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Sample records for windows dam analysis

  1. WinDAM C earthen embankment internal erosion analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two primary causes of dam failure are overtopping and internal erosion. For the purpose of evaluating dam safety for existing earthen embankment dams and proposed earthen embankment dams, Windows Dam Analysis Modules C (WinDAM C) software will simulate either internal erosion or erosion resulting f...

  2. Odelouca Dam Construction: Numerical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca Dam`s construction. The material con-stants of the soil model used are determined from a comprehensive testing programme carried out in the C...

  3. Dam Break Analysis of Embankment Dams Considering Breach Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Shamsaei

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of dam's break, needs the definition of various parameters such as the break cause, its type, its dimension and the duration of breach development. The precise forecast for different aspects of the breach is one of the most important factors for analyzing it in embankment dam. The characteristics of the breach and determination of their vulnerability has the most effect on the waves resulting from dam break. Investigating, about the parameters of the breach in "Silveh" earth dam have been determined using the suitable model. In Silve dam a trapezoid breach with side slope z=0.01m and the average base line b=80m was computed. The duration of the breaches development is 1.9 hour. Regarding the above results and the application of DAM Break software the consequences of the probable break of the dam was determined. The analysis of the results of water covering of the city of Piranshahr located 12km from silve dam confirms that in 3 hours the water will reach the height (level of 1425 meters.

  4. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  5. Fragility Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekie, Paulos B.; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2002-09-01

    Concrete gravity dams are an important part ofthe nation's infrastructure. Many dams have been in service for over 50 years, during which time important advances in the methodologies for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards have caused the design-basis events to be revised upwards, in some cases significantly. Many existing dams fail to meet these revised safety criteria and structural rehabilitation to meet newly revised criteria may be costly and difficult. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides a rational safety assessment and decision-making tool managing the various sources of uncertainty that may impact dam performance. Fragility analysis, which depicts fl%e uncertainty in the safety margin above specified hazard levels, is a fundamental tool in a PSA. This study presents a methodology for developing fragilities of concrete gravity dams to assess their performance against hydrologic and seismic hazards. Models of varying degree of complexity and sophistication were considered and compared. The methodology is illustrated using the Bluestone Dam on the New River in West Virginia, which was designed in the late 1930's. The hydrologic fragilities showed that the Eluestone Dam is unlikely to become unstable at the revised probable maximum flood (PMF), but it is likely that there will be significant cracking at the heel ofthe dam. On the other hand, the seismic fragility analysis indicated that sliding is likely, if the dam were to be subjected to a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Moreover, there will likely be tensile cracking at the neck of the dam at this level of seismic excitation. Probabilities of relatively severe limit states appear to be only marginally affected by extremely rare events (e.g. the PMF and MCE). Moreover, the risks posed by the extreme floods and earthquakes were not balanced for the Bluestone Dam, with seismic hazard posing a relatively higher risk.

  6. Dams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset �is generated from from the Vermont Dam Inventory (VDI). The VDI is managed by the VT DEC's Dam Safety and Hydrology Section and contains information...

  7. Computational Aspects of Dam Risk Analysis: Findings and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Escuder-Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, risk analysis techniques have proved to be a useful tool to inform dam safety management. This paper summarizes the outcomes of three themes related to dam risk analysis discussed in the Benchmark Workshops organized by the International Commission on Large Dams Technical Committee on “Computational Aspects of Analysis and Design of Dams.” In the 2011 Benchmark Workshop, estimation of the probability of failure of a gravity dam for the sliding failure mode was discussed. Next, in 2013, the discussion focused on the computational challenges of the estimation of consequences in dam risk analysis. Finally, in 2015, the probability of sliding and overtopping in an embankment was analyzed. These Benchmark Workshops have allowed a complete review of numerical aspects for dam risk analysis, showing that risk analysis methods are a very useful tool to analyze the risk of dam systems, including downstream consequence assessments and the uncertainty of structural models.

  8. The Total Risk Analysis of Large Dams under Flood Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dams and reservoirs are useful systems in water conservancy projects; however, they also pose a high-risk potential for large downstream areas. Flood, as the driving force of dam overtopping, is the main cause of dam failure. Dam floods and their risks are of interest to researchers and managers. In hydraulic engineering, there is a growing tendency to evaluate dam flood risk based on statistical and probabilistic methods that are unsuitable for the situations with rare historical data or low flood probability, so a more reasonable dam flood risk analysis method with fewer application restrictions is needed. Therefore, different from previous studies, this study develops a flood risk analysis method for large dams based on the concept of total risk factor (TRF used initially in dam seismic risk analysis. The proposed method is not affected by the adequacy of historical data or the low probability of flood and is capable of analyzing the dam structure influence, the flood vulnerability of the dam site, and downstream risk as well as estimating the TRF of each dam and assigning corresponding risk classes to each dam. Application to large dams in the Dadu River Basin, Southwestern China, demonstrates that the proposed method provides quick risk estimation and comparison, which can help local management officials perform more detailed dam safety evaluations for useful risk management information.

  9. Dam-Break Flood Analysis Upper Hurricane Reservoir, Hartford, Vermont

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acone, Scott

    1995-01-01

    .... Various dam break flood conditions were modeled and inundation maps developed. Based on this analysis the dam is rated a Class 2 or significant hazard category in terms of its potential to cause downstream damage...

  10. Dam break analysis and flood inundation map of Krisak dam for emergency action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Setyandito, Oki

    2017-11-01

    The Indonesian Regulation which refers to the ICOLD Regulation (International Committee on Large Dam required have the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) guidelines because of the dams have potential failure. In EAP guidelines there is a management of evacuation where the determination of the inundation map based on flood modeling. The purpose of the EAP is to minimize the risk of loss of life and property in downstream which caused by dam failure. This paper will describe about develop flood modeling and inundation map in Krisak dam using numerical methods through dam break analysis (DBA) using hydraulic model Zhong Xing HY-21. The approaches of dam failure simulation are overtopping and piping. Overtopping simulation based on quadrangular, triangular and trapezium fracture. Piping simulation based on cracks of orifice. Using results of DBA, hazard classification of Krisak dam is very high. The nearest village affected dam failure is Singodutan village (distance is 1.45 kilometer from dam) with inundation depth is 1.85 meter. This result can be used by stakeholders such as emergency responders and the community at risk in formulating evacuation procedure.

  11. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Chad L.; Scates, Wade W.; Taylor, J. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  12. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  13. Source-system windowing for speech analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yegnanarayana, B.; Satyanarayana Murthy, P.; Eggen, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we propose a speech-analysis method to bring out characteristics of the vocal tract system in short segments which are much less than a pitch period. The method performs windowing in the source and system components of the speech signal and recombines them to obtain a signal reflecting

  14. National dam inventory provides data for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spragens, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Association of State Dam Safety Officials completed a dam inventory this fall. Information on approximately 90,000 state-regulated dams in the US collected during the four-year inventory is being used to build a database managed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In addition to ASDSO's work, the federal government conducted an inventory of federal dams. This data will be added to the state information to form one national database. The database will feature 35 data fields for each entry, including the name of the dam, its size, the name of the nearest downstream community, maximum discharge and storage volume, the date of the last inspection, and details about the emergency action plan. The program is an update of the nation's first dam inventory, required by the Dam Safety Act of 1972. The US Army Corps of Engineers completed the original inventory in 1981. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 authorized appropriations of $2.5 million for the Corps to update the inventory. FEMA and the Corps entered into an agreement for FEMA to undertake the task for the Corps and to coordinate work on both the federal and state inventories. ASDSO compiles existing information on state-regulated dams into a common format for the database, added missing information, and established a process for continually updating data. ASDSO plans to analyze the information collected for the database. It will look at statistics for the number of dams regulated, communities that could be affected, and the number of high-hazard dams. FEMA is preparing reports for Congress on the project. The reports, which are expected to be ready by May 1993, will include information on the methodology used and facts about regulated dams under state jurisdiction

  15. Seismic Analysis of Concrete Dam by Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozaina Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a brief study on linear seismic analysis of Sg. Kinta Concrete Dam. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the performance and behaviour of the dam under seismic excitation. The dam was modelled as two-dimensional and developed based on the design drawing that is obtained from Angkasa Consulting Services Sdn. Bhd. The seismic analysis of the dam is conducted using finite element analysis software package LUSAS 14.3 and the dam has been analyse as a plain stress problem with a linear consideration. A set of historic data, with E1 Centro earthquake acceleration of about 0.50g is used as an earthquake excitation. The natural frequency and mode shape up to fifth mode of the dam has been obtained from the analysis to show the differences of the stress and deformation between each mode. The maximum horizontal and vertical stress of Sg. Kinta dam was found and the distribution of them was discussed in form of contours. The deformation of the dam were also been discussed by comparing the maximum displacement for each mode shaped.

  16. Dam failure analysis for the Lago El Guineo Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta; Heriberto Torres-Sierra,

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago El Guineo Dam. The Lago El Guineo Dam is within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí and impounds a drainage area of about 4.25 square kilometers.The hydrologic assessment was designed to determine the outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago El Guineo and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation event, (2) a 24-hour probable maximum precipitation event, and (3) a 24-hour, 100-year recurrence rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated a dam failure of Lago El Guineo Dam using flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study. The simulated dam failure generated a hydrograph that was routed downstream from Lago El Guineo Dam through the lower reaches of the Río Toro Negro and the Río Grande de Manatí to determine water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” conditions. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was completed using the unsteady flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.Above the Lago El Guineo Dam, the simulated inflow peak discharges from HEC–HMS resulted in about 550 and 414 cubic meters per second for the 6- and 24-hour probable maximum precipitation events, respectively. The 24-hour, 100-year recurrence storm simulation resulted in a peak discharge of about 216 cubic meters per second. For the hydrologic analysis, no dam failure conditions are

  17. GIS inundation mapping and dam breach analysis of Woolwich Dam using HEC-geoRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent of flood inundation given a hypothetical dam breach scenario of the Woolwich Dam located in the Grand River Watershed, 2.5 km north of the Town of Elmira, Ontario. The dam is operated by the Grand River Conservation Authority and was constructed to provide low-flow augmentation to Canagagigue Creek. Advances in the computational capabilities of numerical models along with the availability of fine resolution geospatial data has lead to significant advances in the evaluation of catastrophic consequences due to the ensuing flood waters when dams fail. The hydraulic models HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in this study along with GIS to produce high resolution spatial and temporal flood inundation mapping. Given the proximity to the Town of Elmira, the dam is classified as having a high hazard potential. The large size and high hazard potential of the dam suggests that the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) is the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) event. The outlet structure of the spillway consists of 4 ogee-type concrete spillways equipped with radial gates. A low-level concrete pipe located within the spillway structure provides spillage for maintenance purposes. The full flow capacity of the spillway structure is 297 cubic metres per second at the full supply level of 364.8 metres. In addition to GIS flood inundation maps, this paper included the results of flood hydrographs, water surface profiles and peak flow data. It was concluded that techniques used in this analysis should be considered for use in the development of emergency management planning and dam safety assessments across Canada. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Dam failure analysis/calibration using NWS models on dam failure in Alton, New Hampshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The State of New Hampshire Water Resources Board, the United States Geological Service, and private concerns have compiled data on the cause of a catastrophic failure of the Bergeron Dam in Alton, New Hampshire in March of 1996. Data collected related to the cause of the breach, the breach parameters, the soil characteristics of the failed section, and the limits of downstream flooding. Dam break modeling software was used to calibrate and verify the simulated flood-wave caused by the Bergeron Dam breach. Several scenarios were modeled, using different degrees of detail concerning the topography/channel-geometry of the affected areas. A sensitivity analysis of the important output parameters was completed. The relative importance of model parameters on the results was assessed against the background of observed historical events

  19. Incremental Dynamic Analysis of Koyna Dam under Repeated Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab Nik Azizan, Nik; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Maity, Damodar; Abdullah, Junaidah

    2018-03-01

    This paper discovers the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of concrete gravity dam under single and repeated earthquake loadings to identify the limit state of the dam. Seven ground motions with horizontal and vertical direction as seismic input considered in the nonlinear dynamic analysis based on the real repeated earthquake in the worldwide. All the ground motions convert to respond spectrum and scaled according to the developed elastic respond spectrum in order to match the characteristic of the ground motion to the soil type. The scaled was depends on the fundamental period, T1 of the dam. The Koyna dam has been selected as a case study for the purpose of the analysis by assuming that no sliding and rigid foundation, has been estimated. IDA curves for Koyna dam developed for single and repeated ground motions and the performance level of the dam identifies. The IDA curve of repeated ground motion shown stiffer rather than single ground motion. The ultimate state displacement for a single event is 45.59mm and decreased to 39.33mm under repeated events which are decreased about 14%. This showed that the performance level of the dam based on seismic loadings depend on ground motion pattern.

  20. Seismic rehabilitation and analysis of Chaohe earth dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Zeng, Xiangwu

    2005-12-01

    Stability of earth dams during earthquakes has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in seismic active regions. Liquefaction induced slope failure occurred at the upstream slope of a major earth dam in the suburb of Beijing, China, during the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. The gravelly soil with loose initial condition liquefied under relatively small ground vibration. In recent years, a major seismic rehabilitation project was carried out on a similar earth dam nearby using dumped quarry stone. Seismic stability analysis was carried out using model test, finite element simulation, and pseudo-static slope stability program after taking into account the influence of excess pore pressure.

  1. Modelling approach for gravity dam break analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussekine Mourad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams in rivers can provide considerable benefits such as the supply of drinking and irrigation water; however the consequences which would result in the event of their failure could be catastrophic. They vary dramatically depending on the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk.

  2. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    earthfill dam is illustrated by defining the risk analysis during its construction and operation. A qualitative "Event Tree Analysis" makes clear with an example the probability of occurrence of the events triggered by an earthquake, and leads to a classification of the damage level. Finally, a System Dynamics (SD) approach is presented to investigate possibilities of a preventive planning in relationship to the risk, so that it's possible to establish shared procedures to achieve the correct management in any crisis phase. As a qualitative result of a SD application, figure 1 presents a flow-chart about a case study on the same dam so to illustrate the emergency planning in a step by step procedure according to the Regulations.

  3. Preliminary thermal and stress analysis of the SINQ window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, G.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of a finite element analysis for the SINQ proton beam window are presented. Temperatures and stresses are calculated in an axisymmetric model. As a result of these calculations, the H 2 O-cooled window (safety window) could be redesigned in such a way that plastic deformation resulting from excessive stress in some areas is avoided. (author)

  4. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  5. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  6. Fracture analysis of concrete gravity dam under earthquake induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Fracture analysis of concrete gravity dam under earthquake induced loads. 1. ABBAS MANSOURI;. 2 ... 1 Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University (South Branch of Tehran)Tehran, Iran ..... parameter has on the results of numerical calculations. In this analysis ... with the help of Abaqus software (Abaqus theory manual ...

  7. Windows XP Operating System Security Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goktepe, Meftun

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research is to determine if Windows XP, when used as a workstation operating system in domain- based networks, provides adequate security policy enforcement for organizations...

  8. Uncertainty Instability Risk Analysis of High Concrete Arch Dam Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties associated with concrete arch dams rise with the increased height of dams. Given the uncertainties associated with influencing factors, the stability of high arch dam abutments as a fuzzy random event was studied. In addition, given the randomness and fuzziness of calculation parameters as well as the failure criterion, hazard point and hazard surface uncertainty instability risk ratio models were proposed for high arch dam abutments on the basis of credibility theory. The uncertainty instability failure criterion was derived through the analysis of the progressive instability failure process on the basis of Shannon’s entropy theory. The uncertainties associated with influencing factors were quantized by probability or possibility distribution assignments. Gaussian random theory was used to generate random realizations for influence factors with spatial variability. The uncertainty stability analysis method was proposed by combining the finite element analysis and the limit equilibrium method. The instability risk ratio was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method and fuzzy random postprocessing. Results corroborate that the modeling approach is sound and that the calculation method is feasible.

  9. Bispectral analysis: comparison of two windowing functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvagni, D.; Djerroud, C.; Réveillé, T.; Gravier, E.

    2018-02-01

    Amongst all the normalized forms of bispectrum, the bicoherence is shown to be a very useful diagnostic tool in experimental studies of nonlinear wave interactions in plasma, as it measures the fraction of wave power due to the quadratic wave coupling in a self-excited fluctuation spectrum [1, 2]. In order to avoid spectral leakage, the application of a windowing function is needed during the bicoherence computation. Spectral leakage from statistically dependent components are of crucial importance in the discrimination between coupled and uncoupled modes, as they will introduce in the bicoherence spectrum phase-coupled modes which in reality do not exist. Therefore, the windowing function plays a key role in the bicoherence estimation. In this paper, two windowing methods are compared: the multiplication of the initial signal by the Hanning function and the subtraction of the straight line which links the two extremities of the signal. The influence of these two windowing methods on both the power spectrum and the bicoherence spectrum is showed. Although both methods give precise results, the Hanning function appears to be the more suitable window.

  10. Dam failure analysis for the Lago de Matrullas Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed a hydrologic and hydraulic study to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam, located within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí. The hydrologic study yielded outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago de Matrullas and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation (PMP) event, (2) a 24-hour PMP event, and (3) a 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated the hypothetical dam failure of Lago de Matrullas using hypothetical flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study and selected dam breach parameters. The flood wave resulting from the failure was downstream-routed through the lower reaches of the Río Matrullas, the Río Toro Negro, and the Río Grande de Manatí for determination of water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” (no precipitation) conditions. The Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and the River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was performed using the unsteady-state flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.

  11. EMergy analysis perspectives of Thailand and Mekong River dam proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; McClanahan, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    Methods of EMergy analysis (a scientifically based measure of wealth with units of solar emjoules (sej)) are explained and illustrated, using the economy of Thailand and two proposed dams on the Mekong River. Thailand's EMergy/$ ratio is near the world average (3.46 ·10 12 sej/$), its EMergy per capita ratio (2.98·10 15 sej/capita) is low compared to developed economies (that of the United States is 29.3·10 15 sej/capita), and its EMergy balance of payments is negative (the EMergy in exports is almost twice the EMergy in imports). The calculated net yield ratios of the proposed dams were sensitive to the treatment of sediments. The analysis yielded high net yield ratios (12.3/1 and 20.3/1) if sediments were not included, but yielded ratios of only 1.4/1 and 1.3/1 if sediments were included. If the two dams were constructed as a cascade, the combined net yield ratio was 2.5/1 (sediments included). If compared to conventional fossil fuels as a primary source of energy to the economy, the net yield ratio of the electricity generated from the two-dam cascade expressed as fossil fuels was 7.4/1

  12. Window design : visual and thermal consequences : analysis of the thermal and daylighting performance of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergem-Jansen, P.M. van; Soeleman, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Selected results of an analysis for the thermal and lighting requirements associated with windows in utility buildings are presented. This analysis concerns the effects of r¡indow size and shape, orientation and of different ways of supplementing the daylight by artifieial light for a typical office

  13. Dam! Dam! Dam!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCully, P.

    1997-01-01

    The author of ''Silenced Rivers'' a book questioning the desirability of dam building and hydroelectric power generation argues the main themes of his book in this paper. Despite being hailed by politicians as good solutions to power generation problems, and enthusiastically pursued in China, the U.S.A., the former Soviet Union, India and Japan, dams have far-reaching ecological and human consequences. The ecosystems lost to flooding, and the agricultural land use lost, the human cost in terms of homes and employment lost to reservoirs, disease from water-borne infections such as malaria, and the hazards of dams overflowing or breaking are all factors which are against the case for dam construction. The author argues the hydroelectric power may be renewable, but the social, agricultural and ecological costs are too high to justify it as a method of first choice. (UK)

  14. Stress analysis of CVD diamond window for ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The stress analysis of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) system of fusion reactors is described. It was found that the real size diamond window (φ aper =70mm, t=2.25mm) withstood 14.5 atm. (1.45 MPa). The calculation results of the diamond window by ABAQUS code agree well with the results of the pressure test. The design parameters of the torus diamond window for a vacuum and a safety barrier were also obtained. (author)

  15. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations. PMID:28771185

  16. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ridolfi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  17. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Elena; Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2017-08-03

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  18. Reliability and Robustness Analysis of the Masinga Dam under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Postle-Floyd

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenya’s water abstraction must meet the projected growth in municipal and irrigation demand by the end of 2030 in order to achieve the country’s industrial and economic development plan. The Masinga dam, on the Tana River, is the key to meeting this goal to satisfy the growing demands whilst also continuing to provide hydroelectric power generation. This study quantitatively assesses the reliability and robustness of the Masinga dam system under uncertain future supply and demand using probabilistic climate and population projections, and examines how long-term planning may improve the longevity of the dam. River flow and demand projections are used alongside each other as inputs to the dam system simulation model linked to an optimisation engine to maximise water availability. Water availability after demand satisfaction is assessed for future years, and the projected reliability of the system is calculated for selected years. The analysis shows that maximising power generation on a short-term year-by-year basis achieves 80%, 50% and 1% reliability by 2020, 2025 and 2030 onwards, respectively. Longer term optimal planning, however, has increased system reliability to up to 95% in 2020, 80% in 2025, and more than 40% in 2030 onwards. In addition, increasing the capacity of the reservoir by around 25% can significantly improve the robustness of the system for all future time periods. This study provides a platform for analysing the implication of different planning and management of Masinga dam and suggests that careful consideration should be given to account for growing municipal needs and irrigation schemes in both the immediate and the associated Tana River basin.

  19. Reliability Analysis of Free Jet Scour Below Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current formulas for calculating scour depth below of a free over fall are mostly deterministic in nature and do not adequately consider the uncertainties of various scouring parameters. A reliability-based assessment of scour, taking into account uncertainties of parameters and coefficients involved, should be performed. This paper studies the reliability of a dam foundation under the threat of scour. A model for calculating the reliability of scour and estimating the probability of failure of the dam foundation subjected to scour is presented. The Maximum Entropy Method is applied to construct the probability density function (PDF of the performance function subject to the moment constraints. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS is applied for uncertainty analysis. An example is considered, and there liability of its scour is computed, the influence of various random variables on the probability failure is analyzed.

  20. Hydrological Analysis for Inflow Forecasting into Temengor Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najid, MI; Sidek, LM; Hidayah, B.; Roseli, ZA

    2016-03-01

    These days, natural disaster such as flood is the main concern for hydrologists. One of solutions in understanding the reason of flood is by prediction of the event sooner than normal occurrence. One of the criteria is lead time or travel time that is important in the study of fresh waters and flood events. Therefore, estimation of lead or travel time for flood event can be beneficial primary information. The objective of this study is to estimate the lead time or travel time for outlet of Temengor dam in Malaysia. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) Sungai Perak dam operation has the main contribution on decision support for early water released and flood warning to authorities and locals resident for in the down streams area. For this study, hydrological analysis carried out will help to determine which years that give more rainfall contribution into the reservoir. Rainfall contribution of reservoir help to understanding rainfall distribution and peak discharge on that period. It also help for calibration of forecasting model system for better accuracy of flood hydrograph. There may be various methods to determine the rainfall contribution of catchment. The result has shown that, the rainfall contribution for Temengor catchment, is more on November in each year which is the monsoon season in Malaysia. TNB dam operational decision support systems can prepare and be more aware at this time for flood control and flood mitigation.

  1. Risk analysis for earth dam overtopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Chongxun

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model of overtopping risk under the joint effects of floods and wind waves, which is based on risk analysis theory and takes into account the uncertainties of floods, wind waves, reservoir capacity and discharge capacity of the spillway, is proposed and applied to the Chengbihe Reservoir in Baise City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The simulated results indicate that the flood control limiting level can be raised by 0.40 m under the condition that the reservoir overtopping risk is controlled within a mean variance of 5×10−6. As a result, the reservoir storage will increase to 16 million m3 and electrical energy generation and other functions of the reservoir will also increase greatly.

  2. Analysis the dynamic response of earth dam in free vibration and forced by introducing the effect of the interaction dam foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Boumaiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the analysis of the dynamic response of earth dam, in free and forced vibration (under the effect of earthquake using the finite element method. The analysis is carried out at the end of dam construction without filling. The behavior of the dam materials and the foundation is linear elastic. In free vibration, to better understand the effect of the dam foundation interaction, we will take into account different site conditions and see their influence on the free vibration characteristics of the dam. In forced vibration, to study the seismic response of the dam, the system is subjected to the acceleration of the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21, 2003 recorded at the station n ° 2 of the dam of Kaddara in the base, with a parametric study taking into account the influence of the main parameters such as the mechanical properties of the soil: rigidity, density.

  3. User's Guide: Arch Dam Stress Analysis System (ADSAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... ADSAS assumes linear elastic behavior for the entire dam, i.e. the dam is assumed to support the computed tensile stresses within the concrete mass and across the monolith joints without cracking or opening the joints...

  4. DEA Window Analysis for Measuring Port Efficiencies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Pjevčević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method in measuring and analyzing the efficiencies of ports on the river Danube. DEA window analysis is used to determine the efficiency of ports and to observe the possibility of changes in the port efficiency over time. A study is conducted to evaluate the efficiencies of ports on the territory of Serbia in order to identify the sources of inefficiencies and formulate proposals for improving the services of those ports and their operations through a four-year window analysis with port efficiency trends and average efficiencies. The progress is made in the measurement of port efficiency in relation to port productive activities - total area of warehouses, quay length, number of cranes and port throughput, for the Serbian river ports. Keywords: river ports, total area of warehouses, quay length, number of cranes, port throughput, port efficiency, DEA window analysis

  5. Earthquake induced liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fill dam, which is part of Tendaho Dam and Irrigation Project; the largest irrigation project in Ethiopia to date. The dam is located in the most seismic part of Ethiopia and was originally designed to be founded on potentially liquefiable alluvium ...

  6. Potential Risk Analysis of Tailings Dam under Preloading Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for mine production safety to ensure the stability of the tailings dam. Taking a flatland tailings pond as the background, a threedimensional computational model was built based on a tailings dam under mullock heap preloading condition. Considering the current operating water level conditions, a liquid-solid coupling analysis of the model was conducted.The deformation characteristics of the tailings dam were revealed during successive preloading at the front of the dam. The safety factor and the potential slide face of the tailings dam were calculated under different conditions using the strength reduction method. The results show that the tailings dam in its current condition is basically stable, but if the mullock heap continues to be heightened, the tailings dam will become unstable. Therefore, in order to limit the height of the mullock heap, establishing a monitor and early warning mechanism are put forward to ensure mine production safety.

  7. Review Article: Numerical analysis of the seismic behaviour of earth dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Parish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The behaviour of both the shell and core of the dam is described using the simple and popular non associated Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The use of this constitutive model is justified by the difficulty to obtain constitutive parameters for more advanced constitutive relations including isotropic and kinematic hardening. Analyses with real earthquake records show that the seismic loading induces plasticity in a large part of the shell and in the lower part of the core. Analysis shows that plasticity should be considered in the analysis of the seismic response of the dam, because it leads to a decrease in the natural frequencies of the dam together to energy dissipation, which could significantly affect the seismic response of the dam. Plastic analysis constitutes also a good tool for the verification of the stability of the dam under seismic loading.

  8. Numerical analysis of the construction of Odelouca Dam using a Subloading Surface Soil Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.

    2014-01-01

    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil, and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca dam construction. In this analysis the explicit finite difference program FLAC is used. An unconventional elastoplastic soil model, a Subloadin...

  9. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS ON SEEPAGE AND STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF EARTH-ROCK DAM: A CASE STUDY OF XIQUANYAN DAM IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing GUO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth-rock dam is commonly used in the high-dam engineering around the world. It has been widely accepted that the analysis on structural and seepage stability plays a very important role, and it is necessary to take into account while designing the earth-rock dam. In performing the analysis of structural and seepage stability, many remarkable methods are available at current stage. However, there are still some important issues remaining unsolved, including: (1 Finite element methods (FEMs is a means of solutions to analysis seepage process, but it is often a difficult task to determine the so-called seepage coefficient, because the common-used water injection test is limited in the practical work due to the high cost and complex procedure. (2 It has long been discussed that the key parameters for structural stability analysis show a significant spatial and temporal variations. It may be partly explained by the inhomogeneous dam-filling during construction work and the developing seepage process. The consequence is that one constant value of the parameter cannot represent the above variations. In this context, we solve the above issues and introduce the solution with a practical earth-rock dam project. For determining the seepage coefficient, the data from the piezo metric tube is used to calculate the potential value, based on which the seepage coefficient can be back-analysed. Then the seepage field, as well as the seepage stability are numerically analysed using the FEM-based SEEP/W program. As to the structural safety, we take into account the spatial and temporal variations of the key parameters, and incorporate the Monte-Carlo simulation method into the commonly used M-P method to calculate the frequency distribution of the obtained structural safety factor. In this way, the structural and seepage safety can be well analysed. This study is also beneficial to provide a mature method and a theoretical insight into the earth-rock dam design

  10. Advances in survey monitoring and deformation analysis of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teskey, W.F.; Biacs, Z.; Ingraham, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Survey monitoring is an important method of determining the deformation behavior of structures such as dams. The deformation survey monitoring method used by Alberta Environment is designed to be able to detect horizontal movement in the order of 1.5 cm and vertical movement in the order of 0.5 cm. Using computer simulation, reference and observation points are varied to enable precisions of less than 1 cm at a 95% confidence level. Reference network points are pillars of 20 cm diameter steel pipe driven to refusal, which protrude above ground level to a comfortable instrument height of 1.5 m. Object points are 3 m long, 5 cm diameter steel pipes fitted with a helix base and drilled flush with ground level. Data processing is completely automated from data collection to preparation of report plots, using a microcomputer. If suitable procedures are followed, trigonometric (trig) leveling can replace spirit leveling in deformation surveys. Trig leveling can be used to determine heights of inaccessible points impossible to determine with spirit leveling, and allows totally automated data collection. An example is provided of application of the technique to deformation analysis of the Paddle River Dam situated north of Edmonton. 8 refs., 3 figs

  11. Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction based on ecological network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shaoqing; Fath, Brian D.; Chen, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Dam construction is regarded as one of the major factors contributing to significant modifications of the river ecosystems, and the ecological risk (ER) assessment of dam construction has received growing attention in recent years. In the present study, we explored the potential ecological risk caused by dam project based on the general principles of the ecological risk assessment. Ecological network analysis was proposed as the usable analytic method for the implement of ecological risk asse...

  12. Comparison of HEC-RAS with FLDWAV and DAMBRK models for dam break analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, R.D.; Judge, D.G.; Donnelly, C.R. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Dam break analysis is conducted as a routine dam safety assessment in determining the incremental hazard potential (IHP) that would occur in the event of a dam failure. Dam safety analysis also provides the information needed to make flood inundation maps and emergency preparedness plans (EPP) for dams that present a risk to human safety. For several years, the standard programs that have been used by the national weather service (NWS) for dam break flood simulation were the FLDWAV and DAMBRK models. However, another popular hydraulic model has been introduced. The HEC-RAS is an upgraded version of the former HEC-2 model used for the assessment of river floodplain inundation. A dam break analysis module has been added to HEC-2 and renamed the HEC-RAS which offers similar modeling capabilities to the DAMBRK and FLDWAV models for simulating flood hydrographs and flood wave propagation in river channels located downstream of a breached dam. The use of the alternative HEC-RAS could save time and resources. As such, it has the potential to replace the FLDWAV and DAMBRK. This paper compares the HEC-RAS dam break module with the FLDWAV and DAMBRK to determine if the new module accurately represents the dam break flood process. The comparison focuses on the theoretical background of the models, numerical solution techniques, ease of use of the module, modeling accuracy, practical aspects in performing dam break simulations, and capability for coupling the models with GIS for inundation mapping. The advantages and disadvantages of each model were summarized. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  14. Stability Analysis Of Earth Dam Slopes Subjected To Earthquake Using ERT Results Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Andi Suryo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth Dam stability can be affected significantly by the existence of excessive leakage. This is due to decreasing of shear strength of the dam material and additional overturning moment. In such scenario, the non-destructive soil investigation method is needed to analyze the stability of earth dam in current condition. This paper examines the use of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT to investigate soil layers and to measure parameters of soil shear strength indirectly. First survey was carried out at dam crest and downstream using Wenner Configuration along profile lines at electrode spacing of 5 m. There were 5 profile lines of 180m long each and 10m distance of spacing. Furthermore, two profiles lines at weak cross-section based on its resistivity soil values were undertaken. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine relationship between resistivity value, moisture content, cohesion and angle of friction for each type of dam materials. From the ERT results and lab testing, a model dam can be obtained using current material parameters to perform stability analysis of dam subjected to earthquake. The lowest FOS was found at the upstream side about 1.15 and at the downstream side about 1.14 after applying seismic load of 100 years return period. Keywords: Stability Analysis, ERT,resistivity, leakage, dam

  15. Vulnerability of Karangkates dams area by means of zero crossing analysis of data magnetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaryo,, E-mail: sunaryo@ub.ac.id, E-mail: sunaryo.geofis.ub@gmail.com; Susilo, Adi [Geophysics Program Study, Physics Dept., Sciences Faculty, University of Brawijaya, Malang (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Study with entitled Vulnerability Karangkates Dam Area By Means of Zero Crossing Analysis of Data Magnetic has been done. The study was aimed to obtain information on the vulnerability of two parts area of Karangkates dams, i.e. Lahor dam which was inaugurated in 1977 and Sutami dam inaugurated in 1981. Three important things reasons for this study are: 1). The dam age was 36 years old for Lahor dam and 32 years old for Sutami dam, 2). Geologically, the location of the dams are closed together to the Pohgajih local shear fault, Selorejo local fault, and Selorejo limestone-andesite rocks contact plane, and 3). Karangkates dams is one of the important Hydro Power Plant PLTA with the generating power of about 400 million KWH per year from a total of about 29.373MW installed in Indonesia. Geographically, the magnetic data acquisition was conducted at coordinates (112.4149oE;-8.2028oS) to (112.4839oE;-8.0989oS) by using Proton Precession Magnetometer G-856. Magnetic Data acquisition was conducted in the radial direction from the dams with diameter of about 10 km and the distance between the measurements about 500m. The magnetic data acquisition obtained the distribution of total magnetic field value in the range of 45800 nT to 44450 nT. Residual anomalies obtained by doing some corrections, including diurnal correction, International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) correction, and reductions so carried out the distribution of the total magnetic field value in the range of -650 nT to 700 nT. Based on the residual anomalies, indicate the presence of 2 zones of closed closures dipole pairs at located in the west of the Sutami dam and the northwest of the Lahor dam from 5 total zones. Overlapping on the local geological map indicated the lineament of zero crossing patterns in the contour of residual anomaly contour with the Pohgajih shear fault where located at about 4 km to the west of the Sutami dam approximately and andesite-limestone rocks contact where located

  16. Simulation analysis of temperature control on RCC arch dam of hydropower station

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIA, Shi-fa

    2017-12-01

    The temperature analysis of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam plays an important role in their design and construction. Based on three-dimensional finite element method, in the computation of temperature field, many cases are included, such as air temperature, elevated temperature by cement hydration heat, concrete temperature during placing, the influence of water in the reservoir, and boundary temperature. According to the corresponding parameters of RCC arch dam, the analysis of temperature field and stress field during the period of construction and operation is performed. The study demonstrates that detailed thermal stress analysis should be performed for RCC dams to provide a basis to minimize and control the occurrence of thermal cracking.

  17. Application of the Periodic Average System Model in Dam Deformation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqian Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dams are among the most important hydraulic engineering facilities used for water supply, flood control, and hydroelectric power. Monitoring of dams is crucial since deformation might have occurred. How to obtain the deformation information and then judge the safe conditions is the key and difficult problem in dam deformation monitoring field. This paper proposes the periodic average system model and creates the concept of “settlement activity” based on the dam deformation issue. Long-term deformation monitoring data is carried out in a pumped-storage power station, this model combined with settlement activity is used to make the single point deformation analysis, and then the whole settlement activity profile is drawn by clustering analysis. Considering the cumulative settlement value of every point, the dam deformation trend is analyzed in an intuitive effect way. The analysis mode of combined single point with multipoints is realized. The results show that the key deformation information of the dam can be easily grasped by the application of the periodic average system model combined with the distribution diagram of settlement activity. And, above all, the ideas of this research provide an effective method for dam deformation analysis.

  18. Windowed Multitaper Correlation Analysis of Multimodal Brain Monitoring Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Faltermeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although multimodal monitoring sets the standard in daily practice of neurocritical care, problem-oriented analysis tools to interpret the huge amount of data are lacking. Recently a mathematical model was presented that simulates the cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply in case of a severe head trauma, predicting the appearance of distinct correlations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. In this study we present a set of mathematical tools that reliably detect the predicted correlations in data recorded at a neurocritical care unit. The time resolved correlations will be identified by a windowing technique combined with Fourier-based coherence calculations. The phasing of the data is detected by means of Hilbert phase difference within the above mentioned windows. A statistical testing method is introduced that allows tuning the parameters of the windowing method in such a way that a predefined accuracy is reached. With this method the data of fifteen patients were examined in which we found the predicted correlation in each patient. Additionally it could be shown that the occurrence of a distinct correlation parameter, called scp, represents a predictive value of high quality for the patients outcome.

  19. Windowed multitaper correlation analysis of multimodal brain monitoring parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltermeier, Rupert; Proescholdt, Martin A; Bele, Sylvia; Brawanski, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Although multimodal monitoring sets the standard in daily practice of neurocritical care, problem-oriented analysis tools to interpret the huge amount of data are lacking. Recently a mathematical model was presented that simulates the cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply in case of a severe head trauma, predicting the appearance of distinct correlations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. In this study we present a set of mathematical tools that reliably detect the predicted correlations in data recorded at a neurocritical care unit. The time resolved correlations will be identified by a windowing technique combined with Fourier-based coherence calculations. The phasing of the data is detected by means of Hilbert phase difference within the above mentioned windows. A statistical testing method is introduced that allows tuning the parameters of the windowing method in such a way that a predefined accuracy is reached. With this method the data of fifteen patients were examined in which we found the predicted correlation in each patient. Additionally it could be shown that the occurrence of a distinct correlation parameter, called scp, represents a predictive value of high quality for the patients outcome.

  20. Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu

    2016-01-01

    Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value.

  1. Gamma spectrum analysis including NAA with SAMPO for Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Nikkinen, M.T.; Routti, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    SAMPO for Windows is a high performance gamma spectrum analysis program. All the measurement, analysis and NAA phases can be done either under full interactive use control or user defined tasks can be used for automated measurement and analysis sequences including control of MCAs and sample changers. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy together with the possibility to resolve complex multiplets with high accuracy makes SAMPO very suitable for INAA. On the other hand, the possibility to automate analysis sequences allows it use effectively also in all routine NAA measurements. NAA in SAMPO is accomplished using comparative methods. Spectra of standards, flux monitors, controls and actual samples are analyzed normally to obtain the peak areas which are optionally corrected for decay. In the comparison the flux monitor results are used to correct for variations in the effective neutron flux. An optional irradiation position correction can also be applied. The controls are used to alarm for possible deviations in the results. The sophisticated spectrum analysis methods used together with the comparative NAA and monitors give accurate results limited by the systematic effects only. The Windows environment provides ease of use and further processing power is available through the interface to expert system identification of nuclides. (author) 19 refs.; 1 tab

  2. study and analysis of asa river hypothetical dam break using hec-ras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    outcome of the analysis showed that in the event of such failure of Asa dam, some areas which include industrial and residential .... Road Bridge (Coca Cola Axis). (iv) Stretch ..... Solutions and Case Studies, WIT Press, Southampton,. Boston ...

  3. Visual gamma-ray analysis. VIPF program (WINDOW 95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    VIsual Peak Fitting (VIPF) program for the analysis of gamma radiation peaks from Ge detectors which works on WINDOWS 95 as an operating system has been developed. Gamma-ray peaks are simulated as Gauss function with 1st- or 2nd-order polynomial function for the background spectrum. Any function can be further added to for parameter fitting. The VIPF program can be obtained through internet by down-loading: http://w3.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~yamada. Details of the program procedure, explanation of the fitting function to be used and peak search routine, and manuals of the code are given. (Ohno, S.)

  4. Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Distribution in Arch Dams considering Solar Radiation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzabozorg, H.; Hariri-Ardebili, M. A.; Shirkhan, M.; Seyed-Kolbadi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation on thermal distribution in thin high arch dams is investigated. The differential equation governing thermal behavior of mass concrete in three-dimensional space is solved applying appropriate boundary conditions. Solar radiation is implemented considering the dam face direction relative to the sun, the slop relative to horizon, the region cloud cover, and the surrounding topography. It has been observed that solar radiation changes the surface temperature drastically and leads to nonuniform temperature distribution. Solar radiation effects should be considered in thermal transient analysis of thin arch dams. PMID:24695817

  5. Mathematical modeling and numerical analysis of thermal distribution in arch dams considering solar radiation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzabozorg, H; Hariri-Ardebili, M A; Shirkhan, M; Seyed-Kolbadi, S M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation on thermal distribution in thin high arch dams is investigated. The differential equation governing thermal behavior of mass concrete in three-dimensional space is solved applying appropriate boundary conditions. Solar radiation is implemented considering the dam face direction relative to the sun, the slop relative to horizon, the region cloud cover, and the surrounding topography. It has been observed that solar radiation changes the surface temperature drastically and leads to nonuniform temperature distribution. Solar radiation effects should be considered in thermal transient analysis of thin arch dams.

  6. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

  7. Stress distributions in finite element analysis of concrete gravity dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravity dams are solid structures built of mass concrete material; they maintain their stability against the design loads from the geometric shape, the mass, and the strength of the concrete. The model was meshed with an 8-node biquadratic plane strain quadrilateral (CPE8R) elements, using ABAQUS, a finite element ...

  8. Fracture analysis of concrete gravity dam under earthquake induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, seismic fracture behavior of the concrete gravity dam using finite element (2D) theory has been studied. Bazant model which is non-linear fracture mechanics criteria as a measure of growth and smeared crack was chosen to develop profiles of the crack. Behavior of stress - strain curves of concrete as a ...

  9. Design windows and cost analysis on helical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Y.; Imagawa, S.; Sagara, A.

    2007-01-01

    The LHD type helical reactors are characterized by a large major radius but slender helical coil, which give us different approaches for power plants from tokamak reactors. For searching design windows of helical reactors and discussing their potential as power plants, we have developed a mass-cost estimating model linked with system design code (HeliCos), thorough studying the relationships between major plasma parameters and reactor parameters, and weight of major components. In regard to cost data we have much experience through preparing ITER construction. To compare the weight and cost of magnet systems between tokamak and helical reactors, we broke down magnet systems and cost factors, such as weights of super conducting strands, conduits, support structures, and winding unit costs, through estimating ITER cost data basis. Based on FFHR2m1 deign we considered a typical 3 GWth helical plant (LHD type) with the same magnet size, coil major radius Rc 14 m, magnetic energy 120 GJ, but increasing plasma densities. We evaluated the weight and cost of magnet systems of 3 GWth helical plant, the total magnet weights of 16,000ton and costs of 210 BYen, which are similar values of tokamak reactors (10,200 ton, 110 BYen in ITER 2002 report, and 21,900 ton, 275 BYen in ITER FDR1999). The costs of strands and winding occupy 70% of total magnet costs, and influence entire power plants economics. The design windows analysis and comparative economics studies to optimize the main reactor parameters have been carried out. Economics studies show that it is misunderstanding to consider helical coils are too large and too expensive to achieve power plants. But we should notice that the helical reactor design windows and economics are very sensitive to allowable blanket space (depend on ergodic layer conditions) and diverter configuration for decreasing heat loads. (orig.)

  10. The social impacts of dams: A new framework for scholarly analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchherr, Julian, E-mail: julian.kirchherr@sant.ox.ac.uk; Charles, Katrina J., E-mail: katrina.charles@ouce.ox.ac.uk

    2016-09-15

    No commonly used framework exists in the scholarly study of the social impacts of dams. This hinders comparisons of analyses and thus the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to unify scholarly understanding of dams' social impacts via the analysis and aggregation of the various frameworks currently used in the scholarly literature. For this purpose, we have systematically analyzed and aggregated 27 frameworks employed by academics analyzing dams' social impacts (found in a set of 217 articles). A key finding of the analysis is that currently used frameworks are often not specific to dams and thus omit key impacts associated with them. The result of our analysis and aggregation is a new framework for scholarly analysis (which we call ‘matrix framework’) specifically on dams' social impacts, with space, time and value as its key dimensions as well as infrastructure, community and livelihood as its key components. Building on the scholarly understanding of this topic enables us to conceptualize the inherently complex and multidimensional issues of dams' social impacts in a holistic manner. If commonly employed in academia (and possibly in practice), this framework would enable more transparent assessment and comparison of projects.

  11. The social impacts of dams: A new framework for scholarly analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.

    2016-01-01

    No commonly used framework exists in the scholarly study of the social impacts of dams. This hinders comparisons of analyses and thus the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to unify scholarly understanding of dams' social impacts via the analysis and aggregation of the various frameworks currently used in the scholarly literature. For this purpose, we have systematically analyzed and aggregated 27 frameworks employed by academics analyzing dams' social impacts (found in a set of 217 articles). A key finding of the analysis is that currently used frameworks are often not specific to dams and thus omit key impacts associated with them. The result of our analysis and aggregation is a new framework for scholarly analysis (which we call ‘matrix framework’) specifically on dams' social impacts, with space, time and value as its key dimensions as well as infrastructure, community and livelihood as its key components. Building on the scholarly understanding of this topic enables us to conceptualize the inherently complex and multidimensional issues of dams' social impacts in a holistic manner. If commonly employed in academia (and possibly in practice), this framework would enable more transparent assessment and comparison of projects.

  12. SINEX: SCALE shielding analysis GUI for X-Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browman, S.M.; Barnett, D.L.

    1997-12-01

    SINEX (SCALE Interface Environment for X-windows) is an X-Windows graphical user interface (GUI), that is being developed for performing SCALE radiation shielding analyses. SINEX enables the user to generate input for the SAS4/MORSE and QADS/QAD-CGGP shielding analysis sequences in SCALE. The code features will facilitate the use of both analytical sequences with a minimum of additional user input. Included in SINEX is the capability to check the geometry model by generating two-dimensional (2-D) color plots of the geometry model using a new version of the SCALE module, PICTURE. The most sophisticated feature, however, is the 2-D visualization display that provides a graphical representation on screen as the user builds a geometry model. This capability to interactively build a model will significantly increase user productivity and reduce user errors. SINEX will perform extensive error checking and will allow users to execute SCALE directly from the GUI. The interface will also provide direct on-line access to the SCALE manual

  13. Strength analysis of welded corners of PVC window profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, P.; Stachowiak, T.; Gnatowski, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of researches which main purpose was to define the influence of welding parameters on strength of welded corners of PVC window profile. PVC profiles of a branded name GENEO® produced by Rehau Company were used for this research. The profiles were made by using a co-extrusion method. The surface of the profile was made of PVC mixture with no additives. Its main task was to get a smooth surface resistant to a smudge. The use of an unfilled polyester provides an aesthetic look and improves the resistance of extrudate to water getting into inner layers. The profile's inner layers have been filled up with glass fibre in order to improve its stiffness and mechanical properties. Window frames with cut corners used for this research, were produced on technological line of EUROCOLOR Company based in Pyskowice (Poland). The main goal of this analysis was to evaluate the influence of the main welding parameter (temperature upsetting) on hardness of welds we received in whole process. A universal testing machine was used for the research.

  14. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  15. Simple estimating method of damages of concrete gravity dam based on linear dynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.; Kanenawa, K.; Yamaguchi, Y. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Hydraulic Engineering Research Group

    2004-07-01

    Due to the occurrence of large earthquakes like the Kobe Earthquake in 1995, there is a strong need to verify seismic resistance of dams against much larger earthquake motions than those considered in the present design standard in Japan. Problems exist in using nonlinear analysis to evaluate the safety of dams including: that the influence which the set material properties have on the results of nonlinear analysis is large, and that the results of nonlinear analysis differ greatly according to the damage estimation models or analysis programs. This paper reports the evaluation indices based on a linear dynamic analysis method and the characteristics of the progress of cracks in concrete gravity dams with different shapes using a nonlinear dynamic analysis method. The study concludes that if simple linear dynamic analysis is appropriately conducted to estimate tensile stress at potential locations of initiating cracks, the damage due to cracks would be predicted roughly. 4 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  16. Small Displacement Coupled Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam Foundations: Static and Dynamic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Maria Luísa Braga; Azevedo, Nuno Monteiro; Candeias, Mariline

    2017-02-01

    The explicit formulation of a small displacement model for the coupled hydro-mechanical analysis of concrete gravity dam foundations based on joint finite elements is presented. The proposed coupled model requires a thorough pre-processing stage in order to ensure that the interaction between the various blocks which represent both the rock mass foundation and the dam is always edge to edge. The mechanical part of the model, though limited to small displacements, has the advantage of allowing an accurate representation of the stress distribution along the interfaces, such as rock mass joints. The hydraulic part and the mechanical part of the model are fully compatible. The coupled model is validated using a real case of a dam in operation, by comparison of the results with those obtained with a large displacement discrete model. It is shown that it is possible to assess the sliding stability of concrete gravity dams using small displacement models under both static and dynamic conditions.

  17. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1987-06-01

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined

  18. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torabi Kaveh Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic
    analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2 was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  19. Universal spectrum data analysis program for microsoft windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, F.; Cai, Z.; Wang, H.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a universal spectrum analysis and characterization program the Microsoft Windows environment. This sophisticated and easy to use software package can be employed in many areas for spectra data analysis, parametrization and line profile recognition. Spectra can for example be smoothed, calibrated and transformed from the laboratory frame to the projectile frame and background can be subtracted by using cubic spline functions or exponential functions. Up to 10 peaks and 40 different parameters can be fitted simultaneously either automatically by least squares routines or manually by system interactive devices. Line profiles include triangular, Gaussian, Lorentzian, Fano, Shore, post collisonal interactions functions etc., and also can be easily expanded to virtually any nonlinear fitting function. In addition, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines allow users to convolute, deconvolute or Fourier analyze complex spectral patterns. Specifically this program has been applied for high resolution electron- and photon emission spectra following electron or ion collision with gaseous targets. Some examples for data evaluation will be presented

  20. Advances on the Failure Analysis of the Dam—Foundation Interface of Concrete Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Altarejos-García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Failure analysis of the dam-foundation interface in concrete dams is characterized by complexity, uncertainties on models and parameters, and a strong non-linear softening behavior. In practice, these uncertainties are dealt with a well-structured mixture of experience, best practices and prudent, conservative design approaches based on the safety factor concept. Yet, a sound, deep knowledge of some aspects of this failure mode remain unveiled, as they have been offset in practical applications by the use of this conservative approach. In this paper we show a strategy to analyse this failure mode under a reliability-based approach. The proposed methodology of analysis integrates epistemic uncertainty on spatial variability of strength parameters and data from dam monitoring. The purpose is to produce meaningful and useful information regarding the probability of occurrence of this failure mode that can be incorporated in risk-informed dam safety reviews. In addition, relationships between probability of failure and factors of safety are obtained. This research is supported by a more than a decade of intensive professional practice on real world cases and its final purpose is to bring some clarity, guidance and to contribute to the improvement of current knowledge and best practices on such an important dam safety concern.

  1. PRINCIPAL STRESSES IN NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF BAKUN CONCRETE FACED ROCKFILL DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hilton Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With rapid population growth and accelerating economic development, much of the world’s WATER which requires urgent attention to ensure sustainable use. Nowadays, Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam (CFRD is preferred among dam consultant due to its advantages. They are designed to withstand all applied loads; namely gravity load due to its massive weight and hydrostatic load due to water thrust from the reservoir. Bakun CFRD, which ranks as the second highest CFRD in the world when completed, is analyzed to its safety due to both loads mentioned earlier by using Finite Element Method. 2-D plane strain finite element analysis of non-linear Duncan-Chang hyperbolic Model which formulated by Duncan and Chang is used to study the structural response of the dam in respect to the deformation and stresses of Main dam of Bakun’s CFRD project. Dead-Birth-Ghost element technique was used to simulate sequences of construction of the dam as well as during reservoir fillings. The comparison of rigid and flexible foundation on the behaviour of the dam was discussed. The maximum and minimum principal stresses are the maximum and minimum possible values of the normal stresses. The maximum principal stress controls brittle fracture. In the finite element modeling the concrete slab on the upstream was represented through six-noded element, while the interface characteristic between dam body and concrete slab was modeled using interface element. The maximum settlement and stresses of the cross section was founded and the distribution of them were discussed and tabulated in form of contours.

  2. SCENARIO OF AN ACCIDENT OF SOIL DAMS IN CASE OF WATER SPILL OVER A DAM CREST BY USING FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Dmitriy Viktorovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of a hydrodynamic accident of water flow over a crest of a soil dam is considered by the method of fault tree analysis, for which the basic reasons and controlled diagnostic indicators of an accident have been defined. Logical operators “AND”/”OR” were used for creation of a sequence of logically connected events, leading to an undesired event in the scenario of accident. The scenario of the accident was plotted in case of three basic reasons - an excessive settling of a dam crest, an excess flood, an inoperable spillway, taking into account the sequence of the events’ development and with observance of the necessary conditions leading to an accident. “Technical” reasons were observed in the present scenario, force majeure events were not considered. The provided scenario of the accident consists of two branches of events’ development: the left one that depends on an upstream level, and the right one that depends on settling of a dam crest. In each of the considered events an accident “the water spill over a crest of a soil dam” is possible only in case of execution of two different conditions at the same time, i.e. in case of an appropriate upstream level and the appropriate mark of a crest of a soil dam. The conditions of the accident are defined by diagnostic indices - the upstream level and settling of a dam crest, which at the same time are safety criteria of the hydraulic structure for soil dams. They allow defining the technical condition of the construction. Four possible technical conditions are suggested for the definition of technical statuses - normative, operable, limited operable, abnormal. Criteria of safety are the boundaries of the state: for loading and impact - it is the upstream level, for geometrical compliance of the construction - it is a dam crest mark.

  3. Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California: Summary of Fieldwork and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Geophysical field investigations have been carried out at the Hidden Dam in Raymond, California for the purpose of better understanding the hydrogeology and seepage-related conditions at the site. Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam are documented by Cedergren. Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a subdrain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain within the downstream portion of the dam. The purpose of the current geophysical work is to (1) identify present-day seepage areas that may not be evident due to the effectiveness of the drainage blanket in redirecting seepage water, and (2) provide information about subsurface geologic structures that may control subsurface flow and seepage. These tasks are accomplished through the use of two complementary electrical geophysical methods, self-potentials (SP) and direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity, which have been commonly utilized in dam-seepage studies. SP is a passive method that is primarily sensitive to active subsurface groundwater flow and seepage, whereas DC resistivity is an active-source method that is sensitive to changes in subsurface lithology and groundwater saturation. The focus of this field campaign was on the downstream area on the right abutment, or northwest side of the dam, as this is the main area of interest regarding seepage. Two exploratory self-potential lines were also collected on the downstream left abutment of the dam to identify

  4. Qu'Appelle River Dam, dam break analysis using advanced GIS tools for rapid modelling and inundation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, D. [Hatch Energy, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Campbell, C. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Moose Jaw, SK (Canada); Groeneveld, J. [Hatch Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The South Saskatchewan River Project (SSRP) comprises a multi-purpose reservoir that provides water for conservation and irrigation, flood control, power generation, recreation, and municipal and industrial water supply. In addition to the 64 m high Gardiner Dam, the 27 m high Qu'Appelle River Dam and the 22 km long Lake Diefenbaker Reservoir, the SSRP also includes ancillary works. The Qu'Appelle River valley extends for 458 km before connecting to the Assiniboine River. The valley is incised up to 90 m in depth and is a popular cottaging and recreational area with several major communities located in the flood plain. In the event of a breach of the Qu'Appelle Dam, the discharge will increase from a normal maximum discharge of under 60 m{sup 3} per second to over 50,000 m{sup 3} per second. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority (SWA) is responsible for ensuring safe development of the Province's water resources, without affecting reservoir or lake operations, and preventing damage from flooding, erosion or land slides. It is in the process of developing Hazard Assessments and emergency preparedness plans for each of their dams in accordance with the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines. Studies using GIS technology and the hydrodynamic routing model HEC-RAS have been completed to evaluate the potential inundation that may result in the event of failure of the Qu'Appelle River Dam. These studies involved the development of a breach parameter model using a breach data set revised to better reflect the Qu'Appelle River Dam; the development of a dam break model for the Qu'Appelle River Dam and downstream river and flood plain; and, the use of this model to simulate two potential dam failure scenarios for the Qu'Appelle River Dam, notably failure during passage of the PMF and failure during fair weather conditions. Inundation maps have been prepared for the downstream Qu'Appelle River valley for each of the above events. 3 refs., 4

  5. SCENARIO OF AN ACCIDENT OF SOIL DAMS IN CASE OF WATER SPILL OVER A DAM CREST BY USING FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov Dmitriy Viktorovich

    2016-01-01

    The scenario of a hydrodynamic accident of water flow over a crest of a soil dam is considered by the method of fault tree analysis, for which the basic reasons and controlled diagnostic indicators of an accident have been defined. Logical operators “AND”/”OR” were used for creation of a sequence of logically connected events, leading to an undesired event in the scenario of accident. The scenario of the accident was plotted in case of three basic reasons - an excessive settling of a dam cres...

  6. 3-D Spatial Analysis of Deformation at Ikpoba Dam From GPS Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of the measurement data obtained by differential GPS at the Ikpoba River Dam was carried out. The measurement system consisted of 19 control and reference stations. DGPS data were collected during two measurement campaigns carried out in 2008 and 2009 respectively using five dual frequency ...

  7. Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, S.; Zlagnean, M.; Oancea, I.; Petrescu, A.

    2009-04-01

    dam's state of safety. This study considered the SSR (Shear Strength Reduction) technique for slope stability numerical modelling. In the SSR finite element technique, elasto-plastic strength is assumed for dam's materials and shear strengths are progressively reduced until collapse occurs. Numerical modelling was performed on the most critical profile choosed through analysis of geophysical and geotechnical informational volume achieved by insitu or in laboratory tests. Finite element analysis were considered in two situations: first, before geophysical investigations and second considering the whole informational of data achieved. Both situations were analysed in static and pseudo-static conditions. The factor of safety before geophysical investigations is high enough to describe a stable state of stability even for the seismic load. The total displacement distributions were modified by the presence of internal erosional element giving a high state of instability, especially for the pseudo-static case. These analysis using the finite element method prove the importance of structural disturbance elements that may occure inside the dam body produced by internal erosional processes.

  8. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references

  9. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references. (JFP)

  10. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M. M.; Bellmore, J. R.; O'Connor, J. E.; Duda, J. J.; East, A. E.; Grant, G. E.; Anderson, C. W.; Bountry, J. A.; Collins, M. J.; Connolly, P. J.; Craig, L. S.; Evans, J. E.; Greene, S. L.; Magilligan, F. J.; Magirl, C. S.; Major, J. J.; Pess, G. R.; Randle, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Torgersen, C. E.; Tullos, D.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  11. Habitat mosaics and path analysis can improve biological conservation of aquatic biodiversity in ecosystems with low-head dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M; Mather, Martha E; Smith, Joseph M; Fencl, Jane S

    2018-04-01

    Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers. Creation of lake-like habitats upstream of low-head dams is a well-documented major impact of dams. Alterations downstream of low head dams also have important consequences, but these downstream dam effects are more challenging to detect. In a multidisciplinary field study at five dammed and five undammed sites within the Neosho River basin, KS, we tested hypotheses about two types of habitat sampling (transect and mosaic) and two types of statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and path analysis). We used fish as our example of biodiversity alteration. Our research provided three insights that can aid environmental professionals who seek to conserve and restore fish biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems threatened by human modifications. First, a mosaic approach identified habitat alterations below low-head dams (e.g. increased proportion of riffles) that were not detected using the more commonly-used transect sampling approach. Second, the habitat mosaic approach illustrated how low-head dams reduced natural variation in stream habitat. Third, path analysis, a statistical approach that tests indirect effects, showed how dams, habitat, and fish biodiversity interact. Specifically, path analysis revealed that low-head dams increased the proportion of riffle habitat below dams, and, as a result, indirectly increased fish species richness. Furthermore, the pool habitat that was created above low-head dams dramatically decreased fish species richness

  12. Habitat mosaics and path analysis can improve biological conservation of aquatic biodiversity in ecosystems with low-head dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Fencl, Jane S.

    2018-01-01

    Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers. Creation of lake-like habitats upstream of low-head dams is a well-documented major impact of dams. Alterations downstream of low head dams also have important consequences, but these downstream dam effects are more challenging to detect. In a multidisciplinary field study at five dammed and five undammed sites within the Neosho River basin, KS, we tested hypotheses about two types of habitat sampling (transect and mosaic) and two types of statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and path analysis). We used fish as our example of biodiversity alteration. Our research provided three insights that can aid environmental professionals who seek to conserve and restore fish biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems threatened by human modifications. First, a mosaic approach identified habitat alterations below low-head dams (e.g. increased proportion of riffles) that were not detected using the more commonly-used transect sampling approach. Second, the habitat mosaic approach illustrated how low-head dams reduced natural variation in stream habitat. Third, path analysis, a statistical approach that tests indirect effects, showed how dams, habitat, and fish biodiversity interact. Specifically, path analysis revealed that low-head dams increased the proportion of riffle habitat below dams, and, as a result, indirectly increased fish species richness. Furthermore, the pool habitat that was created above low-head dams dramatically decreased fish species

  13. Spatial analysis based on variance of moving window averages

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V; Ferrandino, F J; Hao, J J

    2006-01-01

    A new method for analysing spatial patterns was designed based on the variance of moving window averages (VMWA), which can be directly calculated in geographical information systems or a spreadsheet program (e.g. MS Excel). Different types of artificial data were generated to test the method. Regardless of data types, the VMWA method correctly determined the mean cluster sizes. This method was also employed to assess spatial patterns in historical plant disease survey data encompassing both a...

  14. Evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on Consequence Estimation through Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Thames, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dam breach modeling often includes application of models that are sophisticated, yet computationally intensive to compute flood propagation at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This results in a significant need for computational capacity that requires development of newer flood models using multi-processor and graphics processing techniques. Recently, a comprehensive benchmark exercise titled the 12th Benchmark Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Dams, is organized by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) to evaluate the performance of these various tools used for dam break risk assessment. The ICOLD workshop is focused on estimating the consequences of failure of a hypothetical dam near a hypothetical populated area with complex demographics, and economic activity. The current study uses this hypothetical case study and focuses on evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on consequence estimation and analysis. The current study uses ICOLD hypothetical data including the topography, dam geometric and construction information, land use/land cover data along with socio-economic and demographic data. The objective of this study is to evaluate impacts of using four different dam breach methods on the consequence estimates used in the risk assessments. The four methodologies used are: i) Froehlich (1995), ii) MacDonald and Langridge-Monopolis 1984 (MLM), iii) Von Thun and Gillete 1990 (VTG), and iv) Froehlich (2008). To achieve this objective, three different modeling components were used. First, using the HEC-RAS v.4.1, dam breach discharge hydrographs are developed. These hydrographs are then provided as flow inputs into a two dimensional flood model named Flood2D-GPU, which leverages the computer's graphics card for much improved computational capabilities of the model input. Lastly, outputs from Flood2D-GPU, including inundated areas, depth grids, velocity grids, and flood wave arrival time grids, are input into HEC-FIA, which provides the

  15. Application of thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models of concrete in the seismic analysis of concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Fei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the seismic analysis of concrete dams with consideration of material nonlinearity. Based on a consistent rate-dependent model and two thermodynamics-based models, two thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models were developed with consideration of the influence of the strain rate. They can describe the dynamic behavior of concrete and be applied to nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete dams taking into account the rate sensitivity of concrete. With the two models, a nonlinear analysis of the seismic response of the Koyna Gravity Dam and the Dagangshan Arch Dam was conducted. The results were compared with those of a linear elastic model and two rate-independent thermodynamics-based constitutive models, and the influences of constitutive models and strain rate on the seismic response of concrete dams were discussed. It can be concluded from the analysis that, during seismic response, the tensile stress is the control stress in the design and seismic safety evaluation of concrete dams. In different models, the plastic strain and plastic strain rate of concrete dams show a similar distribution. When the influence of the strain rate is considered, the maximum plastic strain and plastic strain rate decrease.

  16. Probabilistic Analysis of Failures Mechanisms of Large Dams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shams Ghahfarokhi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is presently being performed in almost all fields of engineering depending upon the specific field and its particular area. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), also called quantitative risk analysis (QRA) is a central feature of hydraulic engineering structural design.

  17. WCGM. A gamma-spectrum analysis program rewritten in Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, G.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Introduction The original code was written in Fortran in 1985 and it worked mostly in batch mode. Later the code was redesigned in Pascal and several graphics tools were added. This version (called PGM) is still used, but the limits of MSDOS (memory, graphics, filename length, etc.) make it more and more obsolete. Because of these reasons the redesign of the code is started in order to be able to use it on the most frequently used operating systems, which are nowadays Windows XP and Windows 7. This paper describes the present state of this work and shows some new ways of the usage of the code. In the same time it invites the reader to visit the home page of the code in order to contribute to the further development. Data input Probably one of the main reasons why the original DOS code is still used is that a lot of input formats are accepted. The following short names identify the currently available input spectrum formats: 'ASCII', 'Binary', 'I-format', 'Jyvaeskylae', 'K-format', 'MCA', 'MCAtxt', 'MSI', 'NBI', 'Ortec', 'Oxford/ Nucleus', 'PCA9', 'Tukan'. The most simple ones (ASCII, Binary) contain only the counts of the gamma spectrum, but the more sophisticated ones (I-format, Tukan) also include data for the energy, resolution and efficiency calibrations. The user can choose different levels of interaction during the input process. One can put everything to a control data file and tell the code to use it, or one can manually find the input spectrum and the calibration data during running the code. Spectrum processing After reading the input data the whole spectrum is shown in the main window. To find the peak positions one can use 'Process| Automatic peak search' menu item to scan the displayed interval of the spectrum and assign the peaks with black vertical lines, which were selected by the built-in algorithm. Then the user can fine tune this peak set by manually insert or remove peaks, with the help of the right hand

  18. A new view on dam lines in Polish Arabian horses based on mtDNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sell Jerzy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polish Arabian horses are one of the oldest and the most important Arab populations in the world. The Polish Arabian Stud Book and the Genealogical Charts by Skorkowski are the main sources of information on the ancestors of Polish Arabs. Both publications were viewed as credible sources of information until the 1990s when the data regarding one of the dam lines was questioned. The aim of the current study was to check the accuracy of the pedigree data of Polish dam lines using mtDNA analysis. The analyses of a 458 bp mtDNA D-loop fragment from representatives of 15 Polish Arabian dam lines revealed 14 distinct haplotypes. The results were inconsistent with pedigree data in the case of two lines. A detailed analysis of the historical sources was performed to explain these discrepancies. Our study revealed that representatives of different lines shared the same haplotypes. We also noted a genetic identity between some lines founded by Polish mares of unknown origin and lines established by desert-bred mares.

  19. Iterative analysis of concrete gravity dam-nonlinear foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solution of the coupled system is accomplished by solving the two systems separately and then considering the interaction effects at the soil–structure interface enforced by a developed iterative scheme. Emphasis has been laid on the study of material nonlinearity of the foundation material in the interaction analysis.

  20. Monitoring As A Helpful Means In Forensic Analysis Of Dams Static Instability Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring is a means of controlling the behavior of a structure, which during its operational life is subject to external actions as ordinary loading conditions and disturbing ones; these factors overlap with the random manner defined by the statistical parameter of the return period. The analysis of the monitoring data is crucial to gain a reasoned opinion on the reliability of the structure and its components, and also allows to identify, in the overall operational scenario, the time when preparing interventions aimed at maintaining the optimum levels of functionality and safety. The concept of monitoring in terms of prevention is coupled with the activity of Forensic Engineer who, by Judiciary appointment for the occurrence of an accident, turns its experience -the "Scientific knowledge"- in an "inverse analysis" in which he summed up the results of a survey, which also draws on data sets arising in the course of the constant control of the causes and effects, so to determine the correlations between these factors. His activity aims at giving a contribution to the identification of the typicality of an event, which represents, together with "causal link" between the conduct and events and contra-juridical, the factors judging if there an hypothesis of crime, and therefore liable according to law. In Italy there are about 10,000 dams of varying sizes, but only a small portion of them are considered "large dams" and subjected to a rigorous program of regular inspections and monitoring, in application of specific rules. The rest -"small" dams, conventionally defined as such by the standard, but not for the impact on the area- is affected by a heterogeneous response from the local authorities entrusted with this task: there is therefore a high potential risk scenario, as determined by the presence of not completely controlled structures that insist even on areas heavily populated. Risk can be traced back to acceptable levels if they were implemented with the

  1. Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 8 for Windows a guide for social scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bryman, Alan

    2002-01-01

    The latest edition of this best-selling introduction to Quantitative Data Analysis through the use of a computer package has been completely updated to accommodate the needs of users of SPSS Release 8 for Windows. Like its predecessor, it provides a non-technical approach to quantitative data analysis and a user-friendly introduction to the widely used SPSS for Windows. It assumes no previous familiarity with either statistics or computing but takes the reader step-by-step through the techniques, reinforced by exercises for further practice. Techniques explained in Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 8 for Windows include: * correlation * simple and multiple regression * multivariate analysis of variance and covariance * factor analysis The book also covers issues such as sampling, statistical significance, conceptualization and measurement and the selection of appropriate tests. For further information or to download the book's datasets, please visit the webstite: http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/...

  2. Methodology for Risk Analysis of Dam Gates and Associated Operating Equipment Using Fault Tree Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patev, Robert C; Putcha, Chandra; Foltz, Stuart D

    2005-01-01

    .... This report summarizes research on methodologies to assist in quantifying risks related to dam gates and associated operating equipment, and how those risks relate to overall spillway failure risk...

  3. Three-dimensional analysis of a vacuum window connected to waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, as the experimental tokamak-type system for nuclear fusion has become larger, the additional heating system by microwave power has become more and more important. In this heating system the pillbox-type vacuum window is arranged for isolation, but discharge by local concentration of the electric field and destruction by local heating in this window are becoming serious problems. So far designing the system of the vacuum window and deciding on the matching condition, it is indispensable to know exactly the characteristics of the electromagnetic field. But the electromagnetic field inside such a system is very complicated because of its three-dimensional structure with various medium conditions. For the analysis of this complicated field numerical methods are generally known to be useful. The analysis by Bergeron's method has been shown to be effective for problems of this type involving complex boundary and medium conditions in three-dimensional space. In this paper, the authors show Bergeron's formulation of the pillbox-type vacuum window system and the fundamental characteristics of the electromagnetic field within this system. For an effective additional heating system in the experimental tokamak-type system the pillbox-type vacuum window is proposed to isolate each part. In this paper, the authors describe Bergeron's formulation of the pillbox-type vacuum window connected to cylindrical waveguides and show the fundamental characteristics of the electromagnetic field within this system

  4. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2012-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum

  5. Numerical analysis of the feasibility of a beam window for TEF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Takei, H.; Iwamoto, H.; Sasa, T.

    2015-01-01

    In the various research activities for ADS (accelerator-driven systems), the construction of the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is planned within the framework of the J-PARC project as a preceding step before the construction of a pilot ADS. The ADS proposed by JAEA is a tank-type subcritical reactor with a thermal power of 800 MWth which uses lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy as a target material and a coolant, driven by a 30 MW superconducting proton linac. The beam window of ADS, which separates the proton accelerator and the LBE subcritical core vessel, is exposed to the high-temperature environment induced by the incidence of proton beam. Therefore, the feasibility of the beam window is the most important factor for the realisation of TEF. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a designed beam window of TEF target by the numerical analysis with a three-dimensional model. The analysis was performed by considering: (1) the current density and shape of the incident beam, (2) the thermal-fluid behaviour of LBE around the beam window as a function of the flow rate and inlet temperature, (3) the material and the thickness of the beam window, (4) the structural strength of the beam window. In the reference case, the current density and the profile of the proton beam were 20 μA/cm 2 and a Gaussian shape, respectively. The flow rate of LBE and temperature at the inlet were 1 l/s and 350 C. degrees. The material of a beam window was SUS316 stainless steel 2 mm thick. In this reference case, the maximum velocity of LBE and the maximum temperature located at the top of the beam window were about 1.2 m/sec and 477 C. degrees. By increasing the flow rate of LBE up to 4 l/s, the maximum temperature of a beam window was reduced to around 420 C. degrees. The maximum shear stress was 194 MPa, which was observed at the centre on the outside surface of the beam window. The analysed stress in the reference case was lower than the tolerance level

  6. Water productivity analysis of sand dams irrigation farming in northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Villani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity in drylands is the main problem that has to be tackled by farmers and practitioners that work in these areas. Climate change and increased and wealthier population are expected to put additional stress on the water resource. A large number of studies is calling to focus efforts to enhance water productivity (WP, and one of the most promising option is represented by water harvesting, the collection and storage of runoff water to be used for beneficially uses. Among the available technologies, sand dams are experiencing a renovated interest because of their relative simplicity and their potential. This research aims to deepen the knowledge about WP of water harvesting systems studying a sand dam irrigation system in Tigray, north Ethiopia, where farmers are getting used to this new technology. The research was carried out in the period March-April 2017, when farmers use sand dams water to irrigate off-season maize. We analysed a representative plot irrigated through a shallow well drilled in the sand dam aquifer, in terms of yield, Crop Water Productivity (CWP, Crop Water Productivity based on Evapotranspiration (CWP(ET and Economic Water Productivity (EWP, through field data analysis and a validated Aquacrop model. CWP(ET was found to be low (1.12 kg of grain per m3 of evapotranspired water, due by both inefficient water application and low soil fertility. Aquacrop model results showed that changing the irrigation schedule can increase CWP(ET up to 1.35 kg/m3 and EWP up to 3.94 birr/m3, but yield gap is mainly due to the low soil fertility. Interventions on soil fertility can raise yields from the original 3.3 up to 8.5 kg/ha, and thus CWP(ET and EWP up to 2.94 kg/m3 and 9.54 birr/m3 respectively. To enhance the effect of sand dams in northern Ethiopia, a set of measures, including conservation agriculture, is then proposed.

  7. Comparative analysis of several sediment transport formulations applied to dam-break flows over erodible beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Luis; Bladé, Ernest; Corestein, Georgina; Fraga, Ignacio; Espinal, Marc; Puertas, Jerónimo

    2014-05-01

    Transitory flows generated by dam failures have a great sediment transport capacity, which induces important morphological changes on the river topography. Several studies have been published regarding the coupling between the sediment transport and hydrodynamic equations in dam-break applications, in order to correctly model their mutual interaction. Most of these models solve the depth-averaged shallow water equations to compute the water depth and velocity. On the other hand, a wide variety of sediment transport formulations have been arbitrarily used to compute the topography evolution. These are based on semi-empirical equations which have been calibrated under stationary and uniform conditions very different from those achieved in dam-break flows. Soares-Frazao et al. (2012) proposed a Benchmark test consisting of a dam-break over a mobile bed, in which several teams of modellers participated using different numerical models, and concluded that the key issue which still needs to be investigated in morphological modelling of dam-break flows is the link between the solid transport and the hydrodynamic variables. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different sediment transport formulations applied to dam-break flows over mobile beds. All the formulations analysed are commonly used in morphological studies in rivers, and include the formulas of Meyer-Peter & Müller (1948), Wong-Parker (2003), Einstein-Brown (1950), van Rijn (1984), Engelund-Hansen (1967), Ackers-White (1973), Yang (1973), and a Meyer-Peter & Müller type formula but with ad-hoc coefficients. The relevance of corrections on the sediment flux direction and magnitude due to the bed slope and the non-equilibrium hypothesis is also analysed. All the formulations have been implemented in the numerical model Iber (Bladé et al. (2014)), which solves the depth-averaged shallow water equations coupled to the Exner equation to evaluate the bed evolution. Two different test cases have been

  8. Dynamic Allan Variance Analysis Method with Time-Variant Window Length Based on Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem that dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR with fixed length of window cannot meet the identification accuracy requirement of fiber optic gyro (FOG signal over all time domains, a dynamic Allan variance analysis method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control is proposed. According to the characteristic of FOG signal, a fuzzy controller with the inputs of the first and second derivatives of FOG signal is designed to estimate the window length of the DAVAR. Then the Allan variances of the signals during the time-variant window are simulated to obtain the DAVAR of the FOG signal to describe the dynamic characteristic of the time-varying FOG signal. Additionally, a performance evaluation index of the algorithm based on radar chart is proposed. Experiment results show that, compared with different fixed window lengths DAVAR methods, the change of FOG signal with time can be identified effectively and the evaluation index of performance can be enhanced by 30% at least by the DAVAR method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control.

  9. Understanding Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Effective Approach to Calculate Analysis Window in Infinite Discrete Gabor Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-periodic/infinite discrete Gabor transform (DGT is more effective than the periodic/finite one in many applications. In this paper, a fast and effective approach is presented to efficiently compute the Gabor analysis window for arbitrary given synthesis window in DGT of long-periodic/infinite sequences, in which the new orthogonality constraint between analysis window and synthesis window in DGT for long-periodic/infinite sequences is derived and proved to be equivalent to the completeness condition of the long-periodic/infinite DGT. By using the property of delta function, the original orthogonality can be expressed as a certain number of linear equation sets in both the critical sampling case and the oversampling case, which can be fast and efficiently calculated by fast discrete Fourier transform (FFT. The computational complexity of the proposed approach is analyzed and compared with that of the existing canonical algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the proposed approach is efficient and fast for computing Gabor analysis window in both the critical sampling case and the oversampling case in comparison to existing algorithms.

  11. study and analysis of asa river hypothetical dam break using hec-ras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impounded reservoirs provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, hydropower and water supply but they also carry potential risks. Spontaneous dam break phenomenon can occur and the resultant flooding may cause substantial loss of life and property damage downstream of the dam. A hypothetical dam ...

  12. Long-term trend analysis on total and extreme precipitation over Shasta Dam watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toride, Kinya; Cawthorne, Dylan L; Ishida, Kei; Kavvas, M Levent; Anderson, Michael L

    2018-06-01

    California's interconnected water system is one of the most advanced water management systems in the world, and understanding of long-term trends in atmospheric and hydrologic behavior has increasingly being seen as vital to its future well-being. Knowledge of such trends is hampered by the lack of long-period observation data and the uncertainty surrounding future projections of atmospheric models. This study examines historical precipitation trends over the Shasta Dam watershed (SDW), which lies upstream of one of the most important components of California's water system, Shasta Dam, using a dynamical downscaling methodology that can produce atmospheric data at fine time-space scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is employed to reconstruct 159years of long-term hourly precipitation data at 3km spatial resolution over SDW using the 20th Century Reanalysis Version 2c dataset. Trend analysis on this data indicates a significant increase in total precipitation as well as a growing intensity of extreme events such as 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72-hour storms over the period of 1851 to 2010. The turning point of the increasing trend and no significant trend periods is found to be 1940 for annual precipitation and the period of 1950 to 1960 for extreme precipitation using the sequential Mann-Kendall test. Based on these analysis, we find the trends at the regional scale do not necessarily apply to the watershed-scale. The sharp increase in the variability of annual precipitation since 1970s is also detected, which implies an increase in the occurrence of extreme wet and dry conditions. These results inform long-term planning decisions regarding the future of Shasta Dam and California's water system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of a grid window structure for RF cavities in a Muon cooling channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladran, A.; Li, D.; Moretti, A.; Rimmer, R.; Staples, J.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the electromagnetic and thermal analysis of a grid window structure for high gradient, low frequency RF cavities. Windows may be utilized to close the beam iris and increase shunt impedance of closed-cell RF cavities. This work complements previous work presented for windows made of solid beryllium foil. An electromagnetic and thermal analysis of the thin wall tubes in a grid pattern was conducted using both MAFIA4 and ANSYS finite element analyses. The results from both codes agreed well for a variety of grid configurations and spacing. The grid configuration where the crossing tubes touched was found to have acceptable E-Fields and H-Fields performance. The thermal profiles for the grid will also be shown to determine a viable cooling profile

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL SCHEME FOR ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE DAMS BASED ON FINITE ELEMENT AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving an effective combination of various temperature control measures is critical for temperature control and crack prevention of concrete dams. This paper presents a procedure for optimizing the temperature control scheme of roller compacted concrete (RCC dams that couples the finite element method (FEM with a sensitivity analysis method. In this study, seven temperature control schemes are defined according to variations in three temperature control measures: concrete placement temperature, water-pipe cooling time, and thermal insulation layer thickness. FEM is employed to simulate the equivalent temperature field and temperature stress field obtained under each of the seven designed temperature control schemes for a typical overflow dam monolith based on the actual characteristics of a RCC dam located in southwestern China. A sensitivity analysis is subsequently conducted to investigate the degree of influence each of the three temperature control measures has on the temperature field and temperature tensile stress field of the dam. Results show that the placement temperature has a substantial influence on the maximum temperature and tensile stress of the dam, and that the placement temperature cannot exceed 15 °C. The water-pipe cooling time and thermal insulation layer thickness have little influence on the maximum temperature, but both demonstrate a substantial influence on the maximum tensile stress of the dam. The thermal insulation thickness is significant for reducing the probability of cracking as a result of high thermal stress, and the maximum tensile stress can be controlled under the specification limit with a thermal insulation layer thickness of 10 cm. Finally, an optimized temperature control scheme for crack prevention is obtained based on the analysis results.

  15. Inductive sensor for lightning current measurement, fitted in aircraft windows - part I : analysis for a circular window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.P.J.; Stelmashuk, V.

    2011-01-01

    A novel sensor is described for the detection of the lightning current through the fuselage of an aircraft. The sensor relies on the penetration of the magnetic field through fuselage openings and can be embedded in a window inside the aircraft. The sensor combines good sensitivity with sufficient

  16. Inductive Sensor for Lightning Current Measurement, Fitted in Aircraft Windows-Part I: Analysis for a Circular Window

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Deursen, A.P.J.; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 199-204 ISSN 1530-437X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Lightning * inductive sensor * aircraft * window * viewport Subject RIV: JB - Sensors , Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  17. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a

  18. Analysis of the temperature and stress distributions in ceramic window materials subjected to microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferber, M.K.; Kimrey, H.D.; Becher, P.F.

    1983-07-01

    The temperature and stress and distributions generated in ceramic materials currently employed in microwave gyrotron tube windows were determined for a variety of operating conditions. Both edge- and face-cooled windows of either polycrystalline BeO or polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 were considered. The actual analysis involved three steps. First, a computer program was used to determine the electric field distribution within the window at a given power level and frequency (TE 02 wave propagation assumed). This program was capable of describing both the radial and axial dependence of the electric field. The effects of multiple internal reflections at the various dielectric interfaces were also accounted for. Secondly, the field distribution was used to derive an expression for the heat generated per unit volume per unit time within the window due to dieletric losses. A generalized heat conduction computer code was then used to compute the temperature distribution based on the heat generation function. Third, the stresses were determined from the temperature profiles using analytical expression or a finite-element computer program. Steady-state temperature and stress profiles were computed for the face-cooled and edge-cooled windows

  19. Electromagnetic and thermal analysis of distributed cooled high power millimeter wave windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.D.; Reitter, T.; Caplan, M.; Moeller, C.

    1996-01-01

    The sectional high-frequency internally-cooled window, as proposed by General Atomics(1), has unique potential for allowing microwave sources to reach multi-megawatt CW levels with application to ECRH. Designs are being investigated using computational electromagnetic (EM), thermal, and mechanical codes at 110 GHz and 170 GHz to examine the design tradeoffs between RF performance and thermal mechanical safety margins. The EM analyses are for the window, under vacuum at one MW and includes variations in the shapes of the cooling fins, the surface treatment of the window elements themselves, the cooling fin tip treatment, the window pitch angle, and the waveguide effects. One advantage of the distributed cooled window is it close-quote s extensibility to higher power levels. Results in the modeling efforts are presented showing the EM field concentrations (which then will feed into the thermal analysis), the energy scattering/reflection, the transmitted launch angle variation as a function of physical geometry, and the spatial energy distribution and loss as a function of time and position. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. 11 Foot Unitary Plan Tunnel Facility Optical Improvement Large Window Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Veronica M.

    2015-01-01

    The test section of the 11 by 11-foot Unitary Plan Transonic Wind Tunnel (11-foot UPWT) may receive an upgrade of larger optical windows on both the North and South sides. These new larger windows will provide better access for optical imaging of test article flow phenomena including surface and off body flow characteristics. The installation of these new larger windows will likely produce a change to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow in the Test Section. In an effort understand the effect of this change, a computational model was employed to predict the flows through the slotted walls, in the test section and around the model before and after the tunnel modification. This report documents the solid CAD model that was created and the inviscid computational analysis that was completed as a preliminary estimate of the effect of the changes.

  1. Some Notes on the Use of theWindowed Fourier Transform for Spectral Analysis of Discretely Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Johnson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the Gabor and Morlet transforms are examined with respect to the Fourier analysis of discretely sampled data. Forward and inverse transform pairs based on a fixed window with uniform sampling of the frequency axis can satisfy numerically the energy and reconstruction theorems; however, transform pairs based on a variable window or nonuniform frequency sampling in general do not. Instead of selecting the shape of the window as some function of the central frequency, we propose constructing a single window with unit energy from an arbitrary set of windows that is applied over the entire frequency axis. By virtue of using a fixed window with uniform frequency sampling, such a transform satisfies the energy and reconstruction theorems. The shape of the window can be tailored to meet the requirements of the investigator in terms of time/frequency resolution. The algorithm extends naturally to the case of nonuniform signal sampling without modification beyond identification of the Nyquist interval.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction Using High-Order Doubly Asymptotic Open Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dam-reservoir system is divided into the near field modeled by the finite element method, and the far field modeled by the excellent high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary (DAOB. Direct and partitioned coupled methods are developed for the analysis of dam-reservoir system. In the direct coupled method, a symmetric monolithic governing equation is formulated by incorporating the DAOB with the finite element equation and solved using the standard time-integration methods. In contrast, the near-field finite element equation and the far-field DAOB condition are separately solved in the partitioned coupled methodm, and coupling is achieved by applying the interaction force on the truncated boundary. To improve its numerical stability and accuracy, an iteration strategy is employed to obtain the solution of each step. Both coupled methods are implemented on the open-source finite element code OpenSees. Numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the performance of these two proposed methods.

  3. Land use change impacts on discharge analysis using SWAT model at Ciherang Pondok DAM catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamahadi, M. A.; Pandjaitan, N. H.; Rau, M. I.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt increase of population influenced the requirement for new regions to fulfill people’s primary needs. Its increased land use change and caused many impacts on the environment, including watersheds as well. Ciherang Pondok DAM catchment area is part of Cisadane watershed and was selected as the research area. This research aimed to analyse the water supply and water discharge change caused by the Urban Planning (RTRW) in 2020. The analysis was conducted using soil and water assessment tools (SWAT) model. Stages of this research were catchment area delineation, HRU identification, calibration and validation of models, and prediction of discharge and water demand. The result showed that RTRW of 2020 increased the maximum discharge of 1.6 m3/s and decreased the minimum discharge of 0.01 m3/s, hence the maximum and minimum discharge ratio increased 0.26% from 2016. Output discharge in 2020 at Ciherang Pondok Dam Catchment Area was classified as well, with discharge of 6.72 – 126.2 m3/s, and could fulfil water demand. For the best result, it is better to use climate data from weather stations inside the study area and it is required an improvement in data archiving system.

  4. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  5. Comparative Study of Two Daylighting Analysis Methods with Regard to Window Orientation and Interior Wall Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Beom Yoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy and speed of the daylighting analysis developed for use in EnergyPlus is better than its predecessors. In EnergyPlus, the detailed method uses the Split-flux algorithm whereas the DElight method uses the Radiosity algorithm. Many existing studies have addressed the two methods, either individually or compared with other daylight analysis methods like Ray tracing but still there is lack of detailed comparative study of these two methods. Our previous studies show that the Split-flux method overestimates the illuminance, especially for the areas away from the window. The Radiosity method has the advantage of accurately predicting this illuminance because of how it deals with the diffuse light. For this study, the EnergyPlus model, which has been calibrated using data measured in a real building in previous studies, has also been used. The calibrated model has a south oriented window only. This model is then used to analyze the interior illuminance inside the room for north, west and east orientation of the window by rotating the model and by changing the wall reflectance of the model with south oriented window. Direct and diffuse component of the illuminance as well as the algorithms have been compared for a detailed analysis.

  6. Wavelet-based multiscale window transform and energy and vorticity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiang San

    A new methodology, Multiscale Energy and Vorticity Analysis (MS-EVA), is developed to investigate sub-mesoscale, meso-scale, and large-scale dynamical interactions in geophysical fluid flows which are intermittent in space and time. The development begins with the construction of a wavelet-based functional analysis tool, the multiscale window transform (MWT), which is local, orthonormal, self-similar, and windowed on scale. The MWT is first built over the real line then modified onto a finite domain. Properties are explored, the most important one being the property of marginalization which brings together a quadratic quantity in physical space with its phase space representation. Based on MWT the MS-EVA is developed. Energy and enstrophy equations for the large-, meso-, and sub-meso-scale windows are derived and their terms interpreted. The processes thus represented are classified into four categories: transport; transfer, conversion, and dissipation/diffusion. The separation of transport from transfer is made possible with the introduction of the concept of perfect transfer. By the property of marginalization, the classical energetic analysis proves to be a particular case of the MS-EVA. The MS-EVA developed is validated with classical instability problems. The validation is carried out through two steps. First, it is established that the barotropic and baroclinic instabilities are indicated by the spatial averages of certain transfer term interaction analyses. Then calculations of these indicators are made with an Eady model and a Kuo model. The results agree precisely with what is expected from their analytical solutions, and the energetics reproduced reveal a consistent and important aspect of the unknown dynamic structures of instability processes. As an application, the MS-EVA is used to investigate the Iceland-Faeroe frontal (IFF) variability. A MS-EVA-ready dataset is first generated, through a forecasting study with the Harvard Ocean Prediction System

  7. Seismic Fortification Analysis of the Guoduo Gravity Dam in Tibet, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research was to analyze the seismic performance of the Guoduo gravity dam. A nonlinear FEM method was implemented to study the deformation, stress, and overall stability of dam under both static and dynamic loading conditions, including both normal and overloading conditions. A dam seismic failure risk control method is proposed based on the cracking mechanism induced by the dynamic load to ensure dam safety and stability. Numerical simulation revealed that (1 under normal static and dynamic loading the symmetry of the displacement distributions is good, showing that the dam abutments and riverbed foundation have good overall stiffness. The stress distribution is a safe one for operation under both normal water loading and seismic loading. (2 Attention should be paid to the reinforcement design of outlets of the diversion dam monoliths, and enhance the capability of sustaining that tensile stress of dam monoliths. (3 The shape of the dam profile has a significant effect on the dynamic response of the dam. (4 By employing the “overload safety factor method,” the overall seismic fortification is as follows: K1=1.5, K2= 2~3, and K3= 3~4.

  8. A coupled FE and scaled boundary FE-approach for the earthquake response analysis of arch dam-reservoir-foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Lin Gao; Hu Zhiqiang

    2010-01-01

    For efficient and accurate modelling of arch dam-reservoir-foundation system a coupled Finite Element method (FEM) and Scaled Boundary Finite Element method (SBFEM) is developed. Both the dam-foundation interaction and the dam-reservoir interaction including the effect of reservoir boundary absorption are taken into account. The arch dam is modelled by FEM, while the reservoir domain and the unbounded foundation are modelled by SBFEM. In order to make comparison with the results available in the literature, the Morrow Point arch dam is selected for numerical analysis. The analyses are carried out in the frequency domain, and then the time-domain response of the dam-reservoir-foundation system is obtained by Inverse Fourier Transform.

  9. Evaluation of the Three Gorges Dam project using multi-criteria analysis (MCA) based on a sustainable perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Junshan; Ma, Yihe; Ding, Junqi; Zhu, Lingkai; Che, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2018-02-01

    Abstract . The Three Gorges dam of China is one of the largest and expensive hydropower projects of the world. The four main purposes of the project are flood control,energy production, improved navigation and fresh water supply. The dam project has been completed and running successfully with the potential benefits. However, this project is still a controversial issue among many environmentalists and socialists due to various impacts. This study focuses on the benefit and the impacts of the project, and also evaluates the performance of the project using multi-criteria analysis (MCA) approach from a sustainable perspective. Different sustainability criteria related with the dam project have been identified and used for the ranking and rating process. The final result of MCA comes with this scoring process and pairwise comparison, which evaluates the performance of the project considering different positive and negative aspects.

  10. Transmutation technology development; thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis of the HYPER target beam window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H.; Ju, E. S.; Song, M. K.; Jeon, Y. Z. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    A thermal hydraulic power analysis, a structure analysis and optimization computation for some design factor for the design of spallation target suitable for HYPER with 1000 MW thermal power in this study was performed. Heat generation formula was used which was evaluated recently based on the LAHET code, mainly to find the maximum beam current under given computation conditions. Thermal hydraulic power of HYPER target system was calculated using FLUENT code, structure conducted by inputting the data into ANSYS. On the temp of beam windows and the pressure distribution calculated using FLUENT. Data transformation program was composed apply the data calculated using FLUENT being commercial CFD code and ANSYS being FEM code for CFX structure analysis. A basic study was conducted on various singular target to obtain fundamental data on the shape for optimum target design. A thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis were conducted on the shapes of parabolic, uniform, scanning beams to choose the optimum shape of beam current analysis was done according to some turbulent model to simulate the real flow. To evaluate the reliability of numerical analysis result, benchmarking of FLUENT code reformed at SNU and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and it was compared to CFX in the possession of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and evaluated. Reliable deviation was observed in the results calculated using FLUENT code, but temperature deviation of about 200 .deg. C was observed in the result from CFX analysis at optimum design condition. Several benchmarking were performed on the basis of numerical analysis concerning conventional HYPER. It was possible to allow a beam arrests of 17.3 mA in the case of the {phi} 350 mm parabolic beam suggested to the optimum in nuclear transmutation when stress equivalent to VON-MISES was calculated to be 140 MPa. 29 refs., 109 figs. (Author)

  11. Seepage Analysis of Upper Gotvand Dam Concerning Gypsum Karstification (2D and 3D Approaches)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrekarimi, Jamshid; Kiyani, Majid; Fakhri, Behnam

    2011-01-01

    Upper Gotvand Dam is constructed on the Karun River at the south west of Iran. In this paper, 2D and 3D models of the dam together with the foundation and abutments were established, and several seepage analyses were carried out. Then, the gypsum veins that are scattered throughout the foundation...

  12. Dam break modelling, risk assessment and uncertainty analysis for flood mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagonjolli, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis a range of modelling techniques is explored to deal effectively with flood risk management. In particular, attention is paid to floods caused by failure of hydraulic structures such as dams and dikes. The methods considered here are applied for simulating dam and dike failure events,

  13. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  14. Multi-causal pathways of public opposition to dam projects in Asia: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars overwhelmingly adopt the case study method when analyzing causal conditions inducing anti-dam-protests. We have carried out the first medium-N-study on this topic analyzing public opposition to 12 dam projects in Asia. For this purpose, we employ a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

  15. Dynamic Sustainability. Sustainability Window Analysis of Chinese Poverty-Environment Nexus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Luukkanen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability Window is a new analysis tool for assessing the sustainability of development simultaneously in all of its three dimensions (environmental, economic, and social. The analysis method provides information of the maximum and minimum economic development that is required to maintain the direction of social and environmental development towards more sustainable targets. With the Sustainability Window method it is possible to easily analyze the sustainability using different indicators and different time periods making comparative analyses easy. The new method makes it also possible to analyze the dynamics of the sustainability and the changes over time in the width of the window. This provides a new perspective for analyzing the trends of sustainability and the impacts of underlying sustainability policies. As an illustration of the method, we have carried out an analysis of Chinese development using CO2 and SO2 emissions as indicators of the environmental dimension, number of non-poor people as an indicator of the social dimension and GDP as an indicator of the economic dimension.

  16. Erosion risk analysis by GIS in environmental impact assessments: a case study--Seyhan Köprü Dam construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, S; Kurum, E

    2002-11-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a systematically constructed procedure whereby environmental impacts caused by proposed projects are examined. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are crucially efficient tools for impact assessment and their use is likely to dramatically increase in the near future. GIS have been applied to a wide range of different impact assessment projects and dams among them have been taken as the case work in this article. EIA Regulation in force in Turkey requires the analysis of steering natural processes that can be adversely affected by the proposed project, particularly in the section of the analysis of the areas with higher landscape value. At this point, the true potential value of GIS lies in its ability to analyze spatial data with accuracy. This study is an attempt to analyze by GIS the areas with higher landscape value in the impact assessment of dam constructions in the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal. A method needs to be defined before the overlapping step by GIS to analyze the areas with higher landscape value. In the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal of the present work, considering the geological conditions and the steep slopes of the area and the type of the project, the most important natural process is erosion. Therefore, the areas of higher erosion risk were considered as the Areas with Higher Landscape Value from the conservation demands points of view.

  17. Sliding-window analysis tracks fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity associated with physiological arousal and vigilance during fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczkowski, Blazej M; Johnstone, Tom; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne; Veer, Ilya M

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated whether sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant brain network dynamics during a well-established fear conditioning paradigm. To this end, we tested if fMRI fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity (FC) can be related to task-induced changes in physiological arousal and vigilance, as reflected in the skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in the study. For the sliding-window analysis we used windows that were shifted by one volume at a time. Amygdala FC was calculated for each of these windows. Simultaneously acquired SCL time series were averaged over time frames that corresponded to the sliding-window FC analysis, which were subsequently regressed against the whole-brain seed-based amygdala sliding-window FC using the GLM. Surrogate time series were generated to test whether connectivity dynamics could have occurred by chance. In addition, results were contrasted against static amygdala FC and sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, which was chosen as a control seed, while a physio-physiological interaction (PPI) was performed as cross-validation. During periods of increased SCL, the left amygdala became more strongly coupled with the bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex, core areas of the salience network. The sliding-window analysis yielded a connectivity pattern that was unlikely to have occurred by chance, was spatially distinct from static amygdala FC and from sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, but was highly comparable to that of the PPI analysis. We conclude that sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant fluctuations in connectivity in the context of an externally cued task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical Analysis on Temperature Rise of a Concrete Arch Dam after Sealing Based on Measured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal boundary conditions in the construction and operation phases of a concrete arch dam are always complex. After sealing, differences between the arch dam temperature and its sealing temperature can cause compressive or tensile stresses. Based on measured temperature of an arch dam located in China, a temperature rise phenomenon (TRP is found in the after-sealed regions of the arch dam. By mining and analyzing the temperature data of various monitoring apparatus embedded in the arch dam, higher environment temperature is considered to be the main cause for the occurrence of the TRP. Mathematical methods for complex thermal boundary conditions, including external boundary conditions and internal heat source conditions, are proposed in this paper. A finite element model is implemented with the concern of the construction phase and operation phase of the arch dam. Results confirm good agreement with the measured temperature and verify the conjecture that the TRP occurs mainly because the external temperature of the arch dam is higher than its sealing temperature.

  19. Seasonal trend analysis and ARIMA modeling of relative humidity and wind speed time series around Yamula Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymen, Abdurrahman; Köylü, Ümran

    2018-02-01

    Local climate change is determined by analysis of long-term recorded meteorological data. In the statistical analysis of the meteorological data, the Mann-Kendall rank test, which is one of the non-parametrical tests, has been used; on the other hand, for determining the power of the trend, Theil-Sen method has been used on the data obtained from 16 meteorological stations. The stations cover the provinces of Kayseri, Sivas, Yozgat, and Nevşehir in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. Changes in land-use affect local climate. Dams are structures that cause major changes on the land. Yamula Dam is located 25 km northwest of Kayseri. The dam has huge water body which is approximately 85 km2. The mentioned tests have been used for detecting the presence of any positive or negative trend in meteorological data. The meteorological data in relation to the seasonal average, maximum, and minimum values of the relative humidity and seasonal average wind speed have been organized as time series and the tests have been conducted accordingly. As a result of these tests, the following have been identified: increase was observed in minimum relative humidity values in the spring, summer, and autumn seasons. As for the seasonal average wind speed, decrease was detected for nine stations in all seasons, whereas increase was observed in four stations. After the trend analysis, pre-dam mean relative humidity time series were modeled with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) model which is statistical modeling tool. Post-dam relative humidity values were predicted by ARIMA models.

  20. Remote quantitative analysis of cerium through a shielding window by stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yongdeuk [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Daewoong [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 255, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bo-Young, E-mail: byhan@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 255, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jonghyun [Applied Spectra, 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Han, Song-Hee [Division of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Jeonnam 530-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yonghoon, E-mail: yhlee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Remote LIBS analysis of cerium in the samples located behind a shielding window. • Effects of a shielding window on the remote LIBS analysis were investigated. • Multivariate analysis improves the calibration quality. - Abstract: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been considered in many applications in nuclear industry. LIBS can be an ideal technique for analyzing the inaccessible nuclear materials typically located behind a shielding window. We report the effect of optical transmittance of the shielding window on the analytical performances of stand-off LIBS for the preliminary surrogate sample of demonstration pyrochemical process, a mixture of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and potassium chloride (KCl). A pulsed laser beam was focused on the surface of the sample located 1.45 m away from the stand-off LIBS device. The laser-induced plasma emission was collected through a Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope. LIBS spectra were obtained in an open path and through the shielding window. Univariate calibration curves were obtained using the integrated area of partially resolved Ce I and II lines. The limits of detection (LOD) for Ce were estimated to be 0.046 and 0.061 wt.% for the open-path and through-window analysis, respectively. We found that the through-window LOD is mainly influenced by the optical transmittance of the shielding window and therefore, the through-window LOD can be predicted from the open-path LOD and the optical transmittance of the shielding window. Also, multivariate calibration using partial least squares regression was successfully applied. The quality of calibration could be improved by the multivariate analysis.

  1. Remote quantitative analysis of cerium through a shielding window by stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Yongdeuk; Choi, Daewoong; Han, Bo-Young; Yoo, Jonghyun; Han, Song-Hee; Lee, Yonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Remote LIBS analysis of cerium in the samples located behind a shielding window. • Effects of a shielding window on the remote LIBS analysis were investigated. • Multivariate analysis improves the calibration quality. - Abstract: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been considered in many applications in nuclear industry. LIBS can be an ideal technique for analyzing the inaccessible nuclear materials typically located behind a shielding window. We report the effect of optical transmittance of the shielding window on the analytical performances of stand-off LIBS for the preliminary surrogate sample of demonstration pyrochemical process, a mixture of cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) and potassium chloride (KCl). A pulsed laser beam was focused on the surface of the sample located 1.45 m away from the stand-off LIBS device. The laser-induced plasma emission was collected through a Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope. LIBS spectra were obtained in an open path and through the shielding window. Univariate calibration curves were obtained using the integrated area of partially resolved Ce I and II lines. The limits of detection (LOD) for Ce were estimated to be 0.046 and 0.061 wt.% for the open-path and through-window analysis, respectively. We found that the through-window LOD is mainly influenced by the optical transmittance of the shielding window and therefore, the through-window LOD can be predicted from the open-path LOD and the optical transmittance of the shielding window. Also, multivariate calibration using partial least squares regression was successfully applied. The quality of calibration could be improved by the multivariate analysis

  2. Short segment search method for phylogenetic analysis using nested sliding windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, A. A.; Bustamam, A.; Trimarsanto, H.

    2017-10-01

    To analyze phylogenetics in Bioinformatics, coding DNA sequences (CDS) segment is needed for maximal accuracy. However, analysis by CDS cost a lot of time and money, so a short representative segment by CDS, which is envelope protein segment or non-structural 3 (NS3) segment is necessary. After sliding window is implemented, a better short segment than envelope protein segment and NS3 is found. This paper will discuss a mathematical method to analyze sequences using nested sliding window to find a short segment which is representative for the whole genome. The result shows that our method can find a short segment which more representative about 6.57% in topological view to CDS segment than an Envelope segment or NS3 segment.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF SABO DAM PERFORMANCE AS A SEDIMENT CONTROL STRUCTURE IN PUTIH RIVER, MT. MERAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Wisoyo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Merapi’s eruption which occurred on 26 October 2010 had disadvantageous impact for human life that live surrounds it. The primary disaster was pyroclastic cloud that destroyed villages surround it. In addition, the secondary disaster continuously became a threat for human life around the rivers that destroyed at Mount Merapi. One of the secondary disasters is Putih River’s volcanic material overflowing into Yogyakarta-Magelang Highway. The series of Sabo dam which had been built along the river could not handle that phenomenon. Sabo dam was built and expected to accommodate volcanic material or at least to resist the velocity of volcanic material (sediment controlling, so the damage caused by the flow became relatively small. However, this function could not work at that phenomenon. In order to know the function of sediment control of Sabo dam in Putih River, it is necessary to study the performance of Sabo dam. This research used Kanako software ver. 2.04 and reviewed Sabo dam PU-D1 Mranggen and PU-C8 Ngaglik. There were four simulated scenarios in this research: a scenario without Sabo dam; with Sabo dam PU-D1 Mranggen; with Sabo dam PU-C8 Ngaglik, and the last with two of Sabo dams. The simulation was based on 23 January 2011 event and simulated for 18.000 s. From this research, it can be concluded that Sabo dam PU-D1 Mranggen can reduce the total volume  passing through about 43,998.6 m3 or 1.53 % for 5 hours, and reduce the sediment volume that passing through about 28,482 m3 or 52.59 % for 5 hours. Sabo dam PU-C8 Ngaglik can reduce the total volume that passing through about 255.6 m3 or 0.01 % for 5 hours, and reduce the sediment volume that passing through about 124.8 m3 or 0.33 % for 5 hours, and Sabo dam PU-D1 Mranggen and PU-C8 Ngaglik in series can reduce the total volume that passing through about 2,340.6 m3 or 0.08 % for 5 hours, and reduce the sediment volume that passing through about 157.8 m3 or 0.41 % for 5 hours

  4. Impact of assimilation window length on diurnal features in a Mars atmospheric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective simulation of diurnal variability is an important aspect of many geophysical data assimilation systems. For the Martian atmosphere, thermal tides are particularly prominent and contribute much to the Martian atmospheric circulation, dynamics and dust transport. To study the Mars diurnal variability and Mars thermal tides, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars Global Climate Model with the 4D-local ensemble transform Kalman filter (4D-LETKF is used to perform an analysis assimilating spacecraft temperature retrievals. We find that the use of a ‘traditional’ 6-hr assimilation cycle induces spurious forcing of a resonantly enhanced semi-diurnal Kelvin waves represented in both surface pressure and mid-level temperature by forming a wave 4 pattern in the diurnal averaged analysis increment that acts as a ‘topographic’ stationary forcing. Different assimilation window lengths in the 4D-LETKF are introduced to remove the artificially induced resonance. It is found that short assimilation window lengths not only remove the spurious resonance, but also push the migrating semi-diurnal temperature variation at 50 Pa closer to the estimated ‘true’ tides even in the absence of a radiatively active water ice cloud parameterisation. In order to compare the performance of different assimilation window lengths, short-term to mid-range forecasts based on the hour 00 and 12 assimilation are evaluated and compared. Results show that during Northern Hemisphere summer, it is not the assimilation window length, but the radiatively active water ice clouds that influence the model prediction. A ‘diurnal bias correction’ that includes bias correction fields dependent on the local time is shown to effectively reduce the forecast root mean square differences between forecasts and observations, compensate for the absence of water ice cloud parameterisation and enhance Martian atmosphere prediction. The implications of these results for

  5. Performance-based seismic assessment of vulnerability of dam using time history analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmrabet Oumnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current performance-based seismic assessment procedure can be computationally intensive as it requires many time history analyses (THA each requiring time intensive post-processing of results. Time history analysis is a part of structural analysis and is the calculation of the response of a structure to any earthquake. It is one of the main processes of structural design in regions where earthquakes are prevalent. The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of embankment dam located on the Oued RHISS in the Province of AL HOCEIMA using the THA method. To monitor structural behavior, the seismic vulnerability of structure is evaluated under real earthquake records with considering the soil-structure-fluide interaction. In this study, a simple assistant program is developed for implementing earthquake analyses of structure with ANSYS, ground acceleration–time history data are used for seismic analysis and dynamic numerical simulations were conducted to study and identify the total response of the soil-structure system.

  6. Analysis of past and future dam formation and failure in the Santa Cruz River (San Juan province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Volpi, Michele; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Around 11.5 ∗ 106 m3 of rock detached from the eastern slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina) in the first fortnight of January 2005. The rockslide-debris avalanche blocked the course, resulting in the development of a lake with maximum length of around 3.5 km. The increase in the inflow rate from 47,000-74,000 m3/d between April and October to 304,000 m3/d between late October and the first fortnight of November, accelerated the growing rate of the lake. On 12 November 2005 the dam failed, releasing 24.6 ∗ 106 m3 of water. The resulting outburst flood caused damages mainly on infrastructure, and affected the facilities of a hydropower dam which was under construction 250 km downstream from the source area. In this work we describe causes and consequences of the natural dam formation and failure, and we dynamically model the 2005 rockslide-debris avalanche with DAN3D. Additionally, as a volume ~ 24 ∗ 106 m3of rocks still remain unstable in the slope, we use the results of the back analysis to forecast the formation of a future natural dam. We analyzed two potential scenarios: a partial slope failure of 6.5 ∗ 106 m3 and a worst case where all the unstable volume remaining in the slope fails. The spreading of those potential events shows that a new blockage of the Santa Cruz River is likely to occur. According to their modeled morphometry and the contributing watershed upstream the blockage area, as the one of 2005, the dams would also be unstable. This study shows the importance of back and forward analysis that can be carried out to obtain critical information for land use planning, hazards mitigation, and emergency management.

  7. Engineering and Design: Reliability Analysis of Navigation Lock and Dam Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beranek, Dwight

    2001-01-01

    This engineer technical letter (ETL) provides guidance for assessing the reliability of mechanical and electrical systems of navigation locks and dams and for establishing an engineering basis for major rehabilitation investment decisions...

  8. Analysis of the sediments of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam by the INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.E.; Lugo, J.F.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C.; Miller, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Its were taken eight samples of sediment of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam located in the Villanueva municipality, in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico; with the end of determining the presence of elements of anthropogenic origin, as well as the concentration of the same ones. It was used the Instrumental neutron activation analysis (AANI) with a flow of thermal neutrons of 8 x 10 13 and 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . With the purpose of determining the concentration of these elements at level of traces; finding presence of 32 elements among which its were find elements in greater concentrations and others at level of traces. Of these 32 elements, five of anthropogenic origin were identified which its were: Cr, Co, Zn, As and Mn; but that whose concentration is very low, in comparison with the one reported in other places of the world. In this work there are presented the obtained results of the elementary analysis of this samples. (Author)

  9. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 2006 through 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center)

    2011-08-22

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. A report released in January 2011 examined the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. This report continues the analysis and examines the financial implications of the experimental flows conducted at the GCD from 2006 to 2010. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western

  10. Experimental analysis of energy performance of a ventilated window for heat recovery under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    balance of the ventilated window and clarified the methodology for thermal performance evaluation. Comparison between windows with and without ventilation using the window-room-ventilation heat balance revealed that a ventilated window can potentially contribute to energy savings. In addition...... transmittance introduced by the ventilation was higher than the effect of heat recovery. Accordingly, the use of the ventilated windows might be most suitable for window unit with low ventilation rates. The results correlated with theoretical calculations in standards and software. However, the concept...

  11. Expert-Opinion Elicitation for the Risk Analysis of Design-Improvement Alternatives to the Lindy Claiborne Boggs Lock and Dam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayyub, Bilal M

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the expert-opinion elicitation performed to meet risk analysis needs of the lower lock approach sediment management improvement alternatives to the Lindy Claiborne Boggs Lock and Dam...

  12. Meta-analysis of environmental effects of beaver in relation to artificial dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Frauke; Levanoni, Oded; Audet, Joachim; Carlson, Peter; Eklöf, Karin; Hartman, Göran; McKie, Brendan; Ledesma, José; Segersten, Joel; Truchy, Amélie; Futter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Globally, artificial river impoundment, nutrient enrichment and biodiversity loss impair freshwater ecosystem integrity. Concurrently, beavers, ecosystem engineers recognized for their ability to construct dams and create ponds, are colonizing sites across the Holarctic after widespread extirpation in the 19th century, including areas outside their historical range. This has the potential to profoundly alter hydrology, hydrochemistry and aquatic ecology in both newly colonized and recolonized areas. To further our knowledge of the effects of beaver dams on aquatic environments, we extracted 1366 effect sizes from 89 studies on the impoundment of streams and lakes. Effects were assessed for 16 factors related to hydrogeomorphology, biogeochemistry, ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. Beaver dams affected concentrations of organic carbon in water, mercury in water and biota, sediment conditions and hydrological properties. There were no overall adverse effects caused by beaver dams or ponds on salmonid fish. Age was an important determinant of effect magnitude. While young ponds were a source of phosphorus, there was a tendency for phosphorus retention in older systems. Young ponds were a source methylmercury in water, but old ponds were not. To provide additional context, we also evaluated similarities and differences between environmental effects of beaver-constructed and artificial dams (767 effect sizes from 75 studies). Both are comparable in terms of effects on, for example, biodiversity, but have contrasting effects on nutrient retention and mercury. These results are important for assessing the role of beavers in enhancing and/or degrading ecological integrity in changing Holarctic freshwater systems.

  13. Uncertainty Analysis and Overtopping Risk Evaluation of Maroon Dam withMonte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vali Samani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The greatest part of constructed dams belongs to embankment dams and there are many examples of their failures throughout history. About one-third of the world’s dam failures have been caused by flood overtopping, which indicates that flood overtopping is an important factor affecting reservoir projects’ safety. Moreover, because of a poor understanding of the randomness of floods, reservoir water levels during flood seasons are often lowered artificially in order to avoid overtopping and protect the lives and property of downstream residents. So, estimation of dam overtopping risk with regard to uncertainties is more important than achieving the dam’s safety. This study presents the procedure for risk evaluation of dam overtopping due to various uncertaintiess in inflows and reservoir initial condition. Materials and Methods: This study aims to present a practical approach and compare the different uncertainty analysis methods in the evaluation of dam overtopping risk due to flood. For this purpose, Monte Carlo simulation and Latin hypercube sampling methods were used to calculate the overtopping risk, evaluate the uncertainty, and calculate the highest water level during different flood events. To assess these methods from a practical point of view, the Maroon dam was chosen for the case study. Figure. 1 indicates the work procedure, including three parts: 1 Identification and evaluation of effective factors on flood routing and dam overtopping, 2 Data collection and analysis for reservoir routing and uncertainty analysis, 3 Uncertainty and risk analysis. Figure 1- Diagram of dam overtopping risk evaluation Results and Discussion: Figure 2 shows the results of the computed overtopping risks for the Maroon Dam without considering the wind effect, for the initial water level of 504 m as an example. As it is shown in Figure. 2, the trends of the risk curves computed by the different uncertainty analysis methods are similar

  14. Douglas County Dam Breach Inundation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Dam breach analysis provides a prediction of the extent and timing of flooding from a catastrophic breach of the dams. These results are sufficient for developing...

  15. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  16. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  17. Study on Real-Time Simulation Analysis and Inverse Analysis System for Temperature and Stress of Concrete Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the concrete dam construction, it is very necessary to strengthen the real-time monitoring and scientific management of concrete temperature control. This paper constructs the analysis and inverse analysis system of temperature stress simulation, which is based on various useful data collected in real time in the process of concrete construction. The system can produce automatically data file of temperature and stress calculation and then achieve the remote real-time simulation calculation of temperature stress by using high performance computing techniques, so the inverse analysis can be carried out based on a basis of monitoring data in the database; it fulfills the automatic feedback calculation according to the error requirement and generates the corresponding curve and chart after the automatic processing and analysis of corresponding results. The system realizes the automation and intellectualization of complex data analysis and preparation work in simulation process and complex data adjustment in the inverse analysis process, which can facilitate the real-time tracking simulation and feedback analysis of concrete temperature stress in construction process and enable you to discover problems timely, take measures timely, and adjust construction scheme and can well instruct you how to ensure project quality.

  18. Analysis of the behaviour of embankment dams during and after impoundment; Analyse du comportement de barrages en remblai pendant et apres leur mise en eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massiera, M. [Moncton Univ., Moncton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Szostak-Chrzanowski, A; Bazanowski, M. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Canadian Centre for Geodetic Engineering; Withaker, C. [Metropolitan Water District of Southern California MWD, Glendora, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzed the behaviour of 2 embankment dams during impoundment. The study compared the values of the observed and calculated displacements of the crest during the initial filling of the reservoirs at the zoned earth West Dam in California and the Tounustouc concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD) in Quebec. The calculations were performed using finite element analysis. Rock and earthfill dams constructed on moraine deposits are known to deform under the influence of water load as the reservoir is filled. Therefore, this study also analyzed the long term deformations of the West Dam during 4 subsequent years of operation of the reservoir. Modelling rock and earthfill dams takes into account the nonlinear behaviour of the construction materials; interaction between the structure and the underlying soil and rock strata; influence of water load on the structure and on the foundation bedrock; and the effects of water saturation. This paper showed that geotechnical and geodetic monitoring may provide a warning system in case of abnormal behaviour of the embankment dam. In tectonically active zones, monitoring surveys may also provide information on the effects of seismic disturbances. 18 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced

  20. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and wh...

  1. Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, George Emm.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper, using data envelopment (DEA) window analysis and generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators, examines the existence of a Kuznets type relationship between countries' environmental efficiency and national income. Specifically, it measures the environmental efficiency of 17 OECD countries by constructing environmental efficiency ratios for the time period 1980-2002. The analysis with the application of dynamic panel data reveals that there isn't a Kuznets type relationship between environmental efficiency and income. Allowing for dynamic effects we find that the adjustment to the target ratio is instantaneous. We also find that increased economic activity does not always ensure environmental protection and thus the path of growth is important in addition to the growth itself. (author)

  2. Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halkos, George Emm.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G. [Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Korai 43, 38333, Volos (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    This paper, using data envelopment (DEA) window analysis and generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators, examines the existence of a Kuznets type relationship between countries' environmental efficiency and national income. Specifically, it measures the environmental efficiency of 17 OECD countries by constructing environmental efficiency ratios for the time period 1980-2002. The analysis with the application of dynamic panel data reveals that there isn't a Kuznets type relationship between environmental efficiency and income. Allowing for dynamic effects we find that the adjustment to the target ratio is instantaneous. We also find that increased economic activity does not always ensure environmental protection and thus the path of growth is important in addition to the growth itself. (author)

  3. Use of nuclear techniques and hydrochemical analysis to evaluate the impact of tailings dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Flaviane M.; Fleming, Peter M.; Fonseca, Flávio H. da R.; Pimenta, Rafael C.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: flaviane@cdtn.br, E-mail: pmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: flavio.fonseca@cdtn.br, E-mail: colombopimenta@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The mining industry is a most important productive segment to country's economy. However, it is important to recognize and monitor the environmental impacts caused by mining, such as dams. They are structures built to store the waste produced by the beneficiation of ores, through chemical and mechanical processes classified as concentrate, crude ore or tailings. Tailings dams are associated with a potential risk of disruption and can therefore cause various images to the environment and population. Seepage flows and transport mechanisms are parameters to indicate the structural integrity. Nuclear technology can be used as a tool to trace these parameters. The objective of this work is to use isotopic techniques and hydrochemical characterization to detect leaks in dams belonging to a mining company. The isotopic techniques are used to measure the concentration of environmental isotopes in dam waters and their mediations, among which deuterium ({sup 2}H) and oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O) are measured. These isotopes will be used as environmental tracers to investigate the presence of infiltrations through the displacement of the water in its flow in the aquifer, since they are constituent of the molecule of water. In parallel, the basic physical chemical parameters and water quality parameters will be measured in-situ to aid in the interpretation of the results of the isotopic analyzes. Thus, it is intended to provide data that can help the environmental agencies to make decisions regarding the decommissioning of the mine. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional earthquake analysis of roller-compacted concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kartal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground motion effect on a roller-compacted concrete (RCC dams in the earthquake zone should be taken into account for the most critical conditions. This study presents three-dimensional earthquake response of a RCC dam considering geometrical non-linearity. Besides, material and connection non-linearity are also taken into consideration in the time-history analyses. Bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening material models are utilized in the materially non-linear analyses for concrete and foundation rock respectively. The contraction joints inside the dam blocks and dam–foundation–reservoir interaction are modeled by the contact elements. The hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures of the reservoir water are modeled with the fluid finite elements based on the Lagrangian approach. The gravity and hydrostatic pressure effects are employed as initial condition before the strong ground motion. In the earthquake analyses, viscous dampers are defined in the finite element model to represent infinite boundary conditions. According to numerical solutions, horizontal displacements increase under hydrodynamic pressure. Besides, those also increase in the materially non-linear analyses of the dam. In addition, while the principle stress components by the hydrodynamic pressure effect the reservoir water, those decrease in the materially non-linear time-history analyses.

  5. A study on the operating characteristics by heat flow analysis of HYPER beam window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Geun; Choi, Jin Ho; Ju, Eun Sun; Song, Tae Young

    2001-01-01

    A spent fuel problem has prevented the nuclear power from claiming to be a completely clean energy source. The nuclear transmutation technology to incinerate the long lived radioactive nuclides and produce energy during the incineration process is believed to be one or the best solutions. HYPER(HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) is the accelerator driven transmutation system which is being developed by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Some major feature of HYPER have been developed and employed. On-power fueling concepts are employed to keep system power constant with minimum variation of accelerator power. A hollow cylinder-type metal fuel is designed for the on-line refueling concept. Lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi) is adopted as a coolant and Spallation target material. HYPER is a subcritical reactor which needs an external neutron source. 1GeV proton beam is irradiated to Lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi) target inside HYPER, and spallation neutrons are produced. When proton beams are irradiated, much heat is also deposited in the Pb-Bi target and beam window which separates Pb-Bi and accelerator vacuum. Therefore, an effective cooling is needed for HYPER target. In this paper, we performed the thermal-hydraulic analysis of HYPER target using FLUENT code, and also calculated thermal and mechanical stress of the beam window using ANSYS code

  6. Experimental study on the crack detection with optimized spatial wavelet analysis and windowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari Mardasi, Amir; Wu, Nan; Wu, Christine

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a high sensitive crack detection is experimentally realized and presented on a beam under certain deflection by optimizing spatial wavelet analysis. Due to the crack existence in the beam structure, a perturbation/slop singularity is induced in the deflection profile. Spatial wavelet transformation works as a magnifier to amplify the small perturbation signal at the crack location to detect and localize the damage. The profile of a deflected aluminum cantilever beam is obtained for both intact and cracked beams by a high resolution laser profile sensor. Gabor wavelet transformation is applied on the subtraction of intact and cracked data sets. To improve detection sensitivity, scale factor in spatial wavelet transformation and the transformation repeat times are optimized. Furthermore, to detect the possible crack close to the measurement boundaries, wavelet transformation edge effect, which induces large values of wavelet coefficient around the measurement boundaries, is efficiently reduced by introducing different windowing functions. The result shows that a small crack with depth of less than 10% of the beam height can be localized with a clear perturbation. Moreover, the perturbation caused by a crack at 0.85 mm away from one end of the measurement range, which is covered by wavelet transform edge effect, emerges by applying proper window functions.

  7. A population growth trend analysis for Neotricula aperta, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mekongi, after construction of the Pak-Mun dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Attwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth.Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy.The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work.

  8. Technical bulletin : structural considerations for dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This technical bulletin discussed issues related to the safety assessment of concrete water-retaining structures and timber dams. Structures reviewed in the paper included gravity dams; buttress dams; arch dams; spillway structures; intake structures; power plants; roller compacted concrete dams; and timber dams. A variety of issues related to the loss of cohesive bond and discontinuities in bedrock foundations were reviewed with reference to issues related to compressive strength, tensile strength, and shear strength. Static failure modes and failure mechanisms related to dam failures were also described. Visual indicators for potential failures include abutment and foundation movement, seepage, and structure movements. Loading combinations were discussed, and performance indicators for gravity dams were provided. Methods of analysis for considering load characteristics, structure types and geological conditions were also discussed. Modelling techniques for finite element analysis were also included. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Ordination Study of Vegetation Analysis Around Wetland Area: A Case Study of Mangla Dam, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urooj, R.; Ahmad, S. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Ahmad, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted at Mangla Dam for vegetation ordinal classification by applying multivariate analysis in order to find relationship between vegetation and their edaphic factors. Samples of soil and herbaceous vegetation were randomly collected by using 1*1 square meter quadrats. Total 37 plant species belonging to 17 families were identified. Canonical Correspondence Analysis as direct ordination technique was applied by using CANOCO software. Results of analytical tests revealed that concentration of micro and macro nutrients along electrical conductivity and pH in different soil samples were varying to a greater level in study area while Cynodon dactylon showed higher abundance over broad range of all edaphic factors concentration. (author)

  10. Experimental Air-Tightness Analysis in Mediterranean Buildings after Windows Retrofit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana d’Ambrosio Alfano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in buildings are strongly affected by air leakages. Several studies reveal that the energy loss owing to leaky windows can account for up to 40% of the total building energy demand. Furthermore, at the design stage, the possible infiltration of outdoor air through windows is not taken into account when determining the nominal outdoor airflow rate of the ventilation system. This practice may result in an oversizing of the ventilation system and consequent energy waste. Thus, the air-tightness class of a wall assembly should be assessed for each window component considering the type of material, the presence of the seal, the type of closure, the sealing and the maintenance condition. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of air-tightness measurements carried out using the fan pressurization method in three residential buildings located in the Mediterranean region before and after a window retrofit. Two different window retrofits were investigated: the application of rubber seals on window frames and the substitution of existing windows with new certified high performance windows. The effectiveness of such retrofits was estimated also in terms of energy saving. Test results demonstrated a high variability of the building air tightness after window retrofits, despite the fact that air tight–certified windows were used.

  11. Comparative Study on Interface Elements, Thin-Layer Elements, and Contact Analysis Methods in the Analysis of High Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiang Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the numerical performance of three contact simulation methods, namely, the interface element, thin-layer element, and contact analysis methods, through the analysis of the contact behavior between the concrete face slab and the dam body of a high concrete-faced rockfill dam named Tianshengqiao-I in China. To investigate the accuracy and limitations of each method, the simulation results are compared in terms of the dam deformation, contact stress along the interface, stresses in the concrete face slab, and separation of the concrete face slab from the cushion layer. In particular, the predicted dam deformation and slab separation are compared with the in-situ observation data to classify these methods according to their agreement with the in-situ observations. It is revealed that the interface element and thin-layer element methods have their limitations in predicting contact stress, slab separation, and stresses in the concrete face slab if a large slip occurs. The contact analysis method seems to be the best choice whether the separation is finite or not.

  12. Study of Dam-break Due to Overtopping of Four Small Dams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaraya Alhasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-break due to overtopping is one of the most common types of embankment dam failures. During the floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic, several small dams collapsed due to overtopping. In this paper, an analysis of the dam break process at the Luh, Velký Bělčický, Melín, and Metelský dams breached during the 2002 flood is presented. Comprehensive identification and analysis of the dam shape, properties of dam material and failure scenarios were carried out after the flood event to assemble data for the calibration of a numerical dam break model. A simple one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed for use in dam breach simulation, and a computer code was compiled. The model was calibrated using the field data mentioned above. Comparison of the erodibility parameters gained from the model showed reasonable agreement with the results of other authors.

  13. Dynamic Principal Component Analysis with Nonoverlapping Moving Window and Its Applications to Epileptic EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of electroencephalography (EEG is the most useful diagnostic and monitoring procedure for epilepsy study. A reliable algorithm that can be easily implemented is the key to this procedure. In this paper a novel signal feature extraction method based on dynamic principal component analysis and nonoverlapping moving window is proposed. Along with this new technique, two detection methods based on extracted sparse features are applied to deal with signal classification. The obtained results demonstrated that our proposed methodologies are able to differentiate EEGs from controls and interictal for epilepsy diagnosis and to separate EEGs from interictal and ictal for seizure detection. Our approach yields high classification accuracy for both single-channel short-term EEGs and multichannel long-term EEGs. The classification performance of the method is also compared with other state-of-the-art techniques on the same datasets and the effect of signal variability on the presented methods is also studied.

  14. Data analysis using SPSS for Windows, versions 8 - 10 a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy J, Dr

    2001-01-01

    A new edition of this best-selling introductory book to cover the latest SPSS versions 8.0 - 10.0 This book is designed to teach beginners how to use SPSS for Windows, the most widely used computer package for analysing quantitative data. Written in a clear, readable and non-technical style the author explains the basics of SPSS including the input of data, data manipulation, descriptive analyses and inferential techniques, including; - creating using and merging data files - creating and printing graphs and charts - parametric tests including t-tests, ANOVA, GLM - correlation, regression and factor analysis - non parametric tests and chi square reliability - obtaining neat print outs and tables - includes a CD-Rom containing example data files, syntax files, output files and Excel spreadsheets.

  15. Performance Analysis of an Optical CDMA MAC Protocol With Variable-Size Sliding Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Aly A.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Abdel-Moety El-Badawy, El-Sayed

    2006-10-01

    A media access control protocol for optical code-division multiple-access packet networks with variable length data traffic is proposed. This protocol exhibits a sliding window with variable size. A model for interference-level fluctuation and an accurate analysis for channel usage are presented. Both multiple-access interference (MAI) and photodetector's shot noise are considered. Both chip-level and correlation receivers are adopted. The system performance is evaluated using a traditional average system throughput and average delay. Finally, in order to enhance the overall performance, error control codes (ECCs) are applied. The results indicate that the performance can be enhanced to reach its peak using the ECC with an optimum number of correctable errors. Furthermore, chip-level receivers are shown to give much higher performance than that of correlation receivers. Also, it has been shown that MAI is the main source of signal degradation.

  16. VISPA - Visual Physics Analysis on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodski, M.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Hinzmann, A.; Klimkovich, T.; Mueller, G.; Muenzer, T.; Steggemann, J.; Winchen, T.

    2009-01-01

    Modern physics analysis is an iterative task consisting of prototyping, executing and verifying the analysis procedure. For supporting scientists in each step of this process, we developed VISPA: a toolkit based on graphical and textual elements for visual physics analysis. Unlike many other analysis frameworks VISPA runs on Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. VISPA can be used in any experiment with serial data flow. In particular, VISPA can be connected to any high energy physics experiment. Furthermore, datatypes for the usage in astroparticle physics have recently been successfully included. An analysis on the data is performed in several steps, each represented by an individual module. While modules e.g. for file input and output are already provided, additional modules can be written by the user with C++ or the Python language. From individual modules, the analysis is designed by graphical connections representing the data flow. This modular concept assists the user in fast prototyping of the analysis and improves the reusability of written source code. The execution of the analysis can be performed directly from the GUI, or on any supported computer in batch mode. Therefore the analysis can be transported from the laptop to other machines. The recently improved GUI of VISPA is based on a plug-in mechanism. Besides components for the development and execution of physics analysis, additional plug-ins are available for the visualization of e.g. the structure of high energy physics events or the properties of cosmic rays in an astroparticle physics analysis. Furthermore plug-ins have been developed to display and edit configuration files of individual experiments from within the VISPA GUI. (author)

  17. Purged window apparatus. [On-line spectroscopic analysis of gas flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, E.O.

    1982-04-05

    A purged window apparatus is described which utilizes tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube thereby preventing backstreaming of flowing gases under investigation in a chamber to which a plurality of similar purged apparatus is attached with the consequent result that spectroscopic analyses can be undertaken for lengthy periods without the necessity of interrupting the flow for cleaning or replacing the windows due to contamination.

  18. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF ALGAL BLOOMS IN ARAS DAM BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAHANGIRI-RAD MAHSA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Man made practices have contributed to large-scale algal blooms that have caused serious ecological, aesthetic, water purification and water distribution problems. Aras Dam, which provides Arasful city with drinking water, has chronic algal blooms since 1990. This study addresses the use of artificial neural network (ANN model to anticipate the chlorophyll-a concentration in water of dam reservoir. Operation tests carried out by collecting water samples from 5 stations and examined for physical quality parameters namely: water temperature, total suspended solids (TSS, biochemical oxygen demands (BOD, ortophosphate, total phosphorous and nitrate concentrations using standard methods. Chlorophyll-a was also checked separately in order to investigate the accuracy of the predicted results by ANN. The results showed that a network was highly accurate in predicting the Chl-a concentration. A good agreement between actual data and the ANN outputs for training was observed, indicating the validation of testing data sets. The initial results of the research indicate that the dam is enriched with nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen. The Chl-a concentration that were predicted by the model were beyond the standard levels; indicating the possibility of eutrophication especially during fall season.

  19. Analysis of Energy Saving Potential and Optimization of Thermally Broken Fiberglass Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the energy saving potential and development process of fiberglass window frames, with intention for application in cold climates. A method is presented, where different means of improving thermal performance of a window frame are evaluated. Firstly, very simple geometries...

  20. Analysis of occupants' behavior related to the use of windows in German households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cali, Davide; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Mueller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    occupants to interact with windows and how these actions can be modeled. A method to analyze the probability of a state change of the windows, based on logistic regression, was applied to monitored data (measured each minute) from two refurbished demonstration buildings. The weather and the five rooms...

  1. Experimental analysis of single sided ventilation through a centre pivot roof window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Heiselberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    . Leakages through the experimental space were estimated using the blower door tests. Air-change rates increased with increase in the window sash opening angle. When the window was open all the way, with an average wind speed of 4 m/s, the average air-change rate was 2. Flow factor was used to characterise...

  2. Management of dams for the next Millennium: proceedings of the 1999 Canadian Dam Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The meeting featured seven sessions with 18 papers abstracted/indexed therein as follows: keynote address: tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community; 1 - design and performance: performance monitoring of dams: are we doing what we should be doing?; tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering; and design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake east toe berm; 2 - design and modelling: use of a 2D model for a dam break study on the ALCAN hydroelectric complex in Quebec; and spillway design implications resulting from changes in rainfall extremes; 3 - risk and dam safety I: closing the gaps in the dam safety guidelines; the reality of life safety consequence classification; and surveillance practices for the next millenium; 4 - risk and dam safety II: quantitative risk-assessment using the capacity-demand analysis; and new guidelines for dam safety classification; 5 - millenium issues: expectations of immortality, dam safety management into the next millenium; 6 - rehabilitation techniques: the unconventional application of conventional materials; nondestructive testing technology to characterize concrete dam/bedrock interface; method and instrument for detecting crack in concrete; and grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 - Daniel Johnson Dam; and 7 - case studies: rehabilitation of an 80 year old Ambursen type dam; and debris booms for the protection of spillways.

  3. EVALUASI KEAMANAN DAM JATILUHUR BERBASIS INDEKS RESIKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazbek Ishbaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dams have very important roles to agricultural activities. Especially, West Java with 240,000 hectares of agricultural land, needs a good dam structure that can be used sustainably. Jatiluhur dam in Purwakarta, West Java is one of big dams in Indonesia which has important rules not only for Purwakarta but also for Jakarta, Karawang and Bekasi residents. A study and observation about safety and dam stability is needed to prevent any damage. The purpose of this research were to identify parameters that influenced dam safety and to evaluate dam reliability based on index tools. Analysis was done using risk index tools. The result showed that the condition of the dam of Jatiluhur is still satisfied with indicators, "Idam"-750. The total index risk was 127.22 and the safety factor was 83.04 out of 100. Therefore, Jatiluhur dam could be classified as safe and no need for particular treatments. Jatiluhur dam can be operated in normal condition or abnormal condition with periodic monitoring. Keywords: dam safety, evaluation, Jatiluhur Dam, risk index tools

  4. Long-term thermal two- and three-dimensional analysis of roller compacted concrete dams supported by monitoring verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmanovic, V.; Savic, L. [Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Stefanakos, J. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

    2010-04-15

    This study investigated the long-term thermal-field evolution of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams. Thermal computational analyses of the dams are needed as a result of the layer-based construction technologies used to build the dams. Two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D unsteady phased models of the RCC dams were used to determine the time evolution of thermal field in a dam based on the Platanovryssi dam in Greece. The finite element method (FEM) was used to account for the dam geometry, different types of concrete used; actual initial and boundary conditions; the thermal and mechanical properties of the dam as a function of aging and temperature; and the RCC construction technology. The influence of all the parameters on the thermal behaviour of the RCC gravity dam was analyzed. Results of the study showed that the 2-D model accurately described the RCC dam thermal field. The thermal behaviour of the dam was influenced primarily by the thermal properties of the mixture and the boundary conditions. Variations of layer thickness did not significantly influence the temperature field. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Proper Installation of Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  6. Window Glazing Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  7. Window Frame Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  8. Performance Standards for Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  9. Benefits of Efficient Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Assessing Window Replacement Options | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Windows for New Construction | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Window Operator Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Analysis and modelization of short-duration windows of seismic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriani, B.; Lacoume, J.L.; Martin, N.; Cliet, C.; Dubesset, M.

    1987-01-01

    The spectral analysis of a seismic arrival is of a great interest, but unfortunately the common Fourier analysis is unserviceable on short-time windows. So, in order to obtain the spectral characteristics of the dominant components of a seismic signal on a short-time interval, the authors study parametric methods. At first, the autoregressive methods are able to localize a small number of non-stationary pure frequencies. But the amplitude determination is impossible with these methods. So, they develop a combination of AR and Capon's methods. In the Capon's method, the amplitude is conserved for a given frequency, at the very time when the contribution of the other frequencies is minimized. Finally, to characterize completely the different pure-frequency dominant components of the signal and to be able to reconstruct the signal and to be able to reconstruct the signal with these elements, the authors need also the phase and the attenuation; for that, they use the Prony's method where the signal is represented by a sum of damped sinusoids. This last method is used to modelize an offset VSP. It is shown that, using four frequencies and their attributes (amplitude, phase, attenuation), it is possible to modelize quasi-exactly the section. When reconstructing the signal, if one (or more) frequency is eliminated, an efficient filtering can be applied. The AR methods, and Prony's in particular, are efficient tools for signal component decomposition and information compression

  14. Analysis environment meteorology data around PPNY using PC with windows system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaya, S. G.; Yazid, M.; Isman, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Installation of a small station to measure some meteorological parameters had been done in Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre (PPNY) in order to keep the weather conditions under control, especially wind direction, wind speed, and outdoor temperature. The anemometer with temperature probe (WS-10T) was connected to the game adapter of the Personal Computer (PC) using 40 feet flat cable. A data file entry was automatically written by WS-10T at six minutes interval whenever the program was in operation. The data files are labeled by date as MMDD.log (MM=Months, DD=Day) and if the program is operated continuously. a new file be started each midnight. By the analysis data using SPSS for windows. The range of temperature were 67 o F until 97.6 o F . he maximum speed of wind was 17.7 Mph and the frequency of wind direction at the most was to the North (18.9 %). The analysis of meteorological data around vicinity was done to get the annual profile of wind speed , wind direction and outdoor temperature. (author)

  15. Application of the Linux cluster for exhaustive window haplotype analysis using the FBAT and Unphased programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Hiroyuki; Lidral, Andrew C; Ni, Jun

    2008-05-28

    Genetic association studies have been used to map disease-causing genes. A newly introduced statistical method, called exhaustive haplotype association study, analyzes genetic information consisting of different numbers and combinations of DNA sequence variations along a chromosome. Such studies involve a large number of statistical calculations and subsequently high computing power. It is possible to develop parallel algorithms and codes to perform the calculations on a high performance computing (HPC) system. However, most existing commonly-used statistic packages for genetic studies are non-parallel versions. Alternatively, one may use the cutting-edge technology of grid computing and its packages to conduct non-parallel genetic statistical packages on a centralized HPC system or distributed computing systems. In this paper, we report the utilization of a queuing scheduler built on the Grid Engine and run on a Rocks Linux cluster for our genetic statistical studies. Analysis of both consecutive and combinational window haplotypes was conducted by the FBAT (Laird et al., 2000) and Unphased (Dudbridge, 2003) programs. The dataset consisted of 26 loci from 277 extended families (1484 persons). Using the Rocks Linux cluster with 22 compute-nodes, FBAT jobs performed about 14.4-15.9 times faster, while Unphased jobs performed 1.1-18.6 times faster compared to the accumulated computation duration. Execution of exhaustive haplotype analysis using non-parallel software packages on a Linux-based system is an effective and efficient approach in terms of cost and performance.

  16. Analysis of pressure distribution originated over the external plate window of the RA-10 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, M A; Garcia, J.C

    2012-01-01

    The RA10 is a pool type multipurpose research reactor. The core consists of a rectangular array of MTR fuel type. The refrigeration system at full power and normal operations conditions is carried out by an ascendant flow through the core. To ensure the refrigeration in the sub-channel formed between two adjacent fuels, there is a window orifice over the outer fuel plate. Part of the coolant flow that gets into the fuel will be derived by the window orifice to the sub-channel. Due to the change in the coolant flow direction is necessary to establish the pressure distribution originated over the window In order to achieve this goal a CFD commercial code (FLUENT v6.3.26) was used to perform numerical simulations to obtain the pressure distribution over the window. A quarter of the fuel was modeled using proper symmetry and boundaries conditions (author)

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Blast-Resistant Window System (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Jae H; Consolazio, Gary R; Dinan, Robert J; Rinehart, Stephen A

    2008-01-01

    .... The influences of shock wave propagation and fluid venting inside the damping chamber of the flex-window system are quantified and the influences of such phenomena on panel deflections, deformations, and internal forces are presented.

  18. ANALYSIS OF JURE LANDSLIDE DAM, SINDHUPALCHOWK USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On 2nd August 2014, a rainfall-induced massive landslide hit Jure village, Sindhupalchowk killing 156 people at a distance of 70 km North-East of Kathmandu, Nepal. The landslide was a typical slope failure with massive rock fragments, sand and soil. A total of estimated 6 million cubic meters debris raised more than 100 m from the water level and affected opposite side of the bank. The landslide blocked the Sunkoshi River completely forming an estimated 8 million cubic meter lake of 3km length and 300-350m width upstream. It took nearly 12 hour to fill the lake and overflow the debris dam. The lake affected five Village Development Committees (VDC including highway, school, health post, postal service, police station, VDC office and temple upstream. The bottom of the dam was composed of highly cemented material and the derbies affected Sunkoshi hydropower downstream. Moreover, it caused the potential threat of Lake Outburst Flood. The lake was released by blasting off part of the landslide blockade and facilitated release of water from the lake. With the help of Remote Sensing (RS, series satellite images were used to identified, compared with previous state and quick estimation of potential treat was analysed. Using geographic information System (GIS technology, estimation of volume, affected households, service centres, parcels etc. in the area was possible. In such hilly regions where disaster are very frequent, using GIS and RS technology comes very handy for immediate planning and response.

  19. Analysis of Observation Data of Earth-Rockfill Dam Based on Cloud Probability Distribution Density Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liwei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring data on an earth-rockfill dam constitutes a form of spatial data. Such data include much uncertainty owing to the limitation of measurement information, material parameters, load, geometry size, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the calculation model. So the cloud probability density of the monitoring data must be addressed. In this paper, the cloud theory model was used to address the uncertainty transition between the qualitative concept and the quantitative description. Then an improved algorithm of cloud probability distribution density based on a backward cloud generator was proposed. This was used to effectively convert certain parcels of accurate data into concepts which can be described by proper qualitative linguistic values. Such qualitative description was addressed as cloud numerical characteristics-- {Ex, En, He}, which could represent the characteristics of all cloud drops. The algorithm was then applied to analyze the observation data of a piezometric tube in an earth-rockfill dam. And experiment results proved that the proposed algorithm was feasible, through which, we could reveal the changing regularity of piezometric tube’s water level. And the damage of the seepage in the body was able to be found out.

  20. NRC inventory of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information

  1. Environmental, economic and social analysis of materials for doors and windows in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundra, U.G. Yasantha; Babel, Sandhya; Sharp, Alice [Environmental Technology Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, School of Energy and Materials Building, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-05-15

    This paper compares the environmental, economic and social impacts of two types of doors and windows (elements), namely timber and aluminum taking into consideration the life cycle perspective. These elements are widely used for the buildings in Sri Lanka. Thus, it will help in the decision-making process when selecting materials for these elements. Major materials used for these elements are timber, brass, glass, paint, aluminum, rubber, steel and PVC boards. Environmental burdens associated with these materials are analyzed in terms of embodied energy, and environmental impacts that are relevant to Sri Lanka, such as global warming (GWP), acidification (ACP) and nutrient enrichment (NEP). Economic analysis is done using market prices of materials and affordability for those materials. Social concerns such as thermal comfort, good interior (aesthetics), ability to construct fast, and durability are analyzed based on the data collected through the questionnaires and also, interviews with the stakeholders of the buildings such as engineers, architects, building contractors and building users. It was found that timber elements are superior to aluminum elements in environmental scores (GWP, ACP and NEP). On economic score, also, timber elements are better. But on social score, aluminum elements are better than timber. It was also found that the higher the recycling percentage of aluminum, the higher the environmental favorability of the aluminum. (author)

  2. Dynamic tests at the Outardes 3 dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, J.; Paultre, P.; Duron, Z.; Tai Mai Phat; Im, O.

    1992-01-01

    At the Outardes 3 gravity dam, part of the Manicouagan-Outardes hydroelectric complex in northeastern Quebec, forced vibration tests were carried out using an eccentric mass shaker attached to the dam crest at three different locations. Accelerations were measured along the crest and in the inspection galleries, and hydrodynamic pressures were measured along the upstream dam face and at various locations in the reservoir. The tests were designed to analyze the effects of gravity dam-reservoir interactions and to generate a data base for calibrating finite element models used in studying the dynamic behavior of gravity dams. Experimental results are presented in order to demonstrate the quality of the data obtained and the effectiveness of the experimental procedures. Modes of vibration were observed which corresponded to those obtained by finite element analysis. It is shown that techniques recently developed for dynamic tests on large dams can be successfully used on gravity dams. 3 refs., 6 figs

  3. Safety Aspects of Sustainable Storage Dams and Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wieland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic element in any sustainable dam project is safety, which includes the following safety elements: ① structural safety, ② dam safety monitoring, ③ operational safety and maintenance, and ④ emergency planning. Long-term safety primarily includes the analysis of all hazards affecting the project; that is, hazards from the natural environment, hazards from the man-made environment, and project-specific and site-specific hazards. The special features of the seismic safety of dams are discussed. Large dams were the first structures to be systematically designed against earthquakes, starting in the 1930s. However, the seismic safety of older dams is unknown, as most were designed using seismic design criteria and methods of dynamic analysis that are considered obsolete today. Therefore, we need to reevaluate the seismic safety of existing dams based on current state-of-the-art practices and rehabilitate deficient dams. For large dams, a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is usually recommended. Today, large dams and the safety-relevant elements used for controlling the reservoir after a strong earthquake must be able to withstand the ground motions of a safety evaluation earthquake. The ground motion parameters can be determined either by a probabilistic or a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. During strong earthquakes, inelastic deformations may occur in a dam; therefore, the seismic analysis has to be carried out in the time domain. Furthermore, earthquakes create multiple seismic hazards for dams such as ground shaking, fault movements, mass movements, and others. The ground motions needed by the dam engineer are not real earthquake ground motions but models of the ground motion, which allow the safe design of dams. It must also be kept in mind that dam safety evaluations must be carried out several times during the long life of large storage dams. These features are discussed in this paper.

  4. Deformation Monitoring of Geomechanical Model Test and Its Application in Overall Stability Analysis of a High Arch Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomechanical model testing is an important method for studying the overall stability of high arch dams. The main task of a geomechanical model test is deformation monitoring. Currently, many types of deformation instruments are used for deformation monitoring of dam models, which provide valuable information on the deformation characteristics of the prototype dams. However, further investigation is required for assessing the overall stability of high arch dams through analyzing deformation monitoring data. First, a relationship for assessing the stability of dams is established based on the comprehensive model test method. Second, a stability evaluation system is presented based on the deformation monitoring data, together with the relationships between the deformation and overloading coefficient. Finally, the comprehensive model test method is applied to study the overall stability of the Jinping-I high arch dam. A three-dimensional destructive test of the geomechanical model dam is conducted under reinforced foundation conditions. The deformation characteristics and failure mechanisms of the dam abutments and foundation were investigated. The test results indicate that the stability safety factors of the dam abutments and foundation range from 5.2 to 6.0. These research results provide an important scientific insight into the design, construction, and operation stages of this project.

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE ANABOLIC WINDOW BEHAVIOUR IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josu Huarte Prieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was first to determine whether there is enough evidence in scientific literature to insure the existence of the anabolic window subsequent to training sessions to improve muscle adaptations of hypertrophy and strength by ingesting certain nutrients during a period of time. The review was also aimed at establishing if there is a limited time of action for such an anabolic window and finally at analyzing which are the appropriate nutritional recommendations for the training sessions given in the various scientific papers. Information was searched using the PubMed search engine (in English and Google scholar and Dialnet (in Spanish. The search was narrowed to only articles directly related to training and articles with healthy subjects with no pathologies. Given that the studies analyzed present mixed and contradictory results, it is difficult to determine the existence or non-existence of the anabolic window and its time of action.

  6. An analysis of latch-up characteristics and latch-up windows in CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xianguo; Yang Huaimin

    2004-01-01

    Because of topology's complexity, there may be several potential parasitic latch-up paths in a CMOS integrated circuit. All of the latch-up paths may have an effect on each other or one another due to different triggering dose rate, holding voltage and holding current and then one or more latch-up windows may appear. After we analyze the latch-up characteristic of CMOS integrated circuits in detail, a 'three-path' latch-up model is developed and used to explain the latch-up window phenomena reasonably. (authors)

  7. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-04-21

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental

  8. Thermal Analysis of the Al Window for a New CESR-c Luminosity Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yun; Palmer, Mark A; Rice, David

    2005-01-01

    A luminosity monitor using photons from radiative bhabha events at the CLEO interaction point (IP) has been installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). A key vacuum and detector component is the photon window/converter whose uniformity and thickness are critical for determining the resolution of the total energy deposited in the segmented luminosity monitor. The window design must accommodate the operational requirements of the new monitor at CLEO-c beam energies of 1.5-2.5 GeV and also provide sufficient safety margin for operation at 5.3 GeV beam energies for Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) running. During 5.3 GeV operation, intense stripes of synchrotron radiation from the interaction region superconducting quadrupole magnets as well as nearby bending magnets strike the window. During the course of window development, several materials and designs were evaluated. Thermal stresses were calculated using the finite element code ANSYS for various beam conditions to guide the cooling d...

  9. Design of an RF window for L-band CW klystron based on thermal-stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Seiya; Sato, Isamu; Konashi, Kenji; Ohshika, Junji.

    1993-01-01

    Design of klystron RF window has been performed based on a thermal-stress analysis for L-band CW electron linac for nuclear wastes transmutation. It was shown that the hoop stress for a modified disk is 46% of that of normal disk. Thermal load test has been done which indicated that the modified disk is proof against power twice as much as that for the normal disk. (author)

  10. Comparison of Kayzero for Windows and k0-IAEA software packages for k0 standardization in neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubešová, Marie; Kučera, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 654, č. 1 (2011), s. 206-212 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0363 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * ko standardization * Kayzero for Windows program * ko-IAEA program Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  11. Interosseous membrane window size for tibialis posterior tendon transfer-Geometrical and MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Pablo; Ortiz, Cristian; Vela, Omar; Arias, Paul; Zanolli, Diego; Wagner, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    Tibialis posterior (TP) tendon transfer through the interosseous membrane is commonly performed in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In order to avoid entrapment of this tendon, no clear recommendation relative to the interosseous membrane (IOM) incision size has been made. Analyze the TP size at the transfer level and therefore determine the most adequate IOM window size to avoid muscle entrapment. Eleven lower extremity magnetic resonances were analyzed. TP muscle measurements were made in axial views, obtaining the medial-lateral and antero-posterior diameter at various distances from the medial malleolus tip. The distance from the posterior to anterior compartment was also measured. These measurements were applied to a mathematical model to predict the IOM window size necessary to allow an ample TP passage in an oblique direction. The average tendon diameter (confidence-interval) at 15cm proximal to the medial malleolus tip was 19.47mm (17.47-21.48). The deep posterior compartment to anterior compartment distance was 10.97mm (9.03-12.90). Using a mathematical model, the estimated IOM window size ranges from 4.2 to 4.9cm. The IOM window size is of utmost importance in trans-membrane TP transfers, given that if equal or smaller than the transposed tendon oblique diameter, a high entrapment risk exists. A membrane window of 5cm or 2.5 times the size of the tendon diameter should be performed in order to theoretically diminish this complication. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Back Analysis of the Permeability Coefficient of a High Core Rockfill Dam Based on a RBF Neural Network Optimized Using the PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to determine the seepage field parameters of a high core rockfill dam using the seepage data obtained during operation. For the Nuozhadu high core rockfill dam, a back analysis model is proposed using the radial basis function neural network optimized using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO-RBFNN and the technology of finite element analysis for solving the saturated-unsaturated seepage field. The recorded osmotic pressure curves of osmometers, which are distributed in the maximum cross section, are applied to this back analysis. The permeability coefficients of the dam materials are retrieved using the measured seepage pressure values while the steady state seepage condition exists; that is, the water lever remains unchanged. Meanwhile, the parameters are tested using the unstable saturated-unsaturated seepage field while the water level rises. The results show that the permeability coefficients are reasonable and can be used to study the real behavior of a seepage field of a high core rockfill dam during its operation period.

  13. Heavy Metal Analysis of Cauvery River Water Around Krs Dam, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahadev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is an index of health and is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists, since Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have a direct impact on the water resources. Hence, the study of the reservoirs and river water quality monitoring is most essential aspect of sustainable development and river conservation. The Upstream and KRS reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Mysore city. The study area were selected the Upstream and KRS reservoir of Mysore District of Karnataka, India. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate water quality parameter and heavy metal of upstream and KRS Dam during 2008. Ecological parameters like Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical parameters like Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate and physical parameters like Temperature, pH, Turbidity and heavy metals were analyzed and the results were compared with standard permissible limits, WHO and they were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality. Results revealed that in three rivers of upstream (Hemavathi, Cauvery and Laxmanatheertha carried high loads of Arsenic, Iron, Nickel in Upstream. In other word, Arsenic is a dominant risk to more than the maximum permissible standard of water quality and is a risk factor in this river

  14. Application of correspondence analysis in the assessment of mine tailings dam breakage risk in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Henrique Garcia; Rico, Maria-Teresa; Benito, Gerado; Díez-Herreo, Andrés

    2008-02-01

    A new statistical approach for preliminary risk evaluation of breakage in tailings dam is presented and illustrated by a case study regarding the Mediterranean region. The objective of the proposed method is to establish an empirical scale of risk, from which guidelines for prioritizing the collection of further specific information can be derived. The method relies on a historical database containing, in essence, two sets of qualitative data: the first set concerns the variables that are observable before the disaster (e.g., type and size of the dam, its location, and state of activity), and the second refers to the consequences of the disaster (e.g., failure type, sludge characteristics, fatalities categorization, and downstream range of damage). Based on a modified form of correspondence analysis, where the second set of attributes are projected as "supplementary variables" onto the axes provided by the eigenvalue decomposition of the matrix referring to the first set, a "qualitative regression" is performed, relating the variables to be predicted (contained in the second set) with the "predictors" (the observable variables). On the grounds of the previously derived relationship, the risk of breakage in a new case can be evaluated, given observable variables. The method was applied in a case study regarding a set of 13 test sites where the ranking of risk obtained was validated by expert knowledge. Once validated, the procedure was included in the final output of the e-EcoRisk UE project (A Regional Enterprise Network Decision-Support System for Environmental Risk and Disaster Management of Large-Scale Industrial Spills), allowing for a dynamic historical database updating and providing a prompt rough risk evaluation for a new case. The aim of this section of the global project is to provide a quantified context where failure cases occurred in the past for supporting analogue reasoning in preventing similar situations.

  15. Accounting for the Spatial Observation Window in the 2-D Fourier Transform Analysis of Shear Wave Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouze, Ned C; Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2017-10-01

    Recent measurements of shear wave propagation in viscoelastic materials have been analyzed by constructing the 2-D Fourier transform (2DFT) of the shear wave signal and measuring the phase velocity c(ω) and attenuation α(ω) from the peak location and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the 2DFT signal at discrete frequencies. However, when the shear wave is observed over a finite spatial range, the 2DFT signal is a convolution of the true signal and the observation window, and measurements using the FWHM can yield biased results. In this study, we describe a method to account for the size of the spatial observation window using a model of the 2DFT signal and a non-linear, least-squares fitting procedure to determine c(ω) and α(ω). Results from the analysis of finite-element simulation data agree with c(ω) and α(ω) calculated from the material parameters used in the simulation. Results obtained in a viscoelastic phantom indicate that the measured attenuation is independent of the observation window and agree with measurements of c(ω) and α(ω) obtained using the previously described progressive phase and exponential decay analysis. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy to predict soil properties using windows and full-spectrum analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B; van Henten, Eldert J

    2013-11-27

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0-15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0-15 cm soil depths than in the 15-30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.

  17. Data resulting from the CFD analysis of ten window frames according to the UNI EN ISO 10077-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Baglivo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data are related to the numerical simulation performed in the study entitled “CFD modeling to evaluate the thermal performances of window frames in accordance with the ISO 10077” (Malvoni et al., 2016 [1].The paper focuses on the results from a two-dimensional numerical analysis for ten frame sections suggested by the ISO 10077-2 and performed using GAMBIT 2.2 and ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 CFD code.The dataset specifically includes information about the CFD setup and boundary conditions considered as the input values of the simulations.The trend of the isotherms points out the different impacts on the thermal behaviour of all sections with air solid material or ideal gas into the cavities. Keywords: CFD, Thermal break, Window, Frame, 10077, EPBD

  18. Resources | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  19. Links | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Efficient Windows Collaborative | Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. FAQ | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  2. Glossary | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  3. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  4. IMPACT OF THE ATATÜRK DAM LAKE ON AGRO-METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozcan

    2012-07-01

    using a 30-year meteorological time series. For all images, geometric corrections including digital elevation information and Tasseled Cap transformations were carried out to attain changes in surface reflectance and denoting disturbance of Landsat reflectance data. Consequently, thematic maps of the affected areas were created by using appropriate visualization and classification techniques in conjunction with geographical information system. The resulting dataset was used in a linear trend analysis to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation-cover development. Analysis has been conducted in ecological units that have been determined by climate and land cover/use. Based on the results of the trend analysis and the primary factor analysis, selected parts of South-eastern Anatolia region are analyzed. The results showed that approximately 368 km2 of agricultural fields have been affected because of inundation due to the Atatürk Dam Lake. However, irrigated agricultural fields have been increased by 56.3% of the total area (1552 km2 of 2756km2 on Harran Plain within the period of 1984 – 2011. This study presents an effective method for time-series analysis that can be used to regularly monitor irrigated fields in the Southeastern Anatolia region.

  5. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  6. Analysis of inconsistent source sampling in monte carlo weight-window variance reduction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Griesheimer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of Monte Carlo (MC to large-scale fixed-source problems has recently become possible with new hybrid methods that automate generation of parameters for variance reduction techniques. Two common variance reduction techniques, weight windows and source biasing, have been automated and popularized by the consistent adjoint-driven importance sampling (CADIS method. This method uses the adjoint solution from an inexpensive deterministic calculation to define a consistent set of weight windows and source particles for a subsequent MC calculation. One of the motivations for source consistency is to avoid the splitting or rouletting of particles at birth, which requires computational resources. However, it is not always possible or desirable to implement such consistency, which results in inconsistent source biasing. This paper develops an original framework that mathematically expresses the coupling of the weight window and source biasing techniques, allowing the authors to explore the impact of inconsistent source sampling on the variance of MC results. A numerical experiment supports this new framework and suggests that certain classes of problems may be relatively insensitive to inconsistent source sampling schemes with moderate levels of splitting and rouletting.

  7. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams

  8. The changing hydrology of a dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries around the world are expanding hydropower to meet growing energy demand. In the Brazilian Amazon, >200 dams are planned over the next 30 years, and questions about the impacts of current and future hydropower in this globally important watershed remain unanswered. In this context, we applied a hydrologic indicator method to quantify how existing Amazon dams have altered the natural flow regime and to identify predictors of alteration. The type and magnitude of hydrologic alteration varied widely by dam, but the largest changes were to critical characteristics of the flood pulse. Impacts were largest for low-elevation, large-reservoir dams; however, small dams had enormous impacts relative to electricity production. Finally, the “cumulative” effect of multiple dams was significant but only for some aspects of the flow regime. This analysis is a first step toward the development of environmental flows plans and policies relevant to the Amazon and other megadiverse river basins. PMID:29109972

  9. A CUSUM analysis of discharge patterns by a hydroelectric dam and discussion of potential effects on the upstream migration of American eel elvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, B.M.; Harvie, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    American eel elvers are among the diadromous fishes native to the Saint John River in New Brunswick that have been affected by the construction of hydroelectric dams. Before 1980, large numbers of elvers were observed entering the fishway of the Mactaquac Dam in May and June for upstream migration, but their presence abruptly ceased after 1980. A study was conducted to determine why they disappeared at the Mactaquac Dam. A cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis was performed to determine the variability in magnitude, duration, timing, frequency, and rate of change in the daily and seasonal average level of water discharge associated with the installation of the last two of six turbines in late 1979 and early 1980. It is believed that the rapid, short-term fluctuations in water discharge which is characteristic of peaking hydroelectric dam operations, could seriously affect life cycle transitions of diadromous fishes. Upstream and downstream migration of the elvers may be affected along with their abundance, diversity and productivity. Young fish in particular are at higher risk of mortality during high flows, depending on the species. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  10. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2015. It is the seventh report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined WYs 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011); a report released in August 2011 examined WYs 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011); a report released June 2012 examined WY 2011 (Poch et al. 2012); a report released April 2013 examined WY 2012 (Poch et al. 2013); a report released June 2014 examined WY 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014); and a report released September 2015 examined WY 2014 (Graziano et al. 2015). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. Only one experimental release was conducted at GCD in WY 2015; specifically, a high flow experimental (HFE) release conducted in November 2014. For this experimental release, financial costs of approximately $2.1 million were incurred because the HFE required sustained water releases that exceeded the powerplant’s maximum flow rate. In addition, during the month of the experiment, operators were not allowed to shape GCD power production to either follow firm power customer loads or to respond to market prices. This study identifies the main factors that contribute to HFE costs and examines the interdependencies among these factors. It applies an integrated set of tools to estimate financial impacts by simulating the GCD operations under two scenarios: (1) a baseline scenario that mimics both HFE operations during the experiment and during the rest of the year when it complies with the 1996 ROD operating criteria, and (2) a “without experiments” scenario that is identical to the baseline except it assumes that the HFE did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the

  11. Alpine dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  12. Window shopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    'A large window for surprises' was how Gordon Kane of Michigan summarized the potential of the proposed 84-kilometre US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC). With George Trilling of Berkeley unable to attend this year's High Energy Physics Conference at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, from 8-10 October, Kane played a dual role - looking ahead to SSC physics, and summarizing the meeting

  13. Role of SeqA and Dam in Escherichia coli gene expression: A global/microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Marinus, M.G.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2003-01-01

    High-density oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor global transcription patterns in Escherichia coli with various levels of Dam and SeqA proteins. Cells lacking Dam methyltransferase showed a modest increase in transcription of the genes belonging to the SOS regulon. Bacteria devoid...... of the SeqA protein, which preferentially binds hemimethylated DNA, were found to have a transcriptional profile almost identical to WT bacteria overexpressing Dam methyltransferase. The latter two strains differed from WT in two ways. First, the origin proximal genes were transcribed with increased...... frequency due to increased gene dosage. Second, chromosomal domains of high transcriptional activity alternate with regions of low activity, and our results indicate that the activity in each domain is modulated in the same way by SeqA deficiency or Dam overproduction. We suggest that the methylation status...

  14. Construction of anhydrite dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, L; Francois, G

    1977-05-01

    To construct a ventilation dam, the road is closed with a fibreglass sheet onto which 3 or 4 cm of anhydrite paste is sprayed. The equipment necessary is described, and the cost is compared with that of an aggregate dam.

  15. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Japan`s largest composition dam, aiming for harmony with nature. Chubetsu dam; Shizen tono chowa wo mezasu, Nippon ichi no fukugo dam. Chubetsu dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizushima, T. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan)

    1994-08-15

    This paper introduces Chubetsu Dam planned with a large-scale embankment having a river bed width of 600 m. Chubetsu Dam is being constructed with such objectives as flood control of Ishikari River, river flow rate maintenance, drinking water supply, irrigation water supply and power generation. The dam site is a gravel bed having a river bed width of 600 m and a maximum foundation rock thickness of 40 m, requiring evaluations as a dam foundation and discussions of water shielding methods. As a result of discussions at the Chubetsu Dam technical discussion committee, the dam type is decided to be a composition dam consisting of a gravity type concrete dam on the left river side and a central core type fill dam using a part of the gravel bed as the foundation on the right river side. A continuous underground wall system is planned to be used for shielding water in the gravel foundation. In discussing the anti-seismic properties, analyses for bank construction and water filling to derive stress and deformation conditions prior to an earthquake and a time-history response analysis to derive conditional changes during the earthquake are performed. According to the results thereof, evaluations are given on the safety by compounding the stress and the acceleration. In plans to improve the surrounding areas, an area will be provided upstream the reservoir where the water level is kept constant to serve as a bird sanctuary. 7 figs.

  17. Analysis on Time Window of Shared Parking in Hospitals Based on Parking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are essential components of a city; huge traffic demand is generated and attracted, causing contradiction between parking supply and demand. By sharing parking berths, limited space can serve more demand which is beneficial to alleviating parking problems. Aimed at improving the capacity of shared parking, the paper analyzes four parking groups in typical hospitals, which are medical staff, outpatients, emergency patients, and visiting groups. The parking demand of medical staff is rigid. For outpatients and visiting groups, longer walking distance is acceptable and more attention is paid to parking fee. By contrast, emergency patients can accept shorter walking distance and focus more on convenience due to urgency. Under this circumstance, parking behaviors selection models are established by means of Multinomial Logit Model. On this basis, time value is adopted to calculate the tolerance of alterative parking time. Moreover, this paper explores the variation of time window, under different parking impedance. A case study is conducted and suggests that start and end point of a certain time window can be influenced by external factors.

  18. Descriptive characteristics of the large Italian dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dello Vicario, E.; Petaccia, A.; Savanella, V.

    1999-01-01

    In the present note the characteristics of the Italian dams are examined, underlining, in a statistical view, story, geographical location, types and use of the most important works. Such a review can be useful for a more detailed analysis, both for the dams characterization and for further studies relevant to water resources utilization [it

  19. Evaluation of uncertainty in dam-break analysis resulting from dynamic representation of a reservoir; Evaluation de l'incertitude due au modele de representation du reservoir dans les analyses de rupture de barrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchamen, G.W.; Gaucher, J. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Direction Barrage et Environnement, Unite Barrages et Hydraulique

    2010-08-15

    Owners and operators of high capacity dams in Quebec have a legal obligation to conduct dam break analysis for each of their dams in order to ensure public safety. This paper described traditional hydraulic methodologies and models used to perform dam break analyses. In particular, it examined the influence of the reservoir drawdown submodel on the numerical results of a dam break analysis. Numerical techniques from the field of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics have provided the basis for developing effective hydrodynamic codes that reduce the level of uncertainties associated with dam-break analysis. A static representation that considers the storage curve was compared with a dynamic representation based on Saint-Venant equations and the real bathymetry of the reservoir. The comparison was based on breach of reservoir, maximum water level, flooded area, and wave arrival time in the valley downstream. The study showed that the greatest difference in attained water level was in the vicinity of the dam, and the difference decreased as the distance from the reservoir increased. The analysis showed that the static representation overestimated the maximum depth and inundated area by as much as 20 percent. This overestimation can be reduced by 30 to 40 percent by using dynamic representation. A dynamic model based on a synthetic trapezoidal reconstruction of the storage curve was used, given the lack of bathymetric data for the reservoir. It was concluded that this model can significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with the static model. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of grouting curtain on the basis of the analysis of groundwater temperature fluctuations behind the dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors considered the technique of evaluating the performance of a grouting curtain basing on the analysis of mathematical forecasting and regular measurements of water temperature in the reservoir and in the rock mass behind the dam. The initial data for the solution of heat transfer problem are the rate of filtration, obtained from the solution of the stationary problem of filtration, and the experimental factor, generalizing thermophysical properties of rocks. For calculating the period of time from to the change of the water temperature in the reservoir till the change of water temperature at the reference point of the rock mass a computer program was designed, which allows defining the path and time of filtration from the reservoir to the reference point in the rock mass with the help of the reverse conversion on flow lines. The calculation was carried out from the point in question in the rock mass till the crossing paths of filtration with the bottom boundary of the reservoir. As an example, we present the results of computational studies of filtration and temperature regimes in the rock foundation of a concrete dam at the design work of the grouting curtain and in case of the presence of pervious area. The calculations were performed with a time step dt = 2 days. At each time step, with account of water motion along the lines of the current through the rock mass, the previous position of the reference points in space has been determined, for which the value of the velocity vector of filtration field was corrected. In the first case, the motion of water from the reservoir was carried out in the circumvention of the grouting curtain. In the second case, the motion of water took place from the reservoir through the permeable portion of the grouting curtain. The change of the water temperature during its seepage from the water reservoir through permeable area of grouting curtain because of conductive heat transmission in

  1. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within ...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  2. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  3. Major, trace and rate earth elements in sediments of the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mireles, F.; Pinedo, J. L.; Davila, J. I.; Oliva, J. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD 20746 (United States); Glascock, M. D., E-mail: fmireles@uaz.edu.m [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The rapid industrial development in regions of Mexico during recent years has had the side effect of introducing toxic metals, fertilizers, and pesticides into the ecosystem. Sediment cores were collected from eight locations around the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam located in Municipality of Villanueva in the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The cores were analyzed for 32 major, trace, and rare earth elements (As, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Zn, Zr, Al, Ba, Ca, Dy, K, Mn, Na, Ti, V) in order to estimate the health risk. The samples were analyzed by instrument neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron fluxes of 8 x 10{sup 13} and 5 x 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for short and long irradiations, respectively. The results of the contamination levels for elements such as As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ta, V, and Zn were compared with the Mexican regulations and the guidelines of US EPA. (Author)

  4. Major, trace and rate earth elements in sediments of the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireles, F.; Pinedo, J. L.; Davila, J. I.; Oliva, J. E.; Speakman, R. J.; Glascock, M. D.

    2010-10-01

    The rapid industrial development in regions of Mexico during recent years has had the side effect of introducing toxic metals, fertilizers, and pesticides into the ecosystem. Sediment cores were collected from eight locations around the Julian Adame-Alatorre dam located in Municipality of Villanueva in the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The cores were analyzed for 32 major, trace, and rare earth elements (As, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Zn, Zr, Al, Ba, Ca, Dy, K, Mn, Na, Ti, V) in order to estimate the health risk. The samples were analyzed by instrument neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron fluxes of 8 x 10 13 and 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 for short and long irradiations, respectively. The results of the contamination levels for elements such as As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ta, V, and Zn were compared with the Mexican regulations and the guidelines of US EPA. (Author)

  5. Dams designed to fail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penman, A. [Geotechnical Engineering Consultants, Harpenden (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    New developments in geotechnical engineering have led to methods for designing and constructing safe embankment dams. Failed dams can be categorized as those designed to fail, and those that have failed unexpectedly. This presentation outlined 3 dam failures: the 61 m high Malpasset Dam in France in 1959 which killed 421; the 71 m high Baldwin Hills Dam in the United States in 1963 which killed 5; and, the Vajont Dam in Italy in 1963 which killed 2,600 people. Following these incidents, the International Commission for Large Dams (ICOLD) reviewed regulations on reservoir safety. The 3 dams were found to have inadequate spillways and their failures were due to faults in their design. Fuse plug spillways, which address this problem, are designed to fail if an existing spillway proves inadequate. They allow additional discharge to prevent overtopping of the embankment dam. This solution can only be used if there is an adjacent valley to take the additional discharge. Examples of fuse gates were presented along with their effect on dam safety. A research program is currently underway in Norway in which high embankment dams are being studied for overtopping failure and failure due to internal erosion. Internal erosion has been the main reason why dams have failed unexpectedly. To prevent failures, designers suggested the use of a clay blanket placed under the upstream shoulder. However, for dams with soft clay cores, these underblankets could provide a route for a slip surface and that could lead to failure of the upstream shoulder. It was concluded that a safe arrangement for embankment dams includes the use of tipping gates or overturning gates which always fail at a required flood water level. Many have been installed in old and new dams around the world. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Creation of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: analysis of planning experience and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, É. S.

    2012-01-01

    Results of complex instrument observations and video taping during large-scale blasts detonated for creation of the dam at the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Kyrgyz Republic are analyzed. Tests of the energy effectiveness of the explosives are evaluated, characteristics of LSB manifestations in seismic and air waves are revealed, and the shaping and movement of the rock mass are examined. A methodological analysis of the planning and production of the LSB is given.

  7. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  8. Climate-informed flood frequency analysis based on Bayesian theory and teleconnection for the Three Gorges Dam (TGD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DONG, Q.; Zhang, X.; Lall, U.; Sang, Y. F.; Xie, P.

    2017-12-01

    With the current global climate changing and human activities intensifying, the uncertainties and danger of floods increased significantly. However, the current flood frequency analysis is still based on the stationary assumption. This assumption not only limits the benefits of the water conservancy projects, but also brings hazard because it ignores the risk of flooding under climate change. In this paper, we relax the stationary hypothesis in the flood frequency analysis model based on the teleconnection and use the intrinsic relation of flood elements to improve the annual flood frequency results by Bayesian inference approaches. Daily discharges of the the Three Gorges Dam(TGD) in 1953-2013 years are used as an example. Firstly, according to the linear correlation between the climate indices and the distribution parameters, the prior distributions of peak and volume are established with the selected large scale climate predictors. After that, by using the copula function and predictands, the conditional probability function of peak and volume is obtained. Then, the Bayesian theory links the prior distributions and conditional distributions and get the posterior distributions. We compare the difference under different prior distributions and find the optimal flood frequency distribution model. Finally, we discuss the impact of dynamic flood frequency analysis on the plan and management of hydraulic engineering. The results show that compared with the prior probability, the posterior probability considering the correlation of the flood elements is more accurate and the uncertainty is smaller. And the dynamic flood frequency model has a great impact on the management of the existing hydraulic engineering, which can improve the engineering operation benefit and reducing its flood risk, but it nearly didn't influence the plan of hydraulic engineering. The study of this paper is helpful to the dynamic flood risk management of TGD, and provide reference for the

  9. Coordinate reduction for the seismic analysis of dam-foundation-reservoir systems with non-proportional damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehai, L.; Paultre, P.; Leger, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of dams to withstand seismic events, recent studies have shown that the dam-foundation and dam-reservoir interactions have a significant influence on the dynamic response of the dam. The hypothesis of proportional damping is not realistic for such structures, in which the mechanisms of energy dissipation present notable differences between their various components. A comparative study is presented of different methods of resolution of linear systems with non-proportional damping, using recent techniques of coordinate reduction. Parametric studies were conducted on a 2-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam-foundation system. The comparison focuses essentially on the numerical efficiency and precision in the calculation of dynamic parameters (displacements, accelerations, and internal stresses) and in the distribution of damping energy among the components of the system. The evaluation of the energy dissipated in the absorbing boundaries has indicated that the algorithms retained for reducing the coordinates in real and complex space conveniently model the conditions at the limits of the structure. The high degree of numerical stability and the efficiency of the interative procedure of Ibrahimbegovic and Wilson (1989), applied to systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, has been confirmed. 10 refs., 8 figs

  10. Seismic performance assessment of latyan concrete buttress dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to design earthquake resistant dams and evaluate the safety of existing dams that will be exposed to future earthquakes, it is essential to have accurate and reliable analysis procedures to predict the stresses and deformations in dams subjected to earthquake ground motion. For a damwater- foundation system, the ...

  11. Mechanics of slide dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.

    1970-01-01

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  12. Mechanics of slide dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, G A [Engineering, Agbabian-Jacobsen Associates, Los Angeles (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  13. Folsom Dam Outlet Works Modification Project; Simplified Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis of Monolith 12

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheu, Enrique E; Garner, Sharon B

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a finite-element stress analysis of monolith 12 conducted to assess any potential adverse effects caused by the proposed dimensions of the air vent near the base of the spillway pier wall...

  14. A novel power harmonic analysis method based on Nuttall-Kaiser combination window double spectrum interpolated FFT algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Chen, Yiyang; Flesch, Rodolfo C. C.

    2017-11-01

    Harmonics pose a great threat to safe and economical operation of power grids. Therefore, it is critical to detect harmonic parameters accurately to design harmonic compensation equipment. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is widely used for electrical popular power harmonics analysis. However, the barrier effect produced by the algorithm itself and spectrum leakage caused by asynchronous sampling often affects the harmonic analysis accuracy. This paper examines a new approach for harmonic analysis based on deducing the modifier formulas of frequency, phase angle, and amplitude, utilizing the Nuttall-Kaiser window double spectrum line interpolation method, which overcomes the shortcomings in traditional FFT harmonic calculations. The proposed approach is verified numerically and experimentally to be accurate and reliable.

  15. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Dams, Hydrology and Risk in Future River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Across America there are over 80,000 large to medium dams and globally the number is in excess of 800,000. Currently there are over 1,400 dams and diversion structures being planned or under construction globally. In addition to these documented dams there are thousands of small dams populating watersheds. Governments, agencies, native tribes, private owners and regulators all have a common interest in safe dams. Often dam safety is characterized as reducing structural risk while providing for maximum operational flexibility. In the 1970's there were a number of large and small dam failures in the United States. These failures prompted the federal government to issue voluntary dam safety guidelines. These guidelines were based on historic information incorporated into a risk assessment process to analyze, evaluate and manage risk with the goal to improve the quality of and support of dam management and safety decisions. We conclude that historic and new risks need to be integrated into dam management to insure adequate safety and operational flexibility. A recent assessment of the future role of dams in the United States premises that future costs such as maintenance or removal beyond the economic design life have not been factored into the long-term operations or relicensing of dams. The converging risks associated with aging water storage infrastructure, multiple dams within watersheds and uncertainty in demands policy revisions and an updated strategic approach to dam safety. Decisions regarding the future of dams in the United States may, in turn, influence regional water planning and management. Leaders in Congress and in the states need to implement a comprehensive national water assessment and a formal analysis of the role dams play in our water future. A research and national policy agenda is proposed to assess future impacts and the design, operation, and management of watersheds and dams.

  17. A multi-year analysis of passage and survival at McNary Dam, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Walker, C.E.; Perry, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004–09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to determine how dam operations and environmental conditions affect passage and survival of juvenile salmonids. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how environmental variables and dam operations relate to passage behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam. We used the Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to environmental variables and dam operations. Total project discharge and the proportion of flow passing the spillway typically had a positive effect on survival for all species and routes. As the proportion of water through the spillway increased, the number of fish passing the spillway increased, as did overall survival. Additionally, survival generally was higher at night. There was no meaningful difference in survival for fish that passed through the north or south portions of the spillway or powerhouse. Similarly, there was no difference in survival for fish released in the north, middle, or south portions of the tailrace. For subyearling Chinook salmon migrating during the summer season, increased temperatures had a drastic effect on passage and survival. As temperature increased, survival of subyearling Chinook salmon decreased through all passage routes and the number of fish that passed through the turbines increased. During years when the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) were installed, passage through the spillway increased for spring migrants. However, due to the changes made in the location of the TSW between years and the potential effect of other confounding environmental conditions, it is not certain if the increase in spillway passage was due solely to the presence of the TSWs. The TSWs appeared to improve forebay survival during years when they were operated.

  18. Evaluating safety of concrete gravity dam on weak rock: Scott Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.E.; Ahlgren, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Scott Dam is owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) as part of the Potter Valley Project. Although it is an unimpressive concrete gravity dam [233 m (765 ft) long with maximum water surface 33.4 m (110 ft) above tail water], the dam has unusually complex and weak foundation rocks; thick condition caused design changes during construction, numerous subsequent special investigations, and several corrections and additions. A main stumbling block to clarification of the dam safety issue for Scott Dam has always been difficulty in characterizing the foundation material. This paper discusses an approach to this problem as well s how the safety of the dam was subsequently confirmed. Following a comprehensive program of research, investigations, and analysis from 1991 to 1997

  19. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  20. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  1. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H. [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  2. Moisture problems of functional joints of wooden windows – causes analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palková Adela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of the humidity regimen of a functional wooden window joint. Current energy-saving trends in the buildings bring secondary effects associated with indoor climate change. Increase of the thermal-technical quantification, non-breathability, and diffusion resistance of the building envelope without the solution of controlled ventilation brings an extreme rise of the interior moisture. The passage of moisture through a functional joint is ensured mainly by exfiltration. The energy standard applicable after the year 2020 assumes buildings with almost zero energy need that cannot be reached without a recuperation system. The concept of the recuperation systems usually works as a pressure system, which increases the likelihood of exfiltration. Measurements done in a large climate chamber show that the diffusion of water vapor can overcome the infiltration flow of the outside air. The passage of moisture results in icing or condensation in the functional joint, which subsequently damages the surface treatment of the wood. Another serious defect is the subsequent mold growth.

  3. Defect window analysis by using SEM-contour based shape quantifying method for sub-20nm node production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Daisuke; Hsu, Mingyi; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Izawa, Masayuki; Enomoto, Yuji; Lin, J. F.; Hu, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    The impact on yield loss due to systematic defect which remains after Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) modeling has increased, and achieving an acceptable yield has become more difficult in the leading technology beyond 20 nm node production. Furthermore Process-Window has become narrow because of the complexity of IC design and less process margin. In the past, the systematic defects have been inspected by human-eyes. However the judgment by human-eyes is sometime unstable and not accurate. Moreover an enormous amount of time and labor will have to be expended on the one-by-one judgment for several thousands of hot-spot defects. In order to overcome these difficulties and improve the yield and manufacturability, the automated system, which can quantify the shape difference with high accuracy and speed, is needed. Inspection points could be increased for getting higher yield, if the automated system achieves our goal. Defect Window Analysis (DWA) system by using high-precision-contour extraction from SEM image on real silicon and quantifying method which can calculate the difference between defect pattern and non-defect pattern automatically, which was developed by Hitachi High-Technologies, has been applied to the defect judgment instead of the judgment by human-eyes. The DWA result which describes process behavior might be feedback to design or OPC or mask. This new methodology and evaluation results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  4. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids, including sockeye salmon, in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the valuable information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional (hereafter referred to as 3-D) tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and testing of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting 3-D results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we used a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis allowed us to numerically summarize the behavior of fish in the forebay. This report is the second report published in 2012 that uses this analytical method. The first report included only fish released as part of the annual studies conducted at McNary Dam. This second report includes sockeye salmon that were released as part of studies conducted by the Chelan and Grant County Public Utility Districts at mid-Columbia River dams. The studies conducted in the mid-Columbia used the same transmitters as were used for McNary Dam studies, but transmitter pulse width was different between studies. Additionally, no passive integrated transponder tags were implanted in sockeye salmon. Differences in transmitter pulse width resulted in lower detection probabilities for sockeye salmon at McNary Dam. The absence of passive integrated transponder tags prevented us from determining if fish passed the powerhouse through the juvenile bypass system (JBS) or turbines. To

  5. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development II: Design Consideration for Passing Fish Upstream Around Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, S. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, M. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richey, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parkhurst, Z. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide general information for use by potential developers of small scale hydroelectric projects that will include facilities to pass migrating fish upstream around dams. The document is not intended to be a textbook on design of fish passage facilities, but rather to be a general guide to some factors that are important when designing such facilities.

  6. Model analysis of check dam impacts on long-term sediment and water budgets in southeast Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Niraula, Rewati

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of check dam infrastructure on soil and water conservation at the catchment scale using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). This paired watershed study includes a watershed treated with over 2000 check dams and a Control watershed which has none, in the West Turkey Creek watershed, Southeast Arizona, USA. SWAT was calibrated for streamflow using discharge documented during the summer of 2013 at the Control site. Model results depict the necessity to eliminate lateral flow from SWAT models of aridland environments, the urgency to standardize geospatial soils data, and the care for which modelers must document altering parameters when presenting findings. Performance was assessed using the percent bias (PBIAS), with values of ±2.34%. The calibrated model was then used to examine the impacts of check dams at the Treated watershed. Approximately 630 tons of sediment is estimated to be stored behind check dams in the Treated watershed over the 3-year simulation, increasing water quality for fish habitat. A minimum precipitation event of 15 mm was necessary to instigate the detachment of soil, sediments, or rock from the study area, which occurred 2% of the time. The resulting watershed model is useful as a predictive framework and decision-support tool to consider long-term impacts of restoration and potential for future restoration.

  7. Estimation of the transboundary economic impacts of the Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahsay, T.N.; Kuik, O.J.; Brouwer, R.; van der Zaag, P.

    2015-01-01

    Employing a multi-region multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling framework, this study estimates the direct and indirect economic impacts of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Eastern Nile economies. The study contributes to the existing literature by evaluating the

  8. Moving-window bis-correlation coefficients method for visible and near-infrared spectral discriminant analysis with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The moving-window bis-correlation coefficients (MW-BiCC was proposed and employed for the discriminant analysis of transgenic sugarcane leaves and β-thalassemia with visible and near-infrared (Vis–NIR spectroscopy. The well-performed moving-window principal component analysis linear discriminant analysis (MW-PCA–LDA was also conducted for comparison. A total of 306 transgenic (positive and 150 nontransgenic (negative leave samples of sugarcane were collected and divided to calibration, prediction, and validation. The diffuse reflection spectra were corrected using Savitzky–Golay (SG smoothing with first-order derivative (d=1, third-degree polynomial (p=3 and 25 smoothing points (m=25. The selected waveband was 736–1054nm with MW-BiCC, and the positive and negative validation recognition rates (V_REC+, V_REC− were 100%, 98.0%, which achieved the same effect as MW-PCA–LDA. Another example, the 93 β-thalassemia (positive and 148 nonthalassemia (negative of human hemolytic samples were collected. The transmission spectra were corrected using SG smoothing with d=1, p=3 and m=53. Using MW-BiCC, many best wavebands were selected (e.g., 1116–1146, 1794–1848 and 2284–2342nm. The V_REC+ and V_REC− were both 100%, which achieved the same effect as MW-PCA–LDA. Importantly, the BiCC only required calculating correlation coefficients between the spectrum of prediction sample and the average spectra of two types of calibration samples. Thus, BiCC was very simple in algorithm, and expected to obtain more applications. The results first confirmed the feasibility of distinguishing β-thalassemia and normal control samples by NIR spectroscopy, and provided a promising simple tool for large population thalassemia screening.

  9. Dams and transnational advocacy: Political opportunities in transnational collective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng

    Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even

  10. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  11. Error analysis and new dual-cosine window for estimating the sensor frequency response function from the step response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang-Long; Liang, Li-Ping; Liu, Hou-De; Xu, Ke-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at reducing the estimation error of the sensor frequency response function (FRF) estimated by the commonly used window-based spectral estimation method, the error models of interpolation and transient errors are derived in the form of non-parameter models. Accordingly, window effects on the errors are analyzed and reveal that the commonly used hanning window leads to smaller interpolation error which can also be significantly eliminated by the cubic spline interpolation method when estimating the FRF from the step response data, and window with smaller front-end value can restrain more transient error. Thus, a new dual-cosine window with its non-zero discrete Fourier transform bins at -3, -1, 0, 1, and 3 is constructed for FRF estimation. Compared with the hanning window, the new dual-cosine window has the equivalent interpolation error suppression capability and better transient error suppression capability when estimating the FRF from the step response; specifically, it reduces the asymptotic property of the transient error from O(N-2) of the hanning window method to O(N-4) while only increases the uncertainty slightly (about 0.4 dB). Then, one direction of a wind tunnel strain gauge balance which is a high order, small damping, and non-minimum phase system is employed as the example for verifying the new dual-cosine window-based spectral estimation method. The model simulation result shows that the new dual-cosine window method is better than the hanning window method for FRF estimation, and compared with the Gans method and LPM method, it has the advantages of simple computation, less time consumption, and short data requirement; the actual data calculation result of the balance FRF is consistent to the simulation result. Thus, the new dual-cosine window is effective and practical for FRF estimation.

  12. Coupled models in dam engineering

    OpenAIRE

    González Gutiérrez, María De Los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Rock ll dams are certainly one of the most important engineering structures due to their economic advantages and exible design. Unfortunately their vulnerability to overtopping still remains their weakest point. For that reason, several research groups are interested in both the numerical and experimental analysis of this phenomenon. In this work we focused on the numerical analysis. The previous work developed in CIMNE on a coupled PFEM-Eulerian free surface Compu- tational...

  13. Approach to seismic hazard analysis for dam safety in the Sierra Nevada and Modoc Plateau of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, W.U.; McLaren, M.K.; Edwards, W.D.; Page, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company's hydroelectric generating system involves about 150 dams located in the Sierra Nevada and Modoc Plateau region of central and northern California. The utility's strategy for earthquake hazard assessment is described. The approach includes the following strategies: integrating regional tectonics, seismic geology, historical seismicity, microseismicity, and crustal structure to form a comprehensive regional understanding of the neotectonic setting; performing local studies to acquire data as needed to reduce uncertainties in geologic and seismic parameters of fault characteristics near specific dam sites; applying and extending recently developed geologic, seismologic, and earthquake engineering technologies to the current regional and site-specific information to evaluate fault characteristics, to estimate maximum earthquakes, and to characterize ground motion; and encouraging multiple independent reviews of earthquake hazard studies by conducting peer reviews, making field sites available to regulating agencies, and publishing results, methods and data in open literature. 46 refs., 8 tabs

  14. Global field synchronization in gamma range of the sleep EEG tracks sleep depth: Artifact introduced by a rectangular analysis window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter; Dürr, Roland; Koenig, Thomas; Tarokh, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Investigating functional connectivity between brain networks has become an area of interest in neuroscience. Several methods for investigating connectivity have recently been developed, however, these techniques need to be applied with care. We demonstrate that global field synchronization (GFS), a global measure of phase alignment in the EEG as a function of frequency, must be applied considering signal processing principles in order to yield valid results. Multichannel EEG (27 derivations) was analyzed for GFS based on the complex spectrum derived by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). We examined the effect of window functions on GFS, in particular of non-rectangular windows. Applying a rectangular window when calculating the FFT revealed high GFS values for high frequencies (>15Hz) that were highly correlated (r=0.9) with spectral power in the lower frequency range (0.75-4.5Hz) and tracked the depth of sleep. This turned out to be spurious synchronization. With a non-rectangular window (Tukey or Hanning window) these high frequency synchronization vanished. Both, GFS and power density spectra significantly differed for rectangular and non-rectangular windows. Previous papers using GFS typically did not specify the applied window and may have used a rectangular window function. However, the demonstrated impact of the window function raises the question of the validity of some previous findings at higher frequencies. We demonstrated that it is crucial to apply an appropriate window function for determining synchronization measures based on a spectral approach to avoid spurious synchronization in the beta/gamma range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 2: Application to Tangjiashan landslide dam failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

    2013-02-01

    Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the Ms = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM) to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR). The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.

  16. Beyond Mirrors and Windows: A Critical Content Analysis of Latinx Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Eliza G.; Rodriguez, Sanjuana C.

    2016-01-01

    This critical content analysis examines the representation of Latinx characters in 15 picture books published in 2013 and identified by Children's Cooperative Book Center (CCBC) as having significant Latinx content. The theoretical framework undergirding this study is Critical Race Theory (Ladson-Billings, 1998; Solórzano & Yosso, 2002;…

  17. On-site Raman analysis of ancient glasses and stained-glass windows: modeling, procedure, lixiviation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournie, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the possibilities of Raman spectrometry to identify on site old glasses (objects, stained-glass windows...) whatever been their preserving state. The efficiency of Raman analysis depends strongly of the structural organization of glasses and then of their technological history. In order to differentiate the great silicate family compounds from their Raman analysis, a methodology has been developed: data acquisition and spectrum processing, Raman parameters extraction and classification of these glasses. This approach has then been extended to crystalline phosphates and silicates. Beforehand, correlations between crystallo-chemical parameters and vibrational signatures have been considered. The old glasses are often recovered by a corrosion layer which induces important changes on the Raman signature. Four layers have been identified and characterized by a multi-scale study: leached porous layer, transition zone, cracked zone and sound glass. The results show that only an analytical chemistry approach (databases of Raman signatures) is not sufficient and that a solid chemistry and physics approach is required to explain the spectral answers and extract the relevant parameters from glasses preserving [fr

  18. Estimation of temporary change of activation areas by moving an analysis time window in fMRI measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Ishikawa, Fumito; Saito, Yoichi

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to acquire temporal changes of activations by moving an analysis time window. An advantage of this method is that it can acquire rough changes of activated areas even with the data having low time resolution. We ascertained that activations from our method do not contradict previous reports on the oddball paradigm, thus showing its effectiveness. Eight normal subjects participated in the study, which consisted of a random series of 30 target and 70 nontarget stimuli. We investigated the activated area in three kinds of analysis time sections, from stimulus onset to 5 s after the stimulus (time section A), from 2 to 7 s after (B) and from 4 to 9 s after (C). In time section A, representative activated areas were regions including the left and supplementary motor areas (SMA), and cerebellum. In B, regions including the left motor area and SMA, right parahippocampal gyrus (Broadmann Area (BA) 30), right limbic lobe and cerebellum were activated. In C, bilaterally postcentral gyrus (BA 3,40), right anterior cingulate (ACC, BA 32), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9) and right parahippocampal gyrus were activated. Most activations were consistent with previous studies.

  19. Dam safety operating guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.; Leung, T.; Kirkham, A.; Lum, D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of Ontario Hydro's dam structure assessment program, the hydraulic design review of several river systems has revealed that many existing dam sites, under current operating procedures, would not have sufficient discharge capacity to pass the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) without compromising the integrity of the associated structures. Typical mitigative measures usually considered in dealing with these dam sites include structural alterations, emergency action plans and/or special operating procedures designed for extreme floods. A pilot study was carried out for the Madawaska River system in eastern Ontario, which has seven Ontario Hydro dam sites in series, to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of the Dam Safety Operating Guidelines (DSOG). The DSOG consist of two components: the flood routing schedules and the minimum discharge schedules, the former of which would apply in the case of severe spring flood conditions when the maximum observed snowpack water content and the forecast rainfall depth exceed threshold values. The flood routing schedules would identify to the operator the optimal timing and/or extent of utilizing the discharge facilities at each dam site to minimize the potential for dam failures cased by overtopping anywhere in the system. It was found that the DSOG reduced the number of structures overtopped during probable maximum flood from thirteen to four, while the number of structures that could fail would be reduced from seven to two. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Investigation of geophysical methods for assessing seepage and internal erosion in embankment dams : a study of through-dam seismic testing at WAC Bennett Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffran, P.; Jeffries, M. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-15

    Crosshole tomography is used to establish the distribution of seismic velocity between drill holes. The through-dam mode takes advantage of the triangular cross-section of earth embankments, obviating the need for drill holes. Seismic energy, generated on one face of the dam, passes underneath the crest and is detected by sensors arrayed on the opposite face. The sinkholes discovered at WAC Bennett Dam in 1996 provided an opportunity to test the procedure. Using p-wave energy, two series of measurements were conducted, notably one immediately before remediation of one sinkhole, and a second one shortly after the sinkhole was repaired. The known defect was successfully imaged by the first round of measurements. This report presented the results of an investigation of the through-dam seismic method using propagation of seismic waves through a dam from upstream to downstream, or vice-versa. The purpose of the study was to determine if this procedure could characterize the distribution of seismic velocity within a dam in an accurate and cost effective manner. The report presented the methods of velocity testing such as crosshole and downhole, and tomography; and through-dam measurements. Background to the Bennett Dam studies was also provided, with particular reference to the Bennett Dam sinkholes; sinkhole investigations; working hypothesis for sinkhole development; sinkhole number one characterization; and sinkhole remediation. An analysis of compression wave testing at Bennett Dam and shear wave testing was then offered. Other topics that were discussed included field test procedures; methodologies for data processing; p-waves versus s-waves; applicability of the research; and costs of through-dam surveys. It was concluded that under the right circumstances, through-dam seismic testing was capable of detecting changed conditions in an embankment dam. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 41 figs., 1 appendix.

  1. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, E.

    2003-04-01

    Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the

  2. Windows server cookbook for Windows server 2003 and Windows 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Robbie

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference guide offers hundreds of useful tasks for managing Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003, Microsoft's latest server. These concise, on-the-job solutions to common problems are certain to save you many hours of time searching through Microsoft documentation. Topics include files, event logs, security, DHCP, DNS, backup/restore, and more

  3. Production management of window handles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ingaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chapter a company involved in the production of aluminum window and door handles was presented. The main customers of the company are primarily companies which produce PCV joinery and wholesalers supplying these companies. One chosen product from the research company - a single-arm pin-lift window handle - was described and its production process depicted technologically. The chapter also includes SWOT analysis conducted in the research company and the value stream of the single-arm pin-lift window handle.

  4. New Therapeutic Window of Regenerative Opportunity in Diabetic Retinopathy by VESGEN Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingert, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular pattern may serve as a useful new biomarker principle of complex, multi-scale signaling in pathological, physiological angiogenesis and microvascular remodeling. Each angiogenesis stimulator or inhibitor we have analyzed, including VEGF, bFGF, TGF-beta1, angiostatin and triamcinolone acetonide, has induced a novel "fingerprint" or "signature" biomarker vascular pattern that is spatio-temporally unique. Remodeling vasculature thereby provides an informative read-out of dominant molecular signaling, when analyzed by innovative, fractal-based VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis software. Using VESGEN to analyze ophthalmic clinical vascular images, we recently introduced a potential paradigm shift to the understanding of early-stage progression that suggests new regenerative opportunities for human diabetic retinopathy (DR), the major blinding disease for working-aged adults. In a pilot study, we discovered that angiogenesis oscillates as a surprising, homeostatic-like regeneration of retinal vessels during early progression of DR (IOVS 51(1):498). Results suggest that the term non-proliferative DR may be a misnomer. In new studies, normalization of the vasculature will be determined from the response of vascular pattern to therapeutic monitoring and treatment. We have mapped and quantified in vivo experimental models of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and intravital blood flow from cellular/molecular to higher systems levels that include a murine model of infant retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); developing and pathological coronary and placental-like vessel models; progressive intestinal inflammation, growing murine tumors, and other pathological, physiological and therapeutically treated tissues of transgenic mice and avian embryos. Vascular Alterations, Visual Impairments (VIIP) & Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP), Immunosuppression & Bone Loss: NASA-defined risk categories for human space exploration and ISS Utilization

  5. Fish passage post-construction issues: analysis of distribution, attraction and passage efficiency metrics at the Baguari Dam fish ladder to approach the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Martins da Silva

    Full Text Available Fish passages are considered the oldest management tool used to minimize the impact of blocking fish migratory routes by hydroelectric power plants. However, fish passages are being installed without specific criteria in Brazil, with severe consequences to the conservation of the local fish fauna. Therefore, basic data gathered for fish passages already constructed could contribute to define operational rules, in addition to offer subsidies to decision-making and design of future facilities. Thus, the fish ladder of Baguari Dam was evaluated regarding temporal distribution, attraction, and ascension of the local fish fauna. A total of 20 fish samples were conducted immediately downstream of the dam and inside the fish ladder, from January 2010 to June 2011. Seasonal variation in fish abundance and richness was registered below the dam and inside the passage, with higher number of migratory fish in the reproductive season (Kruskall-Wallis, p = 0.04 and p = 0.05. Furthermore, higher concentration of migratory allochthonous and non-migratory species was registered for the spill bay (Wilcoxon, p = 0.009 and p = 0.006 compared to the tailrace, where the fish ladder entrance is located. This result suggests low efficiency of the attraction system of the mechanism during the reproductive period. Once entering the fish ladder, migratory species apparently ascend the facility due to the similar distribution throughout different stretches. Generally, the results showed that an operational rule for the Baguari Dam fish ladder should consider running the facility only during the reproductive period, unless the objectives of the passage are well defined. The attraction system must be more precisely evaluated, using technologies such as radiotelemetry. Similarly, fish ascension also should be better analyzed to evaluate the time spent to ascend and its influence in the reproductive biology of the species using the ladder. Pit-tag system could be used to

  6. The application of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) window analysis in the assessment of influence on operational efficiencies after the establishment of branched hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tongying; Yuan, Huiyun

    2017-04-12

    Many large-scaled public hospitals have established branched hospitals in China. This study is to provide evidence for strategy making on the management and development of multi-branched hospitals by evaluating and comparing the operational efficiencies of different hospitals before and after their establishment of branched hospitals. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) window analysis was performed on a 7-year data pool from five public hospitals provided by health authorities and institutional surveys. The operational efficiencies of sample hospitals measured in this study (including technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency) had overall trends towards increase during this 7-year period of time, however, a temporary downturn occurred shortly after the establishment of branched hospitals; pure technical efficiency contributed more to the improvement of technical efficiency compared to scale efficiency. The establishment of branched-hospitals did not lead to a long-term negative effect on hospital operational efficiencies. Our data indicated the importance of improving scale efficiency via the optimization of organizational management, as well as the advantage of a different form of branch-establishment, merging and reorganization. This study brought an insight into the practical application of DEA window analysis on the assessment of hospital operational efficiencies.

  7. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  8. Permeability analysis of Asbuton material used as core layers of water resistance in the body of dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H.; Tjaronge, M. W.; Thaha, A.; Djamaluddin, R.

    2017-11-01

    In order to increase consumption of the local materials and national products, large reserves of Asbuton material about 662.960 million tons in the Buton Islands became an alternative as a waterproof core layer in the body of dam. The Asbuton material was used in this research is Lawele Granular Asphalt (LGA). This study was an experimental study conducted in the laboratory by conducting density testing (content weight) and permeability on Asbuton material. Testing of the Asbuton material used Falling Head method to find out the permeability value of Asbuton material. The data of test result to be analyzed are the relation between compaction energy and density value also relation between density value and permeability value of Asbuton material. The result shows that increases the number of blow apply to the Asbuton material at each layer will increase the density of the Asbuton material. The density value of Asbuton material that satisfies the requirements for use as an impermeable core layer in the dam body is 1.53 grams/cm3. The increase the density value (the weight of the contents) of the Asbuton material will reduce its permeability value of the Asbuton material.

  9. Teton Dam failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snorteland, N. [United States Dept. of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States). Bureau of Reclamation

    2009-07-01

    This case summary discussed an internal erosion failure that occurred at the embankment foundation of Teton Dam. The project was designed as a run-of-the-river power generation facility and to provide irrigation, flood protection, and power generation to the lower Teton region of southern Idaho. The dam site was located next to the eastern Snake River plain, a volcanic filled depression. The foundation's cutoff trench was excavated into the bedrock along the length of the dam. The dam was designed as a zoned earthfill with a height of 305 feet. A trench made of low plasticity windblown silt was designed to connect the embankment core to the rock foundation. Seeps were noted in 1976, and a leak was observed near the toe of the dam. A wet spot appeared on the downstream face of the dam at elevation 5200. A sinkhole then developed. The embankment crest collapsed, and the dam breached. Peak outflow was estimated at 1,000,000 cfs. The failure was attributed to a lack of communication between designers, a failure to understand geologic information about the region, and an insufficient review of designs and specifications by designers and field personnel. No monitoring instrumentation was installed in the embankment. Approximately 300 square miles were inundated, and 25,000 people were displaced. Eleven people were killed. A review group noted that the rock surface was not adequately sealed, and that the dam failed as a result of inadequate protection of the impervious core material from internal erosion. 42 figs.

  10. Design Guidance for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Selection Process for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Selection Process for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Design Guidance for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Replacement Windows for Existing Homes Homes | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  15. Proper Installation of New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Problems of hydroelectric development at existing dams: an analysis of institutional, economic, and environmental restraints in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.

    1979-04-01

    The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.

  17. Estimating flood inundation caused by dam failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Recent advancements in modelling inundation due to dam failures have allowed easier and more illustrative analyses of potential outcomes. This paper described new model and mapping capabilities available using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in concert with geographic information systems (GIS). The study area was the upper reaches of Canagagigue Creek and the Woolwich Dam near Elmira, Ontario. A hydraulic analysis of a hypothetical dam failure was developed based on the summer probable maximum flood (PMF) event. Limits extended from Woolwich Dam to downstream of the Town of Elmira. An incoming summer PMF hydrograph was set as the upstream boundary condition in the upstream model. Simulation parameters include simulation time-step; implicit weighting factor; water surface calculation tolerance; and output calculation interval. Peak flows were presented, as well as corresponding flood inundation results through the Town of Elmira. The hydraulic model results were exported to a GIS in order to develop inundation maps for emergency management planning. Results from post-processing included inundation maps for each of the simulated time-steps as well as an inundation animation for the duration of the dam breach. It was concluded that the modelling tools presented in the study can be applied to other dam safety assessment projects in order to develop effective and efficient emergency preparedness plans through public consultation and the establishment of impact zones. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Geodetic deformation monitoring at Pendidikan Diponegoro Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Bambang Darmo; Awaluddin, Moehammad; Yusuf, M. A.; Fadillah, Rizki

    2017-07-01

    Deformation monitoring is one indicator to assess the feasibility of Dam. In order to get the correct result of the deformation, it is necessary to determine appropriate deformation monitoring network and the observation data should be analyse and evaluated carefully. Measurement and analysis of deformation requires relatively accurate data and the precision is high enough, one of the observation method that used is GPS (Global Positioning System). The research was conducted at Pendidikan Undip Dams is Dam which is located in Tembang. Diponegoro Dam was built in 2013 and a volume of 50.86 m3 of water, inundation normal width of up to 13,500 m2. The main purpose of these building is not only for drainage but also for education and micro hydro power plant etc. The main goal of this reasearch was to monitor and analyze the deformation at Pendidikan Undip Dam and to determaine whether GPS measurement could meet accuracy requirement for dam deformation measurements. Measurements were made 2 times over 2 years, 2015 and 2016 using dual frequency GPS receivers with static methods and processed by Scientific Software GAMIT 10.6

  19. Provide Views | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Reduced Fading | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. EWC Members | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  2. Visible Transmittance | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  3. Gas Fills | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  4. EWC Membership | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  5. Reducing Condensation | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  6. Improved Comfort | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  7. Financing & Incentives | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  8. Tools & Resources | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  9. Books & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Design Considerations | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Study of Six Energy-Window Settings for Scatter Correction in Quantitative 111In Imaging: Comparative analysis Using SIMIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Facenda, A.; Castillo Lopez, J. P.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Perez, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Activity quantification in nuclear medicine imaging is highly desirable, particularly for dosimetry and biodistribution studies of radiopharmaceuticals. Quantitative 111 In imaging is increasingly important with the current interest in therapy using 90 Y-radiolabeled compounds. Photons scattered in the patient are one of the major problems in quantification, which leads to degradation of image quality. The aim of this work was to assess the configuration of energy windows and the best weight factor for the scatter correction in 111 In images. All images were obtained using the Monte Carlo simulation code, Simind, configured to emulate the gamma camera Nucline SPIRIT DH-V. Simulations were validated by a positive agreement between experimental and simulated line-spread functions (LSF) of 99 mTc. It was examined the sensitivity, the scatter-to-total ratio, the contrast and the spatial resolution for scatter-compensated images obtained from six different multi-windows scatter corrections. Taking into consideration the results, the best energy-window setting was two 20% windows centered at 171 and 245keV, together with a 10% scatter window located between the photo peaks at 209keV. (Author)

  12. On the relationship between instantaneous phase synchrony and correlation-based sliding windows for time-resolved fMRI connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mangor; Omidvarnia, Amir; Zalesky, Andrew; Jackson, Graeme D

    2018-06-08

    Correlation-based sliding window analysis (CSWA) is the most commonly used method to estimate time-resolved functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity. However, instantaneous phase synchrony analysis (IPSA) is gaining popularity mainly because it offers single time-point resolution of time-resolved fMRI connectivity. We aim to provide a systematic comparison between these two approaches, on both temporal and topological levels. For this purpose, we used resting-state fMRI data from two separate cohorts with different temporal resolutions (45 healthy subjects from Human Connectome Project fMRI data with repetition time of 0.72 s and 25 healthy subjects from a separate validation fMRI dataset with a repetition time of 3 s). For time-resolved functional connectivity analysis, we calculated tapered CSWA over a wide range of different window lengths that were temporally and topologically compared to IPSA. We found a strong association in connectivity dynamics between IPSA and CSWA when considering the absolute values of CSWA. The association between CSWA and IPSA was stronger for a window length of ∼20 s (shorter than filtered fMRI wavelength) than ∼100 s (longer than filtered fMRI wavelength), irrespective of the sampling rate of the underlying fMRI data. Narrow-band filtering of fMRI data (0.03-0.07 Hz) yielded a stronger relationship between IPSA and CSWA than wider-band (0.01-0.1 Hz). On a topological level, time-averaged IPSA and CSWA nodes were non-linearly correlated for both short (∼20 s) and long (∼100 s) windows, mainly because nodes with strong negative correlations (CSWA) displayed high phase synchrony (IPSA). IPSA and CSWA were anatomically similar in the default mode network, sensory cortex, insula and cerebellum. Our results suggest that IPSA and CSWA provide comparable characterizations of time-resolved fMRI connectivity for appropriately chosen window lengths. Although IPSA requires narrow-band fMRI filtering, we recommend the use of

  13. Forecasting analysis of runoff for reservoir regulation of dams and weirs in terms of hydro power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maradjieva, Mariana; Nikolov, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of Hydropower Plant (HPP) production new algorithms and software were developed for daily, seasonal, annual and long-term control of the runoff for the design of dam and weirs. This control is carried out for monitored periods from 20 to 50 years. The control depends on economic considerations, namely that the accepted probability of required water power is 90%, i.e. concerning the runoff and in this way for the useful volume of water dams. The research is accomplished by a design with the observations. First the hydrometric stations are selected at the available analogy with the building project and then the correlative connection is found assessed by general and true correlative coefficients. The transferring to the project of the observations for the average annual and average monthly water discharges is made with the coefficient of the analogy. The theoretical probability curves are chosen with a minimum dispersion. By the last curves the average monthly distributions are settled with probability from 2% to 90% by statistical method. During the investigated period of the regulation the volumes of discharge, overflow and shortage are calculated as and the determination for the accepted volume of the reservoir if the normative probability of the need is executed. As well the power output of the HPP and its participation in the coverage of the charge diagram on the peak load, under peak load, daily and nightly part are determined in separate observed or forecasting periods. The upper problems about the design and the operation of HPP, water output, reservoir volume and coverage of the charge diagram are solved by iterations. Practical examples are given for the runoff and for the time forecasting system.

  14. Windows and doors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    A complete manual is presented on windows and doors for the housing contractor. In order to understand the role of windows and doors in a house's energy performance, an introduction explains the house as a system of components that can have effects on each other. Further chapters explain in detail the parts of a window, window types and RSI values; window servicing and repair; window replacement; parts of a door, door types and RSI values; door service and repair, including weatherstripping; door replacement; and how to ensure quality, service, and customer satisfaction. A glossary of terms is included. 61 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  16. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  17. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  18. RNAslider: a faster engine for consecutive windows folding and its application to the analysis of genomic folding asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Yair; Wexler, Ydo; Lebenthal, Ilana; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal; Unger, Ron

    2009-03-04

    Scanning large genomes with a sliding window in search of locally stable RNA structures is a well motivated problem in bioinformatics. Given a predefined window size L and an RNA sequence S of size N (L free energy (MFE) for the folding of each of the L-sized substrings of S. The consecutive windows folding problem can be naively solved in O(NL3) by applying any of the classical cubic-time RNA folding algorithms to each of the N-L windows of size L. Recently an O(NL2) solution for this problem has been described. Here, we describe and implement an O(NLpsi(L)) engine for the consecutive windows folding problem, where psi(L) is shown to converge to O(1) under the assumption of a standard probabilistic polymer folding model, yielding an O(L) speedup which is experimentally confirmed. Using this tool, we note an intriguing directionality (5'-3' vs. 3'-5') folding bias, i.e. that the minimal free energy (MFE) of folding is higher in the native direction of the DNA than in the reverse direction of various genomic regions in several organisms including regions of the genomes that do not encode proteins or ncRNA. This bias largely emerges from the genomic dinucleotide bias which affects the MFE, however we see some variations in the folding bias in the different genomic regions when normalized to the dinucleotide bias. We also present results from calculating the MFE landscape of a mouse chromosome 1, characterizing the MFE of the long ncRNA molecules that reside in this chromosome. The efficient consecutive windows folding engine described in this paper allows for genome wide scans for ncRNA molecules as well as large-scale statistics. This is implemented here as a software tool, called RNAslider, and applied to the scanning of long chromosomes, leading to the observation of features that are visible only on a large scale.

  19. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  20. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  1. Investigation on the Causes of Cracking in Earth Dams (Case study: Mahmood-Abad Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cracking of earth dams is a one of the main threat causes of stability of embankment dams. In this research by modeling of the behavior of an embankment dam and employing conditions of the earthquake, the reasons of cracking were inspected using by modeling of earth dam behavior. Based on the literature, one of the main causes of dam failures is sliding and cracking of the dam structure during earthquake. Localized liquefaction of foundation soils was one of the causes of the observed post-earthquake distress within these dams. Material and Methods: In order to study the causes and the results of crack on earth dams, Mahmoodabad earthen dam with a height of 19 m, is located in Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, which suffered a longitudinal crack on the crest and slight sliding of the upstream slope due to 2001 Avaj earthquake was studied. This dam has faced earthquake two times with an interval of two years. During the first earthquake with the magnitude about 6.6 in Richter scale small longitudinal cracks had created on the crest. The developed cracks had been repaired by injecting the cement and then has been hidden by passing the time. After the second earthquake with the magnitude about 6.5 in Richter scale the hidden cracks had been appeared again and the slight movement of the upper slopes of dam reported. Based on the site investigation and documented information about dam, including maps and parameter data, the behavior of the dam has modeled by using Plaxis as a finite element model. In order to check the accuracy of the design of dam, the stability analysis has been conducted using by Xslope as a limit equilibrium model. The foundation conditions and the Geotechnical properties of the layer beneath the dam has been inspected by open excavation. Results and Discussion: Underground investigation about Geotechnical properties of dam foundation has showed that there is a thin sandy layer confined in alluvium material of the

  2. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  3. Analysis of Vibrant Soundbridge placement against the round window membrane in a human cadaveric temporal bone model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Ho, A.; Brown, J.; Wijhe, R.G. van; Bance, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate optimal placement of the Floating Mass Transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge (Med-El, Innsbruck, Austria) against the round window membrane, particularly the impact of interposed coupling fascia and of covering materials. METHOD: : Six fresh human cadaveric temporal bones were

  4. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  5. RNAslider: a faster engine for consecutive windows folding and its application to the analysis of genomic folding asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziv-Ukelson Michal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scanning large genomes with a sliding window in search of locally stable RNA structures is a well motivated problem in bioinformatics. Given a predefined window size L and an RNA sequence S of size N (L 3 by applying any of the classical cubic-time RNA folding algorithms to each of the N-L windows of size L. Recently an O(NL2 solution for this problem has been described. Results Here, we describe and implement an O(NLψ(L engine for the consecutive windows folding problem, where ψ(L is shown to converge to O(1 under the assumption of a standard probabilistic polymer folding model, yielding an O(L speedup which is experimentally confirmed. Using this tool, we note an intriguing directionality (5'-3' vs. 3'-5' folding bias, i.e. that the minimal free energy (MFE of folding is higher in the native direction of the DNA than in the reverse direction of various genomic regions in several organisms including regions of the genomes that do not encode proteins or ncRNA. This bias largely emerges from the genomic dinucleotide bias which affects the MFE, however we see some variations in the folding bias in the different genomic regions when normalized to the dinucleotide bias. We also present results from calculating the MFE landscape of a mouse chromosome 1, characterizing the MFE of the long ncRNA molecules that reside in this chromosome. Conclusion The efficient consecutive windows folding engine described in this paper allows for genome wide scans for ncRNA molecules as well as large-scale statistics. This is implemented here as a software tool, called RNAslider, and applied to the scanning of long chromosomes, leading to the observation of features that are visible only on a large scale.

  6. Revised financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2011-01-11

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases

  7. A progressive methodology for seismic safety evaluation of gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrib, F.; Leger, P.; Tinawi, R.; Lupien, R.; Veilleux, M.

    1995-01-01

    A progressive methodology for the seismic safety evaluation of existing concrete gravity dams was described. The methodology was based on five structural analysis levels with increasing complexity to represent inertia forces, dam-foundation and dam-interaction mechanisms, as well as concrete cracking. The five levels were (1) preliminary screening, (2) pseudo-static method, (3) pseudo-dynamic method, (4) linear time history analysis, and (5) non-linear history analysis. The first four levels of analysis were applied for the seismic safety evaluation of Paugan gravity dam (Quebec). Results showed that internal forces from pseudo-dynamic, response spectra and transient finite element analyses could be used to interpret the dynamic stability of dams from familiar strength-based criteria. However, as soon as the base was cracked, the seismically induced forces were modified, and level IV analyses proved more suitable to handle rationally these complexities. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  8. Small dams need better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  9. Window Selection Tool | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisville LA Lake Charles LA New Orleans LA Shreveport MA Boston MD Baltimore ME Portland MI Detroit MI Window Selection Tool will take you through a series of design conditions pertaining to your design and

  10. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  11. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  12. Application of the windowed-Fourier-transform-based fringe analysis technique for investigating temperature and concentration fields in fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Sharika; Srivastava, Atul

    2014-04-10

    The present work is concerned with the development and application of a novel fringe analysis technique based on the principles of the windowed-Fourier-transform (WFT) for the determination of temperature and concentration fields from interferometric images for a range of heat and mass transfer applications. Based on the extent of the noise level associated with the experimental data, the technique has been coupled with two different phase unwrapping methods: the Itoh algorithm and the quality guided phase unwrapping technique for phase extraction. In order to generate the experimental data, a range of experiments have been carried out which include cooling of a vertical flat plate in free convection conditions, combustion of mono-propellant flames, and growth of organic as well as inorganic crystals from their aqueous solutions. The flat plate and combustion experiments are modeled as heat transfer applications wherein the interest is to determine the whole-field temperature distribution. Aqueous-solution-based crystal growth experiments are performed to simulate the mass transfer phenomena and the interest is to determine the two-dimensional solute concentration field around the growing crystal. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been employed to record the path-integrated quantity of interest (temperature and/or concentration) in the form of interferometric images in the experiments. The potential of the WFT method has also been demonstrated on numerically simulated phase data for varying noise levels, and the accuracy in phase extraction have been quantified in terms of the root mean square errors. Three levels of noise, i.e., 0%, 10%, and 20% have been considered. Results of the present study show that the WFT technique allows an accurate extraction of phase values that can subsequently be converted into two-dimensional temperature and/or concentration distribution fields. Moreover, since WFT is a local processing technique, speckle patterns and the inherent

  13. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...... energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  14. An experimental investigation on the effects of exponential window and impact force level on harmonic reduction in impact-synchronous model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Ong Zhi; Cheet, Lim Hong; Yee, Khoo Shin [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan (Malaysia); Ismail, Zubaidah [Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    A novel method called Impact-synchronous modal analysis (ISMA) was proposed previously which allows modal testing to be performed during operation. This technique focuses on signal processing of the upstream data to provide cleaner Frequency response function (FRF) estimation prior to modal extraction. Two important parameters, i.e., windowing function and impact force level were identified and their effect on the effectiveness of this technique were experimentally investigated. When performing modal testing during running condition, the cyclic loads signals are dominant in the measured response for the entire time history. Exponential window is effectively in minimizing leakage and attenuating signals of non-synchronous running speed, its harmonics and noises to zero at the end of each time record window block. Besides, with the information of the calculated cyclic force, suitable amount of impact force to be applied on the system could be decided prior to performing ISMA. Maximum allowable impact force could be determined from nonlinearity test using coherence function. By applying higher impact forces than the cyclic loads along with an ideal decay rate in ISMA, harmonic reduction is significantly achieved in FRF estimation. Subsequently, the dynamic characteristics of the system are successfully extracted from a cleaner FRF and the results obtained are comparable with Experimental modal analysis (EMA)

  15. Rapid cell cycle analysis by measurement of the radioactivity per cell in a narrow window in S phase (RCSsub(i))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.W.; Carver, J.H.; George, Y.S.; Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A new rapid method for the cell cycle analysis of asynchronously growing cells is presented. The new method is an alternative to the more time consuming and subjective fraction of labeled mitoses (FLM) method. Like the FLM method, all cells in the S phase of the cell cycle are marked by pulse labeling with a radioactive DNA precursor. The subsequent progress of the cohort of cells thus labeled is monitored through a narrow window in the cell cycle. The window is defined by a narrow range of DNA contents corresponding to cells in mid-S phase and is designated Ssub(i). The cellular DNA content is measured by flow cytometry and the cells in the window Ssub(i) are selected by electronic cell sorting. The radioactivity per cell in Ssub(i) (RCSsub(i)) is determined by liquid scintillation counting. The duration of S phase and of the total cycle and the dispersions therein are determined from the oscillation of the RCSsub(i) values with time. The complete cell cycle analysis can be accomplished in as little as 1 day following the collection of samples. Exponentially growing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were analyzed according to the RCSsub(i) method and the FLM method. It is demonstrated that the two techniques give essentially the same results. (author)

  16. An experimental investigation on the effects of exponential window and impact force level on harmonic reduction in impact-synchronous model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Ong Zhi; Cheet, Lim Hong; Yee, Khoo Shin; Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul; Ismail, Zubaidah

    2016-01-01

    A novel method called Impact-synchronous modal analysis (ISMA) was proposed previously which allows modal testing to be performed during operation. This technique focuses on signal processing of the upstream data to provide cleaner Frequency response function (FRF) estimation prior to modal extraction. Two important parameters, i.e., windowing function and impact force level were identified and their effect on the effectiveness of this technique were experimentally investigated. When performing modal testing during running condition, the cyclic loads signals are dominant in the measured response for the entire time history. Exponential window is effectively in minimizing leakage and attenuating signals of non-synchronous running speed, its harmonics and noises to zero at the end of each time record window block. Besides, with the information of the calculated cyclic force, suitable amount of impact force to be applied on the system could be decided prior to performing ISMA. Maximum allowable impact force could be determined from nonlinearity test using coherence function. By applying higher impact forces than the cyclic loads along with an ideal decay rate in ISMA, harmonic reduction is significantly achieved in FRF estimation. Subsequently, the dynamic characteristics of the system are successfully extracted from a cleaner FRF and the results obtained are comparable with Experimental modal analysis (EMA)

  17. Empirical Study on Total Factor Productive Energy Efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region-Analysis based on Malmquist Index and Window Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.

  18. Wynoochee Dam Foundation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    schists and in propylitized andesite volcanic rocks. Tests on chlorite-bearing graywackes (Lumni Island and Robe Quarry, Seattle District) and... propylitized chlorite-bearing andesites (Blue River and Lookout Point Dams, Portland District) have shown these rocks to be durable materials with only minor

  19. csaw: a Bioconductor package for differential binding analysis of ChIP-seq data using sliding windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Aaron T.L.; Smyth, Gordon K.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) is widely used to identify binding sites for a target protein in the genome. An important scientific application is to identify changes in protein binding between different treatment conditions, i.e. to detect differential binding. This can reveal potential mechanisms through which changes in binding may contribute to the treatment effect. The csaw package provides a framework for the de novo detection of differentially bound genomic regions. It uses a window-based strategy to summarize read counts across the genome. It exploits existing statistical software to test for significant differences in each window. Finally, it clusters windows into regions for output and controls the false discovery rate properly over all detected regions. The csaw package can handle arbitrarily complex experimental designs involving biological replicates. It can be applied to both transcription factor and histone mark datasets, and, more generally, to any type of sequencing data measuring genomic coverage. csaw performs favorably against existing methods for de novo DB analyses on both simulated and real data. csaw is implemented as a R software package and is freely available from the open-source Bioconductor project. PMID:26578583

  20. Submergence analysis of the proposed Ken Betwa Dam (Madhya Pradesh India, using geospatial technology in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Laxmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has analysed the Landsat 8 OLI data (December 2016 to delineate the various land use/land cover classes of the area which will be submerged by the proposed Daudhan/Greater Gangau Dam, which is part of the proposed Ken Betwa River Link Project (in the Madhya Pradesh state of India and also the area likely to be submerged in the Panna Tiger Reserve (PTR. The proposed area of submergence was computed at various full reservoir lengths (FRL, 278 m, 283 m, 288 m, 289 m and 293 m. Similarly the area of submergence for the Panna Tiger Reserve was computed at the mentioned FRLs. It was concluded that a large part of the Panna Tiger Reserve would be submerged and habitat of various animals and plants would be under threat. In comparison with the figures given in the Environmental Impact Assessment certain serious discrepancies and weaknesses were detected and it was felt that they should have been addressed. The results were compared with the EIA – EMP report of the Ken-Betwa link project, Phase 1, prepared by Agricultural Finance Corporation Limited for the National Water Development Agency (Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India. A proper evaluation of the negative impacts would help when making relevant decisions and appropriate steps to ensure that the loss is kept to a minimum. Safeguarding the biodiversity of forests and wildlife habitats should be the priority as their loss is irreplaceable. Geospatial technology helps in studying the overall spatial view of the proposed submergence area and the visualization gives a clear picture of the likely scenario in the future. It would assist in decision making and mitigation measures.

  1. Social Sustainability of Provinces in China: A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Window Analysis under the Concepts of Natural and Managerial Disposability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sueyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural and managerial disposability are two important strategic concepts, whose priorities are economic prosperity and environmental protection, respectively. This study defines social sustainability as the simultaneous achievement of economic prosperity and environmental protection, and then assesses the degree of social sustainability across provinces in China. In addition, this study combines the concepts of natural and managerial disposability with Data Envelopment Analysis window analysis. The method allows for frontier shifts among different time periods and thus can provide more stable and reliable results. This method is applied to assess the energy and environmental performances across the provinces of China during 2003–2014, and provides detailed information about provincial variations, which are valuable and important to policy makers (especially for those in local governments. This study identifies three important findings. First, there were no significant improvements in China’s environmental performance during the analysis periods, since, historically, the governments have not paid enough attention to environmental protection. Second, there are increasing trends in the provincial gaps regarding the environmental performance. In this regard, the central government should help the poor provinces to protect the environment. Third, there are significant differences between the results obtained under natural disposability and those obtained under managerial disposability, since they have different priorities regarding the operational and the environmental performances. Thus, significant contributions can be made by eco-technology progress combined with managerial performance improvements by business leaders and policy makers. This can be a new policy direction for the Chinese government.

  2. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  3. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-wu Fan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in China, a dynamic probability description of dam safety levels was developed. Using the Bayesian approach and effective information mining, as well as real-time information, this study achieved more rational evaluation and prediction of dam safety levels. With the Bayesian expression of discrete stochastic variables, the a priori probabilities of the dam safety levels determined by experts were combined with the likelihood probability of the real-time check information, and the probability information for the evaluation of dam safety levels was renewed. The probability index was then applied to dam rehabilitation decision-making. This method helps reduce the difficulty and uncertainty of the evaluation of dam safety levels and complies with the current safe decision-making regulations for dams in China. It also enhances the application of current risk analysis methods for dam safety levels.

  4. The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.

  5. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  6. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  7. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  8. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  9. Windows 8 tweaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchak, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Acres of Windows 8 tweaks from a Microsoft MVP and creator of Tweaks.com! From a Microsoft MVP, who is also the savvy creator of Tweaks.com, comes this ultimate collection of Windows 8 workarounds. Steve Sinchak takes you way beyond default system settings, deep under the hood of Windows 8, down to the hidden gems that let you customize your Windows 8 system like you wouldn't believe. From helping you customize the appearance to setting up home networking, sharing media, and squeezing every ounce of performance out of the OS, this book delivers. Get ready to rock and roll with Wind

  10. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  11. Analysis of the sediments of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam by the INAA; Analisis de sedimentos de la presa Julian Adame Alatorre por la tecnica de AANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.E.; Lugo, J.F.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C. [UAZ, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, E2433 Engineering Building East, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]. e-mail: jeolivag@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    Its were taken eight samples of sediment of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam located in the Villanueva municipality, in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico; with the end of determining the presence of elements of anthropogenic origin, as well as the concentration of the same ones. It was used the Instrumental neutron activation analysis (AANI) with a flow of thermal neutrons of 8 x 10{sup 13} and 5 x 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. With the purpose of determining the concentration of these elements at level of traces; finding presence of 32 elements among which its were find elements in greater concentrations and others at level of traces. Of these 32 elements, five of anthropogenic origin were identified which its were: Cr, Co, Zn, As and Mn; but that whose concentration is very low, in comparison with the one reported in other places of the world. In this work there are presented the obtained results of the elementary analysis of this samples. (Author)

  12. Lessons from the autumn 2014 flash floods in the city of Nîmes and its neighborhood (France: behavior of several mitigation dams and hydrological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouchier Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Languedoc area, in Southern France, is prone to autumnal flash floods which are characteristic of the Mediterranean climate. To cope with this threat, the local authorities have chosen to build several dams on the main dangerous rivers of the area. We have focused on the flood mitigation facilities of two operators: the City of Nîmes and the Gardons Rivers Managing authority. After the catastrophic flash flood of October 1988, the city of Nîmes built flood mitigation dams on many of its high-risk streams. These flood barriers worked several times during the intense rainfalls of autumn 2014. The on-site conclusions drawn from these floods and the computation carried out with hydrological models confirmed how well the dams functioned. In 2010, the Gardons Rivers Managing authority built a flood mitigation dam on the Esquielle River to protect the village of Saint-Geniès-de-Malgoirès. The spillway of this dam worked for the first time in the autumn of 2014. We analyzed one of the major floods monitored on that occasion at its outlet. The goals of this study are: (i to evaluate dams efficiency and (ii to test, on a catchment which was not used for its calibration, the AIGA flash flood warning method, which was developed by IRSTEA.

  13. Integration of ground-penetrating radar, ultrasonic tests and infrared thermography for the analysis of a precious medieval rose window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Calia, A.; Liberatore, D.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2010-04-01

    The integration of high-resolution, non-invasive geophysical techniques (such as ground-penetrating radar or GPR) with emerging sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) can complement limited destructive tests to provide a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the state of preservation, material and construction components of monuments. This paper presents the results of the application of GPR, infrared thermography (IRT) and ultrasonic tests to the 13th century rose window of Troia Cathedral (Apulia, Italy), affected by widespread decay and instability problems caused by the 1731 earthquake and reactivated by recent seismic activity. This integrated approach provided a wide amount of complementary information at different scales, ranging from the sub-centimetre size of the metallic joints between the various architectural elements, narrow fractures and thin mortar fillings, up to the sub-metre scale of the internal masonry structure of the circular ashlar curb linking the rose window to the façade, which was essential to understand the original building technique and to design an effective restoration strategy.

  14. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  15. Some aspects in the legal regulation of the dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancev, Ljubomir

    1996-01-01

    In order to ensure high quality and low cost design and building of dams and appurtenant structures, as well as safe exploitation, it is obvious to have appropriate legislation. Keeping in mind that the dams are unique structures, for the design stage the legislation should be less strong. For the next phases - building, maintenance and exploitation - detail and rigorous legislation is recommended. It is emphasised that the engineers should have more freedom designing the dams, but they should be obvious to apply the most recent achievement in the field of the dam design and construction. For illustration, some aspects of three important questions are discussed - 1) the choice of maximum flood discharge, 2) the application of new materials and construction methods and 3) the application of modern methods for static and dynamic analysis of dams. (Author)

  16. Grouting design for slope stability of kedung uling earthfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kedung Uling earthfill dam locates at Wonogiri Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The dam encountered sliding and settlement at the embankment wall. To minimize sliding and settlement and to optimize the dam, both field investigation and laboratory tests have been proceeded for slope stability analysis and remedial embankment wall. Soil and rock investigation around the dam, which is followed by 10 core drillings, have been conducted. Laboratory tests such as direct shear and index properties have also been carried on. The results were further used for dam slope stability model using slide 6.0 and were used to analyzed factor of safety (FS of Kedunguling dam. 10 conditions of dam were simulated and strengthening body of dam with grouting was designed. The results showed two conditions, which are condition of maximum water level with and without earthquake at downstream, were unsatisfy Indonesia National Standard (SNI for building and infrastructure. These conditions can be managed by using grouting for increasing stabilization of embankment wall. By setting up grouting, factor of safety increases and meet the SNI standard requirement.

  17. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  18. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  19. Joint Geodetic and Seismic Analysis of the effects of Englacial and Subglacial Hydraulics on Surface Crevassing near a Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake on Gornergletscher, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L.; Luttrell, K. M.; Kilb, D. L.; Walter, F.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial outburst floods are difficult to predict and threaten human life and property near glaciated regions. These events are characterized by rapid draining of glacier-dammed lakes via the sub/englacial hydraulic network to the proglacial stream. The glacier-dammed lake on Gornergletscher in Switzerland, which fills and drains each summer, provides an opportunity to study this hazard. For three drainages (2004, 2006, and 2007), we track icequakes (IQ) and on-ice GPS movement. Our seasonal seismic networks had 8 - 24 three component stations and apertures of about 300 - 400 m on the glacier surface. The seasonal GPS arrays contained 4 - 8 GPS antennae on the glacier surface. Using Rayleigh wave coherence surface IQ location, we located 2924, 7822 and 3782 IQs, in 2004, 2006 and 2007, respectively. The GPS data were smoothed using a nonparametric protocol, with average station velocities of 10 - 90 mm/day. In 2006, strains were calculated using five stations within 500 m of the lake, co-located with the seismic network. IQ productivity increased substantially during lake drainage only in 2004, which was the only year when the lake drainage was rapid ( 6 days) and primarily subglacial. In 2006, there was no obvious increase in GPS speeds with slow ( 21 days), supraglacial lake drainage. However, when drainage was subglacial as in 2004 and 2007 (sub/englacial over 11 days), GPS speed increased up to 160%. This speed increase is evidence for basal sliding induced by subglacial drainage. In general, we find that when the strain increase on the principle extension axis aligns with the crevasse opening direction, IQ are more prolific. We also observe a diurnal signal in both IQ occurrence and surface strain, with peak strain occurring in the mid- to late-afternoon (15:00 - 19:00 local) across the study area in 2006. We interpret this time-shift in strain and spatiotemporal dependence of IQs to be caused by diurnal variations in melt-induced sliding. Our analysis sheds

  20. g-PRIME: A Free, Windows Based Data Acquisition and Event Analysis Software Package for Physiology in Classrooms and Research Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Gus K; Johnson, Bruce R; Bonow, Robert H; Land, Bruce R; Hoy, Ronald R

    2009-01-01

    We present g-PRIME, a software based tool for physiology data acquisition, analysis, and stimulus generation in education and research. This software was developed in an undergraduate neurophysiology course and strongly influenced by instructor and student feedback. g-PRIME is a free, stand-alone, windows application coded and "compiled" in Matlab (does not require a Matlab license). g-PRIME supports many data acquisition interfaces from the PC sound card to expensive high throughput calibrated equipment. The program is designed as a software oscilloscope with standard trigger modes, multi-channel visualization controls, and data logging features. Extensive analysis options allow real time and offline filtering of signals, multi-parameter threshold-and-window based event detection, and two-dimensional display of a variety of parameters including event time, energy density, maximum FFT frequency component, max/min amplitudes, and inter-event rate and intervals. The software also correlates detected events with another simultaneously acquired source (event triggered average) in real time or offline. g-PRIME supports parameter histogram production and a variety of elegant publication quality graphics outputs. A major goal of this software is to merge powerful engineering acquisition and analysis tools with a biological approach to studies of nervous system function.

  1. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  2. The socio-economics dynamics of Dam on Rural Communities: A case study of Oyan Dam, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Amidu; Ojifo, Lawrence

    2018-06-01

    Dams construction and operations have many benefits, nevertheless, they have also led to lots of negative social, health and human impacts. It is based on this that this study assesses the potential and socio-economics dynamics of Oyan dam between 1980 and 2016. The data used for this study include water level and discharge records of the dam between 2007 and 2016, Landsat imageries of 1984 and 2016 and socio-economic datasets for the period. Analysis of the dam potentials (water supply, agriculture and hydropower) and socio-economic impacts of the dam were carried out using basic statistical tools, land use change anaysis and field survey using questionnaire, structured interview with major stakeholders and personal observation. The results revealed that the water level and storage of the Oyan dam had a relative reduction of about 2 % as well as non-stationarity pattern of water abstraction and production for the period. The landuse classes show all classes decreased in extent except the cultivated landuse that acrued an increased of 19.9 % between 1984 and 2016. Furthermore, commercial water supply varied significantly between 2010 and 2016 while irrigation scheme is grossly under-utilized from the inception in 1983 to 2016. Finally, the result of socio-economic impacts revealed that majority of the selected communities' members are actually not benefiting from the dam and their livelihoods are not from the dam.

  3. Dissolved oxygen analysis, TMDL model comparison, and particulate matter shunting—Preliminary results from three model scenarios for the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are underway to identify actions that would improve water quality in the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Upper Klamath River in south-central Oregon. To provide further insight into water-quality improvement options, three scenarios were developed, run, and analyzed using previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic and water-quality models. Additional scenarios are under development as part of this ongoing study. Most of these scenarios evaluate changes relative to a "current conditions" model, but in some cases a "natural conditions" model was used that simulated the reach without the effect of point and nonpoint sources and set Upper Klamath Lake at its Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) targets. These scenarios were simulated using a model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc. for the years 2006–09, referred to here as the "USGS model." Another model of the reach was developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. for years 2000 and 2002 to support the Klamath River TMDL process; that model is referred to here as the "TMDL model." The three scenarios described in this report included (1) an analysis of whether this reach of the Upper Klamath River would be in compliance with dissolved oxygen standards if sources met TMDL allocations, (2) an application of more recent datasets to the TMDL model with comparison to results from the USGS model, and (3) an examination of the effect on dissolved oxygen in the Klamath River if particulate material were stopped from entering Klamath Project diversion canals. Updates and modifications to the USGS model are in progress, so in the future these scenarios will be reanalyzed with the updated model and the interim results presented here will be superseded. Significant findings from this phase of the investigation include: * The TMDL analysis used depth-averaged dissolved oxygen concentrations from model output for comparison with dissolved oxygen standards. The Oregon dissolved oxygen

  4. Bootstrap rolling window estimation approach to analysis of the Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis: evidence from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alper; Destek, Mehmet Akif; Okumus, Ilyas

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the validity of inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve by investigating the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution for the period from 1966 to 2013 in the USA. Previous studies based on the assumption of parameter stability and obtained parameters do not change over the full sample. This study uses bootstrap rolling window estimation method to detect the possible changes in causal relations and also obtain the parameters for sub-sample periods. The results show that the parameter of economic growth has increasing trend in 1982-1996 sub-sample periods, and it has decreasing trend in 1996-2013 sub-sample periods. Therefore, the existence of inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve is confirmed in the USA.

  5. Health impacts of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects

  6. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  7. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  8. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  9. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  10. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  11. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  12. STABILITAS CHECK DAM DI ARBORETUM DESA SUMBER BRANTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The stability of check-dam in arboretum of Sumber Brantas village. Sumber Brantas water sources area is arboretum territory which has to be maintained as conservation either for technical or vegetation (plants cover by sustainable development. Arboretum territory is made as asylum in irrigation system district of Brantas River. This research discusses technical conservation activity to build the check dam in conserving the area. Check dam is built dimensionally by using HEC-RAS Program to get safe and stable dimension for rolling, shifting and piping of Sf > 1.5, and based on hydrologic analysis to get maximum flood discharge of 48.01 m3second-1. Hydraulic analysis is used to get water level profile and pressure for the dam body. Stability of the structure will be controlled by construction load (weight of check dam and its fully sediment storage condition. The result of this research shows that the safe and stable dimension for check dam are as follows: 28 meter of width; 3 meter of main height; 1.5 meter of sub-height; 10 meter of stilling basin length (Main Dam–Sub Dam.

  13. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Bayrak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam.

  14. Primary Productivity of the Cengklik Dam Boyolali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRYANTO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary productivity dynamic of the water ecosystem was conducted faster in the last decades. This study was intended to find out the primary productivity of Cengklik dam Boyolali, Central Java to explain the ecosystem dynamic and to lead the maintenance of dam. This study used quantitative methods in completely randomized group design (CRD, and the data was analized by Analysis of Variance (ANAVA. Samples were taken horizontally in four sampling point, respectively in the riparian zone, around of the floating net (“karamba”, in the center of dam water and around of the ex-paddy fields. There were taken vertically in three-depth point in each of the sampling point, respectively 0.5 meter, 1.5 meter, and 2.5 meter. The results showed that the gross primary productivity of the dam was 11.122.500-22.545.600 mgC/m3/days, and the primary productivity differences in each of the point sampling caused by light intensity, nutrient supply, and abundance of the chlorophyll organisms.

  15. The emergence of the vertical birth in Ecuador: an analysis of agenda setting and policy windows for intercultural health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Ana; Mayhew, Susannah

    2016-01-01

    Maternal mortality continues to claim the lives of thousands of women in Latin America despite the availability of effective treatments to avert maternal death. In the past, efforts to acknowledge cultural diversity in birth practices had not been clearly integrated into policy. However, in Otavalo (Ecuador) a local hospital pioneered the implementation of the ‘Vertical Birth’—a practical manifestation of an intercultural health policy aimed at increasing indigenous women’s access to maternity care. Drawing on agenda-setting theory, this qualitative research explores how the vertical birth practice made it onto the local policy agenda and the processes that allowed actors to seize a window of opportunity allowing the vertical birth practice to emerge. Our results show that the processes that brought about the vertical birth practice took place over a prolonged period of time and resulted from the interplay between various factors. Firstly, a maternal health policy community involving indigenous actors played a key role in identifying maternal mortality as a policy problem, defining its causes and framing it as an indigenous rights issue. Secondly, previous initiatives to address maternal mortality provided a wealth of experience that gave these actors the knowledge and experience to formulate a feasible policy solution and consolidate support from powerful actors. Thirdly, the election of a new government that had incorporated the demands of the indigenous movement opened up a window of opportunity to push intercultural health policies such as the vertical birth. We conclude that the socioeconomic and political changes at both national and local level allowed the meaningful participation of indigenous actors that made a critical contribution to the emergence of the vertical birth practice. These findings can help us advance our knowledge of strategies to set the agenda for intercultural maternal health policy and inform future policy in similar settings

  16. Economic Analysis of the Effects of Climate Change Induced by Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Agricultural Productions and Available Water Resources (Case Study: Down Lands of the Taleghan Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mozaffari

    2016-03-01

    to survey the impacts of climate variables on the selected products yield. Changes in agricultural production, farmer’s gross profit and economic value of irrigation water were analyzed and compared with the base year by the regression analysis results in the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP model. This methodology that was developed by Howitt (1995 to calibrate agricultural supply models has been used to link biophysical and economic information in an integrated biophysical and economic modeling framework and to assess the impacts of agricultural policies and scenarios. These models are also accepted for analyzing the impact of climate change and water resources management policies and scenarios. The PMP model used in this paper is a three-step procedure in which a non-linear cost function is calibrated to observe values of inputs usage in agricultural production. In the basic formulation, the first step is a linear program providing marginal values that are used in the second step to estimate the parameters for a non-linear cost function and a production function. In the third step, the calibrated production and cost functions are used in a non-linear optimization program. The solution to this non-linear program calibrates to observed values of production inputs and output. The required data in this paper were collected from meteorological stations and the relevant agencies in the Qazvin province. Regression functions estimated in Eviews software package and the PMP model were solved in GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System software. Results and Discussion: The results obtained in this paper showed that with emissions of greenhouse gases under the studied scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1, the average annual climate variables of temperature and precipitation changes from 1.64 to 2.28 °C and from20.92 to 1.1 mm, respectively. With these change, the yield of the most selected products decreases in the down lands of Taleghan Dam. Moreover, the obtained results

  17. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  18. The mathematics of dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, R. [Osterreichische Gesellschaft fuer Geomechanik, Salzburg (Austria)

    1997-05-01

    The safety of a dam is determined by its design, construction and supervision during operation. High arch dam failures have dropped dramatically since the early part of this century. An essential part of the success story relates to improved measurement techniques that can detect earlier unexpected behaviour that may lead to failure. (UK)

  19. Evaluatie Dam tot Damloop 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom-Baart de la Faille, Marije

    In het weekend van 20 en 21 september 2014 vond de 30ste editie van de Dam tot Damloop plaats. Onderzoekers van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en Hogeschool Inholland hebben bij de Dam tot Damloop een evaluatieonderzoek uitgevoerd met als doel het vinden van aanknopingspunten voor het structureel

  20. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  1. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  2. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  3. Use of geoprossesing for analysis of the River Basin Of Alves' Dam Cachoeira, Municipality Of Itaporanga-PB

    OpenAIRE

    João Miguel de Moraes Neto; Carlos Lamarque Guimarães; Ridelson Farias de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    The sedimentation of reservoir is a process natural resultant of the detachment, transport and deposition of sediments and your acceleration has been provoking upset and damages concerning the water resources as reduction of the capacity of accumulation of water of the reservoirs among others. This work consisted of a development of a methodology for rising and analysis of the degree of sedimentation of Alves' reservoir Waterfall, located in the municipal district of Itaporanga - PB, as well ...

  4. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  5. Responses of riparian reptile communities to damming and urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Price, Steven J.; Halstead, Brian J.; Eskew, Evan A.; Dorcas, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Various anthropogenic pressures, including habitat loss, threaten reptile populations worldwide. Riparian zones are critical habitat for many reptile species, but these habitats are also frequently modified by anthropogenic activities. Our study investigated the effects of two riparian habitat modifications-damming and urbanization-on overall and species-specific reptile occupancy patterns. We used time-constrained search techniques to compile encounter histories for 28 reptile species at 21 different sites along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers of South Carolina. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we modeled reptile occupancy responses to a site's distance upstream from dam, distance downstream from dam, and percent urban land use. The mean occupancy response by the reptile community indicated that reptile occupancy and species richness were maximized when sites were farther upstream from dams. Species-specific occupancy estimates showed a similar trend of lower occupancy immediately upstream from dams. Although the mean occupancy response of the reptile community was positively related to distance downstream from dams, the occupancy response to distance downstream varied among species. Percent urban land use had little effect on the occupancy response of the reptile community or individual species. Our results indicate that the conditions of impoundments and subsequent degradation of the riparian zones upstream from dams may not provide suitable habitat for a number of reptile species.

  6. Damming evidence : Canada and the World Commission on Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vert, P.; Parkinson, B.

    2003-06-01

    Large hydroelectric projects have been met with strong resistance from affected communities, particularly indigenous groups who have been displaced from their flooded communities following the damming of a river. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) was formed in 1998 to review the effectiveness of large dams and develop internationally acceptable guidelines and standards for large dams or hydro energy projects. The Canadian government, through the Canadian International Development Agency, was one of many governments to fund the WCD. However, the authors argue that despite the financial support, the Canadian government was absent from any effort to follow-up on the recommendations of the WCD. The seven strategic priorities in the decision making process include: (1) gaining public acceptance, (2) comprehensive option assessment of water, energy, food and development needs, (3) addressing existing dams to improve the benefits that can be derived from them, (4) sustaining livelihoods, (5) recognizing the entitlements and sharing benefits, (6) ensuring compliance, and (7) sharing rivers for peace, development and security. This report offers a means to assess planned or existing dams and presents a set of guidelines for good practices linked to the seven strategic priorities. Ten case studies from around the world were presented, including the Three Gorges Dam in China. 154 refs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  7. 'A pond with crocodiles never dries up’: a frame analysis of human-crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Tossou, R.C.; Mensah, G.A.; Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Sinsin, A.B.; van der Zijpp, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they

  8. 'A pond with crocodiles never dries up'. A frame analysis of human –crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpera, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Tossou, R.C.; Mensah, G.A.; Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Sinsin, A.B.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they

  9. Olympic Dam Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit in South Australia was discovered in 1975. The Mine is located 520 kilometres NNW of Adelaide, in South Australia. Following a six year period of intensive investigation and assessment of all the aspects required for the development of the deposit, the Joint Venturers decided in December, 1985, to proceed with the project. Milling of ore commenced in June 1988 and final products are cathode copper, uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake), and refined gold and silver. Anticipated production, from treating approximately 1.5 million tonnes of ore, in normal production years, is expected to be 45,000 tonnes of copper, 1,600 tonnes of yellow cake (1350 tonnes of Uranium), 25,000 ounces of gold and 500,000 ounces of silver. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.; Middleton, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation work on areas denuded of vegetation during the exploration phase of the Olympic Dam project was used to test various methods for regeneration of vegetation cover in the arid zone. The test work carried out on drill pads and access tracks has indicated that, with adequate site preparation, natural regeneration is the most economical and effective method to ensure post-operational stability of the affected land-forms. An on-going monitoring regime, utilising a computer data base, has been set up to allow year-to-year comparison of rehabilitation effectiveness. The database also provides a catalogue of initial colonising plants and a measure of variations in species diversity with time

  11. High performance sapphire windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  12. Deformation performance of Waba Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salloum, T.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hassan, P. [Ontario Power Generation, Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON (Canada); Cragg, C. [Cragg Consulting Services, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described the performance of the Waba Dam which is being monitored as part of Ontario Power Generation's Dam Safety Program. It described the deformations that have been observed in this 3600 ft long earthfill dam which lies on marine clay in eastern Ontario. An extensive instrumentation program, including foundation settlement gauges, surface monuments, slope inclinometers, load cells and piezometers has been in effect since the construction of the dam in 1975. Significant settlement has occurred at Waba Dam since its construction. Wide berms were provided upstream and downstream beyond the slopes of the main fill to ensure stability of the dyke on the soft clay foundation and the crest elevations were designed to allow for the expected settlement in the foundation which would be overstressed by the dam loading. Based on current settlements, future settlements are predicted based on Asaoka's method. Inclinometer measurements have shown a foundation lateral spreading of 12 in. The lateral versus vertical deformations were found to be comparable to well behaving embankments reported in the literature. These analyses indicate that Waba Dam is performing well and should continue to perform well into the future. 8 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  13. Public safety around dams guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, T [Canadian Dam Association, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed Canadian and international initiatives for improving dam safety and described some of the drivers for the development of new Canadian Dam Association (CDA) public safety guidelines for dams. The CDA guidelines were divided into the following 3 principal sections: (1) managed system elements, (2) risk assessment and management, and (3) technical bulletins. Public and media responses to the drownings have called for improved safety guidelines. While the public remains unaware of the hazards of dams, public interaction with dams is increasing as a result of interest in extreme sports and perceived rights of access. Guidelines are needed for dam owners in order to provide due diligence. Various organizations in Canada are preparing technical and public safety dam guidelines. CDA guidelines have also been prepared for signage, booms and buoys, and audible and visual alerts bulletins. Working groups are also discussing recommended practices for spill procedures, spillways and the role of professional engineers in ensuring public safety. Methods of assessing risk were also reviewed. Managed system elements for risk assessment and public interactions were also discussed, and stepped control measures were presented. tabs., figs.

  14. Impact Analysis of Window-Wall Ratio on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoxia Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the optimal window-wall ratio and the proper glazing type in different air conditioning system operation modes of residential buildings for each orientation in three typical cities in hot summer and cold winter zone: Chongqing, Shanghai, and Wuhan simulation models were built and analyzed using Designer’s Simulation Toolkit (DeST. The study analyzed the variation of annual heating energy demand, annual cooling energy demand, and the annual total energy consumption in different conditions, including different orientations, patterns of utilization of air conditioning system, window-wall ratio, and types of windows. The results show that the total energy consumption increased when the window-wall ratio is also increased. It appears more obvious when the window orientation is east or west. Furthermore, in terms of energy efficiency, low-emissivity (Low-E glass performs better than hollow glass. From this study, it can be concluded that the influence and sensitivity of window-wall ratio on the total energy consumption are related to the operation mode of air conditioning system, the orientation of outside window, and the glazing types of window. The influence of the factors can be regarded as reference mode for the window-wall ratio when designing residential buildings.

  15. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  16. Proceedings of the Canadian Dam Association's 2006 annual conference: dams: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed particular technical challenges regarding the operation of dams with particular focus on best practices for improving dam management and safety. It featured 4 workshops and a technical program led by experts on dams and tailings facilities that addressed topics such as dam construction, design and rehabilitation; dam management in a hydrological uncertainty context; monitoring, instrumentation and maintenance; dam behaviour; dam safety, dam failure and practical approaches to emergency preparedness planning for dam owners; historical aspects and environmental issues and conflicting water use. Recent developments in dam construction were reviewed along with discharge and debris management, tailings dam issues, asset management, seismic issues, public safety, seepage monitoring, flow control, dam rehabilitation, concrete testing, hydrotechnical issues, risk assessment methodology, and dam safety guidelines for extreme flood analyses and their applications. All 80 presentations from this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  17. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines, is...

  18. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  19. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  20. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  1. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  2. FULCRUM - A dam safety management and alert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Cameron; Greenaway, Graham [Knight Piesold Ltd., Vancouver, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Efficient management of instrumentation, monitoring and inspection data are the keys to safe performance and dam structure stability. This paper presented a data management system, FULCRUM, developed for dam safety management. FULCRUM is a secure web-based data management system which simplifies the process of data collection, processing and analysis of the information. The system was designed to organize and coordinate dam safety management requirements. Geotechnical instrumentation such as piezometers or inclinometers and operating data can be added to the database. Data from routine surveillance and engineering inspection can also be incorporated into the database. The system provides users with immediate access to historical and recent data. The integration of a GIS system allows for rapid assessment of the project site. Customisable alerting protocols can be set to identify and respond quickly to significant changes in operating conditions and potential impacts on dam safety.

  3. Perspectives on dam safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canadian dam safety issues were reviewed from the perspective of a water resources engineer who is not a dam safety practitioner. Several external factors affecting dam safety were identified along with perceived problems in dam safety administration. The author claims that the main weakness in safety practices can be attributed to provincial oversights and lack of federal engagement. Some additions to the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines were proposed to address these weaknesses. Canada has hundreds of large dams and high hazard dams whose failure would result in severe downstream consequences. The safety of dams built on boundary waters shared with the United States have gained particular attention from the International Joint Commission. This paper also examined safety criteria for concerns such as aging dams, sabotage and global climate change that may compromise the safety of a dam. 26 refs

  4. Lung perfusion analysis with dual energy CT in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism—Influence of window settings on the diagnosis of underlying pathologies of perfusion defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J. Matthias; Weber, Eva; Weisser, Philipp; Korkusuz, Huedayi; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: On lung perfusion analysis with dual energy CT (DECT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) commonly three patterns of perfusion defects (PD) are observed: wedge-shaped, circumscribed but not wedge-shaped, and patchy. We investigated the influence of different window settings on the identification of the underlying pathologies for these types of PD. Materials and methods: 3724 segments in 196 consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary DECT angiography for clinically suspected acute PE were analyzed. Iodine distribution in the lung parenchyma was calculated from the dual energy data and displayed as color map in axial, sagittal and coronal view. Afterwards, lung and angiography window were applied separately and assessed for pulmonary embolism and pathologies of the lung parenchyma. Results: 1420 segments in 141 patients showed PD, of which 276 were wedge-shaped, 287 circumscribed and 857 patchy. Circumscribed PD were associated in 99% with interstitial or alveolar fluid collections and in 1% with located bullae. Patchy PD were associated in 65% with emphysematous or fibrotic changes, in 38% with diffuse infiltrations or interstitial fluid collections and in 0.2% with PE. The underlying pathologies for wedge-shaped PD were in 78% PE, in 3% tumors compressing pulmonary arteries, in another 3% located bullae and in further 3% infiltrations. 13% (n = 15) of the segments in this group did not show vascular or parenchymal pathologies, but in 80% (n = 10) of these cases patients had PE in another segment. Totally n = 6 of wedge-shaped PD in 5 patients remained with unclear direct cause. Conclusion: Whereas patchy and circumscribed PD are almost exclusively associated with pathologies of the lung parenchyma, wedge-shaped PD are mostly associated with PE. For a small number of wedge-shaped PD the underlying cause cannot be detected with DECT. Very small peripherally situated micro-emboli may be discussed as a reason. However, prospective trials are

  5. Earthquake Hazard for Aswan High Dam Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Awad

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams. The Aswan High Dam (AHD) created the second man-made reservoir in the world (Lake Nasser) and is constructed near urban areas pose a high-risk potential for downstream life and property. The Dam area is one of the seismically active regions in Egypt and is occupied with several cross faults, which are dominant in the east-west and north-south. Epicenters were found to cluster around active faults in the northern part of Lake and AHD location. The space-time distribution and the relation of the seismicity with the lake water level fluctuations were studied. The Aswan seismicity separates into shallow and deep seismic zones, between 0 and 14 and 14 and 30 km, respectively. These two seismic zones behave differently over time, as indicated by the seismicity rate, lateral extent, b-value, and spatial clustering. It is characterized by earthquake swarm sequences showing activation of the clustering-events over time and space. The effect of the North African drought (1982 to present) is clearly seen in the reservoir water level. As it decreased and left the most active fault segments uncovered, the shallow activity was found to be more sensitive to rapid discharging than to the filling. This study indicates that geology, topography, lineations in seismicity, offsets in the faults, changes in fault trends and focal mechanisms are closely related. No relation was found between earthquake activity and both-ground water table fluctuations and water temperatures measured in wells located around the Kalabsha area. The peak ground acceleration is estimated in the dam site based on strong ground motion simulation. This seismic hazard analyses have indicated that AHD is stable with the present seismicity. The earthquake epicenters have recently took place approximately 5 km west of the AHD structure. This suggests that AHD dam must be

  6. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  7. Grouting Applications in Cindere Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ALKAYA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is one of the most popular method to control the water leakage in fill dam constructions. With this regard this method is widely used in all the world. Geological and geotechnical properties of rock are important parameters affect the design of grouting. In this study, geotechnical properties of Cindere Dam's base rock and the grouting prosedure have been investigated with grouting pressure.

  8. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes 1420 Ririe Dam Ririe Dam 119,880 Gates opened and initial release started. 1455 115th St...16°F air temperature. Table A2. Observations made on 11 February 2013. Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes...ERDC/CRREL TR-13-10 52 Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes Travel Time* (sec) Vel.** (fps) 1224 5th

  9. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  10. Windows and lighting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of Temperature Control Parameters and Study of the Simultaneous Cooling Zone during Dam Construction in High-Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are unprecedented difficulties in building concrete gravity dams in the high altitude province Tibet with problems induced by lack of experience and technologies and unique weather conditions, as well as the adoption of construction materials that are disadvantageous to temperature control and crack prevention. Based on the understandings of the mentioned problems and leveraging the need of building gravity dam in Tibet, 3D finite element method is used to study the temperature control and crack prevention of the dam during construction. The calculation under recommend temperature control measures and standards shows that the height and number of simultaneous cooling zone have the more obvious influencers on concrete stress; therefore, it is suggested to increase the height of simultaneous cooling zone to decrease the stress caused by temperature gradient of adjoin layers so as to raise the safety level of the whole project. The research methods and ideas used on this project have significant values and can be taken as references in similar projects in high altitude regions.

  12. Rapid classification of turmeric based on DNA fingerprint by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with moving window partial least squares-discrimination analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Suttiwijitpukdee, Nattaporn; Keeratinijakal, Vichein

    2017-01-01

    In this research, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in combination with moving window partial least squares-discrimination analysis (MWPLS-DA) was utilized to discriminate the variety of turmeric based on DNA markers, which correlated to the quantity of curcuminoid. Curcuminoid was used as a marker compound in variety identification due to the most pharmacological properties of turmeric possessed from it. MWPLS-DA optimized informative NIR spectral regions for the fitting and prediction to {-1/1}-coded turmeric varieties, indicating variables in the development of latent variables in discrimination analysis. Consequently, MWPLS-DA benefited in the selection of combined informative NIR spectral regions of 1100 – 1260, 1300 – 1500 and 1880 – 2500 nm for classification modeling of turmeric variety with 148 calibration samples, and yielded the results better than that obtained from a partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) model built by using the whole NIR spectral region. An effective and rapid strategy of using NIR in combination with MWPLS-DA provided the best variety identification results of 100% in both specificity and total accuracy for 48 test samples. (author)

  13. Lower HVAC Costs | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Increased Light & View | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. Condensation Resistance (CR) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Fact Sheets & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. State Fact Sheets | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  18. State Code Guides | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  19. Low Conductance Spacers | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  1. Energy & Cost Savings | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  2. Provide Natural Light | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  3. Provide Fresh Air | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  4. Air Leakage (AL) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  5. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  6. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  7. SIMSAS - a window based software package for simulation and analysis of multiple small-angle scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaswal, B.; Mazumder, S.

    1998-09-01

    Small-angle scattering data from strong scattering systems, e.g. porous materials, cannot be analysed invoking single scattering approximation as specimen needed to replicate the bulk matrix in essential properties are too thick to validate the approximation. The presence of multiple scattering is indicated by invalidity of the functional invariance property of the observed scattering profile with variation of sample thickness and/or wave length of the probing radiation. This article delineates how non accounting of multiple scattering affects the results of analysis and then how to correct the data for its effect. It deals with an algorithm to extract single scattering profile from small-angle scattering data affected by multiple scattering. The algorithm can process the scattering data and deduce single scattering profile in absolute scale. A software package, SIMSAS, is introduced for executing this inversion step. This package is useful both to simulate and to analyse multiple small-angle scattering data. (author)

  8. The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in concrete of Yongan Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingyu; Long Fumei; Tang Mingshu

    2006-01-01

    According to microanalytical investigations, it is shown that the concrete of Yongan Dam is deteriorated due to the thaumasite form of sulfate attack (TSA). Analysis results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Disperse X-ray (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) are supported by the analysis of the concrete composition and the geographical conditions of the dam

  9. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  10. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foundation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D geomechanics model test and finite element analysis results indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  11. Importance of using roller compacted concrete in techno-economic investigation and design of small dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouissat, Bouchrit; Smail, N.; Zenagui, S.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, and under constraints caused by persistent drought, Algeria has launched a new mobilization strategy for surface water resources from small and medium dams. However, by making a review of the studies and achievements of twenty small dams in the west of Algeria, some deficiencies appeared. In addition to reservoir siltation assessment, operation spillways have been the major constraint on the reliability of these types of dams. The objective of this paper is to use the roller compacted concrete (RCC) for small dams' design for the benefit it offers and its ability to incorporate spillways. The development of this reflection was applied to the Khneg Azir earth dam situated in southwest of Algeria. Its uncontrolled lateral spillway has registered significant damage following the flood of October 2005, amounted, at that time, to more than 100 million Algerian dinars (1 million US Dollars). The present research encompasses a technical and economical comparative analysis concerning multiple criteria dam design types coupled with the conjugation of the spillways. Thus, on the basis of financial estimates calculated for all design types, the variant RCC remains competitive with that of the earth dam's spillway isolated (Less than 40% of the cost). To assess the mechanical behavior of the foundations for both types of dams, (earth and RCC dams), numerical modeling has been undertaken, according to the comparative analysis of deformations in the foundations. Analysis of deformations showed that the average foundation deformations was between (0.052-0.85) m for earth dam and (0.023-0.373) m for RCC dam. These economical and technical considerations open up important prospects for the use of RCC in the design of small dams.

  12. Emotions are a window into one's heart”: a qualitative analysis of parental beliefs about children's emotions across three ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison E; Halberstadt, Amy G; Dunsmore, Julie C; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred; Thompson, Julie A; Beale, Karen S

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents’ beliefs about the role of emotions in the family and how cultural or ethnic background may influence those beliefs. Based on philosophical traditions and previous research, three dimensions of parental beliefs were predicted: Value of Emotion, Socialization of Emotion, and Controllability of Emotion. We expected new themes to emerge during the focus groups.Twelve focus groups were conducted with 87 parents from the three cultural groups mentioned above. Groups met for two sessions scheduled 2 weeks apart. Focus group discussions were led by same-ethnicity moderators. Aninductive analysis was conducted; key themes and subthemes were identified.All three theoretically derived dimensions were well represented in each focus group. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included children’s appropriate expression of negative emotions, role of emotion in the home, children’s capacity for controlling emotions, and parents’ role in socialization of emotion. Cultural variations included concern about parents’ expression of negative emotion, children’s modulation of positive emotion, the role emotions play in behavior, and choice in emotional experience. Two new dimensions also emerged: Relational Nature of Emotions and Changeability of Emotions. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included emphasis on emotional connections with children, emotional contagion in families, developmental change in children’s emotions, and intergenerational change in emotion socialization. Cultural variation included discussion of emotions as guides for action and children’s emotional privacy. Dimensions and the themes and subthemes within them

  13. Thermal margin comparison between DAM and simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeonghun; Yook, Daesik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The nuclear industry in Korea, has considered using a detail analysis model (DAM), which described each rod, to get more thermal margin with the design a dry storage facility for nuclear spent fuel (NSF). A DAM is proposed and a thermal analysis to determine the cladding integrity is performed using test conditions with a homogenized NSF assembly analysis model(Simple model). The result show that according to USA safety criteria, temperature of canister surface has to keep below 500 K in normal condition and 630 K in excess condition. A commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) called ANSYS Fluent version 14.5 was used.

  14. Simulating daily water temperatures of the Klamath River under dam removal and climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Risley, John C.; Brewer, Scott J.; Jones, Edward C.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional daily averaged water temperature model was used to simulate Klamath River temperatures for two management alternatives under historical climate conditions and six future climate scenarios. The analysis was conducted for the Secretarial Determination on removal of four hydroelectric dams on the Klamath River. In 2012, the Secretary of the Interior will determine if dam removal and implementation of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) (Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement, 2010) will advance restoration of salmonid fisheries and is in the public interest. If the Secretary decides dam removal is appropriate, then the four dams are scheduled for removal in 2020.

  15. Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny, Elad; Tawfeeq, Kochar Jamal; Ghabraie, Kazem

    2015-10-01

    Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10-8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.

  16. Computer Programs for Uncertainty Analysis of Solubility Calculations: Windows Version and Other Updates of the SENVAR and UNCCON. Program Description and Handling Instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, Christian; Oedegaard Jensen, Arvid

    2004-04-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is becoming more and more important for testing the reliability of computer predictions. Solubility estimations play important roles for, e.g. underground repositories for nuclear waste, other hazardous materials as well as simple dissolution problems in general or industrial chemistry applications. The calculated solubility of a solid phase is dependent on several input data, e.g. the stability constants for the complexes formed in the solution, the enthalpies of reaction for the formation of these complexes and also the content of other elements in the water used for the dissolution. These input data are determined with more or less accuracy and thus the results of the calculations are uncertain. For the purpose of investigating the effects of these uncertainties several computer programs were developed in the 1990s, e.g. SENVAR, MINVAR and UNCCON. Of these SENVAR and UNCCON now exist as windows programs based on a newer speciation code. In this report we have given an explanation of how the codes work and also given some test cases as handling instructions. The results are naturally similar to the previous ones but the advantages are easier handling and more stable solubility calculations. With these improvements the programs presented here will be more publically accessible

  17. A multi-year analysis of spillway survival for juvenile salmonids as a function of spill bay operations at McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hansel, Hal C.; Perry, Russell W.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004-09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to examine how spill bay operations affect survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the spillway at McNary Dam. We also examined the relations between spill bay operations and survival through the juvenile fish bypass in an attempt to determine if survival through the bypass is influenced by spill bay operations. We used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model (CJS model) to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to spill bay operations. Results of these analyses, while not designed to yield predictive models, can be used to help develop dam-operation strategies that optimize juvenile salmonid survival. For example, increasing total discharge typically had a positive effect on both spillway and bypass survival for all species except sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Likewise, an increase in spill bay discharge improved spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and an increase in spillway discharge positively affected spillway survival for juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The strong linear relation between increased spill and increased survival indicates that increasing the amount of water through the spillway is one strategy that could be used to improve spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. However, increased spill did not improve spillway survival for subyearling Chinook salmon and sockeye salmon. Our results indicate that a uniform spill pattern would provide the highest spillway survival and bypass survival for subyearling Chinook salmon. Conversely, a predominantly south spill pattern provided the highest spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. Although spill pattern was not a factor for spillway survival of sockeye salmon, spill bay operations that optimize passage through the north and south spill bays maximized

  18. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  19. Comparison between Duncan and Chang’s EB Model and the Generalized Plasticity Model in the Analysis of a High Earth-Rockfill Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear elastic model and elastoplastic model are two main kinds of constitutive models of soil, which are widely used in the numerical analyses of soil structure. In this study, Duncan and Chang's EB model and the generalized plasticity model proposed by Pastor, Zienkiewicz, and Chan was discussed and applied to describe the stress-strain relationship of rockfill materials. The two models were validated using the results of triaxial shear tests under different confining pressures. The comparisons between the fittings of models and test data showed that the modified generalized plasticity model is capable of simulating the mechanical behaviours of rockfill materials. The modified generalized plasticity model was implemented into a finite element code to carry out static analyses of a high earth-rockfill dam in China. Nonlinear elastic analyses were also performed with Duncan and Chang's EB model in the same program framework. The comparisons of FEM results and in situ monitoring data showed that the modified PZ-III model can give a better description of deformation of the earth-rockfill dam than Duncan and Chang’s EB model.

  20. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  1. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  2. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  3. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Muda, Rahsidi Sabri; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Mansor, Faezah Hanum; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-01-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  4. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  5. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  6. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  7. The Sulphate Effect on Lijiaxia Concrete Dam (China Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufen Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete degradation is one of the most serious problems for a dam construct during the normal operation, which determines the dam service life. Hence, it is very important to reduce the extent of the dam concrete degradation for the safety of the dam normal operation. Here, Lijiaxia hydroelectric station is taken as an example, and a comprehensive method to assess the sulphate effect on dam gallery is proposed. Eleven samples in total were taken from three difference locations by the drill bore. The microstructural investigations including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were conducted to assess the sulphate attack and the degradation degree. Meanwhile, the water chemical analysis was applied to reveal the mechanism of concrete degradation. The experimental and analysis results indicate that the concrete degradation degree varies with the location of the samples. The components of the concrete change and the content of SO3 increase dramatically during degradation. Moreover, the mineral facies of the concrete change correspondingly, with the cement paste substituted by the calcite, calcium vitriol, and gypsum. The reinforcement and precaution measures are suggested based on the results of the degradation assessment.

  8. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Bar Dams AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority. ACTION: Issuance of Record of Decision. SUMMARY: This... the dam safety modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams. The notice of... Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams was published in the Federal Register on May 31, 2013. This...

  9. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    The handbook on windows and energy is a general description of windows with the main focus put on the energy performance. Common window products are described by commonly used nomenclature, description of frame and sash conctructions and description of commonly used glazing types.The energy...... transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...

  10. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  11. Dam pre-release as an important operation strategy in reducing flood impact in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah Ishak, Nurul; Mustafa Hashim, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The 2014 flood was reported to be one of the worst natural disaster has ever affected several states in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Overwhelming rainfall was noted as one of the main factors causing such impact, which was claimed to be unprecedented to some extent. The state of Perak, which is blessed with four cascading dams had also experienced flood damage at a scale that was considered the worst in history. The rainfall received had caused the dam to reach danger level that necessitated additional discharge to be released. Safety of the dams was of great importance and such unavoidable additional discharge was allowed to avoid catastrophic failure of the dam structures. This paper discusses the dam pre-release as a significant dam management strategy in reducing flood impact. An important balance between required dam storage to be maintained and the risk element that can be afforded is the crucial factor in such enhanced operation strategy. While further possibility in developing a carefully engineered dam pre-release strategy can be explored for dam operation in Malaysia, this has already been introduced in some developed countries. Australia and South Africa are examples where pre-release has been practiced and proven to reduce flood risk. The concept involves controlling the dam lake level throughout the year, in reference to the rainfall data and the hydrological properties for the catchment area of the dams. Plentiful data analysis need to be done in contemplation of producing the optimal pre-release model. The amount of heavy rainfalls received is beyond human control but the distribution of the discharge from the dams can be further managed with the appropriate pre-release strategy.

  12. Dams. Bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams; Barrages. Bulletin du Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Four papers were selected in this issue of the bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams. The first one concerns the `Catastrophe Medicine` congress which took place in Amiens (France) in December 5 to 7 1996 and during which the analysis of experience feedbacks and lessons gained after dam accidents and organisation of emergency plans was discussed. The second one is a report of the conclusions of the decennial and annual inspections of French dams. The third paper describes the reinforcement of the Lavaud-Gelade dam embankment and the last paper reports on the Control Services activities concerning the French dams in operation for the forth quarter of the year 1996. (J.S.)

  13. Evaluating the Mosul Dam's Instability after Resumption of Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-husseinawi, Y.; Li, Z.; Clarke, P. J.; Edwards, S.

    2017-12-01

    There is serious concern about the safety of Mosul dam in the north of Iraq. Millions of people in the downstream area are exposed to risk of catastrophic collapse of this dam due to its soluble foundation. Recent study (Milillo et al., 2016, Scientific Report/10.1038/srep37408) reported that the dam deformation has accelerated since August 2014, when grouting operations were interrupted due to the conflict in the region. In this study, we investigate the health of Mosul dam since Jun 2016 using three independent datasets: Sentinel-1A/B SAR images, levelling, and GPS measurement. The latter are based on three epochs of terrestrial observation for levelling and GPS data: March 2016, December 2016 and July 2017. During this period, maintenance operations are being recovered to keep the dam stable. The monitoring network, on which the levelling and GPS observations are based, consists of eighty-seven pillars distributed on the dam surface. The results from InSAR and leveling data show that the dam crest is settling by 9 mm/yr. In contrast to previous studies, our results show a deceleration in the settlement. This may be due to the maintenance operations performed in the last few months. InSAR time series analysis was performed using the in-house tool TM-SBAS. When using the small baseline Sentinel-1 constellation, all possibilities of image choice are taken into consideration and the SRTM DEM accuracy is sufficient to generate the differential interferograms. Data from both Sentinel-1A and -1B images are used, and these results can be compared with multi-platform (Envisat, Sentinel-1, Cosmo-SkyMed, and TerraSar-X) data collected during the period between March 2003 and September 2016.

  14. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  15. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  16. 78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Contract No... Schedule SRD-08, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative... ADMINISTRATION RATE SCHEDULE SRD-13 \\1\\ WHOLESALE RATES FOR HYDRO POWER AND ENERGY SOLD TO SAM RAYBURN DAM...

  17. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  19. Fish population and habitat analysis in Buck Creek, Washington, prior to recolonization by anadromous salmonids after the removal of Condit Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Burkhardt, Jeanette; Munz, Carrie; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the physical and biotic conditions in the part of Buck Creek, Washington, potentially accessible to anadromous fishes. This creek is a major tributary to the White Salmon River upstream of Condit Dam, which was breached in October 2011. Habitat and fish populations were characterized in four stream reaches. Reach breaks were based on stream gradient, water withdrawals, and fish barriers. Buck Creek generally was confined, with a single straight channel and low sinuosity. Boulders and cobble were the dominant stream substrate, with limited gravel available for spawning. Large-cobble riffles were 83 percent of the available fish habitat. Pools, comprising 15 percent of the surface area, mostly were formed by bedrock with little instream cover and low complexity. Instream wood averaged 6—10 pieces per 100 meters, 80 percent of which was less than 50 centimeters in diameter. Water temperature in Buck Creek rarely exceeded 16 degrees Celsius and did so for only 1 day at river kilometer (rkm) 3 and 11 days at rkm 0.2 in late July and early August 2009. The maximum temperature recorded was 17.2 degrees Celsius at rkm 0.2 on August 2, 2009. Minimum summer discharge in Buck Creek was 3.3 cubic feet per second downstream of an irrigation diversion (rkm 3.1) and 7.7 cubic feet per second at its confluence with the White Salmon River. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was the dominant fish species in all reaches. The abundance of age-1 or older rainbow trout was similar between reaches. However, in 2009 and 2010, the greatest abundance of age-0 rainbow trout (8 fish per meter) was in the most downstream reach. These analyses in Buck Creek are important for understanding the factors that may limit fish abundance and productivity, and they will help identify and prioritize potential restoration actions. The data collected constitute baseline information of pre-dam removal conditions that will allow assessment of changes in fish populations now that Condit Dam has

  20. Seismic resistant design of a nuclear category I earth dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, N.R.; Ries, E.R.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    An integral part of many nuclear power plants is the ultimate heat sink (UHS); the purpose of which is to retain and deliver a supply of service water to the plant when water from the primary circulating water system is not available. The earth dam described herein is designed to retain the reservoir for the UHS of a nuclear power plant in Southern Europe. The usual pseudo-static analysis is only as good as the estimate for the seismic coefficient used to compute an equivalent horizontal static force on a potential sliding mass. In view of the earth dam considered herein, a more accurate computation of the seismic coefficients is to be made. A two-dimensional dynamic finite element analysis is made to predict the response of the earth dam to a Safe Shutdown Earthquake excitation which is in the form of a time history of accelerations appropriately deconvoluted from the surficial time history and applied at the base of the model. The material properties such as shear modulus and damping are adjusted to be compatible with the level of strain obtained. Thus, non-linear behavior of soil is considered in the analysis and a more realistic response is predicted. Acceleration and stress are determined throughout the dam and are used to compute a seismic coefficient for a pseudo-static stability analysis and the dynamic strength to stress ratios at several points in the body of the dam. The need to design the dam to resist a progressive erosion accident resulting from postulated concentrated leaks is discussed. This may be accomplished by providing a wide, well graded core protected by wide transition cores also heavily compacted

  1. Dam's design continues throughout construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara E, R; Wulff, J G

    1979-11-01

    In spite of adverse site conditions, Arenal dam in Costa Rica was completed a year ahead of schedule. Historical data on local earthquake activity which was available in unusual detail reduced some uncertainties in design information. Other uncertainties regarding the complex foundation conditions were resolved as excavation and construction progressed.

  2. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasana Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions.

  3. Large dams and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazelais, N.

    2003-01-01

    In July 1996, Quebec's Saguenay region was subjected to intensive rainfall which caused severe floods and uncontrolled release of several reservoirs, resulting in extensive damage to dam structures and reservoirs. The probability of occurrence for that disaster was 1:10,000. Following the disaster, the Quebec government established a dam management body entitled the Commission scientifique et technique sur la gestion des barrages, which pointed out several safety shortcomings of existing dams. Many were either very old or had undergone significant function change without being subsequently re-evaluated. A report by the Commission stated that damage following the floods could have been limited if the design and operating standards of the dams had been more stringent. A Dam Safety Act was adopted by the Quebec National Assembly on May 30, 2000 following recommendations to retain safer structures. The Act demands regular reporting of operating procedures. Seismic activity was noted as being a topic that requires in-depth examination since Quebec's St. Lawrence Valley, particularly the Charlevoix region, is one of Canada's largest seismic zones. The other is on the west coast in British Columbia. Earthquakes in Quebec are less intense than the ones in British Columbia, but they have higher frequency content which exerts a quasi-resonance wave effect which impacts roads, bridges, buildings and hydroelectric generating facilities. Hydro-Quebec is a public utility which owns 563 retaining structures, of which 228 are ranked as large dams that measure more than 15 metres high, 400 metres long and with a reservoir capacity of more than 1 million cubic metres of water. Hydro-Quebec addresses hydrological, seismic, technological and human risks through a dam safety procedure that includes structured plans for choosing best alternatives through staged exercises. Hazard levels are minimized through the adoption of emergency, prevention and alleviation measures. The utility

  4. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  5. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  6. Analysis of the effects of human activities on the hydromorphological evolution channel of the Saint-Maurice River downstream from La Gabelle dam (Quebec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnais, Marie-Ève; Assani, Ali A.; Landry, Raphaëlle; Leroux, Denis; Gratton, Denis

    2012-11-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, many hydroelectric facilities were built in the Saint-Maurice River watershed, followed by other human activities in the second half of the century (pleasure boating, boom dismantling, urbanization, etc.). The goal of the study is to constrain the effects of these various types of human activities, particularly those of the many dams in the watershed, on the hydromorphological evolution of the Saint-Maurice River downstream from the La Gabelle (dam) power plant (43,000 km2). Comparison of specific discharge in this river with streamflow measured in a natural river setting reveals a significant decrease in seasonal maximum flows, aside from winter, when daily maximum flows increased significantly. Also, unlike natural rivers, the long-term trend in spring flows is not characterized by a significant change in mean downstream from the La Gabelle plant. These hydrological changes are linked to the inversion-type management mode of the reservoirs built downstream from the plant. As for the morphological evolution, the longitudinal variability of bankfull width downstream from the plant shows two significant shifts in mean: the first, which was quasi-abrupt, took place downstream of the des Forges rapid; and the second, which was gradual, occurred upstream from the confluence of the Saint-Maurice River with the St. Lawrence River, above the point where the Saint-Maurice splits into two branches. Comparison of aerial photographs taken at various times (1948, 1964, 1975, 1996, and 2008) reveals no significant change in the mean of bankfull width over time. However, a significant increase in the surface area of islets located at the confluence was observed, which is caused by sediment accumulation. These sediments were likely derived from local bank erosion resulting from anthropogenic changes.

  7. Applying dam height-storage curve to geomorphic features analysis within virtual geographic environment: a case study of the Hong-Shi-Mao watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojun; Gong, Jianhua; Ma, Ainai; Li, Wenhang; Wang, Xijun

    2005-10-01

    There are generally two kinds of approaches to studying geomorphic features in terms of the quantification level and difference of major considerations. One is the earlier qualitative characterization, and the other is the 2-dimension measurement that includes section pattern and projection pattern. With the development of geo-information technology, especially the 3-D geo-visualization and virtual geographic environments (VGE), 3-dimension measurement and dynamic interactive between users and geo-data/geo-graphics can be developed to understand geomorphic features deeply, and to benefit to the effective applications of such features for geographic projects like dam construction. Storage-elevation curve is very useful for site selection of projects and flood dispatching in water conservancy region, but it is just a tool querying one value from the other one. In fact, storage-elevation curve can represent comprehensively the geomorphic features including vertical section, cross section of the stream and the landform nearby. In this paper, we use quadratic regression equation shaped like y = ax2 + bx + c and the DEM data of Hong-Shi-Mao watershed, Zi Chang County, ShaanXi Province, China to find out the relationship between the coefficients of the equation and the geomorphic features based on VGE platform. It's exciting that the coefficient "a" appear to be correlative strongly with the stream scale, and the coefficient "b" may give an index to the valley shape. In the end, we use a sub-basin named Hao-Jia-Gou of the watershed as an application. The result of correlative research about quadratic regression equation and geomorphic features can save computing and improve the efficiency in silt dam systems planning.

  8. Research on Safety Factor of Dam Slope of High Embankment Dam under Seismic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant development of construction technology of embankment dam, the constructed embankment dam becomes higher and higher, and the embankment dam with its height over 200m will always adopt the current design criteria of embankment dam only suitable for the construction of embankment dam lower than 200m in height. So the design criteria of high embankment dam shall be improved. We shall calculate the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam under different dam height, slope ratio and different seismic intensity based on ratio of safety margin, and clarify the change rules of stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m. We calculate the ratio of safety margin of traditional and reliable method by taking the stable, allowable and reliability index 4.2 of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m as the standard value, and conduct linear regression for both. As a result, the conditions, where 1.3 is considered as the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m under seismic condition and 4.2 as the allowable and reliability index, are under the same risk control level.

  9. Estimated strength of shear keys in concrete dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, D.D. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Lum, K.K.Y. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC Hydro requested that Hatch Energy review the seismic stability of Ruskin Dam which was constructed in 1930 at Hayward Lake in British Columbia. The concrete gravity dam is founded nearly entirely on rock in a narrow valley. The vertical joints between blocks are keyed and grouted. The strength of the shear keys was assessed when a non-linear finite element model found that significant forces were being transferred laterally to the abutments during an earthquake. The lateral transfer of loads to the abutment relies on the strength of the shear keys. The dynamic finite element analysis was used to determine the stability of the dam. A review of the shear strength measurements reported in literature showed that the measurements compared well to those obtained by BC Hydro from cores taken from Ruskin Dam. The cohesive strength obtained using the Griffith failure criteria was also in good agreement with both sets of measurements. A simple ultimate shear strength equation was developed using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria to determine combined cohesive and frictional strength of shear keys. Safety factors of 2.0 for static loads and 1.5 for seismic loads were proposed to reduce the ultimate strength to allowable values. It was concluded that given the relatively high shear strength established for the shear keys, the abutment rock or dam/abutment contact will control the amount of load which can arch to the abutments. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. Identification of Cracked Zone in Sutami dam Using Geoelectrical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Fitriah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We identified the craked zones based on geoelectrical resistivity method in Sutami Dam. There are four lines measurement of geoelectrical resistivity method with a length of 380-400 meters. The direction of each line is from the northeast to the southwest. All of the tracks are located at the top of Sutami Dam i.e. two tracks in the upstream and the others in the downstream. From the analysis we found that the lithology is detected by geoelectrical resistivty method showed two layers of design of Sutami Dam. The two layers that are detected are transition zone and filter zone. Transition zone consists of sandstone rock containing water (0.922 Ωm-9.57 Ωm and dry sandstone (>9.57 Ωm-320 Ωm. Filter zone consists of sand (>320 Ωm-4410 Ωm. Cracked zones spread in the upstream, downstream, and roadway at the top of Sutami Dam which are indicated by the presence of low resistivity (0.922 Ωm-9.57 Ωm based on 3D processing of data of geoelectrical resistivity. The distribution of cracked zone indicates that Sutami Dam is susceptible to ground movement.

  11. Haggart Island dams : reconstruction/rehabilitation feasibility study : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This feasibility study was conducted to identify and evaluate the range of options available for the repair or reconstruction of the Haggart Island Dams, and to provide the required information needed to decide upon the preferred solution and secure funding for the final design for reconstruction. In addition, the study presented the initial stages needed to satisfy the environmental assessment process regarding the selection of options related to the structures. Information relating to: fish habitat; flood mapping; historical flow data; condition of the dams; historical significance of the dams and their relation to the area; recreational opportunities for the area and previous public consultation records was presented. Issues regarding water level were addressed through a hydraulic analysis. Field and background data were compiled in order to establish the existing conditions of the study area. Background information regarding the natural features of the study area was presented. Safety issues were assessed in developing landscaping features and pathway planning. Details of public consultation procedures were presented. Information from stakeholders was gathered regarding recreational activities, river flow, historical and nature related issues to develop an understanding of the significance of the dams. Various design alternatives were presented, as well as details of the current, deteriorating state of the dams. 5 tabs., 24 figs.

  12. High-power RF window and coupler development for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Fant, K.; Hodgson, J.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of the RF windows designed to transmit power to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. Design choices to maximize the reliability of the window are discussed. Fabrication technologies for the window are described and finite-element analysis of the assembly process is presented. Conditioning and high-power testing of the window are discussed. Design of the coupler assembly including the integration of the window and other components is reported

  13. Optimising the performance of the window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, M.B. [Deakin Univ., Geelong, VIC (Australia); Boland, J. [South Australia Univ., Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Glass is a versatile material in the design and performance of windows. Advancements in the technologies of the glass material have produced variable degrees of window thermal performance. A closer look at the glazing system itself in reference to overall building thermal performance will hopefully explain when, where and how the window is a benefit under specific climatic conditions. The optimization of equatorially facing window area for either single or double glazing systems is investigated in another paper in this conference, and it is now queried as to how the design of the window itself can benefit the annual performance of a residence. Two locations were investigated, each for a hot summer and cold winter week. Separate glazing analysis programs are also used independent of the thermal residential program CHEETAH. Three glazing systems, single 3 mm, double 3 mm, and a spectrally-selective double 3 mm system were investigated. There appears to be little difference in the total overall performance between a clear and a selective double insulated glazing system. It is further suggested that there is room for future improvement to thermal simulation programs by incorporating rigorous glazing simulation. 9 figs., 8 refs.

  14. Putting Roman Dams in Context: a Virtual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M. J.; Du Vernay, J. P.; Mcleod, J. B.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources and management have become a critical global issue. During the half-millennium of its existence, the Roman Empire developed numerous strategies to cope with water management, from large-scale urban aqueduct systems, to industrial-scale water mills designed to cope with feeding growing city populations. Roman engineers encountered, adopted, and adapted indigenous hydraulic systems, and left lasting imprints on the landscape of the Mediterranean and temperate Western Europe by employing a range of water technologies. A recent academic study has enabled the identification of remains of and references to seventy-two dams from the Roman era, constructed in Spain between the 1st and 4th century AD. Such unique heritage, without comparisons in the Mediterranean makes Spain an emblematic case study for the analysis of Roman hydraulic engineering and water management policies. Fifty dams have been located and detailed. The twenty-two outstanding, although identified on the ground, have not been able to be acceptably characterized, due in some cases to their being ruins in a highly degraded state, others due to their being masked by repairs and reconstructions subsequent to the Roman era. A good example of such neglected dams is the buttress dam of Consuegra , in Toledo province (Castilla-La Mancha). Dating to the 3rd - 4th century AD, the Dam of Consuegra, on the basin of the Guadiana, with its over 600 metres length and 4,80 metres height, is a remarkable case of Roman engineering mastery. It had a retaining wall upstream, numerous buttresses and perhaps an embankment downstream, of which no remains are left. The application of 3D digital imaging technique to create a high quality virtual model of such monuments has proved to be successful especially for the study of the technological aspects related its construction. The case study of the Roman dam of Muel (Zaragoza) has shown, in fact, as best practices in digital archaeology can provide an original and

  15. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  16. Social Discounting of Large Dams with Climate Change Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jeuland

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the recent discounting controversy and examines its implications for the appraisal of an illustrative hydropower project in Ethiopia. The analysis uses an integrated hydro-economic model that accounts for how the dam’s transboundary impacts vary with climate change. The real value of the dam is found to be highly sensitive to assumptions about future economic growth. The argument for investment is weakest under conditions of robust global economic growth, particularly if these coincide with unfavourable hydrological or development factors related to the project. If however long-term growth is reduced, the value of the dam tends to increase. There may also be distributional or local arguments favouring investment, if growth in the investment region lags behind that of the rest of the globe. In such circumstances, a large dam can be seen as a form of insurance that protects future vulnerable generations against the possibility of macroeconomic instability or climate shocks.

  17. Downstream ecological effects of dams: A geomorphic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, F.K.; Dietrich, W.E.; Trush, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The damming of a river changes the flow of water, sediment, nutrients, energy, and biota, interrupting and altering most of a river's ecological processes. This article discusses the importance of geomorphological analysis in river conservation and management. To illustrate how subtle geomorphological adjustments may profoundly influence the ecological relationships downstream from dames, three case studies are presented. Then a geomorphically based approach for assessing and possibly mitigating some of the environmental effects of dams by tailoring dam designed and operation is outlined. The cases are as follows: channel simplification and salmon decline on the McKenzie River in Oregon; Channel incision and reduced floodplain inundation on the Oconee river in Georgia; Increased stability of a braided river in New Zealand's south island. 41 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  18. New guidelines for dam safety classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascal, O.

    1999-01-01

    Elements are outlined of recommended new guidelines for safety classification of dams. Arguments are provided for the view that dam classification systems should require more than one system as follows: (a) classification for selection of design criteria, operation procedures and emergency measures plans, based on potential consequences of a dam failure - the hazard classification of water retaining structures; (b) classification for establishment of surveillance activities and for safety evaluation of dams, based on the probability and consequences of failure - the risk classification of water retaining structures; and (c) classification for establishment of water management plans, for safety evaluation of the entire project, for preparation of emergency measures plans, for definition of the frequency and extent of maintenance operations, and for evaluation of changes and modifications required - the hazard classification of the project. The hazard classification of the dam considers, as consequence, mainly the loss of lives or persons in jeopardy and the property damages to third parties. Difficulties in determining the risk classification of the dam lie in the fact that no tool exists to evaluate the probability of the dam's failure. To overcome this, the probability of failure can be substituted for by a set of dam characteristics that express the failure potential of the dam and its foundation. The hazard classification of the entire project is based on the probable consequences of dam failure influencing: loss of life, persons in jeopardy, property and environmental damage. The classification scheme is illustrated for dam threatening events such as earthquakes and floods. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Performance of the Analog Moving Window Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. Gregers

    1970-01-01

    A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning...

  20. Research on shape optimization of CSG dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-objective optimization method was used for shape optimization of cement sand and gravel (CSG dams in this study. The economic efficiency, the sensitivities of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum settlement of the dam to water level changes, the overall stability, and the overall strength security were taken into account during the optimization process. Three weight coefficient selection schemes were adopted to conduct shape optimization of a dam, and the case studies lead to the conclusion that both the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios for the optimal cross-section equal 1:0.7, which is consistent with the empirically observed range of 1:0.6 to 1:0.8 for the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios of CSG dams. Therefore, the present study is of certain reference value for designing CSG dams.

  1. Design considerations for foil windows for PET radioisotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughey, B.J.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study performed at SRL to develop analytical and computational techniques for optimizing the design of conduction-cooled foil windows for PET targets. Single foil conduction cooled windows have been found to be good target entrance windows for both low energy accelerators and medium energy cyclotrons. Detailed thermal analysis has given an approximate analytical expression for the maximum temperature reached in a foil window under conditions of realistic ion beam bombardment. The effects of 'hot spots' in the beam density profile were investigated. It was shown that a factor of two safety margin in window design should be adequate to compensate for any possible beam hot spots. In addition, the reduction of foil stress by slack mounting was verified by experiments. The properties of conventional and novel foil materials were investigated for use in conduction cooled windows. Novel foil materials include two-component Al/Ti and Al/Havar foil. Results on the testing of candidate foil materials for thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at elevated temperature were presented. Two optimum foil window geometries were analyzed: a high aspect ratio window and a multiply slotted window. The multiply slotted window combines the advantages of a high aspect ratio foil window with a circular beam strike and is a promising window design for both TCA and cyclotron targets. A multiply slotted window for a N 2 gas target for 15 O production was designed using the methodologies discussed above. This prototype target was successfully tested using the TCA beam at SRL. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  2. Renovation and design of double casement windows with regard to the occurrence of water vapour condensation or mould on the interior surface of the window jamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnacova, L.; Balik, L.

    2017-10-01

    The condensation of water vapour on the interior surface is an indicator of construction dysfunction or ignoring of the surroundings temperature and relative humidity. This paper deals with analysis of the occurrence of condensation on the jamb of double casement windows (windows with two window casements). More precisely, this is a surface in the interior where water vapour condensation or mould occur. For the renovation of existing double casement windows, there are different solutions based on window design: application of double insulating glazing on the interior window casement, application of double insulating glazing on the exterior casement, or installation of a simple window. We first describe measurement of an existing double casement window located in a mountain cottage. Second, the results and comparison of 2D thermal model of different types of double casement window construction. Also, the external insulation of the peripheral wall was included in the model.

  3. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  4. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  5. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  6. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  7. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  8. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of seismic uplift pressure variations in cracked concrete dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanmardi, F.; Leger, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil, Mining and Geological Engineering; Tinawi, R. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Concrete dams could sustain cracking and damage during maximum design earthquakes (MDE). Dam safety guidelines are established so that dams maintain a stable condition following MDE oscillatory motions. In this study, a theoretical model was developed to calculate the uplift pressure variations along concrete cracks with moving walls. The proposed model was verified using experimental crack test data. The model was applied in a finite element computer program for dynamic analysis of gravity dams considering hydro-mechanical water-crack coupling. An analysis of a typical 90 metre dam subjected to low and high frequency sinusoidal accelerations demonstrated that water can penetrate into part of a seismically initiated crack. Pressure tends to develop in a region close to the crack mouth, therefore detrimental effects for the global dam stability are unlikely to occur. The study showed that the seismic uplift force during the heel crack opening mode is small compared to the dam weight. This preliminary study suggests that the critical sliding safety factors (SSF) of the dam against downstream sliding could be computed by considering zero uplift pressure in the crack region subjected to tensile opening. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  9. Study on real working performance and overload safety factor of high arch dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that high arch dams have problems such as complicated stress,high cost,and hazards after being damaged,this paper intends to study the effects of load,material strength,and safety analysis method on dam safety and working performance of arch dams.In this article,the effects of temperature,self weight exaction way and water loading on structure response are first discussed,and a more reasonable way of considering is then put forward.By taking into consideration the mechanical property of materials and comparing the effects of different yield criteria on overloading safety of high arch dams,this paper concludes that brittle characteristics of concrete should be fully considered when conducting safety assessment for high arch dams to avoid overestimating the bearing capacity of the dams.By comparing several typical projects,this paper works out a safety assessment system of multiple safety and relevant engineering analogical analysis methods,which is closer to the actual situation,and thus is able to assess the response of high arch dam structure in a more comprehensive way,elicit the safety coefficients in different situations,and provide a new way of considering the safety assessment of high arch dams.

  10. Proceedings of the 2010 Canadian Dam Association's public safety around dams workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Nearly 30 people have drowned in dam-related incidents over the last 10 years in Canada. The Canadian public is now calling for improved safety guidelines. Public interaction with dams is increasing as a result of interest in extreme sports and perceived rights of access. However, many members of the public are not aware of the dangers posed by dams. This workshop provided a forum to discuss proposals for a draft publication of the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) guidelines for public safety and security around dams. Issues related to current legislation and liability were discussed. Methods of increasing public awareness of the hazards posed by dams included increased signage in dam locations, the use of audible and visual alert systems, and the use of booms and buoys. The responsibilities of dam owners in ensuring the safety of dams were also discussed. The conference featured 5 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  11. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  12. The Impacts of Pelosika and Ameroro Dams in the Flood Control Performance of Konaweha River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sidik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Konaweeha watershed is the largest watershed in Southeast Sulawesi with Konaweeha River as the main river. The main issues in Konaweeha Watershed is floods that occur caused damage to infrastructure and public facilities, lowering agricultural production, and cause fatalities. One of the government's efforts to cope with the flooding problem in Konaweeha Watershed is planning the construction of multi-purpose dams in the upstream of Konaweeha Watershed that is Pelosika Dam and Ameroso Dam. Necessary to study the flood control performance of the two dams. Analyses were performed with hydrologic-hydraulic modeling using HEC-HMS software (Hydrologic Modelling System version 4.0 and HEC-RAS (River Analysis System version 4.1. The design rainfalls that were used as input to the model were 2 year, 5-year, 10-year and 25 year. Scenarios used in this study are: (1 Existing Scenario (2 Pelosika Dam Scenario; (3 Ameroro Dam Scenario; (4 Pelosika and Ameroro Dams Scenario. The results showed the maximum water surface elevation along the downstream of Konaweeha River in Scenario (2 and (4 were almost the same in the 2 and 5 years return period design flood. However, in case of 10 and 25 years return period, the difference of maximum water surface elevation at downstream of Konaweeha River was slightly significant. Furthermore, the damping efficiency of the peak discharge (at Probably Maximum Flood or PMF was found to be 71.70% and 18.18% for the individual Pelosika Dam and Ameroro Dam respectively. Further discussion suggests the development of Pelosika Dam as the higher priority rather than that of the Ameroro Dam.

  13. A rapid method for determining chlorobenzenes in dam water systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method using direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of 7 chlorinated benzenes in dam water. The main parameters affecting the DI-SPME process were optimised. The optimised method ...

  14. Crotch Lake dam rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, G.; Dobrowolski, E.

    1999-01-01

    Replacement of the existing wood crib dam structure on Crotch Lake on the Mississippi River in eastern Ontario that provided water storage for the power production at High Falls Generating Station, became necessary when it was determined that the dam did not meet Ontario-Hydro's safety standards. This paper describes the project of replacing the existing structure with a PVC coated gabion wall with waterproofing. The entire structure was covered with three layers of wire mesh, laced together, and criss-crossed for superior strength and rigidity. The work was completed in 28 days with no environmental impact . Life expectancy of the new structure is in excess of 40 years. With periodic maintenance of the gabion mat cover, life span could be extended an additional 20 to 40 years. 5 figs

  15. Assessing the catalogue module of Alice for window software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a general description of Alice For Window Software with a detailed analysis of the catalogue module. It highlights the basic features of the module such as add, edit, delete, search field and the grab button. The cataloguing process is clearly delineated. The paper also discusses Alice For Window ...

  16. Effect of window glazing on colour quality of transmitted daylight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangol, R.; Kruisselbrink, T.W.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The

  17. Vehicle speed prediction via a sliding-window time series analysis and an evolutionary least learning machine: A case study on San Francisco urban roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Mozaffari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current study is to take advantage of advanced numerical and intelligent tools to predict the speed of a vehicle using time series. It is clear that the uncertainty caused by temporal behavior of the driver as well as various external disturbances on the road will affect the vehicle speed, and thus, the vehicle power demands. The prediction of upcoming power demands can be employed by the vehicle powertrain control systems to improve significantly the fuel economy and emission performance. Therefore, it is important to systems design engineers and automotive industrialists to develop efficient numerical tools to overcome the risk of unpredictability associated with the vehicle speed profile on roads. In this study, the authors propose an intelligent tool called evolutionary least learning machine (E-LLM to forecast the vehicle speed sequence. To have a practical evaluation regarding the efficacy of E-LLM, the authors use the driving data collected on the San Francisco urban roads by a private Honda Insight vehicle. The concept of sliding window time series (SWTS analysis is used to prepare the database for the speed forecasting process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, a number of well-known approaches, such as auto regressive (AR method, back-propagation neural network (BPNN, evolutionary extreme learning machine (E-ELM, extreme learning machine (ELM, and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, are considered. The performances of the rival methods are then compared in terms of the mean square error (MSE, root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, median absolute percentage error (MDAPE, and absolute fraction of variances (R2 metrics. Through an exhaustive comparative study, the authors observed that E-LLM is a powerful tool for predicting the vehicle speed profiles. The outcomes of the current study can be of use for the engineers of automotive industry who have been

  18. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  19. Environmental monitoring at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The environmental management and protection program at the Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project, Roxby Downs, South Australia, monitors eight major environmental parameters - meteorology, vegetation, mine site rehabilitation, fauna, terrain, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well fields. It came into effect with the approval of the South Australian Government in March 1987. The Great Artesian Basin, one of the world's greatest artesian basins, is the source of the water supply for the project

  20. Mitigating Dam Impacts Using Environmental Flow Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ecologically disruptive impacts of dams is their alteration of natural river flow variability. Opportunities exist for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. This presentation will highlight a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the suggested strategies for dam re-operation are predicated on changes in the end-use of the water, such as reductions in urban or agricultural water use during droughts, a systemic perspective of entire water management systems will be required to attain the fullest possible