural production, increase yields and reduce post-harvest losses, while either decreasing or only moderately increasing net GHG emissions per area. Investments in both production and post-harvest stages meaningfully reduced GHG emission intensity, contributing to low emission development. We present average impacts on net GHG emissions per hectare and GHG emission intensity, while not providing detailed statistics of GHG impacts at scale that are associated to additional uncertainties. While reported improvements in smallholder systems effectively reduce future GHG emissions compared to business-as-usual development, these contributions are insufficient to significantly reduce net GHG emission in agriculture beyond current levels, particularly if future agricultural production grows at projected rates.

  4. Evaluation of a five-year Bloomberg Global Road Safety Program in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Hoe, C; Özkan, T; Lajunen, T J; Vursavas, F; Sener, S; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    Turkey was included in the Bloomberg Philanthropies funded Global Road Safety Program (2010-14) with Ankara and Afyonkarahisar (Afyon) selected for interventions to manage speed and encourage seat-belt use. The objectives of this study are to present the monitoring and evaluation findings of seat-belt use and speed in Afyon and Ankara over the five years and to assess overall impact of the program on road traffic injury, and death rates in Turkey. Quasi-experimental before after without comparison. In collaboration with the Middle East Technical University, roadside observations and interviews were coupled with secondary data to monitor changes in risk factors and outcomes at the two intervention sites. The percentage of seat-belt use among drivers and front-seat passengers in Afyon and Ankara increased significantly between 2010 and 2014 with increased self-reported use and preceded by an increase in tickets (fines) for not using seat belts. There were uneven improvements in speed reduction. In Afyon, the average speed increased significantly from 46.3 km/h in 2012 to about 52.7 km/h in 2014 on roads where the speed limits were 50 km/h. In Ankara, the average speed remained less than 55 km/h during the program period (range: 50-54 km/h; P < 0.005) for roads where the speed limits were 50 km/h; however, the average speed on roads with speed limits of 70 km/h decreased significantly from 80.6 km/h in 2012 to 68.44 km/h in 2014 (P < 0.005). The program contributed to increase in seat-belt use in Afyon and Ankara and by drawing political attention to the issue can contribute to improvements in road safety. We are optimistic that the visible motivation within Turkey to substantially reduce road traffic injuries will lead to increased program implementation matched with a robust evaluation program, with suitable controls. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Searching for globally optimal functional forms for interatomic potentials using genetic programming with parallel tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepoy, A; Peters, M D; Thompson, A P

    2007-11-30

    Molecular dynamics and other molecular simulation methods rely on a potential energy function, based only on the relative coordinates of the atomic nuclei. Such a function, called a force field, approximately represents the electronic structure interactions of a condensed matter system. Developing such approximate functions and fitting their parameters remains an arduous, time-consuming process, relying on expert physical intuition. To address this problem, a functional programming methodology was developed that may enable automated discovery of entirely new force-field functional forms, while simultaneously fitting parameter values. The method uses a combination of genetic programming, Metropolis Monte Carlo importance sampling and parallel tempering, to efficiently search a large space of candidate functional forms and parameters. The methodology was tested using a nontrivial problem with a well-defined globally optimal solution: a small set of atomic configurations was generated and the energy of each configuration was calculated using the Lennard-Jones pair potential. Starting with a population of random functions, our fully automated, massively parallel implementation of the method reproducibly discovered the original Lennard-Jones pair potential by searching for several hours on 100 processors, sampling only a minuscule portion of the total search space. This result indicates that, with further improvement, the method may be suitable for unsupervised development of more accurate force fields with completely new functional forms. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. PENERAPAN GLOBAL EXTREME PROGRAMMING PADA SISTEM INFORMASI WORKSHOP, SEMINAR DAN PELATIHAN DI LEMBAGA EDUKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baginda Oloan Lubis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Institutions of education as one of the service agencies workshops, seminars and training with information systems that are still manual at the time of printing id cards, the manufacture of attendance, printing certificates and report generation often had difficulty in searching data and other impacts arising from manual systems. Therefore the design of information systems or desktop based application creation is a solution to provide convenience to the user in the process of data processing, data retrieval to preparing reports. Model systems development workshops, seminars and training used in the design of information systems workshops, seminars and training using a model of Agile Software Development, which was discovered and developed by Robert Cecil Martin with process models Global Extreme Programming, namely the development of XP (Extreme Programming Life Cycle. While the tools used by the UML (Unifed Modeling Language and ERD (Entity Relationship Diagram. Hopefully, by the design of this system will allow a user who uses the id card printing, manufacture of attendance, certificate printing and reporting each end of the activity.

  7. Individual capacity-building approaches in a global pharmaceutical systems strengthening program: a selected review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduri, Niranjan; Rauscher, Megan; Wang, Shiou-Chu Judy; Malpica-Llanos, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Medicines use related challenges such as inadequate adherence, high levels of antimicrobial resistance and preventable adverse drug reactions have underscored the need to incorporate pharmaceutical services to help achieve desired treatment outcomes, and protect patients from inappropriate use of medicines. This situation is further constrained by insufficient numbers of pharmaceutical personnel and inappropriate skill mix. Studies have addressed individual capacity building approaches of logistics, supply chain or disease specific interventions but few have documented those involving such pharmacy assistants/professionals, or health workers/professionals charged with improving access and provision of pharmaceutical services. We examined how different training modalities have been employed and adapted to meet country-specific context and needs by a global pharmaceutical systems strengthening program in collaboration with a country's Ministry of Health and local stakeholders. Structured, content analysis of training approaches from twelve selected countries and a survey among conveniently selected trainees in Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Case-based learning, practice and feedback, and repetitive interventions such as post-training action plan, supportive supervision and mentoring approaches are effective, evidence-based training techniques. In Ethiopia and Bangladesh, over 94% of respondents indicated that they have improved or developed skills or competencies as a result of the program's training activities. Supportive supervision structures and mentorship have been institutionalized with appropriate management structures. National authorities have been sensitized to secure funding from domestic resources or from the global fund grants for post-training follow-up initiatives. The Pharmaceutical Leadership Development Program is an effective, case-based training modality that motivates staff to develop quality-improvement interventions and solve specific challenges

  8. The global polio eradication initiative Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program - 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established through a partnership between the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, CDC, and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). By 2012, the annual incidence of polio had decreased by >99%, compared with 1988, and the number of countries in which wild poliovirus (WPV) circulation has never been interrupted was reduced to three: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. However, because of the persistence of endemic WPV transmission and recurring outbreaks in polio-free countries after the original polio eradication target date of 2000, the World Health Assembly in 2012 declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. A key component of GPEI is the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program, which was developed and initiated by CDC with WHO in 1999 to mobilize additional human resources and technical assistance for countries affected by WPV transmission. During 1999-2013, 1,563 volunteers were identified, trained, and deployed for 2,221 assignments in 69 countries. The number of volunteers increased from 90-120 per year during 1999-2011 to 287 in 2012 and 378 in 2013, and the number of volunteer person-months in the field per year increased from 273 in 1999 to 1,456 in 2012. The STOP program has aided GPEI by strengthening the capacity of country-level immunization programs and by allowing a large cohort of volunteers to gain valuable field experience that prepares them well for subsequent work as staff members of WHO, UNICEF, and other public health agencies.

  9. New horizontal global solar radiation estimation models for Turkey based on robust coplot supported genetic programming technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, Haydar; Kayhan Atilgan, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Precise horizontal global solar radiation estimation models are proposed for Turkey. • Genetic programming technique is used to construct the models. • Robust coplot analysis is applied to reduce the impact of outlier observations. • Better estimation and prediction properties are observed for the models. - Abstract: Renewable energy sources have been attracting more and more attention of researchers due to the diminishing and harmful nature of fossil energy sources. Because of the importance of solar energy as a renewable energy source, an accurate determination of significant covariates and their relationships with the amount of global solar radiation reaching the Earth is a critical research problem. There are numerous meteorological and terrestrial covariates that can be used in the analysis of horizontal global solar radiation. Some of these covariates are highly correlated with each other. It is possible to find a large variety of linear or non-linear models to explain the amount of horizontal global solar radiation. However, models that explain the amount of global solar radiation with the smallest set of covariates should be obtained. In this study, use of the robust coplot technique to reduce the number of covariates before going forward with advanced modelling techniques is considered. After reducing the dimensionality of model space, yearly and monthly mean daily horizontal global solar radiation estimation models for Turkey are built by using the genetic programming technique. It is observed that application of robust coplot analysis is helpful for building precise models that explain the amount of global solar radiation with the minimum number of covariates without suffering from outlier observations and the multicollinearity problem. Consequently, over a dataset of Turkey, precise yearly and monthly mean daily global solar radiation estimation models are introduced using the model spaces obtained by robust coplot technique and

  10. A System of Systems Approach to Integrating Global Sea Level Change Application Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambachus, M. J.; Foster, R. S.; Powell, C.; Cole, M.

    2005-12-01

    The global sea level change application community has numerous disparate models used to make predications over various regional and temporal scales. These models have typically been focused on limited sets of data and optimized for specific areas or questions of interest. Increasingly, decision makers at the national, international, and local/regional levels require access to these application data models and want to be able to integrate large disparate data sets, with new ubiquitous sensor data, and use these data across models from multiple sources. These requirements will force the Global Sea Level Change application community to take a new system-of-systems approach to their programs. We present a new technical architecture approach to the global sea level change program that provides external access to the vast stores of global sea level change data, provides a collaboration forum for the discussion and visualization of data, and provides a simulation environment to evaluate decisions. This architectural approach will provide the tools to support multi-disciplinary decision making. A conceptual system of systems approach is needed to address questions around the multiple approaches to tracking and predicting Sea Level Change. A systems of systems approach would include (1) a forum of data providers, modelers, and users, (2) a service oriented architecture including interoperable web services with a backbone of Grid computing capability, and (3) discovery and access functionality to the information developed through this structure. Each of these three areas would be clearly designed to maximize communication, data use for decision making and flexibility and extensibility for evolution of technology and requirements. In contemplating a system-of-systems approach, it is important to highlight common understanding and coordination as foundational to success across the multiple systems. The workflow of science in different applications is often conceptually similar

  11. [Development and institutionalization of the first online certificate and Master Program of Biomedical Informatics in global health in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J; Egoavil, Miguel S; Blas, Magaly M; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andrés G; Lopez, Diego M; Cárcamo, Cesar P

    2015-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE FIRST ONLINE CERTIFICATE AND MASTER PROGRAM OF BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS IN GLOBAL HEALTH IN PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J.; Egoavil, Miguel S.; Blas, Magaly M.; Alvarado-Vásquez, Eduardo; Curioso, Walter H.; Zimic, Mirko; Castagnetto, Jesus M.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Lopez, Diego M.; Cárcamo, Cesar P.

    2017-01-01

    Training in Biomedical Informatics is essential to meet the challenges of a globalized world. However, the development of postgraduate training and research programs in this area are scarce in Latin America. Through QUIPU: Andean Center for Training and research in Iformatics for Global Health, has developed the first Certificate and Master’s Program on Biomedical Informatics in the Andean Region. The aim of this article is to describe the experience of the program. To date, 51 students from Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela have participated; they come from health ministries, hospitals, universities, research centers, professional associations and private companies. Seventeen courses were offered with the participation of faculty from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, USA, Mexico and Peru. This program is already institutionalized at the School of Public Health and Administration from the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. PMID:26338399

  13. Achieving public and global health competencies: A teaching case study of Botswana's cervical cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatch, Harriet; Sowicz, Timothy Joseph; Teng, Helen; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2018-02-09

    To design and implement a case study on the cervical cancer screening program in Botswana to teach public and global health competencies to undergraduate nursing students. The case study was developed following a review of the literature on the epidemiology and health policies of cervical cancer in Botswana, and an interview with an obstetrician/gynecologist engaged in both clinical practice and research in Botswana. The case study has been implemented over seven semesters to students enrolled in the Nursing in the Community course at the University of Pennsylvania. Approximately 75-100 students are enrolled each semester. Student's perceptions of epidemiologic skills gained and group functioning. Students responded to an open-ended question about lessons learned and offered suggestions to improve the learning experience. Faculty assessment of student deliverables demonstrated that students achieved the learning objectives and mastered necessary competencies. More than 70% (n = 69) of the students indicated that they acquired relevant skills at greater than a satisfactory level. Generally, students had great experiences working in groups measured across five dimensions: engagement/contribution, creativity/resilience, on task/works independently, social interaction/communication, and preparedness. However, isolated cases of poor group functioning were reported for engagement/contribution, and creativity/resilience. The case study, which has been revised with respect to length, content and group processes, has been valuable in educating undergraduate nursing students in a more engaging way that mimics real life public health nursing scenarios. Students achieved both public and global health competencies through participation in the case study. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Goldstein, J.; Duggan, B.; Xu, J.; Du, C.; Akkiraju, A.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The periodical National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) [1] produces reports about findings of global climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States. Those findings are of great public and academic concerns and are used in policy and management decisions, which make the provenance information of findings in those reports especially important. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS), in which the NCA reports and associated provenance information are the primary records. We were modeling and developing Semantic Web applications for the GCIS. By applying a use case-driven iterative methodology [2], we developed an ontology [3] to represent the content structure of a report and the associated provenance information. We also mapped the classes and properties in our ontology into the W3C PROV-O ontology [4] to realize the formal presentation of provenance. We successfully implemented the ontology in several pilot systems for a recent National Climate Assessment report (i.e., the NCA3). They provide users the functionalities to browse and search provenance information with topics of interest. Provenance information of the NCA3 has been made structured and interoperable by applying the developed ontology. Besides the pilot systems we developed, other tools and services are also able to interact with the data in the context of the 'Web of data' and thus create added values. Our research shows that the use case-driven iterative method bridges the gap between Semantic Web researchers and earth and environmental scientists and is able to be deployed rapidly for developing Semantic Web applications. Our work also provides first-hand experience for re-using the W3C PROV-O ontology in the field of earth and environmental sciences, as the PROV-O ontology is recently ratified (on 04/30/2013) by the W3C as a recommendation and relevant applications are still rare. [1] http

  15. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts: results from a global science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, K.; Clark, M.; Rowden, A.; Consalvey, M.

    2010-12-01

    CenSeam (a Global Census of Marine Life on Seamounts) is a network of more than 500 scientists, policy makers and conservationists around the world. These participants are collaborating to increase our understanding of the factors driving seamount community composition and diversity, such that we can better understand and manage the effects of human activities. The major scientific outcomes of the CenSeam community include the findings that 1) Seamount community composition is often similar to surrounding habitats; however, community structure can be different. 2) Contrary to conventional wisdom, few seamounts follow island biogeography predictions. 3) Seamounts can support a higher benthic biomass than surrounding habitats. 4) Seamounts can support species and communities new to science, and represent range extensions for known species, which are being described from CenSeam voyages. 5) For the first time, the extent of the vulnerability and risk to seamount benthic communities from fishing has been quantified. 6) Whilst long assumed, CenSeam researchers have demonstrated that seamount communities are disturbed by fishing and are slow to recover. And 7) Seamounts might act as repositories of biodiversity during future periods of extreme environmental change, as they have likely done in the past. The major products of Censeam include 1) a book synthesizing seamount knowledge: Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries and Conservation (from Blackwell Publishing); 2) a recent review of the structure and function of seamount benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation (Ann Rev Mar Sci); 3) hundreds of scientific publications, including Special Issues in Marine Ecology and Oceanography (in collaboration with the Seamount Biogeogsciences Network), and a Special Collection in PLoSONE; 4) guidance documents and formal advising for seamount management communities, including the United Nations Environment Program, International Seabed Authority

  16. The ASPIRE-to-Excellence Program: A Global Effort to Improve the Quality of Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dan; Klamen, Debra; Harden, Ronald M; Ali, Farzand

    2017-12-19

    Publications and organizations ranking medical schools rely heavily on schools' research-oriented and grant-success data because those are the publicly available data. To address the vacuum of evidence for medical education quality, in 2012 the Association of Education in Europe (AMEE) introduced an initiative entitled A Schools Programme for International Recognition of Excellence in Education (ASPIRE) awards. ASPIRE panels of international experts in specific areas of medical education have developed internationally peer-based criteria to benchmark excellence in social accountability, student engagement, student assessment, faculty development, and simulation; they plan to publish criteria on curriculum design and development in 2018. Schools are encouraged to use ASPIRE criteria to challenge themselves and, for a fee, may submit evidence that they have met the criteria for excellence in one or more of the five areas. The international panels then judge the evidence submitted by the school and determine whether an award of excellence is merited.The authors share lessons learned from five years of program experience. Of the 88 schools submitting evidence, 38 have been recognized for their excellence in one of the ASPIRE topic areas. As the number of representatives from the schools that are awarded ASPIRE recognition continues to increase and those individuals find new ways to contribute, hopes are high for this program. Challenges remain in how to better define excellence in low-resources settings, what new areas to take on, and how to keep infrastructure costs down. However, as an example of continuing global interaction for quality improvement, optimism prevails.

  17. The effects of a global postural exercise program on temporomandibular disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fiorelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in the suboccipital muscles and the hamstrings may interfere with head posture and the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint, both of which contribute to the severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a global postural exercise program (GPEP on pain intensity and mouth-opening range of motion (ROM in women with TMD. The participants were comprised of 30 women with TMD who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG and a control group (CG. A pressure algometer was used for pain assessment and a paquimeter was used to measure ROM. The duration of the GPEP was six weeks. In the EG, there was a reduction in pain intensity and an increase in mouth-opening ROM compared to the CG. Therefore, we concluded that the GPEP was effective in relieving pain in all of the evaluated muscles and regions, and in increasing mouth-opening ROM in women with TMD.

  18. Volcanoes of México: An Interactive CD-ROM From the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, L.; Kimberly, P.; Calvin, C.; Luhr, J. F.; Kysar, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program is nearing completion of an interactive CD-ROM, the Volcanoes of México. This CD is the second in a series sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies to collate Smithsonian data on Quaternary volcanism as a resource for the geothermal community. It also has utility for those concerned with volcanic hazard and risk mitgation as well as an educational tool for those interested in Mexican volcanism. We acknowledge the significant contributions of many Mexican volcanologists to the eruption reports, data, and images contained in this CD, in particular those contributions of the Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), the Colima Volcano Observatory of the University of Colima, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The Volcanoes of México CD has a format similar to that of an earlier Smithsonian CD, the Volcanoes of Indonesia, but also shows Pleistocene volcanic centers and additional data on geothermal sites. A clickable map of México shows both Holocene and Pleistocene volcanic centers and provides access to individual pages on 67 volcanoes ranging from Cerro Prieto in Baja California to Tacaná on the Guatemalan border. These include geographic and geologic data on individual volcanoes (as well as a brief paragraph summarizing the geologic history) along with tabular eruption chronologies, eruptive characteristics, and eruptive volumes, when known. Volcano data are accessible from both geographical and alphabetical searches. A major component of the CD is more than 400 digitized images illustrating the morphology of volcanic centers and eruption processes and deposits, providing a dramatic visual primer to the country's volcanoes. Images of specific eruptions can be directly linked to from the eruption chronology tables. The Volcanoes of México CD includes monthly reports and associated figures and tables cataloging volcanic activity in M

  19. Over a Decade of Lessons Learned from an REU Program in the Science of Global Change and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, E. S.; James, E. W.; Banner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) in "The Science of Global Change and Sustainability" at the University of Texas at Austin Environmental Science Institute (ESI) has just completed its twelfth summer. The program has 113 REU alumni plus 5 Research Experience for Teachers (RET) alumni, selected from a competitive pool of 976 applicants (~14% acceptance rate), 68% from 61 smaller colleges and universities (of 79 schools represented), 40% of those who self-reported coming from demographics underrepresented in STEM, and with nearly 70% women. Students conduct independent research under the supervision of a faculty mentor in four major interdisciplinary themes: Impacts on Ecosystems, Impacts on Watersheds and the Land Surface, Campus Sustainability, and Reconstructing Past Global Change. These themes bridge chemistry, biology, ecology, environmental policy, civil and environmental engineering, marine science, and geological science. The summer cohort participates in weekly research and professional development seminars along with group field exercises. Topics include graduate school, career preparation, research ethics, sustainability, global change, environmental justice, and research communication. These activities plus the student's individual research comprise a portfolio that culminates in a reflection essay integrating the concepts, methods, and perspectives gained over the 10-week program. Program alumni were surveyed in 2014 to gauge long-term impact and outcomes. Of the 76 surveyed from 2006-2013, 39% responded. 67% have earned or are working on a graduate degree, and 94% of the graduate programs are in STEM. 93% of the responding alumni felt that the program "influenced my job and educational choices" and 97% felt that the program "helped me better understand scientific research." 40% presented their findings at a conference and 17% authored or co-authored a peer-reviewed publication. This presentation will include a discussion of best practices

  20. Global Fiducials Program Imagery: New Opportunities for Geospatial Research, Outreach, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    MOLNIA, Bruce F., PRICE, Susan D. and, KING, Stephen E., U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 562 National Center, Reston, VA 20192, sprice@usgs.gov The Civil Applications Committee (CAC), operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), is the Federal interagency committee that facilitates Federal civil agency access to U.S. National Systems space-based electro-optical (EO) imagery for natural disaster response; global change investigations; ecosystem monitoring; mapping, charting, and geodesy; and related topics. The CAC's Global Fiducials Program (GFP) has overseen the systematic collection of high-resolution imagery to provide geospatial data time series spanning a decade or more at carefully selected sites to study and monitor changes, and to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of dynamic and sensitive areas of our planet. Since 2008, more than 4,500 one-meter resolution EO images which comprise time series from 85 GFP sites have been released for unrestricted public use. Initial site selections were made by Federal and academic scientists based on each site's unique history, susceptibility, or environmental value. For each site, collection strategies were carefully defined to maximize information extraction capabilities. This consistency enhances our ability to understand Earth's dynamic processes and long-term trends. Individual time series focus on Arctic sea ice change; temperate glacier behavior; mid-continent wetland dynamics; barrier island response to hurricanes; coastline evolution; wildland fire recovery; Long-Term Ecological Resource (LTER) site processes; and many other topics. The images are available from a USGS website at no cost, in an orthorectified GeoTIFF format with supporting metadata, making them ideal for use in Earth science education and GIS projects. New on-line tools provide enhanced analysis of these time-series imagery. For additional information go to http://gfp.usgs.gov or http://gfl.usgs.gov.Bering Glacier is the largest and

  1. The Afya Bora Fellowship: An Innovative Program Focused on Creating an Interprofessional Network of Leaders in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Wendy M; Farquhar, Carey; Mashalla, Yohana

    2017-09-01

    Most current health professions education programs are focused on the development of clinical skills. As a result, they may not address the complex and interconnected nature of global health. Trainees require relevant clinical, programmatic, and leadership skills to meet the challenges of practicing in an increasingly globalized environment. To develop health care leaders within sub-Saharan Africa, the Afya Bora Consortium developed a one-year fellowship for medical doctors and nurses. Fellows from nine institutions in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa participate in 12 learning modules focused on leadership development and program management. Classroom-based training is augmented with an experiential apprenticeship component. Since 2011, 100 fellows have graduated from the program. During their apprenticeships, fellows developed projects beneficial to their development and to host organizations. The program has developed fellows' skills in leadership, lent expertise to local organizations, and built knowledge in local contexts. Most fellows have returned to their countries of origin, thus building local capacity. U.S.-based fellows examine global health challenges from regional perspectives and learn from sub-Saharan African experts and peers. The Consortium provides ongoing support to alumni through career development awards and alumni network engagement with current and past fellow cohorts. The Consortium expanded from its initial network of five countries to six and continues to seek opportunities for geographical and institutional expansion.

  2. Evaluation of a Structured Predeparture Orientation at the David Geffen School of Medicine's Global Health Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Arora, Gitanjli; Wells, Traci; Hoffman, Risa M

    2016-03-01

    Given the lack of a standardized approach to medical student global health predeparture preparation, we evaluated an in-person, interactive predeparture orientation (PDO) at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) to understand program strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement. We administered anonymous surveys to assess the structure and content of the PDO and also surveyed a subset of students after travel on the utility of the PDO. We used Fisher's exact test to evaluate the association between prior global health experience and satisfaction with the PDO. One hundred and five students attended the PDO between 2010 and 2014 and completed the survey. One hundred and four students (99.0%) reported learning new information. Major strengths included faculty mentorship (N = 38, 19.7%), opportunities to interact with the UCLA global health community (N = 34, 17.6%), and sharing global health experiences (N = 32, 16.6%). Of students surveyed after their elective, 94.4% (N = 51) agreed or strongly agreed that the PDO provided effective preparation. Students with prior global health experience found the PDO to be as useful as students without experience (92.7% versus 94.4%, P = 1.0). On the basis of these findings, we believe that a well-composed PDO is beneficial for students participating in global health experiences and recommend further comparative studies of PDO content and delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Indicators measuring the performance of malaria programs supported by the global fund in Asia, progress and the way forward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkou Zhao

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the Global Fund provided more than 75% of external international financing for malaria control. The Global Fund uses performance based funding in the grants it finances. This paper analyses the indicators used to measure the performance of Global Fund supported malaria grants in Asia. METHODS: Indicators used in the performance frameworks for all Global Fund supported malaria grants in Asia were retrieved from grant database and grouped into impact, outcome, output and input categories and categorized by service delivery areas. Indicators of each group were compared over rounds. Indicators used in performance frameworks were compared with internationally adopted indicators included in the Monitoring and Evaluation Toolkit developed by the Global Fund and international technical agencies. RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2010, 1,434 indicators were included in the performance frameworks of the 48 malaria grants awarded in Asia, including 229 impact and 227 outcome indicators, 437 output and 541 input indicators, with an average of 29.9 indicators per grant. The proportion of impact and outcome indicators increased over rounds, with that of input indicators declining from 44.1% in Round 1 to 22.7% in Round 9. CONCLUSIONS: Input indicators, which have predominated the performance frameworks of the Global Fund supported malaria programs in Asia have declined between Rounds 1 and 9. However, increased alignment with internationally adopted indicators included in the Monitoring and Evaluation Toolkit is needed to improve the validity of reported results.

  4. Reimbursing live organ donors for incurred non-medical expenses: a global perspective on policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickand, M; Cuerden, M S; Klarenbach, S W; Ojo, A O; Parikh, C R; Boudville, N; Garg, A X

    2009-12-01

    Methods to reimburse living organ donors for the non-medical expenses they incur have been implemented in some jurisdictions and are being considered in others. A global understanding of existing legislation and programs would help decision makers implement and optimize policies and programs. We searched for and collected data from countries that practice living organ donation. We examined legislation and programs that facilitate reimbursement, focusing on policy mechanisms, eligibility criteria, program duration and types of expenses reimbursed. Of 40 countries, reimbursement is expressly legal in 16, unclear in 18, unspecified in 6 and expressly prohibited in 1. Donor reimbursement programs exist in 21 countries; 6 have been enacted in the last 5 years. Lost income is reimbursed in 17 countries, while travel, accommodation, meal and childcare costs are reimbursed in 12 to 19 countries. Ten countries have comprehensive programs, where all major cost categories are reimbursed to some extent. Out-of-country donors are reimbursed in 10 jurisdictions. Reimbursement is conditional on donor income in 7 countries, and recipient income in 2 countries. Many nations have programs that help living donors with their financial costs. These programs differ in operation and scope. Donors in other regions of the world are without support.

  5. Reimbursing Live Organ Donors for Incurred Non-Medical Expenses: A Global Perspective on Policies and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickand, M.; Cuerden, M. S.; Klarenbach, S. W.; Ojo, A. O.; Parikh, C. R.; Boudville, N.; Garg, A. X.

    2015-01-01

    Methods to reimburse living organ donors for the non-medical expenses they incur have been implemented in some jurisdictions and are being considered in others. A global understanding of existing legislation and programs would help decision makers implement and optimize policies and programs. We searched for and collected data from countries that practice living organ donation. We examined legislation and programs that facilitate reimbursement, focusing on policy mechanisms, eligibility criteria, program duration and types of expenses reimbursed. Of 40 countries, reimbursement is expressly legal in 16, unclear in 18, unspecified in 6 and expressly prohibited in 1. Donor reimbursement programs exist in 21 countries; 6 have been enacted in the last 5 years. Lost income is reimbursed in 17 countries, while travel, accommodation, meal and childcare costs are reimbursed in 12 to 19 countries. Ten countries have comprehensive programs, where all major cost categories are reimbursed to some extent. Out-of-country donors are reimbursed in 10 jurisdictions. Reimbursement is conditional on donor income in 7 countries, and recipient income in 2 countries. Many nations have programs that help living donors with their financial costs. These programs differ in operation and scope. Donors in other regions of the world are without support. PMID:19788503

  6. Building a French for Business and Technology Program Abroad: Giving Students an Edge in an Expanding Global Job Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Lionel J.

    2010-01-01

    The reality of globalization has made international programs more significant than ever before. Students from all over the world are accessing an increasingly competitive world market. Understanding other cultures in the social sense and in the business culture sense is crucial not only for their own benefits but also for their careers. This article describes how to develop an “Abroad Business and Technology Program” and presents the principal components that can insure its success. It also s...

  7. Diplomatic advantages and threats in global health program selection, design, delivery and implementation: development and application of the Kevany Riposte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-05-27

    Global health programs, as supported by organizations such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), stand to make significant contributions to international medical outcomes. Traditional systems of monitoring and evaluation, however, fail to capture downstream, indirect, or collateral advantages (and threats) of intervention selection, design, and implementation from broader donor perspectives, including those of the diplomatic and foreign policy communities, which these programs also generate. This paper describes the development a new métier under which assessment systems designed to consider the diplomatic value of global health initiatives are described and applied based on previously-identified "Top Ten" criteria. The "Kevany Riposte" and the "K-Score" were conceptualized based on a retrospective and collective assessment of the author's participation in the design, implementation and delivery of a range of global health interventions related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Responses and associated scores reframe intervention worth or value in terms of global health diplomacy criteria such as "adaptability", "interdependence", "training," and "neutrality". Response options ranged from "highly advantageous" to "significant potential threat". Global health initiatives under review were found to generate significant advantages from the diplomatic perspective. These included (1) intervention visibility and associations with donor altruism and prestige, (2) development of international non-health collaborations and partnerships, (3) adaptability and responsiveness of service delivery to local needs, and (4) advancement of broader strategic goals of the international community. Corresponding threats included (1) an absence of formal training of project staff on broader political and international relations roles and responsibilities, (2) challenges to recipient cultural and religious practices

  8. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  9. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  10. Final Report from The University of Texas at Austin for DEGAS: Dynamic Global Address Space programming environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erez, Mattan

    2018-02-21

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. Our approach is to provide an efficient and scalable programming model that can be adapted to application needs through the use of dynamic runtime features and domain-specific languages for computational kernels. We address the following technical challenges: Programmability: Rich set of programming constructs based on a Hierarchical Partitioned Global Address Space (HPGAS) model, demonstrated in UPC++. Scalability: Hierarchical locality control, lightweight communication (extended GASNet), and ef- ficient synchronization mechanisms (Phasers). Performance Portability: Just-in-time specialization (SEJITS) for generating hardware-specific code and scheduling libraries for domain-specific adaptive runtimes (Habanero). Energy Efficiency: Communication-optimal code generation to optimize energy efficiency by re- ducing data movement. Resilience: Containment Domains for flexible, domain-specific resilience, using state capture mechanisms and lightweight, asynchronous recovery mechanisms. Interoperability: Runtime and language interoperability with MPI and OpenMP to encourage broad adoption.

  11. Evaluation results of the GlobalWatershed GK-12 Fellowship Program - a model for increased science literacy and partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Vye, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Michigan Tech GlobalWatershed GK-12 Fellowship program bridges the gap between K-12 learning institutions and the scientific community with a focus on watershed research. Michigan Tech graduate students (fellows) work in tandem with teachers on the development of relevant hands-on, inquiry based lesson plans and activities based on their doctoral research projects in watershed science. By connecting students and teachers to state of the art academic research in watershed science, teachers are afforded a meaningful way in which to embed scientific research as a component of K-12 curricula, while mentoring fellows on the most pertinent and essential topics for lesson plan development. Fellows fulfill their vital responsibility of communicating their academic research to a broader public while fostering improved teaching and communication skills. A goal of the project is to increase science literacy among students so they may understand, communicate and participate in decisions made at local, regional, and global levels. The project largely works with schools located in Michigan's western Upper Peninsula but also partners with K-12 systems in Sonora, Mexico. While focusing on local and regional issues, the international element of the project helps expand student, teacher, and fellow worldviews and global awareness of watershed issues and creates meaningful partnerships. Lesson plans are available online and teacher workshops are held regularly to disseminate the wealth of information and resources available to the broader public. Evaluation results indicate that fellows' skill and confidence in their ability to communicate science increased as a results of their participation of the program, as well as their desire to communicate science in their future careers. Teachers' confidence in their capacity to present watershed science to their students increased, along with their understanding of how scientific research contributes to understanding of water

  12. Gaps in the existing public health informatics training programs: a challenge to the development of a skilled global workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Perin, Douglas Marcel Puricelli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore public health informatics (PHI) training programs that currently exist to meet the growing demand for a trained global workforce. We used several search engines, scientific databases, and the websites of informatics organizations; sources included PubMed, Google, the American Medical Informatics Organization, and the International Medical Informatics Organization. The search was conducted from May to July 2011 and from January to February 2012 using key words such as informatics, public health informatics, or biomedical informatics along with academic programs, training, certificate, graduate programs, or postgraduate programs. Course titles and catalog descriptions were gathered from the program or institution websites. Variables included PHI program categories, location and mode of delivery, program credits, and costs. Each course was then categorized based on its title and description as available on the Internet. Finally, we matched course titles and descriptions with the competencies for PHIs determined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Descriptive analysis was performed to report means and frequency distributions for continuous and categorical variables. Stratified analysis was performed to explore average credits and cost per credit among both the public and private institutions. Fifteen PHI programs were identified across 13 different institutions, the majority of which were US-based. The average number of credits and the associated costs required to obtain PHI training were much higher in private as compared to public institutions. The study results suggest that a need for online contextual and cost-effective PHI training programs exists to address the growing needs of professionals worldwide who are using technology to improve public health in their respective countries.

  13. NASA/MSFC FY88 Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Greg S. (Editor); Leslie, Fred W. (Editor); Arnold, J. E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Interest in environmental issues and the magnitude of the environmental changes continues. One way to gain more understanding of the atmosphere is to make measurements on a global scale from space. The Earth Observation System is a series of new sensors to measure globally atmospheric parameters. Analysis of satellite data by developing algorithms to interpret the radiance information improves the understanding and also defines requirements for these sensors. One measure of knowledge of the atmosphere lies in the ability to predict its behavior. Use of numerical and experimental models provides a better understanding of these processes. These efforts are described in the context of satellite data analysis and fundamental studies of atmospheric dynamics which examine selected processes important to the global circulation.

  14. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  15. Feeling Our Way: Emotions and the Politics of Global Citizenship in Study Abroad Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Nicole; Waddell, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    The terms "solidarity" and "ethical travel" were used to frame a one-week study abroad program to Guatemala. The students involved came from a Canadian university and were primed through pretrip meetings and program materials to expect their trip to produce good feelings of connection and support. However, many of the students…

  16. The use of forests to mitigate global warming - designing programs that work for utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of forests as carbon sinks by utilities to offset carbon dioxide production by fossil-fueled power plants. The topics of the paper include greenhouse gases, greenhouse effect, why trees are carbon sinks, planning a carbon sequestering program based on trees and forests, and descriptions of specific types of programs

  17. Critical evaluation of international health programs: Reframing global health and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chunhuei; Tuepker, Anaïs; Schoon, Rebecca; Núñez Mondaca, Alicia

    2018-01-05

    Striking changes in the funding and implementation of international health programs in recent decades have stimulated debate about the role of communities in deciding which health programs to implement. An important yet neglected piece of that discussion is the need to change norms in program evaluation so that analysis of community ownership, beyond various degrees of "participation," is seen as central to strong evaluation practices. This article challenges mainstream evaluation practices and proposes a framework of Critical Evaluation with 3 levels: upstream evaluation assessing the "who" and "how" of programming decisions; midstream evaluation focusing on the "who" and "how" of selecting program objectives; and downstream evaluation, the focus of current mainstream evaluation, which assesses whether the program achieved its stated objectives. A vital tenet of our framework is that a community possesses the right to determine the path of its health development. A prerequisite of success, regardless of technical outcomes, is that programs must address communities' high priority concerns. Current participatory methods still seldom practice community ownership of program selection because they are vulnerable to funding agencies' predetermined priorities. In addition to critiquing evaluation practices and proposing an alternative framework, we acknowledge likely challenges and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Teaching Global Change in Local Places: The HERO Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Brent; Neff, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The Human-Environment Research Observatory (HERO) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program aimed to develop the next generation of researchers working on place-based human-environment problems. The program followed a cooperative learning model to foster an integrated approach to geographic research and to build collaborative research…

  19. d-Vision: Seeking Excellence through a Hands on Engineering Multi Discipline Global Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suss, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The question is, "What can vision do?" (Fritz, 1989) rather than "What is vision?" Keter's Chairman, Mr. Sami Sagol's vision is to establish an internship program that will strengthen the competitive edge of the Israeli industry, within the international arena. The program will set new standards of excellence for product…

  20. Improving International Marketing Programs to Reflect Global Complexity and Risk: Curriculum Drivers and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the curriculum redesign of a master's-level program in international marketing from a UK perspective. In order to ensure that the program would be more fit-for-purpose for future managers working under conditions of complexity, uncertainty, and within regimes often very different from the home market, the team began the…

  1. Neoliberal Global Assemblages: The Emergence of "Public" International High-School Curriculum Programs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuning

    2018-01-01

    Since 2010, the number of urban Chinese high-school students applying to US universities has rapidly grown. Many of these students have chosen emerging international curriculum programs established by elite public high schools in China. These programs prepare wealthy Chinese students for the US college application process by exposing them to an…

  2. The Global Awareness Curriculum in International Business Programs: A Critical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Designing educational sequences that enhance the cognitive, behavioral, and critical skills of a diverse learning community seeking global competencies, requires mindfulness of different international educational models, a tailored curriculum designed to build different types of awareness learning, and clarity in targeted outputs keeping in mind a…

  3. Achieving Globalization of AACSB Accounting Programs with Faculty-Led Study Abroad Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Heidi Hylton; Smith, Deborah Drummond

    2016-01-01

    This paper is motivated by recommendations from the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), the Pathways Commission, and NAFSA: Association of International Educators to increase global exposure in the accounting curriculum. Some schools have responded to these demands by offering short-duration, faculty-led, study abroad…

  4. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  5. Responding to the call for globalization in nursing education: the implementation of the transatlantic double-degree program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Cynthia A; Erämaa, Sirkka; Helembai, Kornélia; McCartan, Patrick J; Turtiainen, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Increased demand for nurses worldwide has highlighted the need for a flexible nursing workforce eligible for licensure in multiple countries. Nursing's curricular innovation mirrors the call for reform within higher education including globalization of curricula (E. J. S. Hovenga, 2004; D. Nayyar, 2008; B. J. G. Wood, S. M. Tapsall, & G. N. Soutar, 2005), increased opportunities for student mobility exchanges, dialogue between different academic traditions, and mutual understanding and transparency between universities (J. González & R. Wagenaar, 2005). The European Union (EU) and United States have combined efforts to achieve these objectives by creating the Atlantis program in 2007 (U.S. Department of Education, 2011). This article describes experiences of four nursing programs participating in an Atlantis project to develop a double-degree baccalaureate program for undergraduate nursing students. Early learnings include increasing awareness and appreciation of essential curricular and performance competencies of the baccalaureate-prepared professional nurse. Challenges include language competency; variations in curriculum, cultural norms, student expectations, and learning assessment; and philosophical differences regarding first-level professional nurse preparation as specialist versus generalist. The Transatlantic Double Degree program has successfully implemented the double-degree program. Members have gained valuable insights into key issues surrounding the creation of a more uniform, yet flexible, educational standard between our countries. © 2014.

  6. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: A Program for Teachers and Students to Explore Their World and Study Global Change Through Field-Experience and Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Orchard, A.; Colodner, D.; Schwartz, K.; Crown, D. A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.

    2012-03-01

    The Laurel Clark Earth Camp program provides middle and high school students and teachers opportunities to explore local environmental issues and global change through field-experiences, inquiry exercises, and exploring satellite images.

  7. Global R&D through the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huray, Paul G.

    1997-01-01

    The industry-led, international intelligent manufacturing systems (IMS) program provides a special vehicle for joint research and development between government, industry and academia in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, and Europe. Since its beginning in 1989, the IMS program has progressed through a feasibility phase which demonstrated that international legal barriers, trade issues, and intellectual property problems could be overcome. The program is constructed to provide higher quality design, customized products, shorter delivery cycles and lower costs. Interactions between partner companies have led to new business opportunities for mutual profit and some claim to have learned strategic information about their international competitors. The IMS program is growing through the participation of hundreds of corporate and university partners who share responsibilities in specific projects and jointly reap benefits for their manufacturing products and processes. The logic for choosing or not choosing the IMS mechanisms will be discussed and R and D projects will be identified.

  8. The READY program: Building a global potential energy surface and reactive dynamic simulations for the hydrogen combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogo, César; Brandão, João

    2014-06-30

    READY (REActive DYnamics) is a program for studying reactive dynamic systems using a global potential energy surface (PES) built from previously existing PESs corresponding to each of the most important elementary reactions present in the system. We present an application to the combustion dynamics of a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen using accurate PESs for all the systems involving up to four oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Results at the temperature of 4000 K and pressure of 2 atm are presented and compared with model based on rate constants. Drawbacks and advantages of this approach are discussed and future directions of research are pointed out. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Dutch National Research Program Global Air Pollution and Climatic Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, J.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 the title program (the Dutch abbreviation is NOP-MLK) started. The development of the program has not been an ideal one. Some unfortunate, but understandable, political decisions made the coordination and integration of the NOP difficult. However, at the start a reasonable integrated program has been developed and a coherent research program has been formulated for many items, based on priorities and policy relevance. The way in which research programs have to be prepared, and the aims they should meet, are briefly discussed. In particular attention is paid to the advisability of cooperation between the participating organizations and the useful and reliable integration of and gearing to sub-sections of the programs. The final form of the NOP is elaborated in this article. The study on the greenhouse effect problemacy is subdivided into five subjects of research: the system (physical-chemical processes with regard to the greenhouse effect), the causes (greenhouse gases cycle), the impacts of the greenhouse effect, integration of models in order to define standards for atmospheric concentrations and emissions of greenhouse gases, and finally sustainable solutions to prevent emissions and to adapt to altered conditions. It is expected that the NOP will contribute significant to our knowledge of the greenhouse effect on a national level as well as an international level. 2 figs., 1 ref

  10. The Global Children's Challenge Program: Pedometer Step Count in an Australian School

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hilton

    2016-01-01

    The importance and significance of this research is based upon the fundamental knowledge reported in the scientific literature that physical activity is inversely associated with obesity. In addition, it is recognized there is a global epidemic of sedentariness while at the same time it is known that morbidity and mortality are associated with physical inactivity and as a result of overweight or obesity. Hence this small study in school students is an important area of research in our communi...

  11. Building Resilience in Families, Communities, and Organizations: A Training Program in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Jack; Simon, Winnifred

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the Summer Institute in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support, a brief immersion training program for mental health, health, and allied professionals who work with populations that have endured severe adversities and trauma, such as domestic and political violence, extreme poverty, armed conflict, epidemics, and natural disasters. The course taught participants to apply collaborative and contextually sensitive approaches to enhance social connectedness and resilience in families, communities, and organizations. This article presents core training principles and vignettes which illustrate how those engaging in such interventions must: (1) work in the context of a strong and supportive organization; (2) appreciate the complexity of the systems with which they are engaging; and (3) be open to the possibilities for healing and transformation. The program utilized a combination of didactic presentations, hands-on interactive exercises, case studies, and experiential approaches to organizational team building and staff stress management. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  12. The Rise of Student-to-Student Learning: Youth-led Programs Impacting Engineering Education Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian O'Shea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Around the globe, students and young engineers are playing an increasing role in the coordination and delivery of engineering education programs. Many youth-led initiatives are now conducted with students involved in all aspects of their creation, organisation and delivery. This trend presents an exciting opportunity for the education of engineering students, both those involved in delivery of the courses and for participants. This paper profiles four leading youth-led engineering education programs and analyses their structure and growth in recent years. Profiled are initiatives coordinated by Engineers Without Borders – Australia (EWB-A; the Board of European Students of Technology (BEST; the Electrical Engineering Students’ European Association (EESTEC; and the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED. Each case study includes a brief history of the organisation, program overview, growth analysis and future projections. The common features amongst these programs were analysed, as were the aspects which made them distinct from traditional university offerings. Key findings about the initiatives include: an international focus; the mixture of formal learning and social aspects; an integral role of volunteers within the organisation; the use of residential programs; and the role of internal professional development of committee members and volunteers. Additionally, this paper outlines the benefits for universities and provides a guide for how engineering faculties can support and nurture these initiatives and effectively create partnerships.

  13. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koech, H K [Program Manager CBP/DHS Office Number 363-6109 Cell Number 0722-774-912, Office Location: Ground Floor U.S. Embassy Nairobi (Kenya)

    2010-07-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  14. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koech, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  15. Implementing Global Fund programs: a survey of opinions and experiences of the Principal Recipients across 69 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, Francis; Marwa, Charles; McCoy, David

    2014-03-24

    Principal Recipients (PRs) receive money from the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) to manage and implement programs. However, little research has gone into understanding their opinions and experiences. This survey set out to describe these, thereby providing a baseline against which changes in PR opinions and experiences can be assessed as the recently introduced new funding model is rolled out. An internet based questionnaire was administered to 315 PRs. A total of 115 responded from 69 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. The study was conducted between September and December 2012. Three quarters of PRs thought the progress update and disbursement request (PU/DR) system was a useful method of reporting grant progress. However, most felt that the grant negotiation processes were complicated, and that the grant rating system did not reflect performance.While nearly all PRs were happy with the work being done by sub-Recipients (92%) and Fund Portfolio Managers (86%), fewer were happy with the Office of the Inspector General (OIG). Non-government PRs were generally less happy with the OIG's work compared to government PRs.Most PRs thought the Global Fund's Voluntary Pooled Procurement system made procurement easier. However, only 29% said the system should be made compulsory.When asked which aspects of the Global Fund's operations needed improvement, most PRs said that the Fund should re-define and clarify the roles of different actors, minimize staff turnover at its Secretariat, and shorten the grant application and approval processes. All these are currently being addressed, either directly or indirectly, under a new funding model. Vigorous assessments should nonetheless follow the roll-out of the new model to ensure the areas that are most likely to affect PR performance realize sustained improvement. Opinions and experiences with the Global Fund were varied, with PRs having good communication with Fund

  16. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  17. Expanding the generation and use of economic and financial data to improve HIV program planning and efficiency: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Charles B; Atun, Rifat; Avila, Carlos; Blandford, John M

    2011-08-01

    Cost information is needed at multiple levels of health care systems to inform the public health response to HIV. To date, most attention has been paid to identifying the cost drivers of providing antiretroviral treatment, and these data have driven interventions that have been successful in reducing drug and human resource costs. The need for further cost information, especially for less well-studied areas such as HIV prevention, is particularly acute given global budget constraints and ongoing efforts to extract the greatest possible value from money spent on the response. Cost information can be collected from multiple perspectives and levels of the health care system (site, program, and national levels), and it is critical to choose the appropriate methodology in order to generate the appropriate information for decision-making. Organizations such as United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and other organizations are working together to bridge the divide between the fields of economics and HIV program implementation by accelerating the collection of cost data and building further local demand and capacity for their use.

  18. Global Leadership Model for Health Professions Education--A Case Study of the FAIMER Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Zahra; Shah, Henal; Wells, Ray; Friedman, Stacey; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; van Heerden, Ben; Campos, Henry; Morahan, Page S.

    2015-01-01

    The health workforce of the 21st century has enormous challenges; health professionals need to be both experts in their field and equipped with leadership and managerial skills. These skills are not part of the regular curriculum, so specific programs bridging this gap are required. Since 2001, FAIMER®, with eight centers across the globe, has…

  19. Global Benchmarking of Marketing Doctoral Program Faculty and Institutions by Subarea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeck, Matt; Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    This study benchmarks marketing doctoral programs worldwide in five popular subareas by faculty and institutional scholarly impact. A multi-item approach identifies a collection of top-tier scholarly journals for each subarea, while citation data over the decade 2003 to 2012 identify high scholarly impact marketing faculty by subarea used to…

  20. Improvements Needed in U.S. Special Operations Command Global Battlestaff and Program Support Contract Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    the OSINT [ open source intelligence ] program.” Task Order Terms Not Well Defined and the Problem Was Previously Reported Task order terms...provide contractor manpower augmentation to the staff of the J2 JIC OS [ Open Source Intelligence ] Branch in the form of intelligence related support for...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and

  1. Collaborative training program in coastal management in the Philippines: a local initiative with a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Balgos, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    A collaborative project in developing a broad-based coastal management training program in the Philippines is being undertaken by a group of government and nongovernment agencies. It addresses the lack of expertise in planning an implementation for coastal management in the country. The process will be documented to serve as a guide in starting and maintaining the process of collaborative training in coastal management in the region. Other training initiatives are outlined including regional ...

  2. Counterterrorism: DOD Should Enhance Management of and Reporting on Its Global Train and Equip Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    this work may contain copyrighted images or other material , permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this... material separately. Page 1 GAO-16-368 Counterterrorism 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 April 18, 2016 Congressional Committees...The fiscal year 2015 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) included a provision for GAO to conduct biennial audits of programs conducted pursuant

  3. Evaluation of the five-year Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Program in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Paichadze, N; Gritsenko, E; Klyavin, V; Yurasova, E; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In Russia, a road safety program was implemented in Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya oblasts (regions) as part of a 10-country effort funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies. The program was focused on increasing seat belt and child restraint use and reducing speeding. The primary goals of this monitoring and evaluation study are to assess trends in seat belt use, child restraint use, and speed compliance in the two oblasts over the 5 years and to explore the overall impact of the program on road traffic injury and death rates. Primary data via roadside observations and interviews, and secondary data from official government sources were collected and analyzed for this study. Our results indicate significant improvements in seat belt wearing and child seat use rates and in prevalence of speeding in both intervention oblasts. The observations were consistent with the results from the roadside interviews. In Lipetskaya, restraint use by all occupants increased from 52.4% (baseline, October 2010) to 77.4% (final round, October 2014) and child restraint use increased from 20.9% to 54.1% during the same period. In Ivanovskaya, restraint use by all occupants increased from 48% (baseline, April 2012) to 88.7% (final round, October 2014) and child restraint use increased from 20.6% to 89.4% during the same period. In Lipetskaya, the overall prevalence of speeding (vehicles driving above speed limit) declined from 47.0% (baseline, July 2011) to 30.4% (final round, October 2014) and a similar pattern was observed in Ivanovskaya where the prevalence of speeding decreased from 54.6% (baseline, March 2012) to 46.6% (final round, October 2014). Through 2010-2014, the road traffic crash and injury rates per 100,000 population decreased in Lipetskaya oblast (191.5 and 246.9 in 2010 and 170.4 and 208.6 in 2014, respectively) and slightly increased in Ivanovskaya oblast (184.4 and 236.0 in 2010 and 186.7 and 243

  4. Globalization of Craniofacial Plastic Surgery: Foreign Mission Programs for Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    International Humanitarian Interchanges are a bona fide component of surgery and medicine. Additionally, these programs also provide substantial benefit both to the doers and the recipients.The foreign mission program is potentially a weapon of foreign policy which is underutilized and underestimated.Physician job dissatisfaction is increasing. However, the happiness and satisfaction of the participants in the short-term multidisciplinary trips, repeated, well-organized and respectful, with rather complete integration of the surgical system of the sister countries ("Plan B"), approaches 100%.The theory of the International Humanitarian Interchanges is based on substance, on medical theory. These trips are particularly successful in interchanges with medium-resourced countries.Furthermore, the academic visiting professor ("Plan A": hi-resource place to hi-resource place), the One Man Can Save the World model ("Plan C": to the low-resource place), and the intriguing Horton Peace Plan have possibilities for long-term benefit to the doer, recipient, the field of surgery, and the body of knowledge. In all of these, our country and the family of nations advance.The theoretical basis is not always religious nor the grand strategy plan; both have either proselytizing or political dominance as primary motives, and are mentioned as historically helpful.

  5. Globalization of Craniofacial Plastic Surgery: Foreign Mission Programs for Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract International Humanitarian Interchanges are a bona fide component of surgery and medicine. Additionally, these programs also provide substantial benefit both to the doers and the recipients. The foreign mission program is potentially a weapon of foreign policy which is underutilized and underestimated. Physician job dissatisfaction is increasing. However, the happiness and satisfaction of the participants in the short-term multidisciplinary trips, repeated, well-organized and respectful, with rather complete integration of the surgical system of the sister countries (“Plan B”), approaches 100%. The theory of the International Humanitarian Interchanges is based on substance, on medical theory. These trips are particularly successful in interchanges with medium-resourced countries. Furthermore, the academic visiting professor (“Plan A”: hi-resource place to hi-resource place), the One Man Can Save the World model (“Plan C”: to the low-resource place), and the intriguing Horton Peace Plan have possibilities for long-term benefit to the doer, recipient, the field of surgery, and the body of knowledge. In all of these, our country and the family of nations advance. The theoretical basis is not always religious nor the grand strategy plan; both have either proselytizing or political dominance as primary motives, and are mentioned as historically helpful. PMID:26080114

  6. Impact assessment on the performance of e-learning in corporate training programs in the context of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril Roxana Maria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to identify the main criteria based on which e-Learning is used in organizational development with positive impact on business performance. Globalization has led to a multitude of changing markets, including learning and education. While quality production systems are implemented based on imposed standards, the business knowledge of employees varies in each country, mirroring the education system provided locally. The results are individually different knowledge gaps which challenged the learning industry to develop new strategies embedded in e-learning solutions. Major contribution to theory and practice on combining vision and spoken learning is brought by the work of psychologists and professors of education (Allen, 2012; Mayer, 2009; Hattie, 2009. Their innovations offered solutions for easy access to knowledge and implementation methods, as well as the documentation of the inclusion of videos in e-learning modules (Halls, 2012, offering teachers and trainers the possibility to create a live experience to trainees engaged in e-learning programs. This paper is based on data collected internationally and our empirical research undertaken in Romania, which is Europe’s main cluster for various production industries and world’s second for IT. Based on a questionnaire, we interviewed 18 multinational companies which perform parts of their business activities in Romania. Research results show that with the implementation of an effective e-learning strategy a 40-60% cost reduction, a complete measurability of the learning process and a standardized input and outcome of trainings has been achieved. This paper aims to highlight the impact of e-learning applied for business trainings within global developing companies. This study may be applicable to state education and thus could help to reduce the gap between local education and global expectations.

  7. Improving pharmacy practice through public health programs: experience from Global HIV/AIDS initiative Nigeria project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oqua, Dorothy; Agu, Kenneth Anene; Isah, Mohammed Alfa; Onoh, Obialunamma U; Iyaji, Paul G; Wutoh, Anthony K; King, Rosalyn C

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicines is an essential component of many public health programs (PHPs). Medicines are important not only for their capacity to treat and prevent diseases. The public confidence in healthcare system is inevitably linked to their confidence in the availability of safe and effective medicines and the measures for ensuring their rational use. However, pharmacy services component receives little or no attention in most public health programs in developing countries. This article describes the strategies, lessons learnt, and some accomplishments of Howard University Pharmacists and Continuing Education (HU-PACE) Centre towards improving hospital pharmacy practice through PHP in Nigeria. In a cross-sectional survey, 60 hospital pharmacies were randomly selected from 184 GHAIN-supported health facilities. The assessment was conducted at baseline and repeated after at least 12 months post-intervention using a study-specific instrument. Interventions included engagement of stakeholders; provision of standards for infrastructural upgrade; development of curricula and modules for training of pharmacy personnel; provision of job aids and tools amongst others. A follow-up hands-on skill enhancement based on identified gaps was conducted. Chi-square was used for inferential statistics. All reported p-values were 2-tailed at 95% confidence interval. The mean duration of service provision at post-intervention assessment was 24.39 (95% CI, 21.70-27.08) months. About 16.7% of pharmacies reported been trained in HIV care at pre-intervention compared to 83.3% at post-intervention. The proportion of pharmacies with audio-visual privacy for patient counseling increased significantly from 30.9% at pre-intervention to 81.4% at post-intervention. Filled prescriptions were cross-checked by pharmacist (61.9%) and pharmacy technician (23.8%) before dispensing at pre-intervention compared to pharmacist (93.1%) and pharmacy technician (6.9%) at post intervention. 40.0% of

  8. Evaluation of the World Health Organization global measles and rubella quality assurance program, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambos, Vicki; Leydon, Jennie; Riddell, Michaela; Clothier, Hazel; Catton, Mike; Featherstone, David; Kelly, Heath

    2011-07-01

    During 2001-2008, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL) prepared and provided a measles and rubella proficiency test panel for distribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) measles and rubella network laboratories as part of their annual laboratory accreditation assessment. Panel test results were forwarded to VIDRL, and results from 8 consecutive years were analyzed. We assessed the type of assays used and results achieved on the basis of the positive and negative interpretation of submitted results, by year and WHO region, for measles and rubella. Over time, there has been a noticeable increase in laboratory and WHO regional participation. For all panels, the proportion of laboratories in all WHO regions using the WHO-validated Dade Behring assay for measles and rubella-specific IgM antibodies ranged from 35% to 100% and 59% to 100%, respectively. For all regions and years, the proportion of laboratories obtaining a pass score ranged from 87% to 100% for measles and 93% to 100% for rubella. During 2001-2008, a large proportion of laboratories worldwide achieved and maintained a pass score for both measles and rubella. Measles and rubella proficiency testing is regarded as a major achievement for the WHO measles and rubella laboratory program. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Our changing planet: The FY 1993 US global-change research program. A supplement to the US President's Fiscal Year 1993 budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    An improved predictive understanding of the integrated Earth system, including human interactions, will provide direct benefits by anticipating and planning for possible impacts on commerce, agriculture, energy, resource utilization, human safety, and environmental quality. The central goal of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is to help establish the scientific understanding and the basis for national and international policymaking related to natural and human-induced changes in the global Earth system. This will be accomplished through: (1) establishing an integrated, comprehensive, long-term program of documenting the Earth system on a global scale; (2) conducting a program of focused studies to improve understanding of the physical, geological, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system processes; and (3) developing integrated conceptual and predictive Earth system models

  10. Our changing planet: The FY 1993 US global change research program. A supplement to the US President's fiscal year 1993 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An improved predictive understanding of the integrated Earth system, including human interactions, will provide direct benefits by anticipating and planning for possible impacts on commerce, agriculture, energy, resource utilization, human safety, and environmental quality. The central goal of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is to help establish the scientific understanding and the basis for national and international policymaking related to natural and human-induced changes in the global Earth system. This will be accomplished through: (1) establishing an integrated, comprehensive, long-term program of documenting the Earth system on a global scale; (2) conducting a program of focused studies to improve our understanding of the physical, geological, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system processes; and (3) developing integrated conceptual and predictive Earth system models.

  11. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-04-27

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  13. Scaling up towards international targets for AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria: contribution of global fund-supported programs in 2011-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Katz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The paper projects the contribution to 2011-2015 international targets of three major pandemics by programs in 140 countries funded by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the largest external financier of tuberculosis and malaria programs and a major external funder of HIV programs in low and middle income countries. DESIGN: Estimates, using past trends, for the period 2011-2015 of the number of persons receiving antiretroviral (ARV treatment, tuberculosis case detection using the internationally approved DOTS strategy, and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs to be delivered by programs in low and middle income countries supported by the Global Fund compared to international targets established by UNAIDS, Stop TB Partnership, Roll Back Malaria Partnership and the World Health Organisation. RESULTS: Global Fund-supported programs are projected to provide ARV treatment to 5.5-5.8 million people, providing 30%-31% of the 2015 international target. Investments in tuberculosis and malaria control will enable reaching in 2015 60%-63% of the international target for tuberculosis case detection and 30%-35% of the ITN distribution target in sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSION: Global Fund investments will substantially contribute to the achievement by 2015 of international targets for HIV, TB and malaria. However, additional large scale international and domestic financing is needed if these targets are to be reached by 2015.

  14. A highly scalable particle tracking algorithm using partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming for extreme-scale turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaria, D.; Yeung, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    A new parallel algorithm utilizing a partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming model to achieve high scalability is reported for particle tracking in direct numerical simulations of turbulent fluid flow. The work is motivated by the desire to obtain Lagrangian information necessary for the study of turbulent dispersion at the largest problem sizes feasible on current and next-generation multi-petaflop supercomputers. A large population of fluid particles is distributed among parallel processes dynamically, based on instantaneous particle positions such that all of the interpolation information needed for each particle is available either locally on its host process or neighboring processes holding adjacent sub-domains of the velocity field. With cubic splines as the preferred interpolation method, the new algorithm is designed to minimize the need for communication, by transferring between adjacent processes only those spline coefficients determined to be necessary for specific particles. This transfer is implemented very efficiently as a one-sided communication, using Co-Array Fortran (CAF) features which facilitate small data movements between different local partitions of a large global array. The cost of monitoring transfer of particle properties between adjacent processes for particles migrating across sub-domain boundaries is found to be small. Detailed benchmarks are obtained on the Cray petascale supercomputer Blue Waters at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. For operations on the particles in a 81923 simulation (0.55 trillion grid points) on 262,144 Cray XE6 cores, the new algorithm is found to be orders of magnitude faster relative to a prior algorithm in which each particle is tracked by the same parallel process at all times. This large speedup reduces the additional cost of tracking of order 300 million particles to just over 50% of the cost of computing the Eulerian velocity field at this scale. Improving support of PGAS models on

  15. AIM satellite-based research bridges the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education programs globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) component of the satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM) will bridge the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education organizations. The informal education materials developed by the EPO will utilize AIM data and educate the public about the environmental implications associated with the data. This will assist with creating a scientifically literate workforce and in developing a citizenry capable of making educated decisions related to environmental policies and laws. The objective of the AIM mission is to understand the mechanisms that cause Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) to form, how their presence affects the atmosphere, and how change in the atmosphere affects them. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) because of their visibility during the night from appropriate locations. The phenomenon of PMCs is an observable indicator of global change, a concern to all citizens. Recent sightings of these clouds over populated regions have compelled AIM educators to expand informal education opportunities to communities worldwide. Collaborations with informal organizations include: Museums/Science Centers; NASA Sun-Earth Connection Forum; Alaska Native Ways of Knowing Project; Amateur Noctilucent Cloud Observers Organization; National Parks Education Programs; After School Science Clubs; Public Broadcasting Associations; and National Public Radio. The Native Ways of Knowing Project is an excellent example of informal collaboration with the AIM EPO. This Alaska based project will assist native peoples of the state with photographing NLCs for the EPO website. It will also aid the EPO with developing materials for informal organizations that incorporate traditional native knowledge and science, related to the sky. Another AIM collaboration that will offer citizens lasting informal education opportunities is the one established with the United States National Parks

  16. Physiologic and psychosocial approaches to global management of the hemodialysis patient in the Southern Alberta Renal Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Tina; Magat, Ofelia; Hager, Suzy; Ng, Fanny; Lee, Miran

    2012-01-01

    As frontline nurses, we know firsthand the many challenges of renal disease faced by our patients and the impact on their lives and their families. How can we help them cope with their illness? How can we improve their quality of life? How can we prevent the complications inherent to the disease? How do we know we are doing a good job? Where do we start? The purpose of this presentation is to showcase the global management of the hemodialysis (HD) patient. It provides a collaborative and systematic approach to assessing, implementing, evaluating and coordinating the physiologic and the psychosocial aspects of their care. It is a model of case management followed by the Southern Alberta Renal Program (SARP) in meeting the many and complex needs of our hemodialysis patients. The quality indicators, to name a few, that relate to the physiologic aspects of their care are dialysis adequacy and fluid removal, improved blood pressure (BP) control, maintenance and improved vascular access function, anemia, bone and mineral disease management, nutritional, and diabetes management. The psychosocial aspects of care encompass goals of care, residential support, transportation, and mobility programs in the community. There may be positive implications resulting from our practice that we believe would be invaluable in terms of improved patient care, increased adherence to therapeutic regimens, improved mortality and morbidity and overall enhanced quality of life. Moreover, better communication would possibly be fostered and wise and prompt use of resources may be a result. To date, we have not done studies to prove or disprove these outcomes.

  17. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  18. The Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program: A Novel Global Health Experience in Mexico for Pre-medical/Pre-health Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L; Yee, Daniel C; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana Carolina; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2016-01-01

    We describe the creation of the Health Frontiers in Tijuana (HFiT) Undergraduate Internship Program (UIP), a novel global health experience for U.S. and Mexican undergraduate students based at the binational HFiT student-run free clinic. The UIP introduces students to a diverse underserved patient population, and U.S.-Mexico border public health.

  19. An Examination of U.S. AACSB International Accounting-Accredited Schools to Determine Global Travel Experience Requirements in Accounting Masters Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee; Finley, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the extent to which U.S. graduate accounting programs accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business have included some type of global travel experience in their graduate accounting curriculum. The authors contacted 137 member schools offering accounting masters degrees. Only one school required an…

  20. Global Positioning System data collection, processing, and analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Svarc, Jerry L.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center collects and processes Global Positioning System (GPS) data throughout the western United States to measure crustal deformation related to earthquakes and tectonic processes as part of a long‐term program of research and monitoring. Here, we outline data collection procedures and present the GPS dataset built through repeated temporary deployments since 1992. This dataset consists of observations at ∼1950 locations. In addition, this article details our data processing and analysis procedures, which consist of the following. We process the raw data collected through temporary deployments, in addition to data from continuously operating western U.S. GPS stations operated by multiple agencies, using the GIPSY software package to obtain position time series. Subsequently, we align the positions to a common reference frame, determine the optimal parameters for a temporally correlated noise model, and apply this noise model when carrying out time‐series analysis to derive deformation measures, including constant interseismic velocities, coseismic offsets, and transient postseismic motion.

  1. Return to play in elite rugby union: application of global positioning system technology in return-to-running programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Laura C; Cowman, Jason R; Green, Brian S; Coughlan, Garrett F

    2013-05-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) are widely used in sport settings to evaluate the physical demands on players in training and competition. The use of these systems in the design and implementation of rehabilitation and return-to-running programs has not yet been elucidated. To demonstrate the application of GPS technology in the management of return to play in elite-club Rugby Union. Case series. Professional Rugby Union club team. 8 elite Rugby Union players (age 27.86 ± 4.78 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, weight 99.14 ± 9.96 kg). Players wore GPS devices for the entire duration of a club game. Variables of locomotion speed and distance were measured. Differences in physical demands between playing positions were observed for all variables. An analysis of the position-specific physical demands measured by GPS provides key information regarding the level and volume of loads sustained by a player in a game environment. Using this information, sports-medicine practitioners can develop rehabilitation and return-to-running protocols specific to the player position to optimize safe return to play.

  2. Effectiveness of a 'Global Postural Reeducation' program for persistent Low Back Pain: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante Francesco S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this non-randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Global Postural Reeducation (GPR program as compared to a Stabilization Exercise (SE program in subjects with persistent low back pain (LBP at short- and mid-term follow-up (ie. 3 and 6 months. Methods According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 patients with a primary complaint of persistent LBP were enrolled in the study: 50 were allocated to the GPR group and 50 to the SE group. Primary outcome measures were Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Secondary outcome measures were lumbar Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Fingertip-to-floor test (FFT. Data were collected at baseline and at 3/6 months by health care professionals unaware of the study. An intention to treat approach was used to analyze participants according to the group to which they were originally assigned. Results Of the 100 patients initially included in the study, 78 patients completed the study: 42 in the GPR group and 36 in the SE group. At baseline, the two groups did not differ significantly with respect to gender, age, BMI and outcome measures. Comparing the differences between groups at short- and mid-term follow-up, the GPR group revealed a significant reduction (from baseline in all outcome measures with respect to the SE group. The ordered logistic regression model showed an increased likelihood of definitive improvement (reduction from baseline of at least 30% in RMDQ and VAS scores for the GPR group compared to the SE group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 5.7. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a GPR intervention in subjects with persistent LBP induces a greater improvement on pain and disability as compared to a SE program. These results must be confirmed by further studies with higher methodological standards, including randomization, larger sample size, longer follow-up and subgrouping of the LBP subjects. Trial

  3. Introduction to a Special Issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods: Building global resource programs to support HIV/AIDS clinical trial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana M; Denny, Thomas N; O'Gorman, Maurice

    2014-07-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods includes 16 manuscripts describing quality assurance activities related to virologic and immunologic monitoring of six global laboratory resource programs that support international HIV/AIDS clinical trial studies: Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD); Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL); HIV Vaccine Trial Network (HVTN); International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI); and Immunology Quality Assessment (IQA). The reports from these programs address the many components required to develop comprehensive quality control activities and subsequent quality assurance programs for immune monitoring in global clinical trials including: all aspects of processing, storing, and quality assessment of PBMC preparations used ubiquitously in HIV clinical trials, the development and optimization of assays for CD8 HIV responses and HIV neutralization, a comprehensive global HIV virus repository, and reports on the development and execution of novel external proficiency testing programs for immunophenotyping, intracellular cytokine staining, ELISPOT and luminex based cytokine measurements. In addition, there are articles describing the implementation of Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP) in a large quality assurance laboratory, the development of statistical methods specific for external proficiency testing assessment, a discussion on the ability to set objective thresholds for measuring rare events by flow cytometry, and finally, a manuscript which addresses a framework for the structured reporting of T cell immune function based assays. It is anticipated that this series of manuscripts covering a wide range of quality assurance activities associated with the conduct of global clinical trials will provide a resource for individuals and programs involved in improving the harmonization, standardization, accuracy, and sensitivity of

  4. Can Skateboarding Save the Planet? A Curricular Unit on Global Climate Change Developed Through the NASA LIFT-OFF Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, L. E.; Burrell, S.; Chidester, C.; Metzger, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    The inclusion of global climate change education in California public high schools is constrained by several factors, including the planning time needed to effectively correlate state content standards to the multidisciplinary science of climate change, the lack of time in the curriculum, and budget constraints that limit resources for teachers. Recent efforts by the NASA LIFT-OFF program to support classroom teachers in the development of inquiry-based curricular materials have helped to alleviate many of these burdens. NASA LIFT-OFF is funded by a grant to the Alameda County Office of Education and involves a partnership between the Alameda, Santa Clara, and Los Angeles county offices of education and science faculty at California State University (CSU) East Bay, San Jose State University (SJSU), and Cal Poly Pomona. LIFT-OFF goals are to improve high school science teachers’ content knowledge through interactions with scientists from the CSU campuses, NASA, and the SETI Institute and to enhance their ability to plan and implement high-quality science inquiry in their classrooms. LIFT-OFF teachers at the three CSU campuses are developing instructional cases that use NASA resources and research-based pedagogical practices to explore engaging real-world questions. We participated in SJSU’s 2010 LIFT-OFF summer institute and worked as a team to develop a 12-day unit for high school students that focuses on the science behind global climate change. In addition to delivering science content, the unit engages students in critical thinking and evaluation. Students generate, access and interpret data, and use the knowledge gained to make small lifestyle changes that aid in the reduction of their greenhouse gas emissions. Not only does this unit of study empower students to make science-based decisions, it also incorporates diverse learning strategies, such as the use of visuals aids, language acquisition techniques to improve literacy, formative assessments and daily

  5. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  6. Management training in global health education: a Health Innovation Fellowship training program to bring healthcare to low-income communities in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Andrea M; Pearson, Andy A; Bertelsen, Nathan S

    2018-01-01

    Interprofessional education is increasingly recognized as essential for health education worldwide. Although effective management, innovation, and entrepreneurship are necessary to improve health systems, business schools have been underrepresented in global health education. Central America needs more health professionals trained in health management and innovation to respond to health disparities, especially in rural communities. This paper explores the impact of the Health Innovation Fellowship (HIF), a new training program for practicing health professionals offered jointly by the Central American Healthcare Initiative and INCAE Business School, Costa Rica. Launched in 2014, HIF's goal is to create a network of highly trained interdisciplinary health professionals in competencies to improve health of Central American communities through better health management. The program's fellows carried out innovative healthcare projects in their local regions. The first three annual cohorts (total of 43 fellows) represented all health-related professions and sectors (private, public, and civil society) from six Central American countries. All fellows attended four 1-week, on-site modular training sessions, received ongoing mentorship, and stayed connected through formal and informal networks and webinars through which they exchange knowledge and support each other. CAHI stakeholders supported HIF financially. Impact evaluation of the three-year pilot training program is positive: fellows improved their health management skills and more than 50% of the projects found either financial or political support for their implementation. HIF's strengths include that both program leaders and trainees come from the Global South, and that HIF offers a platform to collaborate with partners in the Global North. By focusing on promoting innovation and management at a top business school in the region, HIF constitutes a novel capacity-building effort within global health education. HIF

  7. Utilizing Team Debate to Increase Student Abilities for Mentoring and Critical Appraisal of Global Health Care in Doctor of Nursing Practice Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Naomi; Farnum, Karen; Beauchesne, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Although graduates of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs are expected to demonstrate competence in advanced clinical scholarship, mentoring, and leadership, little is published about how team debate on a global health care topic supports DNP student learning and skill development. This article reports on an illuminative evaluation of DNP student learning experiences of team debate in the context of a 2-week international school program in Ireland. A focused illuminative evaluation approach involving a cohort of seven DNP students, who had participated in an international school team debate, was used. Data were collected using a Web-based qualitative questionnaire designed to elicit in-depth reflective accounts of DNP students' learning experiences. Content analysis revealed that team debate on a global health care topic enhanced learning in relation to fostering critical thinking and critical appraisal skills; encouraging teamwork; providing opportunities for mentoring, relationship building, and socialization into profession; and, from the DNP student perspective, increasing knowledge and global understanding of health care. This evaluation provides insights for nurse educators into the benefits of introducing team debate as a group activity to enhancing scholarly inquiry and mentoring skills of DNP students. Further research to evaluate team debate in other nurse education programs is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global Health Values of a Multidirectional Near Peer Training Program in Surgery, Pathology, Anatomy, Research Methodology, and Medical Education for Haitian, Rwandan, and Canadian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elharram, Malik; Dinh, Trish; Lalande, Annie; Ge, Susan; Gao, Sophie; Noël, Geoffroy

    As health care delivery increasingly requires providers to cross international borders, medical students at McGill University, Canada, developed a multidirectional exchange program with Haiti and Rwanda. The program integrates surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education. The aim of the present study was to explore the global health value of this international training program to improve medical education within the environment of developing countries, such as Haiti and Rwanda, while improving sociocultural learning of Canadian students. Students from the University of Kigali, Rwanda and Université Quisqueya, Haiti, participated in a 3-week program at McGill University. The students spanned from the first to sixth year of their respective medical training. The program consisted of anatomy dissections, surgical simulations, clinical pathology shadowing, and interactive sessions in research methodology and medical education. To evaluate the program, a survey was administered to students using a mixed methodology approach. Common benefits pointed out by the participants included personal and professional growth. The exchange improved career development, sense of responsibility toward one's own community, teaching skills, and sociocultural awareness. The participants all agreed that the anatomy dissections improved their knowledge of anatomy and would make them more comfortable teaching the material when the returned to their university. The clinical simulation activities and shadowing experiences allowed them to integrate the different disciplines. However, the students all felt the research component had too little time devoted to it and that the knowledge presented was beyond their educational level. The development of an integrated international program in surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education provided medical students with an opportunity to learn about differences in health care and medical education

  9. Understanding Global Change (UGC) as a Unifying Conceptual Framework for Teaching Ecology: Using UGC in a High School Biology Program to Integrate Earth Science and Biology, and to Demonstrate the Value of Modeling Global Systems in Promoting Conceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Global change science is ideal for NGSS-informed teaching, but presents a serious challenge to K-12 educators because it is complex and interdisciplinary- combining earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Global systems are themselves complex. Adding anthropogenic influences on those systems creates a formidable list of topics - greenhouse effect, climate change, nitrogen enrichment, introduced species, land-use change among them - which are often presented as a disconnected "laundry list" of "facts." This complexity, combined with public and mass-media scientific illiteracy, leaves global change science vulnerable to misrepresentation and politicization, creating additional challenges to teachers in public schools. Ample stand-alone, one-off, online resources, many of them excellent, are (to date) underutilized by teachers in the high school science course taken by most students: biology. The Understanding Global Change project (UGC) from the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology has created a conceptual framework that organizes, connects, and explains global systems, human and non-human drivers of change in those systems, and measurable changes in those systems. This organization and framework employ core ideas, crosscutting concepts, structure/function relationships, and system models in a unique format that facilitates authentic understanding, rather than memorization. This system serves as an organizing framework for the entire ecology unit of a forthcoming mainstream high school biology program. The UGC system model is introduced up front with its core informational graphic. The model is elaborated, step by step, by adding concepts and processes as they are introduced and explained in each chapter. The informational graphic is thus used in several ways: to organize material as it is presented, to summarize topics in each chapter and put them in perspective, and for review and critical thinking exercises that supplement the usual end-of-chapter lists of

  10. The efficacy of psycho-educational group program on medication adherence and global functioning of patients with bipolar disorder type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahredar, Mohammad Jafar; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Birashk, Behrooz

    2014-01-01

    Psycho-education is now considered as part of the integrated treatment for bipolar disorder. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of group psycho-education on medication adherence and global functioning of patients with bipolar disorder type I. 45 patients with bipolar disorder type I were allocated one of the three groups of psycho-education plus pharmacotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo plus pharmacotherapy. A psycho-educational program was conducted for the psycho-educational group during 9 weekly sessions. Medication adherence and global functioning of all the three groups were evaluated before the intervention, three months and six months after the intervention using Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). ANOVA was performed to examine the data. In the first and second assessments, the mean score of medication adherence and gobal functioning for patients in the psycho-educational group was significantly higher than that in the control and placebo groups (P=0.001). Medication adherence score of the psycho-educational group was increased from 6.27(0.88) to 7.92(1.38). while the mean score of the psycho-educational group increased from 56.6 (3.58) to 64.17 (2.12):, the global functioning reduced from 56.27(3.17) to 54.17(5.08) in the control group and from 56.67 (3.58) to 56 (4.36) in the placebo group. Psycho-educational program plus pharmacotherapy was effective in improvement medication adherence and global functioning of bipolar patients.

  11. The role of zonally asymmetric heating in the vertical and temporal structure of the global scale flow fields during FGGE SOP-1. [First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE); Special Observing Period (SOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paegle, J.; Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Baker, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    By examining the vertical structure of the low order spherical harmonics of the divergence and vorticity fields, the relative contribution of tropical and monsoonal circulations upon the global wind fields was estimated. This indicates that the overall flow over North America and the Pacific between January and February is quite distinct both in the lower and upper troposphere. In these longitudes there is a stronger tropical overturning and subtropical jet stream in January than February. The divergent flow reversed between 850 and 200 mb. Poleward rotational flow at upper levels is associated with an equatorward rotational flow at low levels. This suggests that the monsoon and other tropical circulations project more amplitude upon low order (global scale) representations of the flow than do the typical midlatitude circulations and that their structures show conspicuous changes on a time scale of a week or less.

  12. Designing global collective action in population and HIV/AIDS programs, 1983-2002: has anything changed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo established goals for the expansion of assistance in matters of reproductive health and HIV/AIDS. This global effort marked a structural break in principle from the past, but did it also change funding behavior? Panel

  13. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Global health leadership training in resource-limited settings: a collaborative approach by academic institutions and local health care programs in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanjako, Damalie; Namagala, Elizabeth; Semeere, Aggrey; Kigozi, Joanitor; Sempa, Joseph; Ddamulira, John Bosco; Katamba, Achilles; Biraro, Sam; Naikoba, Sarah; Mashalla, Yohana; Farquhar, Carey; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2015-11-18

    Due to a limited health workforce, many health care providers in Africa must take on health leadership roles with minimal formal training in leadership. Hence, the need to equip health care providers with practical skills required to lead high-impact health care programs. In Uganda, the Afya Bora Global Health Leadership Fellowship is implemented through the Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) and her partner institutions. Lessons learned from the program, presented in this paper, may guide development of in-service training opportunities to enhance leadership skills of health workers in resource-limited settings. The Afya Bora Consortium, a consortium of four African and four U.S. academic institutions, offers 1-year global health leadership-training opportunities for nurses and doctors. Applications are received and vetted internationally by members of the consortium institutions in Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and the USA. Fellows have 3 months of didactic modules and 9 months of mentored field attachment with 80% time dedicated to fellowship activities. Fellows' projects and experiences, documented during weekly mentor-fellow meetings and monthly mentoring team meetings, were compiled and analyzed manually using pre-determined themes to assess the effect of the program on fellows' daily leadership opportunities. Between January 2011 and January 2015, 15 Ugandan fellows (nine doctors and six nurses) participated in the program. Each fellow received 8 weeks of didactic modules held at one of the African partner institutions and three online modules to enhance fellows' foundation in leadership, communication, monitoring and evaluation, health informatics, research methodology, grant writing, implementation science, and responsible conduct of research. In addition, fellows embarked on innovative projects that covered a wide spectrum of global health challenges including critical analysis of policy formulation and review processes

  15. WWW Case Study Program To Enhance Thinking, Critically and Globally: The Impact of NAFTA on the Apparel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Diane K.; Eckman, Molly

    1999-01-01

    An interactive Web program was developed to present a case study on textile/apparel products for a family and consumer sciences course. Students found the case studies relevant and stimulating for complex thinking. (SK)

  16. Adoption of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria, a preliminary analysis of the Global Fund program data, 2005 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkou Zhao

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up required to follow the Guidelines suggests that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs will be a large component. This study analyzes the adoption of rapid diagnostic testing in malaria programs supported by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund, the leading international funder of malaria control globally.We analyzed, for the period 2005 to 2010, Global Fund programmatic data for 81 countries on the quantity of RDTs planned; actual quantities of RDTs and artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs procured in 2009 and 2010; RDT-related activities including RDTs distributed, RDTs used, total diagnostic tests including RDTs and microscopy performed, health facilities equipped with RDTs; personnel trained to perform rapid diagnostic malaria test; and grant budgets allocated to malaria diagnosis. In 2010, diagnosis accounted for 5.2% of malaria grant budget. From 2005 to 2010, the procurement plans include148 million RDTs through 96 malaria grants in 81 countries. Around 115 million parasitological tests, including RDTs, had reportedly been performed from 2005 to 2010. Over this period, 123,132 health facilities were equipped with RDTs and 137,140 health personnel had been trained to perform RDT examinations. In 2009 and 2010, 41 million RDTs and 136 million ACTs were purchased. The ratio of procured RDTs to ACTs was 0.26 in 2009 and 0.34 in 2010.Global Fund financing has enabled 81 malaria-endemic countries to adopt WHO guidelines by investing in RDTs for malaria diagnosis, thereby helping improve case management of acute febrile illness in children. However, roll-out of parasitological diagnosis lags behind the roll-out of ACT-based treatment, and will

  17. International Impacts of Global Climate Change: Testimony to House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, W.; Cushman, R. M.; Marland, G.; Rayner, S.

    1989-02-21

    International impacts of global climate change are those for which the important consequences arise because of national sovereignty. Such impacts could be of two types: (1) migrations across national borders of people, of resources (such as agricultural productivity, or surface water, or natural ecosystems), of effluents, or of patterns of commerce; and (2) changes to the way nations use and manage their resources, particularly fossil fuels and forests, as a consequence of international concern over the global climate. Actions by a few resource-dominant nations may affect the fate of all. These two types of international impacts raise complex equity issues because one nation may perceive itself as gaining at the expense of its neighbors, or it may perceive itself as a victim of the actions of others.

  18. Impact assessment on the performance of e-learning in corporate training programs in the context of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gavril Roxana Maria; Kiehne Jan; Hell Christian Richard; Kirschner Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify the main criteria based on which e-Learning is used in organizational development with positive impact on business performance. Globalization has led to a multitude of changing markets, including learning and education. While quality production systems are implemented based on imposed standards, the business knowledge of employees varies in each country, mirroring the education system provided locally. The results are individually different knowledge gaps...

  19. Study on a program for support of women nuclear experts exchange and mutual utilization between WANO Korea and WANO Global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haecho; No, Inyoung; Min, Byungju

    2010-12-01

    - Nuclear energy, unlike other international human and material essential to mutual understanding, exchange of information and technology-intensive industries as required by an active technical cooperation and information exchange between countries is very important - WiN-Global Women's Domestic Nuclear specialists and professionals between countries belonging to the network for women through nuclear technology and nuclear power expansion opportunities to exchange information to secure a variety of communication

  20. No Nation Is Home Alone: Understanding The International Dimension Of Homeland Security Through Global Transportation Security Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    global economy have produced security gaps susceptible to exploitation. Transportation infrastructure , such as air and seaports, can be the target...15 Karen DeYoung, “New Issue of Jihadist Magazine Produced by Al-Qaeda in Yemen Suggests Attacks on U.S.,” Washington Post, December 24, 2014. http...is a complex system of people, things, and infrastructure that cross national boundaries; security policies must continue to be implemented to

  1. Rapid Globalization of Medical Device Clinical Development Programs in Japan - The Case of Drug-Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Madoka; Suzuki, Yuka; Tominaga, Toshiyoshi

    2018-02-23

    Delays in the introduction to the Japanese market of drug-eluting stents (DES) developed overseas (i.e., "device lag") decreased sharply between 2004 and 2012. The reduction accompanied a shift in clinical development from a succession pattern (initial product development and approval overseas followed by eventual entrance into the Japanese market) to parallel development (employing multiregional clinical trials (MRCTs)). Although resource-intensive in the short-term, MRCTs are proving to be an effective tool in simultaneous global product development. Creative study designs and the absence of significant ethnic differences in Japanese subjects regarding DES safety and efficacy and the pharmacokinetic behavior of their coating drugs propel this process. More general factors such as medical need and industry incentivization also encourage this shift. Physicians' preference for DES over other percutaneous coronary interventions, the expanding global DES market, and streamlined development and approval prospects each motivate industry to continue investing in DES product development. The efforts of various stakeholders were also integral to overcoming practical obstacles, and contributions by 'Harmonization by Doing' and a premarket collaboration initiative between the USA and Japan were particularly effective. Today, USA/Japan regulatory cooperation is routine, and Japan is now integrated into global medical device development. MRCTs including Japanese subjects, sites, and investigators are now commonplace.

  2. Internet access is NOT restricted globally to high income countries: so why are evidenced based prevention and treatment programs for mental disorders so rare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sarah E; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-08-01

    Mental disorders are widespread and universal. They are frequently accompanied by considerable harmful consequences for the individual and come at a significant economic cost to a community. Yet while effective evidence based prevention and treatment exists, there are a number of barriers to access, implement and disseminate. Cognitive behavior therapy programs, such as those available at www.thiswayup.com.au are widely available using the Internet in high income countries, such as Australia. With the ubiquitous uptake of Internet users globally, it is suggested that low and middle income countries should consider ways to embrace and scale up these cost effective programs. An explanation of why and some suggestions as to how this can be done are presented. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Department of Defense Global, Laboratory-Based Influenza Surveillance Program: Technical Report on Program Methods for the 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    PNL (EPI)” in AHLTA/CHCS, where available To request col lection kits, use the current ve rsion of the “Supply Orde r Form ” avai lable (under...Influenza Surveillance Program Sentinel Sites • Order the “RESPIRATORY CULTURE PNL (EPI)” in AHLTA/CHCS, where available • Submit 6-10 specimens

  4. Global solutions of restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory from semidefinite programming with applications to strongly correlated quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Srikant; Mazziotti, David A

    2014-03-28

    We present a density matrix approach for computing global solutions of restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory, based on semidefinite programming (SDP), that gives upper and lower bounds on the Hartree-Fock energy of quantum systems. While wave function approaches to Hartree-Fock theory yield an upper bound to the Hartree-Fock energy, we derive a semidefinite relaxation of Hartree-Fock theory that yields a rigorous lower bound on the Hartree-Fock energy. We also develop an upper-bound algorithm in which Hartree-Fock theory is cast as a SDP with a nonconvex constraint on the rank of the matrix variable. Equality of the upper- and lower-bound energies guarantees that the computed solution is the globally optimal solution of Hartree-Fock theory. The work extends a previously presented method for closed-shell systems [S. Veeraraghavan and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 89, 010502-R (2014)]. For strongly correlated systems the SDP approach provides an alternative to the locally optimized Hartree-Fock energies and densities with a certificate of global optimality. Applications are made to the potential energy curves of C2, CN, Cr2, and NO2.

  5. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute's education and public outreach program: Working toward a global 21st century space exploration society

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy P.

    2011-05-01

    Space Exploration educators worldwide are confronting challenges and embracing opportunities to prepare students for the global 21st century workforce. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a NASA competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is advancing the Institute's mission by responding to global educational challenges through activities that: provide teacher professional development; develop curricula that teach students to communicate with their peers across the globe; provide women and minority US populations with greater access to, and awareness of science careers; and promote international science education partnerships. A recent National Research Council (NRC) Space Studies Board Report, America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Program with National Needs, acknowledges that "a capable workforce for the 21st century is a key strategic objective for the US space program… (and that) US problems requiring best efforts to understand and resolve…are global in nature and must be addressed through mutual worldwide action". [1] This sentiment has gained new momentum through a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report, which recommends that the life of the International Space Station be extended beyond the planned 2016 termination. [2] The two principles of globalization and ISS utility have elevated NSBRI EPOP efforts to design and disseminate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) educational materials that prepare students for full participation in a globalized, high technology society; promote and provide teacher professional development; create research opportunities for women and underserved populations; and build international educational partnerships. This paper describes select EPOP projects and makes the case for using innovative, emerging information

  6. [[The global significance of the Cairo conference: the new program of action of the International Conference on Population and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoh, M

    1994-10-01

    "The [1994] International Conference on Population and Development was held in Cairo, Egypt.... In this essay I briefly described global population trends and [their] economic and ecological implications, stated the temporal progress from arguments in the three Preparatory Committees toward the achievement of consensus at the end of the Cairo Conference, summarized and commented [on] each chapter of the Programme of Action, clarified the major characteristics of the Cairo document compared to the documents in Bucharest and Mexico City, and finally discussed the effectiveness of the strategy suggested in the Cairo document for addressing population and development issues in the context of sustainability." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  7. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  8. In Their Own Words: Assessing Global Citizenship in a Short-Term Study-Abroad Program in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giacomo; Hashim, S. Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    The article examines whether short-term study-abroad (STSA) experiences can cultivate the cultural understandings and ethical commitments entailed by a cosmopolitan civic education. We examine students' critical reflections on their participation in a two-week study-abroad program titled "Climate Change and Sustainable Development in…

  9. Developing Cross-Cultural Awareness through Foreign Immersion Programs: Implications of University Study Abroad Research for Global Competency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokkesmoe, Karen J.; Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficacy of foreign immersion programs in terms of increasing cross-cultural awareness among university students in business, accounting, human resources and agriculture. The authors extrapolate from their population to the practice of developing business professionals on international…

  10. Global results of the participation of ARN Argentina in the quality assessment program, EML-DOE since 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo E.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.; Fernandez, Jorge A.; Gavini, Ricardo M.; Grinman, Ana. D. R.; Lewis, Esther C.; Palacios, Miguel A.; Bonino, Nestor O.; Diodati, Jorge M.; Medici, Marcela A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report, the results obtained by the laboratories of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in measurements of alpha, beta and gamma emitters in four types of matrix are presented, in the frame of the Quality Assessment Program organized for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the United States of America corresponding to 19 exercises of the period 1995-2004. (author) [es

  11. The Impact of Vietnam's Globalization on National Education Policies and Teacher Training Programs for Teachers of English as an International Language: A Case Study of the University of Pedagogy in Ho Chi Minh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tri Ly

    2011-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Vietnam's globalization on national language education policies and teacher training programs for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Specifically, this research explored the extent to which the new policies for English language training programs adopted by the…

  12. Zoos through the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A Global Metapopulation Approach to Support Conservation Breeding Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Dalia A.; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K.; Jones, Owen R.

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threate...

  13. Mars Global Surveyor Data Analysis Program. Origins of Small Volcanic Cones: Eruption Mechanisms and Implications for Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagents, Sarah A.; Greeley, Ronald; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to determine the origins of small volcanic cones observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, and their implications for regolith ice stores and magma volatile contents. For this 1-year study, our approach involved a combination of: Quantitative morphologic analysis and interpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data; Numerical modeling of eruption processes responsible for producing the observed features; Fieldwork on terrestrial analogs in Iceland. Following this approach, this study succeeded in furthering our understanding of (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of near-surface water ice, as defined by the distribution and sizes of rootless volcanic cones ("pseudocraters"), and (ii) the properties, eruption conditions, and volatile contents of magmas producing primary vent cones.

  14. Information technology implementing globalization on strategies for quality care provided to children submitted to cardiac surgery: International Quality Improvement Collaborative Program--IQIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Batigalia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases are the world's most common major birth defect, affecting one in every 120 children. Ninety percent of these children are born in areas where appropriate medical care is inadequate or unavailable. To share knowledge and experience between an international center of excellence in pediatric cardiac surgery and a related program in Brazil. The strategy used by the program was based on long-term technological and educational support models used in that center, contributing to the creation and implementation of new programs. The Telemedicine platform was used for real-time monthly broadcast of themes. A chat software was used for interaction between participating members and the group from the center of excellence. Professionals specialized in care provided to the mentioned population had the opportunity to share to the knowledge conveyed. It was possible to observe that the technological resources that implement the globalization of human knowledge were effective in the dissemination and improvement of the team regarding the care provided to children with congenital heart diseases.

  15. English Education for Engineers in the World of Globalization : A Report of an Undergraduate and Graduate English Program with an Emphasis on Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Nobuko

    In an increasingly globalized world, demand for engineers well versed in English remains strong. As a professor of English in the Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering at the Kyushu Institute of Technology, I have sought with the aid of two associate professors to improve the English program for our engineering students together to help meet that very demand. In order to assist other English teachers in similar situations to improve their own English programs, I would like to report on the ideas and methods presently used in our undergraduate English program, specifically the first-year compulsory and common course with its emphasis on paragraph writing which students from each of the five departments within the Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering are required to take. In addition, I would also like to report my ideas and teaching methods for a graduate research paper writing course. The objective of this course is to teach graduate students how to write presentations for conferences and papers for journals at the international level.

  16. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  17. Global Empowerment of Women in the Water Sector: A Mentoring Program through the Women-Water Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Craver, V.

    2017-12-01

    According to a UNESCO report, women are underrepresented as world's researchers. Similarly, NSF recently reported that women hold less than one-fourth of senior faculty positions in academic institutions and research centers. These numbers are more staggering in countries outside of the U.S. For example, at the Jordan University of Science and Technology in the Middle East (Irbid, Jordan), only 4.6% of tenured positions in the faculty of engineering are women, with no female full professor appointments as of 2015. To address these issues, the Women-Water Nexus (WWN), part of the ASCE Environmental and Water Resources Institute, works to develop an international support network for water treatment and resources women scientists and engineers. We mainly focus on educational and professional development activities in order to increase the representation of women in leadership positions in academia, government, and private organizations. Here, we want to present and recruit mentors for our initiative called "Untapping the Power of Women in Water". The program will specifically be designed to support women in participating and preparing for professional international conferences. Any female researchers, scientists and engineers from the U.S., Turkey, Afghanistan, Jordan, and Kazakhstan could apply to be a mentee in the proposed program. While priority will be given to women in early- and mid-career positions as these types of activities are most valuable for promotion, we will support women across all career levels. The mentees will receive training from WWN mentors either through online tools such as webinars, or in-person workshops at the EWRI conference in Minneapolis, MN Jun 4-7, 2018. This initiative is currently under development and is supported in five countries: The United States, Turkey, Afghanistan, Jordan, and Kazakhstan. This program will promote essential skills for women to actively participate in the discussion and decision-making process related to

  18. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF A WEATHERED TRAINING PROGRAM OF 20 WEEKS IN FINE MOTRICITY, GLOBAL MOTRICITY AND BALANCE IN OLDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique de Abreu Araújo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the motor development of active older women, the Open University The Third Aged, ESEFFEGO, Goiânia, GO, before and after the intervention of a resistance exercise program for 20 weeks. Especially the skills of fine motor skills, gross and balance. Methods: The group consisted of 60 elderly with aged 60 and 75 years. To evaluate the group was used EMTI protocol Rosa Neto (2009. Results: The overall motor fitness achieved a significant increase after the interventions, as well as all the surveyed motor skills. Conclusions: interventions were beneficial for the elderly.

  20. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Anna; Bamba, Sory I; Traore, Mamadou N; Boelaert, Marleen; Coulibaly, Youssouf; Polman, Katja; Pirard, Marjan; Van Dormael, Monique

    2010-08-17

    Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI) have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each). Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts burdening local health systems. The campaign budget

  1. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cavalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each. Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts

  2. The PRESLO study: evaluation of a global secondary low back pain prevention program for health care personnel in a hospital setting. Multicenter, randomized intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Angélique

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common low back pain represents a major public health problem in terms of its direct cost to health care and its socio-economic repercussions. Ten percent of individuals who suffer from low back pain evolve toward a chronic case and as such are responsible for 75 to 80% of the direct cost of low back pain. It is therefore imperative to highlight the predictive factors of low back pain chronification in order to lighten the economic burden of low back pain-related invalidity. Despite being particularly affected by low back pain, Hospices Civils de Lyon (HCL personnel have never been offered a specific, tailor-made treatment plan. The PRESLO study (with PRESLO referring to Secondary Low Back Pain Prevention, or in French, PREvention Secondaire de la LOmbalgie, proposed by HCL occupational health services and the Centre Médico-Chirurgical et de Réadaptation des Massues – Croix Rouge Française, is a randomized trial that aims to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of a global secondary low back pain prevention program for the low back pain sufferers among HCL hospital personnel, a population at risk for recurrence and chronification. This program, which is based on the concept of physical retraining, employs a multidisciplinary approach uniting physical activity, cognitive education about low back pain and lumbopelvic morphotype analysis. No study targeting populations at risk for low back pain chronification has as yet evaluated the efficiency of lighter secondary prevention programs. Methods/Design This study is a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial proposed to all low back pain sufferers among HCL workers, included between October 2008 and July 2011 and followed over two years. The personnel following their usual treatment (control group and those following the global prevention program in addition to their usual treatment (intervention group are compared in terms of low back pain recurrence and the

  3. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates......Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List...... that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos...

  4. Processed foods as an integral part of universal salt iodization programs: a review of global experience and analyses of Bangladesh and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Garrett, Greg S; Timmer, Arnold; Sankar, Rajan; Kar, Basanta; Rasool, Faiz; Locatelli-Rossi, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Despite the reference to salt for food processing in the original definition of universal salt iodization (USI), national USI programs often do not explicitly address food industry salt. This may affect program impact and sustainability, given the increasing consumption of processed foods in developing countries. To review experience of the use of iodized salt in the food industry globally, and analyze the market context in Bangladesh and Pakistan to test whether this experience may be applicable to inform improved national USI programming in developing countries. A review of relevant international experience was undertaken. In Bangladesh and Pakistan, local rural market surveys were carried out. In Bangladesh, structured face-to-face interviews with bakers and indepth interviews with processed food wholesalers and retailers were conducted. In Pakistan, face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with food retailers and food labels were checked. Experience from industrialized countries reveals impact resulting from the use of iodized salt in the food industry. In Bangladesh and Pakistan, bread, biscuits, and snacks containing salt are increasingly available in rural areas. In Bangladesh, the majority of bakers surveyed claimed to use iodized salt. In Pakistan, 6 of 362 unique product labels listed iodized salt. Successful experience from developed countries needs to be adapted to the developing country context. The increasing availability of processed foods in rural Bangladesh and Pakistan provides an opportunity to increase iodine intake. However, the impact of this intervention remains to be quantified. To develop better national USI programs, further data are required on processed food consumption across population groups, iodine contents of food products, and the contribution of processed foods to iodine nutrition.

  5. A binary genetic programing model for teleconnection identification between global sea surface temperature and local maximum monthly rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danandeh Mehr, Ali; Nourani, Vahid; Hrnjica, Bahrudin; Molajou, Amir

    2017-12-01

    The effectiveness of genetic programming (GP) for solving regression problems in hydrology has been recognized in recent studies. However, its capability to solve classification problems has not been sufficiently explored so far. This study develops and applies a novel classification-forecasting model, namely Binary GP (BGP), for teleconnection studies between sea surface temperature (SST) variations and maximum monthly rainfall (MMR) events. The BGP integrates certain types of data pre-processing and post-processing methods with conventional GP engine to enhance its ability to solve both regression and classification problems simultaneously. The model was trained and tested using SST series of Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Red Sea as potential predictors as well as classified MMR events at two locations in Iran as predictand. Skill of the model was measured in regard to different rainfall thresholds and SST lags and compared to that of the hybrid decision tree-association rule (DTAR) model available in the literature. The results indicated that the proposed model can identify potential teleconnection signals of surrounding seas beneficial to long-term forecasting of the occurrence of the classified MMR events.

  6. Zoos through the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A Global Metapopulation Approach to Support Conservation Breeding Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A.; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K.; Jones, Owen R.

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful. PMID:24348999

  7. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  8. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia A Conde

    Full Text Available Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23% terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  9. Teaching corner: an undergraduate medical education program comprehensively integrating global health and global health ethics as core curricula : student experiences of the medical school for international health in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichholtz, Sara; Kreniske, Jonah Susser; Morrison, Zachary; Shack, Avraham R; Dwolatzky, Tzvi

    2015-03-01

    The Medical School for International Health (MSIH) was created in 1996 by the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in affiliation with Columbia University's Health Sciences division. It is accredited by the New York State Board of Education. Students complete the first three years of the program on the Ben-Gurion University campus in Be'er-Sheva, Israel, while fourth-year electives are completed mainly in the United States (at Columbia University Medical Center and affiliates as well as other institutions) along with a two-month global health elective at one of numerous sites located around the world (including Canada, Ethiopia, India, Israel, Kenya, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, the United States, and Vietnam). The unique four-year, American-style curriculum is designed not only to prepare physicians who will be able to work at both an individual and community level but also at both of these levels anywhere in the world. In this way, it combines elements of medical and public health curricula not limited to an American perspective.

  10. DESIGNING UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM FOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS EDUCATION: A COMPARISON OF THE MIS PROGRAMS OF TURKISH UNIVERSITIES WITH THOSE OF GLOBAL UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp AKÇETİN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the global environment takes place among multinational corporations, which is directly linked to human resources and the quality of training and education they have. The competitive advantage of the businesses is associated with the excellence of human resources, which is measured by the education quality of the employees. Information systems have become an essential requirement for the businesses of today’s digital age. Therefore, with this study, curricula of 90 universities’ Management Information Systems (MIS Undergraduate Programs, 57 of which are foreign and 33 are Turkish, were compared. The study methods include data mining approaches namely random clustering and making a text mining analysis. As the number and importance of the MIS programs are rapidly increasing, it is aimed with these approaches to contribute developing a world-class curriculum model to improve the quality of education of them. On that ground, the main purpose of this study is creating a framework that defines a world-class MIS curriculum model by presenting the current situation in Turkey.

  11. Designing Undergraduate Curriculum for Management Information Systems (MIS Education: A Comparison of the MIS Programs of Turkish Universities with those of Global Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp AKÇETİN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the global environment takes place among multinational corporations, which is directly linked to human resources and the quality of training and education they have. The competitive advantage of the businesses is associated with the excellence of human resources, which is measured by the education quality of the employees. Information systems have become an essential requirement for the businesses of today’s digital age. Therefore, with this study, curricula of 90 universities’ Management Information Systems (MIS Undergraduate Programs, 57 of which are foreign and 33 are Turkish, were compared. The study methods include data mining approaches namely random clustering and making a text mining analysis. As the number and importance of the MIS programs are rapidly increasing, it is aimed with these approaches to contribute developing a world-class curriculum model to improve the quality of education of them. On that ground, the main purpose of this study is creating a framework that defines a world-class MIS curriculum model by presenting the current situation in Turkey.

  12. Short-term streamflow forecasting with global climate change implications A comparative study between genetic programming and neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkeasorn, A.; Chang, N. B.; Zhou, X.

    2008-05-01

    SummarySustainable water resources management is a critically important priority across the globe. While water scarcity limits the uses of water in many ways, floods may also result in property damages and the loss of life. To more efficiently use the limited amount of water under the changing world or to resourcefully provide adequate time for flood warning, the issues have led us to seek advanced techniques for improving streamflow forecasting on a short-term basis. This study emphasizes the inclusion of sea surface temperature (SST) in addition to the spatio-temporal rainfall distribution via the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), meteorological data via local weather stations, and historical stream data via USGS gage stations to collectively forecast discharges in a semi-arid watershed in south Texas. Two types of artificial intelligence models, including genetic programming (GP) and neural network (NN) models, were employed comparatively. Four numerical evaluators were used to evaluate the validity of a suite of forecasting models. Research findings indicate that GP-derived streamflow forecasting models were generally favored in the assessment in which both SST and meteorological data significantly improve the accuracy of forecasting. Among several scenarios, NEXRAD rainfall data were proven its most effectiveness for a 3-day forecast, and SST Gulf-to-Atlantic index shows larger impacts than the SST Gulf-to-Pacific index on the streamflow forecasts. The most forward looking GP-derived models can even perform a 30-day streamflow forecast ahead of time with an r-square of 0.84 and RMS error 5.4 in our study.

  13. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on ... countries, mainly the fast-growing economies of East Asia. ... had no significant overall impact on investment and growth. Other.

  14. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on findings from the ... Does exporting matter for the poor in South Africa? ... strategies to promote employment and higher wages in.

  15. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are ... great disparities, with earnings among urban workers with higher education being four or five times larger than those of illiterate rural.

  16. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  17. The expanding role of civil society in the global HIV/AIDS response: what has the President's Emergency Program For AIDS Relief's role been?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Alex; Roxo, Uchechi; Epino, Henry; Muganzi, Alex; Dorward, Emily; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    Civil society has been part of the HIV/AIDS response from the very beginning of the epidemic, often becoming engaged before national governments. Traditional roles of civil society--advocacy, activism, serving as government watchdog, and acting as community caretaker--have been critical to the response. In addition, civil society organizations (CSOs) play an integral part in providing world-class HIV prevention and treatment services and helping to ensure continuity of care. The President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has significantly increased the global scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy reaching for more than 5 million people in developing countries, as well as implementation of effective evidence-based combination prevention approaches. PEPFAR databases in 5 countries and annual reports from a centrally managed initiative were mined and analyzed to determine the numbers and types of CSOs funded by PEPFAR over a 5-year period (2006-2011). Data are also presented from Uganda showing the overall resource growth in CSO working for HIV. Case studies document the evolution of 3 indigenous CSOs that increased the capacity to implement activities with PEPFAR funding. A legacy of PEPFAR has been the growth of civil society to address social and health issues as well as recognition by governments that partnerships with beneficiaries and civil society result in better outcomes. Scale-up of the global response could not have happened without the involvement of civil society and people living with HIV. This game changing partnership to jointly tackle the problems that countries face may well be the greatest benefit emerging from the HIV epidemic.

  18. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  19. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  20. Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy Research for a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus by Using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles greatly. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB, this paper searched the global optimal energy management strategy using dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Firstly, the simplified backward model of the PHEB was built which is necessary for DP algorithm. Then the torque and speed of engine and the torque of motor were selected as the control variables, and the battery state of charge (SOC was selected as the state variables. The DP solution procedure was listed, and the way was presented to find all possible control variables at every state of each stage in detail. Finally, the appropriate SOC increment is determined after quantizing the state variables, and then the optimal control of long driving distance of a specific driving cycle is replaced with the optimal control of one driving cycle, which reduces the computational time significantly and keeps the precision at the same time. The simulation results show that the fuel economy of the PEHB with the optimal energy management strategy is improved by 53.7% compared with that of the conventional bus, which can be a benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies.

  1. EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

    2000-08-01

    Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

  2. Does a web-based feedback training program result in improved reliability in clinicians' ratings of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støre-Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Pedersen, Geir A F; Pripp, Are H; Jose, Paul E; Karterud, Sigmund

    2015-09-01

    The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale is used in routine clinical practice and research to estimate symptom and functional severity and longitudinal change. Concerns about poor interrater reliability have been raised, and the present study evaluated the effect of a Web-based GAF training program designed to improve interrater reliability in routine clinical practice. Clinicians rated up to 20 vignettes online, and received deviation scores as immediate feedback (i.e., own scores compared with expert raters) after each rating. Growth curves of absolute SD scores across the vignettes were modeled. A linear mixed effects model, using the clinician's deviation scores from expert raters as the dependent variable, indicated an improvement in reliability during training. Moderation by content of scale (symptoms; functioning), scale range (average; extreme), previous experience with GAF rating, profession, and postgraduate training were assessed. Training reduced deviation scores for inexperienced GAF raters, for individuals in clinical professions other than nursing and medicine, and for individuals with no postgraduate specialization. In addition, training was most beneficial for cases with average severity of symptoms compared with cases with extreme severity. The results support the use of Web-based training with feedback routines as a means to improve the reliability of GAF ratings performed by clinicians in mental health practice. These results especially pertain to clinicians in mental health practice who do not have a masters or doctoral degree. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Constructing the [Parochial] Global Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta; Halbert, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    Cultural exchange is privileged in many higher education programs across the globe. The Australian government's New Colombo Plan refers to a "Third Wave" of globalisation which foregrounds global interrelatedness through developing student capabilities to live, work and contribute to global communities and aims to make the global an…

  4. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  5. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  6. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  7. RRR for NNN-a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Chelsea E; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C; Ottesen, Eric A; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma-are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Human Rights and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: How Does a Large Funder of Basic Health Services Meet the Challenge of Rights-Based Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf; Csete, Joanne; Lim, Hyeyoung; Timberlake, Susan; Smith, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was created to greatly expand access to basic services to address the three diseases in its name. From its beginnings, its governance embodied some human rights principles: civil society is represented on its board, and the country coordination mechanisms that oversee funding requests to the Global Fund include representatives of people affected by the diseases. The Global Fund's core strategies recognize that the health services it supports would not be effective or cost-effective without efforts to reduce human rights-related barriers to access and utilization of health services, particularly those faced by socially marginalized and criminalized persons. Basic human rights elements were written into Global Fund grant agreements, and various technical support measures encouraged the inclusion in funding requests of programs to reduce human rights-related barriers. A five-year initiative to provide intensive technical and financial support for the scaling up of programs to reduce these barriers in 20 countries is ongoing.

  9. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  10. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem against Carbapenemase-Positive Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Collected by the SMART Global Surveillance Program from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Lob, Sibylle H; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Badal, Robert E; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program collected 103,960 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 2008 to 2014. From this isolate collection, all ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC, ≥1 μg/ml; n = 3,428) and 9,371 isolates of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella oxytoca , and Proteus mirabilis with an ertapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive phenotype were assessed for the presence of common carbapenemase genes using a Check-MDR CT101 microarray (Check-Points, Wageningen, the Netherlands) and published multiplex PCR assays. Testing identified 1,493 isolates that harbored a carbapenemase gene (1,485 ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates and 8 ertapenem-susceptible ESBL-positive isolates) and accounted for 1.4% (1,493/103,960) of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae The most frequently identified carbapenemase genes were the KPC ( n = 794), OXA-48-like ( n = 300), and NDM ( n = 290) genes. Carbapenemase genes were most frequently identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae ( n = 1,127), Escherichia coli ( n = 149), and Enterobacter cloacae ( n = 110). Among the carbapenemase-positive isolates, 66.7% (2/3), 37.0% (111/300), 20.0% (8/40), 3.3% (3/92), 2.3% (18/794), and 0% (0/290) of the isolates with genes for GES, OXA-48-like, IMP, VIM, KPC, and NDM, respectively, were susceptible to imipenem (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml). Isolates that tested as susceptible to imipenem were not uncommon among carbapenemase-positive isolates (9.4%, 141/1,493) and most frequently carried OXA-48-like enzymes (78.7%; 111/141); however, overall, these isolates remained rare (0.1%, 141/103,960). The practice of screening clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that test as susceptible to carbapenems in vitro for the presence of carbapenemase genes remains controversial and requires further study. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  12. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  13. Global Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  14. A global awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesnerie, R.

    2007-01-01

    Today there is no doubt of the global warming. The author presents the diagnostic of the environmental impacts of the climatic change but also the economic impacts. Illustrated by many references of scenario, he analyses then the possible actions and programs. (A.L.B.)

  15. MEASLES VIRUS IMMUNITY LEVEL STUDY IN PARTICULAR POPULATION GROUPS OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF GLOBAL MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM. REPORT 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Popova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A goal for measles elimination globally by 2010–2020 was recognized as one of the priorities in the WHO program “Health for All in the 21st Century” (1998. However measles outbreaks occurred in 2010–2016 in countries with high level of measles vaccine coverage including USA and some European countries.Large measles outbreaks were also registered on the African continent and particular in the Republic of Guinea as a result of the decline of measles vaccine coverage due to the Ebola virus epidemic in the Republic of Guinea in 2014–2015. WHO recommends carrying out the routine measles vaccination as well as the supplemental immunization activities after the stop of the Ebola virus transmission. Effectiveness of the activities is definitely connected with the detection of the epidemically significant for the supplemental immunization age groups. The aim of the study was to evaluate the measles immunity level in different age groups of population in the Republic of Guinea. Materials and methods. Twenty five blood serum samples of healthy adult Guineans aged 28–66 and 121 blood serum samples of adolescences and adults admitted to hospital in the town of Kindia (Republic of Guinea for indoor treatment were tested by ELISA. The specific measles virus antibodies were detected using the following commercial ELISA test-systems produced by Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG Company (Germany: IgM-antibodies — by “Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgM”, IgG-antibodi es — by “Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG”, IgG-avidity measles virus antibodies — by “Avidity: Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG”. A part of sera was studied by “Vector-Best IgM-measles” and “Vector-Best IgG-measles” ELISA test-systems (Russia. Results and discussion. The comparative quantitative study of the measles immunity level (i.e. IgG-antibodies titers of the healthy adult Guineans in 2015 and 2016 revealed the lack of IgGantibodies in serum

  16. Globalization and US Foreign Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amland, George

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalization is the force that in some instances is assisting US foreign policy. At the same time, other elements of globalization are eroding US desires with respect to Iranian programs in WMD...

  17. W.E.B. Du Bois and Filipino/a American Exposure Programs to the Philippines: Race Class Analysis in an Epoch of "Global Apartheid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Michael Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The article highlights the ongoing relevance of W.E.B. Du Bois for the global analysis of race and class. Engaging scholarly debates that have ensued within the educational subfields of critical race theory (CRT) and (revolutionary) critical pedagogy, the article explores how a deeper engagement with Du Bois's ideas contributes theoretically and…

  18. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  19. Developing Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  20. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  1. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  2. Global Project Management: Graduate Course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beranek, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    ..., A. James Clark School of Engineering - Project Management Program. The course slides and suggested readings provide a general exploration of the nuances of doing projects globally as compared to domestically...

  3. STRATEGI PENGORGANISASIAN LEMBAGA KESEHATAN NAHDLATUL ULAMA (LKNU DALAM PENGELOLAAN PROGRAM HIV/AIDS (Studi Kasus Pengelolaan Dana Hibah Global Fund AIDS di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Puteranto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of managing HIV/AIDS programs arises when religious social organizations run the program. Religious organizations are required to run the program effectively. However, the implementation is not easy since they have to faced the “body of knowledge” of HIV/AIDS programs. Therefore, the ability of the organization to undertake this program is crucial. Religious organizations have a role to still keep the significance of religious values, at the same time to avoid conflct with the strategies possessed in HIV programs. This study explores three issues in the Health Organization of Nahdlatul Ulama, the interaction of values and norms, efforts to establish the organization legitimacy, and the ability to perform knowledge management. Qualitative research methods is used to explore the three issues mentioned above. The study results showed that the Health Organization of Nahdlatul Ulama as a socioreligious organization is able to answer sensitive issues in HIV/AIDS programs to reduce stigma and discrimination, building of organization legitimacy and conducting of knowledge management effectively

  4. Real-Time XBT data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) since 2004-04-23

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent data collected from the Shipboard Environmental (data) Acquisition System (SEAS), a program developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  5. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. Langenau

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME and American Osteopathic Association (AOA, residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, also assess competency in several clinical domains.The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009.The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component were merged and analyzed for relationships.Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings.A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA and ACGME core competencies.

  6. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E.; Pugliano, Gina; Roberts, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Osteopathic Association (AOA), residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP) program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE), also assess competency in several clinical domains. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009. Methods The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component) were merged and analyzed for relationships. Results Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings. Discussion A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA

  7. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  8. Shadow Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  9. A generalized global alignment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiu; Chao, Kun-Mao

    2003-01-22

    Homologous sequences are sometimes similar over some regions but different over other regions. Homologous sequences have a much lower global similarity if the different regions are much longer than the similar regions. We present a generalized global alignment algorithm for comparing sequences with intermittent similarities, an ordered list of similar regions separated by different regions. A generalized global alignment model is defined to handle sequences with intermittent similarities. A dynamic programming algorithm is designed to compute an optimal general alignment in time proportional to the product of sequence lengths and in space proportional to the sum of sequence lengths. The algorithm is implemented as a computer program named GAP3 (Global Alignment Program Version 3). The generalized global alignment model is validated by experimental results produced with GAP3 on both DNA and protein sequences. The GAP3 program extends the ability of standard global alignment programs to recognize homologous sequences of lower similarity. The GAP3 program is freely available for academic use at http://bioinformatics.iastate.edu/aat/align/align.html.

  10. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  11. Malaria and Other Vector-Borne Infection Surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Program: Review of 2009 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    Vector borne infections (VBIs) such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, scrub typhus , and plague comprise a significant proportion of the global...a VBI: scrub typhus (19), murine typhus (three), Japanese encephalitis (JE) (two), primary dengue infection (12), secondary dengue infection (nine...prioritized by GSRI, half are VBIs (malaria, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya, CCHF, sandfly fever, O’nyong-nyong, Sindbis virus, scrub typhus

  12. Global Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  13. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  14. Another globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of ...

  15. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  16. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  17. Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program delivers climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, T.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will include a series of visuals that discuss how hands-on learning activities and field investigations from the the Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program deliver climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers. The GME program poster presentation will also show how teachers strengthen student preparation for Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics (STEAM)-related careers while promoting diversity in the future STEM workforce. In addition to engaging students in scientific inquiry, the GME program poster will show how career exploration and preparation experiences is accomplished through direct connection to scientists and real science practices. The poster will show which hands-on learning activities that are being implemented in more than 30,000 schools worldwide, with over a million students, teachers, and scientists collecting environmental measurements using the GLOBE scientific protocols. This poster will also include how Next Generation Science Standards connect to GME learning progressions by grade strands. The poster will present the first year of results from the implementation of the GME program. Data is currently being agrigated by the east, midwest and westen regional operations.

  18. Advancing Global Cancer Research @ AACR 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Priorities for NCI’s Center for Global Health' and included presentations on our mission, objectives, currently funded programs, and future programs given by Dr. Lisa Stevens and Paul Pearlman, as well as three special presentations by NCI grantees.

  19. Global Health in Radiation Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodin, Danielle; Yap, Mei Ling; Grover, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    programs. However, formalized training and career promotion tracks in global health within radiation oncology have been slow to emerge, thereby limiting the sustained involvement of students and faculty, and restricting opportunities for leadership in this space. We examine here potential structures...... and benefits of formalized global health training in radiation oncology. We explore how defining specific competencies in this area can help trainees and practitioners integrate their activities in global health within their existing roles as clinicians, educators, or scientists. This would also help create...... and funding models might be used to further develop and expand radiation oncology services globally....

  20. Global health: governance and policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patrick W

    2011-06-01

    Global health policy is now being influenced by an ever-increasing number of nonstate and non-intergovernmental actors to include influential foundations, multinational corporations, multi-sectoral partnerships, and civil society organizations. This article reviews how globalization is a key driver for the ongoing evolution of global health governance. It describes the massive increases in bilateral and multilateral investments in global health and it highlights the current global and US architecture for performing global health programs. The article closes describing some of the challenges and prospects that characterize global health governance today. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  2. Going Global? Internationalizing Australian Universities in a Time of Global Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the past decade's internationalization of Australian universities against a backdrop of increasing globalization, particularly the expansion of global capitalism. Examines international student flows, faculty, and programs, assessing the relative presence of internationalization (mutuality and reciprocal cultural relations) versus…

  3. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  4. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  5. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  6. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  7. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My OR EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection Patient Opioid Use New Medicare Card Project Medicare ... self-care checklist Evaluation (Complete the Ostomy Patient Survey . We need your opinion!) Program outcomes The ACS ...

  8. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, ... was among the largest in the world, at 90 percent of the entire value of ... the workforce—including young adults, women, and the elderly who are ... UN ECLAC, 2010. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90+. C o n.

  9. Another globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  10. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  11. Going global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Poirier, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the global market for independent power projects and the increased competition and strategic alliances that are occurring to take advantage of the increasing demand. The topics of the article include the amount of involvement of US companies in the global market, the forces driving the market toward independent power, markets in the United Kingdom, North America, Turkey, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, the former Eastern European countries, Asia and the Pacific nations, and niche markets

  12. Space Observations for Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, S. I.

    1991-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that man's activities are changing both the composition of the atmospheric and the global landscape quite drastically. The consequences of these changes on the global climate of the 21st century is currently a hotly debated subject. Global models of a coupled Earth-ocean-atmosphere system are still very primitive and progress in this area appears largely data limited, specially over the global biosphere. A concerted effort on monitoring biospheric functions on scales from pixels to global and days to decades needs to be coordinated on an international scale in order to address the questions related to global change. An international program of space observations and ground research was described.

  13. Dietary fat and fiber interact to uniquely modify global histone post-translational epigenetic programming in a rat colon cancer progression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triff, Karen; McLean, Mathew W; Callaway, Evelyn; Goldsby, Jennifer; Ivanov, Ivan; Chapkin, Robert S

    2018-04-16

    Dietary fermentable fiber generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), e.g., butyrate, in the colonic lumen which serves as a chemoprotective histone deacetylase inhibitor and/or as an acetylation substrate for histone acetylases. In addition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in fish oil can affect the chromatin landscape by acting as ligands for tumor suppressive nuclear receptors. In an effort to gain insight into the global dimension of post-translational modification of histones (including H3K4me3 and H3K9ac) and clarify the chemoprotective impact of dietary bioactive compounds on transcriptional control in a preclinical model of colon cancer, we generated high-resolution genome-wide RNA (RNA-Seq) and "chromatin-state" (H3K4me3-seq and H3K9ac-seq) maps for intestinal (epithelial colonocytes) crypts in rats treated with a colon carcinogen and fed diets containing bioactive (i) fish oil, (ii) fermentable fiber (a rich source of SCFA), (iii) a combination of fish oil plus pectin or (iv) control, devoid of fish oil or pectin. In general, poor correlation was observed between differentially transcribed (DE) and enriched genes (DERs) at multiple epigenetic levels. The combinatorial diet (fish oil + pectin) uniquely affected transcriptional profiles in the intestinal epithelium, e.g., upregulating lipid catabolism and beta-oxidation associated genes. These genes were linked to activated ligand-dependent nuclear receptors associated with n-3 PUFA and were also correlated with the mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle and the inhibition of lipogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the chemoprotective fish oil + pectin combination diet uniquely induces global histone state modifications linked to the expression of chemoprotective genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  14. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  15. Going global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Rasmussen, Christel

    2016-01-01

    occurred at a more micro level. This article explores this issue by studying the international activities of Danish foundations. It finds that grant-making on global issues is increasing, and that several foundations have undergone transformations in their approach to grantmaking, making them surprisingly...

  16. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  17. Global swindle of global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.

    2007-01-01

    Voor sommige mensen is het nog steeds niet aannemelijk dat we te maken hebben met de effecten van ‘Global Warming’, de opwarming van de aarde door voornamelijk de broeikasgassen die vrijkomen bij de verbranding van fossiele brandstoffen. In de media worden voor- en tegenstanders aan het woord

  18. Conceived globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    and culture which have separate effects. Being man, young, educated and having entrepreneurial competencies promote transnational networking extensively. Networking is embedded in culture, in the way that transnational networking is more extensive in secular-rational culture than in traditional culture.......A firm may be conceived global, in the sense that, before its birth, the founding entrepreneur has a transnational network of advisors which provides an embedding for organising the upstart that may include assembling resources and marketing abroad. The purpose is to account for the entrepreneurs...... the intending, starting and operating phases, fairly constantly with only small fluctuations. The firm is conceived global in terms of the entrepreneur's transnational networking already in the pre-birth phase, when the entrepreneur is intending to start the firm. These phase effects hardly depend on attributes...

  19. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  20. Program GICC, final report (March 2005), inventory of carbonaceous aerosol particles from 1860 to 2100 or which carbonaceous aerosol for a significant climatic regional/global impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachier, H.; Guinot, B.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Penner, J.; Carmichael, G.; Gadi, R.; Denier Van der Gon, H.; Gregoire, J.M.; Liousse, C.; Michel, C.; Guillaume, B.; Junker, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our program is to determine past, present and future emission inventories of carbonaceous particles from 1860 to 2100 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. Emission inventories for savannah and forest fires have been developed by using burnt area products given by satellite for Asia and Africa. The strong collaboration with the different groups attending this GICC program has allowed to develop the following results. 1- With the improvement of algorithms and new choices for emission factors, emission inventories for black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OCp) and total organic carbon (OCtot) have been constructed for the period 1950 to 1997 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. With these new development, biofuel sources have been seen to be significant, especially in the developing countries. 2- Past inventories have been developed for fossil fuel and biofuel sources from 1860 to 1997 by taking into account the evolution of fuel consumption, fuel use and emission factors. 3- Savannah and forest fire inventories have been constructed based on burnt area products, for Africa (1981-1991, 2000) and Asia (2000-2001). These results show the importance of using real time data instead of statistics. 4-Future emission inventory of black carbon by fossil fuel sources has been constructed for 2100 following the IPCC scenario A2 (catastrophic case) and B1 (perfect world). 5-Characterization of biofuel emissions has been realized by organizing an experiment in a combustion chamber where indian and chinese biofuels (fuelwood, agricultural wastes, dung-cake etc..). were burnt, reproducing the burning methods used in these countries. 6-Finally, the differences between the existing inventories of carbonaceous aerosols has been explained. (A.L.B.)

  1. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  2. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... så bliver der blændet fuldt op for linsen d. 11. september, 2001 til en global verden, hvor de demokratiske værdier ikke gælder. Lad mig blot give et eksempel: Guatanamo. Jeg skal hverken tale for eller imod den måde verden er indrettet på - da det er denne analyse uvedkommende - men blot pege på...... med væsentligt større kraft end tidligere. Før den 11. september blev globaliseringen udelukkende tegnet af jetsettet. Altså internationale politikere, kulturkoryfæer, videnskabsfolk og forretningsfolk, der har handler ud fra kendte rationaler. Men jetsettet har ikke længere den privilegeret position...

  3. Global climate feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  4. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  5. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  6. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  7. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  8. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  9. Global ambitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses global ambitions concerning the Norwegian petroleum industry. With the advent of the NORSOK (Forum for development and operation) cost reduction programme and a specific focus on key sectors of the market, the Norwegian oil industry is beginning to market its considerable technological achievements internationally. Obviously, the good fortune of having tested this technology in a very demanding domestic arena means that Norwegian offshore support companies, having succeeded at home, are perfectly poised to export their expertise to the international sector. Drawing on the traditional strengths of the country's maritime heritage, with mobile rig and specialized vessel business featuring strongly, other key technologies have been developed. 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Climate Literacy: Progress in Climate and Global Change Undergraduate Courses in Meteorology and Earth System Science Programs at Jackson State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. R.; Tuluri, F.; Fadavi, M.

    2017-12-01

    JSU Meteorology Program will be offering AMS Climate Studies undergraduate course under MET 210: Climatology in spring 2013. AMS Climate Studies is offered as a 3 credit hour laboratory course with 2 lectures and 1 lab sessions per week. Although this course places strong intellectual demands upon each student, the instructors' objective is to help each student to pass the course with an adequate understanding of the fundamentals and advanced and advanced courses. AMS Climate Studies is an introductory college-level course developed by the American Meteorological Society for implementation at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The course places students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate Earth's climate system using real-world environmental data. The AMS Climate Studies course package consists of a textbook, investigations manual, course website, and course management system-compatible files. Instructors can use these resources in combinations that make for an exciting learning experience for their students. This is a content course in Earth Science. It introduces a new concept that views Earth as a synergistic physical system applied concepts of climatology, for him/her to understand basic atmospheric/climate processes, physical and dynamical climatology, regional climatology, past and future climates and statistical analysis using climate data and to be prepared to profit from studying more of interrelated phenomenon governed by complex processes involving the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere, and the solid Earth. The course emphasizes that the events that shape the physical, chemical, and biological processes of the Earth do not occur in isolation. Rather, there is a delicate relationship between the events that occur in the ocean, atmosphere, and the solid Earth. The course provides a multidimensional approach in solving scientific issues related to Earth-related sciences,

  11. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake Necesidad de programas coordinados para mejorar la salud a escala mundial mediante la optimización de la ingesta de sal y yodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norm R. C. Campbell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs.El alto contenido de sal en la dieta es una causa principal de incremento de la presión arterial, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte a escala mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS ha recomendado que el consumo de sal sea inferior a 5 g/d, una meta que solo logran una pequeña proporción de personas. La falta de yodo puede causar deficiencia cognoscitiva y

  12. The SPYRAL HTN Global Clinical Trial Program: Rationale and design for studies of renal denervation in the absence (SPYRAL HTN OFF-MED) and presence (SPYRAL HTN ON-MED) of antihypertensive medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandzari, David E; Kario, Kazuomi; Mahfoud, Felix; Cohen, Sidney A; Pilcher, Garrett; Pocock, Stuart; Townsend, Raymond; Weber, Michael A; Böhm, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Renal sympathetic activation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, as demonstrated by high renal norepinephrine spillover into plasma of patients with essential hypertension. Renal denervation has demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure in unblinded studies of hypertensive patients. The SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, the first prospective, masked, randomized study of renal denervation versus sham control, failed its primary efficacy end point and raised important questions around potentially confounding factors, such as drug changes and adherence, study population, and procedural methods. The SPYRAL HTN Global Clinical Trial Program is designed to address limitations associated with predicate studies and provide insight into the impact of pharmacotherapy on renal denervation efficacy. The 2 initial trials of the program focus on the effect of renal denervation using the Symplicity Spyral multielectrode renal denervation catheter in hypertensive patients in the absence (SPYRAL HTN OFF-MED) and presence (SPYRAL HTN ON-MED) of antihypertensive medications. The SPYRAL HTN ON-MED study requires patients to be treated with a consistent triple therapy antihypertensive regimen, whereas the SPYRAL HTN OFF-MED study includes a 3- to 4-week drug washout period followed by a 3-month efficacy and safety end point in the absence of antihypertensive medications. The studies will randomize patients with combined systolic-diastolic hypertension to renal denervation or sham procedure. Both studies allow renal denervation treatments in renal artery branches and accessories. These studies will inform the design of the second pivotal phase of the program, which will more definitively analyze the antihypertensive effect of renal denervation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Big Data Knowledge in Global Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, Olaniyi; Kekeh, Michele; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    The ability to synthesize and analyze massive amounts of data is critical to the success of organizations, including those that involve global health. As countries become highly interconnected, increasing the risk for pandemics and outbreaks, the demand for big data is likely to increase. This requires a global health workforce that is trained in the effective use of big data. To assess implementation of big data training in global health, we conducted a pilot survey of members of the Consortium of Universities of Global Health. More than half the respondents did not have a big data training program at their institution. Additionally, the majority agreed that big data training programs will improve global health deliverables, among other favorable outcomes. Given the observed gap and benefits, global health educators may consider investing in big data training for students seeking a career in global health. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Global health and global health ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benatar, S. R; Brock, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    ...? What are our responsibilities and how can we improve global health? Global Health and Global Health Ethics addresses these questions from the perspective of a range of disciplines, including medicine, philosophy and the social sciences...

  15. Global teaching of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  16. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure......This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  17. Global Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  18. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  19. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  20. Global gamesmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  1. Face to Faith: Teaching Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The Tony Blair Faith Foundation has created a program that enables students to learn directly with, from, and about one another's culture, religion and beliefs. Face to Faith is a state-of-the-art educational program that addresses cross-cultural and inter-religious understanding in the context of study about global issues. The program uses…

  2. Global Social Entrepreneurship Competitions: Incubators for Innovations in Global Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Karin; Petrillo, Carl; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Glassman, Debra; Rush, Jessica; Wasserheit, Judith

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of organizations have launched social entrepreneurship competitions to help students develop the knowledge and skills to create sustainable solutions to the intertwined challenges of health and development. We conducted a program evaluation of the first 9 years of the Global Social Entrepreneurship Competition (GSEC) at the…

  3. Global change and Canadians: A teacher's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A report called Global Change and Canadians has been produced by the Royal Society of Canada to answer basic questions being asked about global change issues. A teacher's guide is presented to help teachers make effective use of the report in developing programs with students concerning global change. A basic set of teaching and learning activities related to the major topics in the report is provided, curricular connections between global change topics and school programs are suggested, and some additional resources on global change are listed. The guide is divided into six chapters, each corresponding to the chapters of the global change report. Each chapter contains a summary of the major concepts from the report, some of the learning outcomes that occur when those concepts are addressed, a series of suggested activities or ideas, and a guide for assessing students' abilities relative to the concepts of the chapter. The topics of the chapters cover the nature of global change, the importance of global change to Canada, the causes of global change, the consequences of global change (including climate change and the greenhouse effect), the effects of global change on society, and Canadian responses to global change. 64 refs., 3 figs

  4. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative-Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ent, Maya M V X; Swift, Rachel D; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L

    2017-07-01

    The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, "GPEI-funded personnel") should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%-61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non-polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel perform critical tasks in the strengthening of routine

  5. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative–Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Rachel D.; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, “GPEI-funded personnel”) should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. Methods. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. Results. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%–61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non–polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. Conclusion. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel

  6. An exploration of two perspectives on global leadership and the potential consequences for global leadership development

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Rune; Espedal, Bjarne; Jordahl, Atle

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores two logics of global leadership; the logic of instrumentality and the logic of appropriateness. These two logics and their relation to multinational enterprises are traced in organizational theory and in global leadership theory and the consequences of the two logics for the design of global leadership development programs are explored. It is argued that applying a logic of instrumentality uncritically to global leadership in multinational enterprises is potentially fraught...

  7. Global alignment algorithms implementations | Fatumo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we implemented the two routes for sequence comparison, that is; the dotplot and Needleman-wunsch algorithm for global sequence alignment. Our algorithms were implemented in python programming language and were tested on Linux platform 1.60GHz, 512 MB of RAM SUSE 9.2 and 10.1 versions.

  8. Forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1991-04-01

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  9. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…

  10. Developing Intercultural Competence through Global Link Experiences in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bomna; Boswell, Boni; Yoon, Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognition of the importance of the development of intercultural competence (ICC) has placed intense pressure on teacher education programs to infuse a global perspective into their programs. Several studies have proposed integration of global elements into teacher education programs. Although the use of online tools for…

  11. Choreographic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Choreographies are descriptions of distributed systems where the developer gives a global view of how messages are exchanged by endpoint nodes (endpoints for short), instead of separately defining the behaviour of each endpoint. They have a significant impact on the quality of software, as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programmin...

  12. Invitro activity of imipenem-relebactam against gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infections in the United States in 2015 - Results from the SMART global surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, Sibylle H; Hackel, Meredith A; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Hoban, Daryl J; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Karlowsky, James A; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor relebactam inactivates class A β-lactamases, including KPC-type carbapenemases, and class C β-lactamases. Relebactam combined with imipenem is in clinical development for several indications, including hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Employing CLSI-defined broth microdilution methodology, we evaluated the activities of imipenem-relebactam (using imipenem MIC breakpoints) and comparators against non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae (n=853) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=598) isolated from lower respiratory tract infection samples in 20 hospital laboratories in the United States participating in the 2015 SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) global surveillance program. Imipenem-relebactam and imipenem susceptibilities were 97.2% and 91.6% for non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae and 93.1% and 68.1% for P. aeruginosa. Relebactam restored imipenem susceptibility to 66.7% and 78.5% of imipenem-non-susceptible non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n=72) and P. aeruginosa (n=191), respectively. Further development of imipenem-relebactam as therapy for lower respiratory tract infections is warranted given relebactam's ability to restore activity to imipenem against non-susceptible non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  14. Managing global accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  15. Strategic Global Climate Command?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have been exploring geoengineering because Anthropogenic GHG emissions could drive the globe towards unihabitability for people, wildlife and vegetation. Potential global deployment of these technologies is inherently strategic. For example, solar radiation management to reflect more sunlight might be strategically useful during a period of time where the population completes an effort to cease emissions and carbon removal technologies might then be strategically deployed to move the atmospheric concentrations back to a safer level. Consequently, deployment of these global technologies requires the ability to think and act strategically on the part of the planet's governments. Such capacity most definitely does not exist today but it behooves scientists and engineers to be involved in thinking through how global command might develop because the way they do the research could support the development of a capacity to deploy intervention rationally -- or irrationally. Internationalizing research would get countries used to working together. Organizing the research in a step-wise manner where at each step scientists become skilled at explaining what they have learned, the quality of the information they have, what they don't know and what more they can do to reduce or handle uncertainty, etc. Such a process can increase societal confidence in being able to make wise decisions about deployment. Global capacity will also be enhanced if the sceintific establishment reinvents misssion driven research so that the programs will identify the systemic issues invovled in any proposed technology and systematically address them with research while still encouraging individual creativity. Geoengineering will diverge from climate science in that geoengineering research needs to design interventions for some publically desirable goal and investigates whether a proposed intervention will acheive desired outcomes. The effort must be a systems-engineering design problem

  16. Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiology and Global Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available More than a billion people—one-sixth of the world’s population, mostly in developing countries—are infected with one or more of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Several national and international programs (e.g., the World Health Organization’s Global NTD Programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Global NTD Program, the United States Global Health Initiative, the United States Agency for International Development’s NTD Program, and others are focusing on NTDs, and fighting to control or eliminate them. This review identifies the risk factors of major NTDs, and describes the global burden of the diseases in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs.

  17. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor - Canada Survey | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will follow the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) program ... The study will provide detailed information on entrepreneurship in Canada that is ... sector, public sector, and civil society organizations on development issues.

  18. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  19. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and the United States by Zoltan J. Acs Laszlo Szerb Ruxton, MD 21204 for under contract number SBAHQ-09...SUBTITLE Global Entrepreneurship and the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3 2.1. Assessing Entrepreneurship ..................................................................................4 2.2. Stages of Development

  20. Digital Storytelling for Transformative Global Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-White, Hoa; McLean, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how digital storytelling offers the potential to support transformative global citizenship education (TGCE) through a case study of the Bridges to Understanding program that connected middle and high school students globally using digital storytelling. Drawing on a TGCE framework, this research project probed the curriculum…

  1. On the Implementation of Global Abduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Global Abduction (GA) is a recently proposed logical formalism for agent oriented programming which allows an agent to collect information about the world and update this in a nonmonotonic way when changes in the world are observed. A distinct feature of Global Abduction is that in case the agent...

  2. Frontier differences and the global malmquist index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews different ways of comparing the efficiency frontiers for subgroups within a data set, specifically program efficiency, the metatechnology (or technology gap) ratio and the global frontier difference index. The latter is subsequently used to define a global Malmquist index...

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OR EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection Patient Opioid Use New Medicare Card Project Medicare ... History History of the American College of Surgeons Collections Highlights Research 25- and 50-Year Fellows Recognition ...

  4. Agile Web Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Mark

    1997-01-01

    ... in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. The pilot program allowed 18 small and medium sized enterprises to experiment with new agile business practices in competitive manufacturing environments by forming virtual organizations within...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Issues Stop Overregulating My OR EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection New Medicare Card Project Medicare Enrollment and Participation Medicare Payment Rules Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) Value-Based Payment Modifier Third Party ...

  6. A Multilevel Congestion-Based Global Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Rakai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in nanometer nodes creates an elevated level of importance for low-congestion routing. At the same time, advances in mathematical programming have increased the power to solve complex problems, such as the routing problem. Hence, new routing methods need to be developed that can combine advanced mathematical programming and modeling techniques to provide low-congestion solutions. In this paper, a hierarchical mathematical programming-based global routing technique that considers congestion is proposed. The main contributions presented in this paper include (i implementation of congestion estimation based on actual routing solutions versus purely probabilistic techniques, (ii development of a congestion-based hierarchy for solving the global routing problem, and (iii generation of a robust framework for solving the routing problem using mathematical programming techniques. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed global router is capable of reducing congestion and overflow by as much as 36% compared to the state-of-the-art mathematical programming models.

  7. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  8. Global 4-H Network: Laying the Groundwork for Global Extension Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jennifer; Miller, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive study examining 4-H programs in Africa, Asia, and Europe was conducted to provide understanding and direction in the establishment of a Global 4-H Network. Information regarding structure, organizational support, funding, and programming areas was gathered. Programs varied greatly by country, and many partnered with other 4-H…

  9. Our changing planet: the FY 1993 U.S. Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences. A supplement to the U.S. President's Fiscal Year 1993 Budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The USGCRP was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY 1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction)

  10. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem-Relebactam against Gram-Negative ESKAPE Pathogens Isolated by Clinical Laboratories in the United States in 2015 (Results from the SMART Global Surveillance Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, Sibylle H; Hackel, Meredith A; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Karlowsky, James A; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    Relebactam (formerly MK-7655) is an inhibitor of class A and C β-lactamases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), and is currently in clinical development in combination with imipenem-cilastatin. Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-defined broth microdilution methodology, we evaluated the in vitro activities of imipenem-relebactam, imipenem, and seven routinely tested parenteral antimicrobial agents against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (including Klebsiella pneumoniae , n = 689; Acinetobacter baumannii , n = 72; Pseudomonas aeruginosa , n = 845; and Enterobacter spp., n = 399) submitted by 21 clinical laboratories in the United States in 2015 as part of the SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) global surveillance program. Relebactam was tested at a fixed concentration of 4 μg/ml in combination with doubling dilutions of imipenem. Imipenem-relebactam MICs were interpreted using CLSI imipenem breakpoints. The respective rates of susceptibility to imipenem-relebactam and imipenem were 94.2% (796/845) and 70.3% (594/845) for P. aeruginosa , 99.0% (682/689) and 96.1% (662/689) for K. pneumoniae , and 100% (399/399) and 98.0% (391/399) for Enterobacter spp. Relebactam restored imipenem susceptibility to 80.5% (202/251), 74.1% (20/27), and 100% (8/8) of isolates of imipenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa , K. pneumoniae , and Enterobacter spp. Relebactam did not increase the number of isolates of Acinetobacter spp. susceptible to imipenem, and the rates of resistance to all of the agents tested against this pathogen were >30%. Further development of imipenem-relebactam is warranted given the demonstrated ability of relebactam to restore the activity of imipenem against current clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa that are nonsusceptible to carbapenems and its potential as a therapy for treating patients with antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections. Copyright © 2017 American

  11. In vitro activity of Ceftaroline against bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract infections in African and Middle Eastern countries: AWARE global surveillance program 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Iaconis, Joseph P; Sahm, Daniel F

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this report was to document antimicrobial susceptibility testing surveillance data for ceftaroline and comparative agents from the AWARE (Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation) global surveillance program for bacterial pathogens causing skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract infections in African and Middle Eastern countries from 2012 through 2014. Pathogen identities were confirmed by MALDI-TOF and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by CLSI broth microdilution methodology in a central laboratory. All methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n= 923; MIC90, 0.25 μg/mL) and 91.8% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n= 1161; MIC90, 1 μg/mL) tested were susceptible to ceftaroline. The maximum ceftaroline MIC observed for isolates of MRSA was 2 μg/mL. All Streptococcus pyogenes (n= 174; MIC90, 0.008 μg/mL), Streptococcus agalactiae (n= 44; MIC90, 0.015 μg/mL), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n= 351; MIC90, 0.25 μg/mL), and Haemophilus influenzae (n= 84; MIC90, ≤0.015 μg/mL) were susceptible to ceftaroline. Rates of susceptibility to ceftaroline among ESBL-negative Escherichia coli (n= 338), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 241), and Klebsiella oxytoca (n= 97) were 89.1% (MIC90, 1 μg/mL), 94.2% (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL), and 99.0% (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Global Asbestos Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugio Furuya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asbestos has been used for thousands of years but only at a large industrial scale for about 100–150 years. The first identified disease was asbestosis, a type of incurable pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos dust and fibres. The latest estimate of global number of asbestosis deaths from the Global Burden of Disease estimate 2016 is 3495. Asbestos-caused cancer was identified in the late 1930’s but despite today’s overwhelming evidence of the strong carcinogenicity of all asbestos types, including chrysotile, it is still widely used globally. Various estimates have been made over time including those of World Health Organization and International Labour Organization: 107,000–112,000 deaths. Present estimates are much higher. Objective: This article summarizes the special edition of this Journal related to asbestos and key aspects of the past and present of the asbestos problem globally. The objective is to collect and provide the latest evidence of the magnitude of asbestos-related diseases and to provide the present best data for revitalizing the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program on Asbestos-related Diseases. Methods: Documentation on asbestos-related diseases, their recognition, reporting, compensation and prevention efforts were examined, in particular from the regulatory and prevention point of view. Estimated global numbers of incidence and mortality of asbestos-related diseases were examined. Results: Asbestos causes an estimated 255,000 deaths (243,223–260,029 annually according to latest knowledge, of which work-related exposures are responsible for 233,000 deaths (222,322–242,802. In the European Union, United States of America and in other high income economies (World Health Organization regional classification the direct costs for sickness, early retirement and death, including production losses, have been estimated to be very high; in the Western European countries and

  13. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has

  14. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  15. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  16. Global environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about global climate change is leading to an examination of options for reducing the emissions of gases believed to be the principal contributors to the Greenhouse Effect. Carbon dioxide is believed to be the largest contributor to such an effect, and the use of fossil fuels is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions. geothermal energy is likely to receive increased attention in the years ahead as a way to reduce emissions of CO 2 . Several countries in Asia and the Pacific already have active geothermal programs. The Philippines have the second-largest installed geothermal capacity in the world. Japan and New Zealand have used geothermal energy for several decades. The present and future contributions of geothermal energy to the overall energy supply and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Asia and the Pacific are discussed in this paper

  17. Nuclear stockpiles globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffray, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    For technological reasons, but more importantly political ones, the spread of nuclear weapons is foreseen as inevitable especially with the multiplication of so-called 'threshold states'. On the one hand, technological barriers will gradually disappear with globalization and information sharing in our societies. Furthermore, becoming a threshold power appears today as key to get freedom of action, a tool of counter-deterrence or blackmail according to the camp you belong to, like in the Iranian and north Korean cases. For proliferant countries, it will now consist in an enforcement of an embryonic, even though rather deterrent or even threatening, nuclear program thanks to new technologies, reducing completion times and even allowing to skip the final nuclear test

  18. Global Volcano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  19. Mapping the global health employment market: an analysis of global health jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keralis, Jessica M; Riggin-Pathak, Brianne L; Majeski, Theresa; Pathak, Bogdan A; Foggia, Janine; Cullinen, Kathleen M; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; West, Heidi S

    2018-02-27

    The number of university global health training programs has grown in recent years. However, there is little research on the needs of the global health profession. We therefore set out to characterize the global health employment market by analyzing global health job vacancies. We collected data from advertised, paid positions posted to web-based job boards, email listservs, and global health organization websites from November 2015 to May 2016. Data on requirements for education, language proficiency, technical expertise, physical location, and experience level were analyzed for all vacancies. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the aforementioned job characteristics. Associations between technical specialty area and requirements for non-English language proficiency and overseas experience were calculated using Chi-square statistics. A qualitative thematic analysis was performed on a subset of vacancies. We analyzed the data from 1007 global health job vacancies from 127 employers. Among private and non-profit sector vacancies, 40% (n = 354) were for technical or subject matter experts, 20% (n = 177) for program directors, and 16% (n = 139) for managers, compared to 9.8% (n = 87) for entry-level and 13.6% (n = 120) for mid-level positions. The most common technical focus area was program or project management, followed by HIV/AIDS and quantitative analysis. Thematic analysis demonstrated a common emphasis on program operations, relations, design and planning, communication, and management. Our analysis shows a demand for candidates with several years of experience with global health programs, particularly program managers/directors and technical experts, with very few entry-level positions accessible to recent graduates of global health training programs. It is unlikely that global health training programs equip graduates to be competitive for the majority of positions that are currently available in this field.

  20. Studies of global warming and global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  1. Globalization and State Soverignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Mainul

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalized capital is reorganizing business firms and undermining national politics. Globalization creates vast new markets and gigantic new wealth, as well as widespread suffering, disorder and unrest...

  2. Industrial global brand leadership : a capabilities view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverland, M.; Napoli, J.; Lindgreen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the global branding programs of five New Zealand industrial firms and identify the salient components and capabilities underpinning these programs. The cases built their respective brand identities around adaptability to customer needs and the provision of a total solution. This identity

  3. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  4. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  5. Convex analysis and global optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Tuy, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art results and methodologies in modern global optimization, and has been a staple reference for researchers, engineers, advanced students (also in applied mathematics), and practitioners in various fields of engineering. The second edition has been brought up to date and continues to develop a coherent and rigorous theory of deterministic global optimization, highlighting the essential role of convex analysis. The text has been revised and expanded to meet the needs of research, education, and applications for many years to come. Updates for this new edition include: · Discussion of modern approaches to minimax, fixed point, and equilibrium theorems, and to nonconvex optimization; · Increased focus on dealing more efficiently with ill-posed problems of global optimization, particularly those with hard constraints;

    programming...

  6. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  7. HIV prevention programs of nongovernmental organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean: the Global AIDS Intervention Network project Programas de prevención de VIH de organizaciones no gubernamentales en América Latina y el Caribe.: El proyecto Global AIDS Intervention Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Fernandez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe HIV prevention programs conducted by nongovernmental organizations (NGO that are meeting this challenge. METHODS: One NGO undertaking HIV prevention programs was evaluated in each of the 23 countries participating in the Global AIDS Intervention Network (GAIN Project throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. A two-stage selection process was used: (1 a search in databases and other information sources; (2 identification of NGOs that were best established and most actively engaged in HIV prevention activity. Executive directors were questioned about staffing, budget issues, populations served and barriers faced by these entities. RESULTS: The 23 NGOs conducted 58 direct-service programs and had been conducting HIV prevention activities for a mean of 8 years (SD = 4.45; range 1-18 years. Average annual program budget was US$ 205 393 (range: US$ 10 000 to US$ 1 440 000. The NGOs reported a mean of 4.5 full-time employees (range 0-15, SD = 4.7. Many relied on volunteers (median = 10, mean = 51, range 0-700, SD = 150 to conduct HIV prevention activities. The NGOs provided prevention services for the general community (82.6%, children and adolescents (34.8% and men who have sex with men (30.4%. Activities conducted by NGOs included train-the-trainer activities (43.5% and face-to-face prevention activities (34.8%. Obstacles cited included lack of funding (60.9% and HIV-related stigma and discrimination (56.5%. CONCLUSION: The strategies used by NGOs to overcome barriers to prevention are a testament to their ingenuity and commitment, and serve as examples for NGOs in other world regions.OBJETIVO: Describir los programas de prevención de la infección por VIH y el sida de algunas organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG. MÉTODOS: Estudiamos, en cada una de los 23 países que participan en el proyecto Global AIDS Intervention Network (GAIN en América Latina y el Caribe, una ONG que lleva a cabo

  8. Responsive Space Program Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dors, Eric E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-11

    The goal of the Responsive Space program is to make significant, integrated science and technology contributions to the end-to-end missions of the U.S. Government that protect against global emerging and nuclear threats, from the earliest adversary planning through resilient event response report describes the LANL space program, mission, and other activities. The report describes some of their activities.

  9. Globalization challenges in a globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an ongoing phenomenon trying to redefine the economic, social, cultural and political dynamics of contemporary societies. The communication among countries and not only them, has been increased expanding political ties, making possible greater economic integration and wider cultural relations combined with augmented global wealth across the world. But, the process of globalization is in wider terms considered a beneficial one, but also viewed by some countries as a menace to national sovereignty and national culture. This paper tries to explain the obstacles to the process of globalization and its attendant benefits. Although globalization has arisen as a result of a more stable world, the factors that had contributed to its rise also help the factions interested to bring destabilization. In an academic approach in this article, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the global era.

  10. Cosmic global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)

  11. Globalization and business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  12. Empowering Faculty to Develop and Share Global Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David

    2014-01-01

    As colleges seek to increase global knowledge within its students, it is important that faculty members are also offered opportunities to increase their own knowledge of global issues. This chapter discusses faculty development models for seminars abroad and how these seminars encourage the development of unique global study programs.

  13. Global Mindset in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the call for identification of organizational contingencies related to global mindset, exploration of different forms of global mindset and their relationship with global strategies (Osland, Bird, Mendenhall & Osland, 2006). To this end, this paper explores global mindset...... development in the context of a 3-year single case study of middle manager microfoundations of global mindset in a Danish multinational corporation working with deliberate global mindset capability development as a vehicle for strategy execution and facilitation of global performance. A force field analysis...

  14. GLOBAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Er Kirtesh Jailia; Mrs.Manisha jailia; Er.Priyanka Jailia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss about the concept of Global relationship management. This is an important concept because now a day the whole business community is moving globally, means the geographical boundaries are of no more concern for the business communities. The global thinking of the business communities leads to the global relationship hence it is important for them to effectively manage such global relationship so that they can achieve what they want. The main concern is ove...

  15. Data management and global change research: Technology and infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    There is a consensus among many scientists who would perform global change research that global-scale scientific data management programs and enabling policies need to be developed and implemented concomitantly with, if not in advance of, global change research programs. They are hopeful that US Federal government policies for scientific and technical data and information management will provide timely archival, analysis, and dissemination of global change research data and will enable them to share that data with colleagues, internationally. Federal data managers believe that data management technology and infrastructure requirements for global change research programs can be met through existing or planned enhancements to systems in operation used for scientific data gathering, processing, and dissemination. Scientists are concerned, however, that because of the scope and diversity of global change research programs entirely new systems and approaches to data management may need to be devised

  16. Global Methane Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeburgh, W. S.

    2003-12-01

    Methane (CH4) has been studied as an atmospheric constituent for over 200 years. A 1776 letter from Alessandro Volta to Father Campi described the first experiments on flammable "air" released by shallow sediments in Lake Maggiore (Wolfe, 1996; King, 1992). The first quantitative measurements of CH4, both involving combustion and gravimetric determination of trapped oxidation products, were reported in French by Boussingault and Boussingault, 1864 and Gautier (1901), who reported CH4 concentrations of 10 ppmv and 0.28 ppmv (seashore) and 95 ppmv (Paris), respectively. The first modern measurements of atmospheric CH4 were the infrared absorption measurements of Migeotte (1948), who estimated an atmospheric concentration of 2.0 ppmv. Development of gas chromatography and the flame ionization detector in the 1950s led to observations of vertical CH4 distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere, and to establishment of time-series sampling programs in the late 1970s. Results from these sampling programs led to suggestions that the concentration of CH4, as that of CO2, was increasing in the atmosphere. The possible role of CH4 as a greenhouse gas stimulated further research on CH4 sources and sinks. Methane has also been of interest to microbiologists, but findings from microbiology have entered the larger context of the global CH4 budget only recently.Methane is the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere. It plays important roles in atmospheric chemistry and the radiative balance of the Earth. Stratospheric oxidation of CH4 provides a means of introducing water vapor above the tropopause. Methane reacts with atomic chlorine in the stratosphere, forming HCl, a reservoir species for chlorine. Some 90% of the CH4 entering the atmosphere is oxidized through reactions initiated by the OH radical. These reactions are discussed in more detail by Wofsy (1976) and Cicerone and Oremland (1988), and are important in controlling the oxidation state of the atmosphere

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 01/03/2012 (NCEI Accession 0083185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) from Satellite-tracked drifting buoys (drifters) as part of the Global Drifter Program for Hawaii region 1980/02/01 - 2009/03/31 (NODC Accession 0063296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite-tracked drifting buoys ("drifters") collect measurements of upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) around the world as part of the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted since 1999-10-04

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/23/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001907)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Delayed CTD and XBT data assembled and submitted by the Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), dates range from 06/08/1979 - 05/25/2010 (NODC Accession 0065272)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles for the world oceans and submits these data to the Global Temperature and...

  2. Family Medicine Global Health Fellowship Competencies: A Modified Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayess, Fadya El; Filip, Anna; Doubeni, Anna; Wilson, Calvin; Haq, Cynthia; Debay, Marc; Anandarajah, Gowri; Heffron, Warren; Jayasekera, Neil; Larson, Paul; Dahlman, Bruce; Valdman, Olga; Hunt, Vince

    2017-02-01

    Many US medical schools and family medicine departments have responded to a growing interest in global health by developing global health fellowships. However, there are no guidelines or consensus statements outlining competencies for global health fellows. Our objective was to develop a mission and core competencies for Family Medicine Global Health Fellowships. A modified Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on fellowship competencies. A panel, comprised of 13 members with dual expertise in global health and medical education, undertook an iterative consensus process, followed by peer review, from April to December 2014. The panel developed a mission statement and identified six domains for family medicine global health fellowships: patient care, medical knowledge, professionalism, communication and leadership, teaching, and scholarship. Each domain includes a set of core and program-specific competencies. The family medicine global health competencies are intended to serve as an educational framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of individual family medicine global health fellowship programs.

  3. Global health research needs global networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the challenges arising from global environmental change on human health, co-developing common approaches and new alliances of science and society are necessary. The first steps towards defining cross-cutting, health-environment issues were developed by the Global Environmental Change and

  4. Mediating Global Filipinos: The Filipino Channel and the Filipino Diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ethel Regis

    2013-01-01

    Mediating Global Filipinos: The Filipino Channel and the Filipino Diaspora examines the notion of the "global Filipino" as imagined and constructed vis-à-vis television programs on The Filipino Channel (TFC). This study contends that transnational Philippine media broadly construct the notion of "global Filipinos" as diverse, productive, multicultural citizens, which in effect establishes a unified overseas Filipino citizenry for Philippine economic welfare and global cultural capital. Desp...

  5. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  6. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are "born global". A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...... technology firms. After discussing various definitions for the term "born global" and identifying the main characteristics of born-global firms, this article lists a few salient characteristics of firms that are born global in the technology sector. The article concludes by identifying opportunities...

  7. Explore the World with a Global Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Tritz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing and celebrating the diversity that exists in our communities has become a central goal of land-grant institutions and cooperative extension programs. This is coupled with the expectation that youth be equipped for a global workforce where they appreciate different world cultures, be able to evaluate global issues and challenges and understand the inter-connectedness of global systems. Given these points, a Global Education Curriculum developed by the WVU Extension Global Education & Engagement Team is presented as a tool to instill a deeper understanding of and appreciation for cultures, people and global issues by youth and the adults who support them.

  8. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  9. Essays and surveys in global optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Audet, Charles; Savard, Giles

    2005-01-01

    Global optimization aims at solving the most general problems of deterministic mathematical programming. In addition, once the solutions are found, this methodology is also expected to prove their optimality. With these difficulties in mind, global optimization is becoming an increasingly powerful and important methodology. This book is the most recent examination of its mathematical capability, power, and wide ranging solutions to many fields in the applied sciences.

  10. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  11. A Global MBA for Tomorrow's Global Business Leaders: Integrating Best Practice with Boston's Locational Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Christian J.; Blodgett, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional IB programs have received mixed reviews from the corporate world. With this in mind, the Suffolk GMBA was benchmarked against the leading international business programs. The Suffolk GMBA was designed to be different and to ascertain the global environment in which business operates. A unique feature of the GMBA curriculum detailed in…

  12. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. 18 refs

  13. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  14. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  15. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  16. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis Data and statistics Regional Framework Resources Meetings and events Global tuberculosis report 2017 WHO has published a global TB ...

  17. Global Drums and Local Masquerades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwhu Betiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available TV broadcasting has been in Nigeria for more than 50 years (1959-2009. Its development has brought about a series of local responses to global socioeconomic and political environments and “soft” stimuli. This conclusion is based on a critical, interpretive reading of the history, form, and content of television in Nigeria from Obafemi Awolowo’s Western Nigeria Television in Ibadan through the federal government’s reactive establishment of the national network: the Nigeria Television Authority, and later, states and private television stations. The ultimate deregulation of television broadcasting in 1992, perceived as Babangida’s “politically-correct” reaction to the pressures from the Bretton Woods institutions, opened up national media markets for global penetration, and fast-tracked media globalization and its effects in Nigeria. While television stations in Nigeria have multiplied in numerical terms, programming/content/form have followed the global market/technological determinism turning Nigerian TV into localized versions of commercialized western master-scripts with very little local ideological direction.

  18. Gender and Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...

  19. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  20. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  1. Global astrometry with the space interferometry mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, A.; Unwin, S.; Shao, M.

    1997-01-01

    The prospects for global astrometric measurements with the space interferometry mission (SIM) are discussed. The SIM mission will perform four microarcsec astrometric measurements on objects as faint as 20 mag using the optical interferometry technique with a 10 m baseline. The SIM satellite will perform narrow angle astrometry and global astrometry by means of an astrometric grid. The sensitivities of the SIM global astrometric performance and the grid accuracy versus instrumental parameters and sky coverage schemes are reported on. The problems in finding suitable astrometric grid objects to support microarcsec astrometry, and related ground-based observation programs are discussed.

  2. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  3. Global Governance, Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  4. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  5. Global Health Security

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-21

    Dr. Jordan Tappero, a CDC senior advisor on global health, discusses the state of global health security.  Created: 9/21/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Center for Global Health (CGH).   Date Released: 9/21/2017.

  6. Global Sourcing of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The global sourcing of services offers high returns but is also associated with high risks. The extent to which firms engage in ‘transformational’ global sourcing (i.e., global sourcing implying considerable changes in the home organization) chiefly depends on management's comfort zone which...

  7. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  8. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  9. Globalization and American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  10. Security Components of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  11. A global cleanout project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, J.; Gruber, G.

    2004-01-01

    Once upon a time there was a great dream of a atomic age for mankind. The technically advanced nations of the world promised amazing opportunities for all and promoted their materials and equipment often by supplying them throughout the world in the race to gain market share. For a time, the dream was fulfilled, as many countries embraced the new technologies initially for research and later for medical, power and even transport opportunities. In due course, the demand subsided and in some countries has even been reversed with plans to terminate outdated or unneeded facilities. This brings up the issue of nuclear waste disposal. It was not until post 'Sept 11', that the US and other countries and NGOs began to seriously think about the larger implications of terrorist use of 'Dirty Bombs'. This has led to the potential of a wider program aimed at the possible return of a larger amount of 'abandoned' materials. Thus the 'GLOBAL CLEANOUT PROJECT' was borne. Many in the nuclear fuel cycle will have a stake in this and can play a role in an international community to deal with the issue and it has to be started now. (author)

  12. Global PV Market Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The dawn of 2009 saw several events which caused major turbulence in the global photovoltaic industry. In 2008 the Spanish PV market grew beyond all expectations and even outranked Germany as the world's number one market. However, the promotion scheme was modified and a market cap was introduced in 2009, cutting back the maximum capacity to be installed to about the level of 2007. In addition, the industry is facing an oversupply of PV modules and a harsh recession which is significantly affecting the traditionally strong PV markets. International photovoltaic companies are challenged by a changing market situation: all of a sudden, competition has increased significantly, pushing the customer to the fore. As a result, a consolidation process is expected within the PV industry worldwide. However, the story is not all negative. In the U.S., the election of Barack Obama may be seen as the starting signal for a massive expansion in PV, likely to bring the country to first place globally within the next five years. Furthermore, different markets and market segments are being opened up - especially in Europe - thanks to the gradual arrival of generation parity and new PV support mechanisms. EuPD Research has observed and studied international PV markets since its foundation. The information included in the presentation is based on a wide range of quantitative and qualitative studies that EuPD Research has conducted in the key markets since 2002. Florian Schmidt, EuPD Research's Head of Product Management, will give an overview of the global PV market and how it is developing in this crucial year 2009. Aspects such as technology development, production capacities and the demand side will be included, with a special emphasis on the European PV markets. So far Chinese PV companies have often benefited from the booming PV markets in Europe, above all Germany and Spain. Due to the lack of domestic market, the Chinese industry strongly depends on the export and is

  13. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  14. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  15. Global nuclear cleanout initiative 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, J.; Gruber, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During more than 50 years of Atoms for Peace programmes nuclear materials were spread out worldwide. Stranded nuclear materials from nuclear research are left over without any safe back-end solution. 'Dirty Bombs' or so-called 'Radioactive Dispersal Devices (RDD)' are no longer science fiction since the world experienced the 9/11 attack. Governmental, NGO's and private industry organizations having discussed Global Nuclear Cleanout since then and start to take actions. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has announced to establish a dedicated organization in cooperation with IAEA and start the 'Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)'. The US government will allocate to that program USD 450 M over the next 10 years. Besides the historical development the paper will focus on the progress of the different initiatives and perspectives to threat reduction. (author)

  16. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  17. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  18. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  19. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  20. An Effective Model for Improving Global Health Nursing Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Sunjoo Kang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an effective model for improving global health nursing competence among undergraduate students. A descriptive case study was conducted by evaluation of four implemented programs by the author. All programs were conducted with students majoring in nursing and healthcare, where the researcher was a program director, professor, or facilitator. These programs were analyzed in terms of students’ needs assessment, program design, and implementation and evaluation factors. The co...

  1. INTERPRETING GLOBAL EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh W. Dalpour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s constantly changing world it is often times difficult to understand thechanges happening around us every second. Some of these changes may be, inthe aggregate,for good, while others may have unappreciated and heavy costs.What isGlobalization? Globalization is “an elimination of barriers to trade,communication, and cultural exchange. The theory behind globalization is thatworldwide openness will promote the inherent wealth of all nations.”(Jones,2012All this encompasses global cultures, international economics and other growingsocial networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Throughout thisanalysis the pros and cons of globalization will be discussed and also whetherornot globalization is in fact as much of a benefit for today’s global economy─as somany think─will be determined. First,identification of the various types ofglobalization is necessary.

  2. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  3. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  4. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. An Effective Model for Improving Global Health Nursing Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Joo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an effective model for improving global health nursing competence among undergraduate students. A descriptive case study was conducted by evaluation of four implemented programs by the author. All programs were conducted with students majoring in nursing and healthcare, where the researcher was a program director, professor, or facilitator. These programs were analyzed in terms of students' needs assessment, program design, and implementation and evaluation factors. The concept and composition of global nursing competence, identified within previous studies, were deemed appropriate in all of our programs. Program composition varied from curricular to extracurricular domains. During the implementation phase, some of the programs included non-Korean students to improve cultural diversity and overcome language barriers. Qualitative and quantitative surveys were conducted to assess program efficacy. Data triangulation from students' reflective journals was examined. Additionally, students' awareness regarding changes within global health nursing, improved critical thinking, cultural understanding, and global leadership skills were investigated pre- and post-program implementation. The importance of identifying students' needs regarding global nursing competence when developing appropriate curricula is discussed.

  6. An Effective Model for Improving Global Health Nursing Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an effective model for improving global health nursing competence among undergraduate students. A descriptive case study was conducted by implementing four programs. All programs were conducted with students majoring nursing and healthcare, where the researcher was a program director, professor, or facilitator. These programs were analyzed in terms of students’ needs assessment, program design, and implementation and evaluation factors. The concept and composition of global nursing competence, identified within previous studies, were deemed appropriate in all of our programs. Program composition varied from curricular to extracurricular domains. During the implementation phase, most of the programs included non-Korean students to improve cultural diversity and overcome language barriers. Qualitative and quantitative surveys were conducted to assess program efficacy. Data triangulation from students’ reflective journals was examined. Additionally, students’ awareness regarding changes within global health nursing, improved critical thinking, cultural understanding, and global leadership skills were investigated pre and post-program implementation. We discuss how identifying students’ needs regarding global nursing competence when developing appropriate curricula.

  7. Finite element application to global reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.A.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Finite Element Method is described as a Coarse Mesh Method with general basis and trial functions. Various consequences concerning programming and application of Finite Element Methods in reactor physics are drawn. One of the conclusions is that the Finite Element Method is a valuable tool in solving global reactor analysis problems. However, problems which can be described by rectangular boxes still can be solved with special coarse mesh programs more efficiently. (orig.) [de

  8. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  9. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  10. The dismantling of nuclear installations: The dismantling of nuclear installations at the CEA's Directorate for nuclear energy; The CEA's sanitation and dismantling works: example of one of the Marcoule UP1 program lots; Research and innovation in sanitation-dismantling; Global optimisation of the management of dismantling radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Piketty, Laurence; Moitrier, Cyril; Blanchard, Samuel; Soulabaille, Yves; Georges, Christine; Dutzer, Michel; Legee, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which addresses issues related to the dismantling of nuclear installations in France, notably for the different involved actors such as the CEA and the ANDRA. The authors more particularly address the issue and the general strategy of dismantling within the Directorate for nuclear energy of the CEA; comment the example of one of the Marcoule UP1 program lots to highlight sanitation and dismantling works performed by the CEA; discuss current research and innovation activities within the CEA regarding sanitation and dismantling; and comment how to globally optimise the management of radioactive wastes produced by dismantling activities

  11. Shifting Tides in Global Higher Education: Agency, Autonomy, and Governance in the Global Network. Global Studies in Education, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    The increasing connection among higher education institutions worldwide is well documented. What is less understood is how this connectivity is enacted and manifested on specific levels of the global education network. This book details the planning process of a multi-institutional program in engineering between institutions in the US and…

  12. From the international geophysical year to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleagle, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A series of major scientific programs carried out over the past 40 years has greatly increased understanding of our global environment and has led to the present concern over global change. Each program responded to a specific and urgent scientific need or opportunity. In each case, institutions and resources were created that provided the foundation for later programs. Increased scientific understanding has exposed threats to future welfare and has raised serious policy implications for governments. Institutions for responding to global policy issues need to be created or strengthened. Recommendations for better procedures and institutional structures are provided in this article. 39 refs

  13. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  14. Global Citizenship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2016-01-01

    published after 2000 was written by researchers based in the US and if you add other English-speaking countries such as Canada, England, Australia and New Zealand, the proportion is even higher. English in the field of education research often serves as the international lingua franca. Since there is also......Global citizenship as an idea has become an increasingly important issue on the educational agenda since the late 1970’s. The importance allotted to this issue is clear in the attention given to it by for example UNESCO where global citizenship education (GCED) is an area of strategic focus....... Increasingly schools all over the world are attempting to or expected to educate the global citizen, but how exactly do you educate the global citizen? What does this global citizenship consist of? While surely the type of training and education needed to train a global citizen will vary greatly depending...

  15. The psychology of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-10-01

    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  16. The new global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  17. Salud y justicia global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyol, Ángel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A question that would have to worry more to the global justice is the huge inequality of health in the world. In this paper, I analyse the causes of the global inequality of health and the ethical arguments for and against the need to treat this inequality from the perspective of the global justice. After refusing the arguments against both of the libertarianism and the statism, and after showing the critics both to the approach to the language of human rights and to the poggean proposal to reduce the duties of global justice to negative moral duties, I defend the need to use a sufficiency approach to global justice based in positive moral duties to face the severity and the moral urgency of the global inequalities of health.

    Una de las cuestiones que debería preocupar más a la teoría de la justicia global es la enorme desigualdad de salud que hay en el mundo. En este artículo, se repasan las causas de la desigualdad global de salud y los argumentos éticos a favor y en contra de la necesidad de tratar dicha desigualdad desde la perspectiva de la justicia global. Tras rechazar los argumentos en contra tanto del libertarismo de derechas como del estatalismo, y tras exponer las críticas tanto al lenguaje de los derechos humanos como a la propuesta poggeana de reducir los deberes de la justicia global a deberes morales negativos, defiendo la necesidad de partir de un criterio de justicia global suficientista y basado en los deberes morales positivos para afrontar la gravedad y la urgencia moral que suponen las desigualdades globales de salud.

  18. Globalization vs National Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    economic market or system in which prices are based on competition among private businesses and not controlled by a government.12 Global Commons...effects of globalization , work in different countries for years of their lives, conduct social networking and business through cyberspace. Civic...Qaeda. Today , The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria recruits and funds operations around the world benefiting from globalization . The central objectives

  19. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  20. Developing Global Transformational Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational...... leadership theory, we argue that global leaders of Multilatinas embrace a more humanistic approach to leadership because of the importance of relationships between leaders and their followers. Additionally, we argue that global leaders with high levels of cultural intelligence will have high levels...

  1. Global VDET pattern recognition for ALEPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazarko, Andrew; Pusztaszeri, Jean-Francois; Rensing, Paul E.; Brown, David; Gay, Pascal

    1996-01-01

    With the current reliance on high-precision vertex detectors to provide very accurate information about the primary and secondary vertices in an event, the accuracy and efficiency of the assignment of vertex detectors hits to tracks has become crucial. This paper discusses new software written for ALEPH which attempts to make this assignment in a global manner using interger programming techniques. (author)

  2. Research Award: Global Health Research Iniave

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  3. Opportunities in Preparing Global Leaders in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Rita; O'Grady, Eileen T.; Wichaikhum, Orn-Anong; Bull, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Survey responses from 24 of 77 U.S. nursing doctoral programs indicated that their international students lack familiarity with the U.S. health care system, lack prior experience with seminars, and experience stress from heavy courseloads. The curriculum's global perspective is enhanced by their presence, but nursing schools need more effective…

  4. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-12-01

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Homepage for the Global Tropospheric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    The objective of my NASA summer research project was to create a homepage to describe and present results from the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE). The GTE is a major component of NASA's Tropospheric Chemistry Program and is managed in the Atmospheric Studies Branch, Atmospheric Sciences Division at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  6. Teaching Tolerance in a Globalized World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Isac, Maria Magdalena; Miranda, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This open access thematic report identifies factors and conditions that can help schools and education systems promote tolerance in a globalized world. The IEA’s International Civic and Citizenship Study (ICCS) is a comparative research program designed to investigate the ways in which young people

  7. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  8. Globalization and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Imran Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization has been introduced due to technical advancements that has made the world a global village. The world as is now has never been before; it is now a world where multicultural societies have developed, trade and transactions are made between countries, technology reaches every part of the world, and internet has connected every possible idea, opinion, person, and commodity with the rest of the world. In this world of globalization, education has taken a central role, as without education globalization cannot be germinated. Education is a national issue and as such, each country has its own educational policies that are emblems of that country's cultural values, belief system and historical realities. Nevertheless, the globalized world demands for multiculturalism, and commonalities amongst communities to be promoted so as to bring the world closer to accepting cultural diversities and celebrating commonalities. For these aims, educational institutions become institutions for promoting globalization by introducing various cultural and traditional beliefs to the new generation. Recently, globalization has become a popular subject of debate in national and international circiles. Globalization links individuals and institutions across the world through economic forces, digital technologies, and communication. It is moreover subjected to higher living standards, international affiliations, and multiple types of freedom. However, a major part of the world consists of under developed countries where technological advancements, communication, trade and commerce along with other economic activities are not enough to support them to be a part of the global society.

  9. GLOBAL KEYNESIANISM AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Kohler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Something like "global Keynesianism" or "transnational socialism" has been mentioned as a desirable alternative to global neoliberalism (Redmond 1997. However, a definition of this kind of global Keynesianism is hard to find. Many leftists tend to associate Keynesianism with corporate power. However, there are also numerous other leftists who view this differently. For example, a member of parliament for the German Green Party stated in a recent interview that "a reformist party today has to be a left-Keynesian party which contradicts the logic of capital" (Ebermann 1998. A number of scholars from several countries, including Canada, pursue post-Keynesian-ism, in the sense of left-Keynesian economics (e.g., Seccareccia 1991. How-ever, available left-Keynesian literature, as I see it, is lacking a world-system perspective. I am trying in this article to synthesize the two perspectives-namely, left-Keynesianism and world-system theory, leading to a perspective of global left-Keynesianism. This leftist global Keynesianism can, perhaps, be described as an approach to economics which emphasizes responsible public management of economic problems in a world-system context. Common themes in global Keynesianism include the importance of public management, democratic politics, the mixed economy, global income distribution, the management of global demand, investment and money, ecological sustainability and the importance of multiple levels of public management-local, national, regional and global.

  10. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  11. Global health training in US graduate psychiatric education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Fricchione, Gregory L; Walensky, Rochelle P; Ng, Courtney; Bangsberg, David R; Kerry, Vanessa B

    2014-08-01

    Global health training opportunities have figured prominently into medical students' residency program choices across a range of clinical specialties. To date, however, the national scope of global mental health education has not heretofore been systematically assessed. We therefore sought to characterize the distribution of global health training opportunities in US graduate psychiatric education. We examined the web pages of all US psychiatry residency training programs, along with search results from a systematic Google query designed to identify global health training opportunities. Of the 183 accredited US psychiatry residency programs, we identified 17 programs (9.3%) offering 28 global health training opportunities in 64 countries. Ten psychiatry residency programs offered their residents opportunities to participate in one or more elective-based rotations, eight offered research activities, and six offered extended field-based training. Most global health training opportunities occurred within the context of externally administered, institution-wide initiatives generally available to residents from a range of clinical specialties, rather than within internally administered departmental initiatives specifically tailored for psychiatry residents. There are relatively few global health training opportunities in US graduate psychiatric education. These activities have a clear role in enhancing mastery of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies, but important challenges related to program funding and evaluation remain.

  12. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  13. BUSINESS GLOBALIZATION: TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND GLOBAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA Stela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce business globalization and the main globalization factors which, under the current stage, are transnational corporations. Globalization is the result of the pressure put by companies which, in turn, are under the close “magnifier” of all the involved factors (the so-called “stakeholders”. The market and the determining forces are not influenced by a political attitude nowadays marking globalization, but rather the political decisions have followed the course of economic evolutions, a trend that has always been provided by multinational corporations. In order to successfully follow up their activity, companies initiate new businesses, selling or deleting from their portfolio businesses or divisions with a decreasing tendency. Also, companies give up old rules and structures adopting new decision-making processes, control systems and mental patterns. Corporations must learn to become dynamic just like the market, if they wish to maintain, on the long run, a superior rate of income.

  14. The Creation of Differential Correction Systems and the Systems of Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polishchuk, G. M; Kozlov, V. I; Urlichich, Y. M; Dvorkin, V. V; Gvozdev, V. V

    2002-01-01

    ... for the Russian Federation and a system of global navigation satellite system monitoring. These projects are some of the basic ones in the Federal program "Global Navigation System," aimed at maintenance and development of the GLONASS system...

  15. Global Learning and Development as an Engagement Strategy for Christian Higher Education: A Macro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Allyn; Hawkins, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to better understand the variety of student and faculty global learning and development programs by member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), and what motivated the creation of these types of programs. Although various forms of global engagement programming were examined,…

  16. Global surrogacy practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Darnovsky (Marcy); D. Beeson (Diane); K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights;

  17. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  18. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  19. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  20. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  1. Globalization of the Semiosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the future perspectives for Foreign Language Studies in the era of Globalization. The intensified globalization processes are studied in the light of Yuri Lotmans concept of the semiosphere and the article advocates the development of a new philology of culture....

  2. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  3. Critically Theorizing the Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudelli, William

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has unleashed profound changes in education. These include positivistic international school comparisons, a singular focus on schools as drivers of economic development, and the adoption of neoliberal market principles in school. These changes, however, generally go unexamined within the field and literature of global education.…

  4. Globalization of Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  5. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  6. Reframing Global Engagement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has strongly influenced higher education during the last decades. As in many other sectors, this has generated contradictory outcomes. Higher education has opened up to the world and become more engaged at the global level. But how will this process continue with the current backlash

  7. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...

  8. The 2030 Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Sound land governance is fundamental to achieving the 2030 Global Agenda as set by the Sustainable. Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by all the world’s leaders at the UN Summit in September 2015. This Global Agenda calls for a “data revolution” for sustainable development to empower people...

  9. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…

  10. Global marketing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John Rance; Galina Zhiltsova

    2009-01-01

    The reasoning issue of this work is to research and define the efficient methods of global marketing control. The report is focused on the following aspects: the importance of the control systems in global marketing environment, the relationship between planning and controlling, types and the

  11. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S.

  12. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  13. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  15. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  16. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are “born global”. A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...

  17. Functional Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Chitil, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Functional programming is a programming paradigm like object-oriented programming and logic programming. Functional programming comprises both a specific programming style and a class of programming languages that encourage and support this programming style. Functional programming enables the programmer to describe an algorithm on a high-level, in terms of the problem domain, without having to deal with machine-related details. A program is constructed from functions that only map inputs to ...

  18. GAPHAT-II, program for outlined analysis of wind turbines. Part 1: model description and verification. GAPHAT-II, programma voor globale analyses van windturbines. Deel 1: Modelbeschrijving en verificatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, J.G.

    1988-05-01

    The second version of the program GAPHAT (Outlined Analysis Program Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines) is discussed. The program can be used for investigated analysis and gives the following results: 1. aerodynamical coefficients as functions of high-speed, blade angle and rotor azimuth angle; 2. loads in the heart of the blade and on the rotor axis as function of the time; 3. dynamic behavior at different adjustments. The aerodynamic loads follow a combination of linear momentum theory and blade element theory. The resulting equations are calculated with a quadratic equation with the inflow angle as an unknown. Summation of aerodynamic, innate weight and centrifugal loads gives the total loads. For the blade angle control a few general models were developed: an active on/off control for power and a PID control for linear speed (PID is proportional, integral and differential control). Calculations of aerodynamic coefficients and of loads in the heart of the blade were compared to calculations with the program PHATAS-I. The differences are less than 10% in most cases. 16 figs., 7 refs., 1 tab

  19. Globalization of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Globalization-the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide-is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly.

  20. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  1. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  2. Corporate Stakeholding and Globalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2016-01-01

    , the global warming, the disasters of global consumerism in terms of the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory in the fashion industry, are examples of how the stakeholder concept cannot continue to be defined as narrow as corporations usually does. The butterfly effect of globalism has shown to be – yes, global....... Even the smallest company, the single consumer and the tiniest decision made by anyone may in the future – perhaps even tomorrow – affect stakeholders, we didn’t know existed. The future generation is also to be considered as stakeholders, which decisions made today may affect. Companies, consumers......, everyday people including children already know this even from the first day at school if not before. What we need is not knowledge about these phenomena – it is how to think globally when we decide locally: in companies, in daily households, in education of our future generations. This chapter discusses...

  3. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  4. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  5. Where theory and practice of global health intersect: the developmental history of a Canadian global health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daibes, Ibrahim; Sridharan, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the scope of practice of global health, drawing on the practical experience of a global health initiative of the Government of Canada--the Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program. A number of challenges in the practical application of theoretical definitions and understandings of global health are addressed. These challenges are grouped under five areas that form essential characteristics of global health: equity and egalitarian North-South partnerships, interdisciplinary scope, focus on upstream determinants of health, global conceptualization, and global health as an area of both research and practice. Information in this paper is based on the results of an external evaluation of the program, which involved analysis of project proposals and technical reports, surveys with grantees and interviews with grantees and program designers, as well as case studies of three projects and a review of relevant literature. The philosophy and recent definitions of global health represent a significant and important departure from the international health paradigm. However, the practical applicability of this maturing area of research and practice still faces significant systemic and structural impediments that, if not acknowledged and addressed, will continue to undermine the development of global health as an effective means to addressing health inequities globally and to better understanding, and acting upon, upstream determinants of health toward health for all. While it strives to redress global inequities, global health continues to be a construct that is promoted, studied, and dictated mostly by Northern institutions and scholars. Until practical mechanisms are put in place for truly egalitarian partnerships between North and South for both the study and practice of global health, the emerging philosophy of global health cannot be effectively put into practice.

  6. International Space Education Outreach: Taking Exploration to the Global Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Lichtenberger, L. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Garner, L. C.; Barfus, J. R.; Nazarenko, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    With the development of the International Space Station and the need for international collaboration for returning to the moon and developing a mission to Mars, NASA has embarked on developing international educational programs related to space exploration. In addition, with the explosion of educational technology, linking students on a global basis is more easily accomplished. This technology is bringing national and international issues into the classroom, including global environmental issues, the global marketplace, and global collaboration in space. We present the successes and lessons learned concerning international educational and public outreach programs that we have been involved in for NASA as well as the importance of sustaining these international peer collaborative programs for the future generations. These programs will undoubtedly be critical in enhancing the classroom environment and will affect the achievements in and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  7. GEWEX: The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, M.; Vane, D.

    1994-01-01

    GEWEX is one of the world's largest global change research programs. Its purpose is to observe and understand the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes in the atmosphere, at land surfaces and in the upper oceans.

  8. Report on the invitation program for developing countries concerning technology promotion project of global environmental industry in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu suishin jigyo ni kakawaru chikyu kankyo kanren gijutsu kaigai kenkyusha shohei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In an effort to help preserve the global environment, International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT) contributes to the solution of global environmental problems by promoting research exchanges with developing countries. As a part of this effort, ICETT hosted an environmental development researcher who visited Japan from the Institute of Environmental Research of Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. The invitation was extended at the request of NEDO. During the period of this investigation between September 16 and December 14, 1997, a photocatalyst was prepared and its performance was evaluated under the theme ``Application of photocatalysis to purification of atmospheric environment.`` At the same time, roadside test spots were inspected to study the practical application of optical photocatalysis. The visiting researcher also visited the National Institute for Resources and Environment to discuss with the staff of institute. This helped to deepen understandings of the state of air pollution problems confronting Japan, Europe, and North America, as well as issues related to the technologies that have been developed to solve these problems. The visiting researcher toured the RITE and examined Japan`s progress in the development of environmental control technology through joint research involving government, industry, and academia. At ICETT, the visiting researcher received training in Japan`s approaches to environmental problems in developing countries

  9. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    OpenAIRE

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...

  10. Climate Science's Globally Distributed Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is primarily funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science (the Office of Biological and Environmental Research [BER] Climate Data Informatics Program and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research Next Generation Network for Science Program), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the European Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System Modeling (IS-ENES), and the Australian National University (ANU). Support also comes from other U.S. federal and international agencies. The federation works across multiple worldwide data centers and spans seven international network organizations to provide users with the ability to access, analyze, and visualize data using a globally federated collection of networks, computers, and software. Its architecture employs a series of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered and united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The full ESGF infrastructure has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP; output used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), multiple model intercomparison projects (MIPs; endorsed by the World Climate Research Programme [WCRP]), and the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME; ESGF is included in the overarching ACME workflow process to store model output). ESGF is a successful example of integration of disparate open-source technologies into a cohesive functional system that serves the needs the global climate science community. Data served by ESGF includes not only model output but also observational data from satellites and instruments, reanalysis, and generated images.

  11. Learner Analysis Framework for Globalized E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Mamta

    2010-01-01

    The digital shift to technology-mediated modes of instructional delivery and the increased global connectivity has led to the rise in globalized e-learning programs. Educational institutions face multiple challenges as they seek to design effective, engaging and culturally competent instruction for an increasingly diverse learner population. The…

  12. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  13. Learning Global Leadership via Liberation Projects: An Interdisciplinary Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Shelbee

    2014-01-01

    Global leadership programs framed within singular cultural contexts do not promote authentic leadership. Unilateral methods may exclude individual multicultural experiences or identities, and further, encourage a one-size fits all approach to leadership. An interdisciplinary global leadership course aims to promote authentic unlearning and…

  14. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-02-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

  15. Engineering Amorphous Systems, Using Global-to-Local Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Radhika

    Emerging technologies are making it possible to assemble systems that incorporate myriad of information-processing units at almost no cost: smart materials, selfassembling structures, vast sensor networks, pervasive computing. How does one engineer robust and prespecified global behavior from the local interactions of immense numbers of unreliable parts? We discuss organizing principles and programming methodologies that have emerged from Amorphous Computing research, that allow us to compile a specification of global behavior into a robust program for local behavior.

  16. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  17. Globalization as It Happens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization is usually understood as a structural, epochal condition altering the environment in which people, organizations, and societies operate. But such accounts offer little insight into the infrastructures, practices, and connections that facilitate the production of the global. This art......Globalization is usually understood as a structural, epochal condition altering the environment in which people, organizations, and societies operate. But such accounts offer little insight into the infrastructures, practices, and connections that facilitate the production of the global....... This article uses findings from an ethnographic study of tax planning to show how mundane practices and connectivities forge and organize global operations, and to argue for the value of analyzing processes of globalization in terms of assemblages and infrastructures. Empirically, the article captures how...... the making of ‘tax structures’ involves connecting, for instance, buildings in France, a human in Switzerland, a company in Denmark, various tax laws, a trust fund in New Zealand, and large amounts of money on the move. If studied along the lines of an analytics of ‘globalizing assemblages’, such financial...

  18. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  19. How global brands compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  20. Global Connections to Global Partnerships: Navigating the Changing Landscape of Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Don, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide continuing higher education leaders with a comprehensive overview of the major considerations for doing business in the global market. Included is an analysis of the driving forces in global higher education and current trends in cross-border programs and a brief review of activities that may be part of a…