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Sample records for windows dam analysis

  1. WinDAM C earthen embankment internal erosion analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two primary causes of dam failure are overtopping and internal erosion. For the purpose of evaluating dam safety for existing earthen embankment dams and proposed earthen embankment dams, Windows Dam Analysis Modules C (WinDAM C) software will simulate either internal erosion or erosion resulting f...

  2. Dam Break Analysis of Embankment Dams Considering Breach Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Shamsaei

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of dam's break, needs the definition of various parameters such as the break cause, its type, its dimension and the duration of breach development. The precise forecast for different aspects of the breach is one of the most important factors for analyzing it in embankment dam. The characteristics of the breach and determination of their vulnerability has the most effect on the waves resulting from dam break. Investigating, about the parameters of the breach in "Silveh" earth dam have been determined using the suitable model. In Silve dam a trapezoid breach with side slope z=0.01m and the average base line b=80m was computed. The duration of the breaches development is 1.9 hour. Regarding the above results and the application of DAM Break software the consequences of the probable break of the dam was determined. The analysis of the results of water covering of the city of Piranshahr located 12km from silve dam confirms that in 3 hours the water will reach the height (level of 1425 meters.

  3. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  4. Seismic Analysis of Gravity Dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    method of analysis with the results produced by the well-known program EADHI. A new simplified method of analysis was developed using the finite element method of analysis to determine the dam’s inertial response along with Chopra’s simplified procedure for estimating the hydrodynamic loading. This new approach was implemented in a user-friendly computer program. The program was tested against a wide variety of problems and found to produce acceptable results. A sample run using this

  5. Dams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset �is generated from from the Vermont Dam Inventory (VDI). The VDI is managed by the VT DEC's Dam Safety and Hydrology Section and contains information...

  6. The Total Risk Analysis of Large Dams under Flood Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dams and reservoirs are useful systems in water conservancy projects; however, they also pose a high-risk potential for large downstream areas. Flood, as the driving force of dam overtopping, is the main cause of dam failure. Dam floods and their risks are of interest to researchers and managers. In hydraulic engineering, there is a growing tendency to evaluate dam flood risk based on statistical and probabilistic methods that are unsuitable for the situations with rare historical data or low flood probability, so a more reasonable dam flood risk analysis method with fewer application restrictions is needed. Therefore, different from previous studies, this study develops a flood risk analysis method for large dams based on the concept of total risk factor (TRF used initially in dam seismic risk analysis. The proposed method is not affected by the adequacy of historical data or the low probability of flood and is capable of analyzing the dam structure influence, the flood vulnerability of the dam site, and downstream risk as well as estimating the TRF of each dam and assigning corresponding risk classes to each dam. Application to large dams in the Dadu River Basin, Southwestern China, demonstrates that the proposed method provides quick risk estimation and comparison, which can help local management officials perform more detailed dam safety evaluations for useful risk management information.

  7. Least Squares Moving-Window Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Jong

    2017-08-01

    Least squares regression is proposed as a moving-windows method for analysis of a series of spectra acquired as a function of external perturbation. The least squares moving-window (LSMW) method can be considered an extended form of the Savitzky-Golay differentiation for nonuniform perturbation spacing. LSMW is characterized in terms of moving-window size, perturbation spacing type, and intensity noise. Simulation results from LSMW are compared with results from other numerical differentiation methods, such as single-interval differentiation, autocorrelation moving-window, and perturbation correlation moving-window methods. It is demonstrated that this simple LSMW method can be useful for quantitative analysis of nonuniformly spaced spectral data with high frequency noise.

  8. Dam-Break Flood Analysis Upper Hurricane Reservoir, Hartford, Vermont

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acone, Scott

    1995-01-01

    .... Various dam break flood conditions were modeled and inundation maps developed. Based on this analysis the dam is rated a Class 2 or significant hazard category in terms of its potential to cause downstream damage...

  9. Numerical modelling dam break analysis for water supply project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lariyah, M S; Vikneswaran, M; Hidayah, B; Muda, Z C; Thiruchelvam, S; Isham, A K Abd; Rohani, H

    2013-01-01

    Dam provides many benefits to the society, but it can also cause extensive damage to downstream area when it fails. Dam failure can cause extensive damage to properties and loss of human life due to short warning time available. In general, dam spillway was designed to drain the maximum discharge from the dam during the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). The spillway is functioned to prevent the dam from failure due to overtopping, which can lead to the dam failure. Dam failure will result in large volume of water travelling at very high velocity to the downstream area of the dam. It can cause extensive property damage, destruction of important facilities, and significant loss of human life along the way. Due to the potential of high hazard it poses to the downstream area, a dam break analysis is considered very essential. This paper focuses into the dam failure analysis for Kahang Dam by prediction of breach flow hydrographs and generation of inundation map at downstream area. From the PMF scenario simulation, the maximum inflow is 525.12 m 3 /s and peak discharge from the dam during dam failure is 6188m 3 /s. The results are able to provide information for preparation of Emergency Response Plan (PMF), in which appropriate steps can be taken by relevant authorities to avoid significant loss of human lives.

  10. Dynamic analysis of Moste concrete gravity dam with CADAM software

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Matic

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis a short literature overview is given for simplified dynamic analysis of concrete gravity dams. A parametric study using CADAM software was conducted. By this study the Moste concrete gravity dam response was analyzed for different loads and earthquake accelerations. The results showed that safety of Moste dam is comparable to its design safety. Also is shown that the Moste dam would sustain more intense horizontal ground movement than the designed values for sliding and overtur...

  11. Dam break analysis and flood inundation map of Krisak dam for emergency action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Setyandito, Oki

    2017-11-01

    The Indonesian Regulation which refers to the ICOLD Regulation (International Committee on Large Dam required have the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) guidelines because of the dams have potential failure. In EAP guidelines there is a management of evacuation where the determination of the inundation map based on flood modeling. The purpose of the EAP is to minimize the risk of loss of life and property in downstream which caused by dam failure. This paper will describe about develop flood modeling and inundation map in Krisak dam using numerical methods through dam break analysis (DBA) using hydraulic model Zhong Xing HY-21. The approaches of dam failure simulation are overtopping and piping. Overtopping simulation based on quadrangular, triangular and trapezium fracture. Piping simulation based on cracks of orifice. Using results of DBA, hazard classification of Krisak dam is very high. The nearest village affected dam failure is Singodutan village (distance is 1.45 kilometer from dam) with inundation depth is 1.85 meter. This result can be used by stakeholders such as emergency responders and the community at risk in formulating evacuation procedure.

  12. Nonlinear analysis of concrete gravity dams under normal fault motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alijani Ardeshir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the seismic behavior of concrete gravity dams in their safety evaluation and stability is inevitable. Many factors affect the prediction of the behavior of concrete dams such as dam-foundation-reservoir interaction, dam and foundation cracking and also displacement due to fault movement that could causes nonlinear behavior. The aim of this study is nonlinear analysis of concrete gravity dams, including displacement caused by normal fault movement in the dam foundation. For this purpose, dam-foundation-reservoir system is modeled using Lagrangian method and analysis of system is done by finite element method. The coordinate smeared crack model based on the nonlinear fracture mechanics is used for crack modeling in the dam body and foundation. Using two separate method including split node technique and contact element, the fault movement are modeled and the position and angle of fault has been studied. To verify the results, dam crest displacement and crack profile in the body of a concrete gravity dam is presented as an example. The results show that low fault movement causes the cracks in the dam body and could be jeopardizes the stability and safety of concrete dam.

  13. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  14. National dam inventory provides data for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spragens, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Association of State Dam Safety Officials completed a dam inventory this fall. Information on approximately 90,000 state-regulated dams in the US collected during the four-year inventory is being used to build a database managed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In addition to ASDSO's work, the federal government conducted an inventory of federal dams. This data will be added to the state information to form one national database. The database will feature 35 data fields for each entry, including the name of the dam, its size, the name of the nearest downstream community, maximum discharge and storage volume, the date of the last inspection, and details about the emergency action plan. The program is an update of the nation's first dam inventory, required by the Dam Safety Act of 1972. The US Army Corps of Engineers completed the original inventory in 1981. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 authorized appropriations of $2.5 million for the Corps to update the inventory. FEMA and the Corps entered into an agreement for FEMA to undertake the task for the Corps and to coordinate work on both the federal and state inventories. ASDSO compiles existing information on state-regulated dams into a common format for the database, added missing information, and established a process for continually updating data. ASDSO plans to analyze the information collected for the database. It will look at statistics for the number of dams regulated, communities that could be affected, and the number of high-hazard dams. FEMA is preparing reports for Congress on the project. The reports, which are expected to be ready by May 1993, will include information on the methodology used and facts about regulated dams under state jurisdiction

  15. Dam failure analysis for the Lago El Guineo Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta; Heriberto Torres-Sierra,

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago El Guineo Dam. The Lago El Guineo Dam is within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí and impounds a drainage area of about 4.25 square kilometers.The hydrologic assessment was designed to determine the outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago El Guineo and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation event, (2) a 24-hour probable maximum precipitation event, and (3) a 24-hour, 100-year recurrence rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated a dam failure of Lago El Guineo Dam using flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study. The simulated dam failure generated a hydrograph that was routed downstream from Lago El Guineo Dam through the lower reaches of the Río Toro Negro and the Río Grande de Manatí to determine water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” conditions. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was completed using the unsteady flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.Above the Lago El Guineo Dam, the simulated inflow peak discharges from HEC–HMS resulted in about 550 and 414 cubic meters per second for the 6- and 24-hour probable maximum precipitation events, respectively. The 24-hour, 100-year recurrence storm simulation resulted in a peak discharge of about 216 cubic meters per second. For the hydrologic analysis, no dam failure conditions are

  16. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in a delay in bringing a case to court. The concept of this paper is to start the initial forensic analysis of the storage media in locations that are most likely to contain digital evidence, the Windows Registry. Consequently, the forensic analysis process and the recovery of digital evidence may take less time than would otherwise be required. In this paper, the Registry structure of Windows 7 is discussed together with several elements of information within the Registry of Windows 7 that may be valuable to a forensic investigator. These elements were categorized into five groups which are system, application, networks, attached devices and the history lists. We have discussed the values of identified elements to a forensic investigator. Also, a tool was implemented to perform the function of extracting these elements and presents them in usable form to a forensics investigator.

  17. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathav...

  18. Incremental Dynamic Analysis of Koyna Dam under Repeated Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab Nik Azizan, Nik; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Maity, Damodar; Abdullah, Junaidah

    2018-03-01

    This paper discovers the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of concrete gravity dam under single and repeated earthquake loadings to identify the limit state of the dam. Seven ground motions with horizontal and vertical direction as seismic input considered in the nonlinear dynamic analysis based on the real repeated earthquake in the worldwide. All the ground motions convert to respond spectrum and scaled according to the developed elastic respond spectrum in order to match the characteristic of the ground motion to the soil type. The scaled was depends on the fundamental period, T1 of the dam. The Koyna dam has been selected as a case study for the purpose of the analysis by assuming that no sliding and rigid foundation, has been estimated. IDA curves for Koyna dam developed for single and repeated ground motions and the performance level of the dam identifies. The IDA curve of repeated ground motion shown stiffer rather than single ground motion. The ultimate state displacement for a single event is 45.59mm and decreased to 39.33mm under repeated events which are decreased about 14%. This showed that the performance level of the dam based on seismic loadings depend on ground motion pattern.

  19. Parallel computation of seismic analysis of high arch dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Houqun; Ma, Huaifa; Tu, Jin; Cheng, Guangqing; Tang, Juzhen

    2008-03-01

    Parallel computation programs are developed for three-dimensional meso-mechanics analysis of fully-graded dam concrete and seismic response analysis of high arch dams (ADs), based on the Parallel Finite Element Program Generator (PFEPG). The computational algorithms of the numerical simulation of the meso-structure of concrete specimens were studied. Taking into account damage evolution, static preload, strain rate effect, and the heterogeneity of the meso-structure of dam concrete, the fracture processes of damage evolution and configuration of the cracks can be directly simulated. In the seismic response analysis of ADs, all the following factors are involved, such as the nonlinear contact due to the opening and slipping of the contraction joints, energy dispersion of the far-field foundation, dynamic interactions of the dam-foundation-reservoir system, and the combining effects of seismic action with all static loads. The correctness, reliability and efficiency of the two parallel computational programs are verified with practical illustrations.

  20. Seismic rehabilitation and analysis of Chaohe earth dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Zeng, Xiangwu

    2005-12-01

    Stability of earth dams during earthquakes has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in seismic active regions. Liquefaction induced slope failure occurred at the upstream slope of a major earth dam in the suburb of Beijing, China, during the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. The gravelly soil with loose initial condition liquefied under relatively small ground vibration. In recent years, a major seismic rehabilitation project was carried out on a similar earth dam nearby using dumped quarry stone. Seismic stability analysis was carried out using model test, finite element simulation, and pseudo-static slope stability program after taking into account the influence of excess pore pressure.

  1. Preliminary thermal and stress analysis of the SINQ window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, G.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of a finite element analysis for the SINQ proton beam window are presented. Temperatures and stresses are calculated in an axisymmetric model. As a result of these calculations, the H 2 O-cooled window (safety window) could be redesigned in such a way that plastic deformation resulting from excessive stress in some areas is avoided. (author)

  2. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    earthfill dam is illustrated by defining the risk analysis during its construction and operation. A qualitative "Event Tree Analysis" makes clear with an example the probability of occurrence of the events triggered by an earthquake, and leads to a classification of the damage level. Finally, a System Dynamics (SD) approach is presented to investigate possibilities of a preventive planning in relationship to the risk, so that it's possible to establish shared procedures to achieve the correct management in any crisis phase. As a qualitative result of a SD application, figure 1 presents a flow-chart about a case study on the same dam so to illustrate the emergency planning in a step by step procedure according to the Regulations.

  3. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  4. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  5. Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846

  6. Windows XP Operating System Security Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goktepe, Meftun

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research is to determine if Windows XP, when used as a workstation operating system in domain- based networks, provides adequate security policy enforcement for organizations...

  7. Performance of Koyna dam based on static and dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nik Zainab Nik; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Maity, Damodar

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses the performance of Koyna dam based on static pushover analysis (SPO) and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). The SPO in this study considered two type of lateral load which is inertial load and hydrodynamic load. The structure was analyse until the damage appears on the structure body. The IDA curves were develop based on 7 ground motion, where the characteristic of the ground motions: i) the distance from the epicenter is less than 15km, (ii) the magnitude is equal to or greater than 5.5 and (iii) the PGA is equal to or greater than 0.15g. All the ground motions convert to respond spectrum and scaled according to the developed elastic respond spectrum in order to match the characteristic of the ground motion to the soil type. Elastic respond spectrum developed based on soil type B by using Eurocode 8. By using SPO and IDA method are able to determine the limit states of the dam. The limit state proposed in this study are yielding and ultimate state which is identified base on crack pattern perform on the structure model. The comparison of maximum crest displacement for both methods is analysed to define the limit state of the dam. The displacement of yielding state for Koyna dam is 23.84mm and 44.91mm for the ultimate state. The results are able to be used as a guideline to monitor Koyna dam under seismic loadings which are considering static and dynamic.

  8. Stress analysis of CVD diamond window for ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The stress analysis of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) system of fusion reactors is described. It was found that the real size diamond window (φ aper =70mm, t=2.25mm) withstood 14.5 atm. (1.45 MPa). The calculation results of the diamond window by ABAQUS code agree well with the results of the pressure test. The design parameters of the torus diamond window for a vacuum and a safety barrier were also obtained. (author)

  9. Seismic Analysis of the 2017 Oroville Dam Spillway Erosion Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodling, P.; Lekic, V.; Prestegaard, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    The outflow channel of the northern California (USA) Oroville Dam suffered catastrophic erosion damage in February and March, 2017. High discharges released through the spillway (up to 3,000 m3/s) caused rapid spillway erosion, forming a deep chasm. A repeat LiDAR survey obtained from the California Department of Water Resources indicates that the chasm eroded to a depth of 48 meters. A three-component broadband seismometer (STS-1) operated by the Berkeley Digital Seismological Network recorded microseismic energy produced by the flowing water, providing a natural laboratory to test methods for seismically monitoring sudden catastrophic floods and erosion. In this study, we evaluate the three-component waveforms recorded during five constant-discharge periods - before, during, and after the spillway crisis - each of which had a different channel geometry. We apply frequency-dependent polarization analysis (FDPA; following Park, 1987), which characterizes particle motion at each frequency. The method is based on principal component analysis on a spectral covariance matrix in one-hour windows and it produces the horizontal azimuth, vertical tilt, horizontal phase, and vertical phase of the dominant particle motion. The results indicate a greater vertical component (perhaps roughness-induced) of power at a broad range of frequencies at a given discharge after the formation of the chasm. As the outflow crater developed, the back-azimuth of the primary source of seismic energy changed from the nearby Thermalito Diversion Pool (188 degrees) to the center of the outflow channel (170 degrees). To further analyze FDPA results, we apply the 2D spectral-element solver package SPECFEM2D (Tromp et al. 2008), and find that local topography should be considered when interpreting the surface waveforms predicted by FDPA results. This research suggests that monitoring changing channel geometry and erosion in large-scale flood events may be enhanced by seismic FDPA analysis. The

  10. Dam failure analysis for the Lago de Matrullas Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed a hydrologic and hydraulic study to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam, located within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí. The hydrologic study yielded outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago de Matrullas and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation (PMP) event, (2) a 24-hour PMP event, and (3) a 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated the hypothetical dam failure of Lago de Matrullas using hypothetical flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study and selected dam breach parameters. The flood wave resulting from the failure was downstream-routed through the lower reaches of the Río Matrullas, the Río Toro Negro, and the Río Grande de Manatí for determination of water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” (no precipitation) conditions. The Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and the River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was performed using the unsteady-state flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.

  11. Application of strength reduction method to dynamic anti-sliding stability analysis of high gravity dam with complex dam foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-hong Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that there are some limitations in analyzing the anti-sliding seismic stability of dam-foundation systems with the traditional pseudo-static method and response spectrum method, the dynamic strength reduction method was used to study the deep anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam with a complex dam foundation in response to strong earthquake-induced ground action. Based on static anti-sliding stability analysis of the dam foundation undertaken by decreasing the shear strength parameters of the rock mass in equal proportion, the seismic time history analysis was carried out. The proposed instability criterion for the dynamic strength reduction method was that the peak values of dynamic displacements and plastic strain energy change suddenly with the increase of the strength reduction factor. The elasto-plastic behavior of the dam foundation was idealized using the Drucker-Prager yield criterion based on the associated flow rule assumption. The result of elasto-plastic time history analysis of an overflow dam monolith based on the dynamic strength reduction method was compared with that of the dynamic linear elastic analysis, and the reliability of elasto-plastic time history analysis was confirmed. The results also show that the safety factors of the dam-foundation system in the static and dynamic cases are 3.25 and 3.0, respectively, and that the F2 fault has a significant influence on the anti-sliding stability of the high gravity dam. It is also concluded that the proposed instability criterion for the dynamic strength reduction method is feasible.

  12. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations. PMID:28771185

  13. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ridolfi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  14. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Elena; Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2017-08-03

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  15. Muon catalyzed fusion beam window mechanical strength testing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Zabriskie, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A thin aluminum window [0.127 mm (0.005-inch) thick x 146 mm (5 3/4-inch diameter] of 2024-T6 alloy was modeled and analyzed using the ABACUS non-linear finite element analysis code. A group of windows was fabricated, heat-treated and subsequently tested. Testing included both ultimate burst pressure and fatigue. Fatigue testing cycles involved oil-canning behavior representing vacuum purge and reversal to pressure. Test results are compared to predictions and the mode of failure is discussed. Operational requirements, based on the above analysis and correlational testing for the actual beam window are discussed

  16. climwin: An R Toolbox for Climate Window Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    When studying the impacts of climate change, there is a tendency to select climate data from a small set of arbitrary time periods or climate windows (e.g., spring temperature). However, these arbitrary windows may not encompass the strongest periods of climatic sensitivity and may lead to erroneous biological interpretations. Therefore, there is a need to consider a wider range of climate windows to better predict the impacts of future climate change. We introduce the R package climwin that provides a number of methods to test the effect of different climate windows on a chosen response variable and compare these windows to identify potential climate signals. climwin extracts the relevant data for each possible climate window and uses this data to fit a statistical model, the structure of which is chosen by the user. Models are then compared using an information criteria approach. This allows users to determine how well each window explains variation in the response variable and compare model support between windows. climwin also contains methods to detect type I and II errors, which are often a problem with this type of exploratory analysis. This article presents the statistical framework and technical details behind the climwin package and demonstrates the applicability of the method with a number of worked examples. PMID:27973534

  17. Integrated monitoring and analysis of dam deformations: Problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poorly designed monitoring schemes, inadequate instrumentation, lack of calibration facilities, and insufficient accuracy of measurements are common problems of the dam safety program in Canada. An overview is presented of the purposes and procedures involved in carrying out monitoring surveys of dams. Even the most precise monitoring surveys will not fully serve their purpose if they are not properly evaluated and utilized in a global integrated analysis as a cooperative effort of all the specialists involved in the design of the dam and its monitoring. The analysis of deformation surveys includes: geometrical analysis which describes the geometric status of the deformable body, its change in shape and dimensions, as well as rigid body movements of the whole deformable body; and physical interpretation which describes the state of internal stresses and the relationship between the causative effects and deformations. An example of integrated analysis using the University of New Brunswick (UNB) Generalized Method of the Mactaquac hydroelectric power generating station is presented. Results are compared with a separate finite element analysis of the powerhouse structure. 17 refs., 9 figs

  18. Reliability and Robustness Analysis of the Masinga Dam under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Postle-Floyd

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenya’s water abstraction must meet the projected growth in municipal and irrigation demand by the end of 2030 in order to achieve the country’s industrial and economic development plan. The Masinga dam, on the Tana River, is the key to meeting this goal to satisfy the growing demands whilst also continuing to provide hydroelectric power generation. This study quantitatively assesses the reliability and robustness of the Masinga dam system under uncertain future supply and demand using probabilistic climate and population projections, and examines how long-term planning may improve the longevity of the dam. River flow and demand projections are used alongside each other as inputs to the dam system simulation model linked to an optimisation engine to maximise water availability. Water availability after demand satisfaction is assessed for future years, and the projected reliability of the system is calculated for selected years. The analysis shows that maximising power generation on a short-term year-by-year basis achieves 80%, 50% and 1% reliability by 2020, 2025 and 2030 onwards, respectively. Longer term optimal planning, however, has increased system reliability to up to 95% in 2020, 80% in 2025, and more than 40% in 2030 onwards. In addition, increasing the capacity of the reservoir by around 25% can significantly improve the robustness of the system for all future time periods. This study provides a platform for analysing the implication of different planning and management of Masinga dam and suggests that careful consideration should be given to account for growing municipal needs and irrigation schemes in both the immediate and the associated Tana River basin.

  19. Reliability Analysis of Free Jet Scour Below Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current formulas for calculating scour depth below of a free over fall are mostly deterministic in nature and do not adequately consider the uncertainties of various scouring parameters. A reliability-based assessment of scour, taking into account uncertainties of parameters and coefficients involved, should be performed. This paper studies the reliability of a dam foundation under the threat of scour. A model for calculating the reliability of scour and estimating the probability of failure of the dam foundation subjected to scour is presented. The Maximum Entropy Method is applied to construct the probability density function (PDF of the performance function subject to the moment constraints. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS is applied for uncertainty analysis. An example is considered, and there liability of its scour is computed, the influence of various random variables on the probability failure is analyzed.

  20. Socioeconomic Considerations in Dam Safety Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    techniques are compared. The application of eco - nomic principles to the analysis of water projects is, of course, well ,p.~-*..’. ,~. -. . - 5 delineated...aniciateddirct lss s 25perent r mre-o°th commnitys sock f reid ialand ommrcia captal "o 44 which destroy a sizable percentage of the region’s industrial

  1. Hydrological Analysis for Inflow Forecasting into Temengor Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najid, MI; Sidek, LM; Hidayah, B.; Roseli, ZA

    2016-03-01

    These days, natural disaster such as flood is the main concern for hydrologists. One of solutions in understanding the reason of flood is by prediction of the event sooner than normal occurrence. One of the criteria is lead time or travel time that is important in the study of fresh waters and flood events. Therefore, estimation of lead or travel time for flood event can be beneficial primary information. The objective of this study is to estimate the lead time or travel time for outlet of Temengor dam in Malaysia. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) Sungai Perak dam operation has the main contribution on decision support for early water released and flood warning to authorities and locals resident for in the down streams area. For this study, hydrological analysis carried out will help to determine which years that give more rainfall contribution into the reservoir. Rainfall contribution of reservoir help to understanding rainfall distribution and peak discharge on that period. It also help for calibration of forecasting model system for better accuracy of flood hydrograph. There may be various methods to determine the rainfall contribution of catchment. The result has shown that, the rainfall contribution for Temengor catchment, is more on November in each year which is the monsoon season in Malaysia. TNB dam operational decision support systems can prepare and be more aware at this time for flood control and flood mitigation.

  2. Risk analysis for earth dam overtopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Chongxun

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model of overtopping risk under the joint effects of floods and wind waves, which is based on risk analysis theory and takes into account the uncertainties of floods, wind waves, reservoir capacity and discharge capacity of the spillway, is proposed and applied to the Chengbihe Reservoir in Baise City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The simulated results indicate that the flood control limiting level can be raised by 0.40 m under the condition that the reservoir overtopping risk is controlled within a mean variance of 5×10−6. As a result, the reservoir storage will increase to 16 million m3 and electrical energy generation and other functions of the reservoir will also increase greatly.

  3. DEA Window Analysis for Measuring Port Efficiencies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Pjevčević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method in measuring and analyzing the efficiencies of ports on the river Danube. DEA window analysis is used to determine the efficiency of ports and to observe the possibility of changes in the port efficiency over time. A study is conducted to evaluate the efficiencies of ports on the territory of Serbia in order to identify the sources of inefficiencies and formulate proposals for improving the services of those ports and their operations through a four-year window analysis with port efficiency trends and average efficiencies. The progress is made in the measurement of port efficiency in relation to port productive activities - total area of warehouses, quay length, number of cranes and port throughput, for the Serbian river ports. Keywords: river ports, total area of warehouses, quay length, number of cranes, port throughput, port efficiency, DEA window analysis

  4. Analysis the dynamic response of earth dam in free vibration and forced by introducing the effect of the interaction dam foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Boumaiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the analysis of the dynamic response of earth dam, in free and forced vibration (under the effect of earthquake using the finite element method. The analysis is carried out at the end of dam construction without filling. The behavior of the dam materials and the foundation is linear elastic. In free vibration, to better understand the effect of the dam foundation interaction, we will take into account different site conditions and see their influence on the free vibration characteristics of the dam. In forced vibration, to study the seismic response of the dam, the system is subjected to the acceleration of the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21, 2003 recorded at the station n ° 2 of the dam of Kaddara in the base, with a parametric study taking into account the influence of the main parameters such as the mechanical properties of the soil: rigidity, density.

  5. Earthquake induced liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fill dam, which is part of Tendaho Dam and Irrigation Project; the largest irrigation project in Ethiopia to date. The dam is located in the most seismic part of Ethiopia and was originally designed to be founded on potentially liquefiable alluvium ...

  6. Potential Risk Analysis of Tailings Dam under Preloading Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for mine production safety to ensure the stability of the tailings dam. Taking a flatland tailings pond as the background, a threedimensional computational model was built based on a tailings dam under mullock heap preloading condition. Considering the current operating water level conditions, a liquid-solid coupling analysis of the model was conducted.The deformation characteristics of the tailings dam were revealed during successive preloading at the front of the dam. The safety factor and the potential slide face of the tailings dam were calculated under different conditions using the strength reduction method. The results show that the tailings dam in its current condition is basically stable, but if the mullock heap continues to be heightened, the tailings dam will become unstable. Therefore, in order to limit the height of the mullock heap, establishing a monitor and early warning mechanism are put forward to ensure mine production safety.

  7. Contention Window Analysis for Beaconing in VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, René; van Eenennaam, Martijn; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert

    2011-01-01

    The recently standardised IEEE 802.11p Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) protocol is envisioned to be used for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communications. We provide an analysis of 802.11p’s performance when used for the exchange of small status messages known as

  8. Contention Window Analysis for Beaconing in VANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Reinders, René; van Eenennaam, Martijn; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert

    2011-01-01

    The recently standardised IEEE 802.11p Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) protocol is envisioned to be used for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communications. We provide an analysis of 802.11p’s performance when used for the exchange of small status messages known as beacons. These beacons enable vehicles to establish a Cooperative Awareness from which many applications can draw their inputs. Applications have been proposed to increase safety, efficiency and com...

  9. Review Article: Numerical analysis of the seismic behaviour of earth dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Parish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The behaviour of both the shell and core of the dam is described using the simple and popular non associated Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The use of this constitutive model is justified by the difficulty to obtain constitutive parameters for more advanced constitutive relations including isotropic and kinematic hardening. Analyses with real earthquake records show that the seismic loading induces plasticity in a large part of the shell and in the lower part of the core. Analysis shows that plasticity should be considered in the analysis of the seismic response of the dam, because it leads to a decrease in the natural frequencies of the dam together to energy dissipation, which could significantly affect the seismic response of the dam. Plastic analysis constitutes also a good tool for the verification of the stability of the dam under seismic loading.

  10. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka. Hydrological analysis for Victoria Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, B.S. [GU Projects (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, J.V. [Gibb (Sir Alexander) and Partners (United Kingdom); Parks, Y.P. [Institute of Hydrology (United Kingdom)

    1994-03-01

    The hydrological analyses described in this paper formed an important part of the studies for the Victoria Project of which the Victoria Dam is the major component. The purpose of the hydrological studies was to provide consistent sets of river flow and climate data at the sites of the major components of the project, and to provide flood estimates for sizing the spillway and river diversion works. This paper outlines the approach used in the overall study, and then concentrates on aspects of specific relevance to the Victoria Dam. The main hydrological characteristics of the upper Mahaweli basin are presented as an introduction to the overall water balance; the humid climate made the appraisal of flow records relatively simple. Time series modelling was used to fill gaps in the observed flow records used for reservoir operation studies. The spillway design flood was based on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) derived by maximizing a historic storm in which rainfall approaching the PMP covered most of the basin. Construction floods of moderate return period were estimated from a dimensionless analysis of regional flood records. The main lessons to be drawn are that water balance methods are of particular value in these humid monsoon conditions, while the ratio of the PMP to the maximum recorded storm is lower than would be the case in more arid regions. (author)

  11. Resolving the 'time lag' debate in dam stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenoble, B.A.; Harris, C.W.; Morris, D.I.

    1993-01-01

    The significance of delays in uplift pressure increases during floods is a subject of ongoing debate among dam owners and regulators. Current regulatory standards do not recognize these delays, known as time lag. One recent study concludes that the regulatory approach, indeed, is reasonable. In the complete study, Stone ampersand Webster researchers evaluated uplift pressures from 17 large concrete gravity dams. Data from eight of the dams were used to study time lag. Uplift was measured as frequently as every 15 minutes at one dam, two times per day at another dam during a flood, and three times per week at six other dams. The study showed that, although there is always a small time lag, the duration of the time lag is generally not sufficient to justify reducing the uplift pressures used in stability calculations

  12. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope Launch Window Trade Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wayne; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-EarthMoon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  14. Ant Colony Optimization Analysis on Overall Stability of High Arch Dam Basis of Field Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dam ant colony optimization (D-ACO analysis of the overall stability of high arch dams on complicated foundations is presented in this paper. A modified ant colony optimization (ACO model is proposed for obtaining dam concrete and rock mechanical parameters. A typical dam parameter feedback problem is proposed for nonlinear back-analysis numerical model based on field monitoring deformation and ACO. The basic principle of the proposed model is the establishment of the objective function of optimizing real concrete and rock mechanical parameter. The feedback analysis is then implemented with a modified ant colony algorithm. The algorithm performance is satisfactory, and the accuracy is verified. The m groups of feedback parameters, used to run a nonlinear FEM code, and the displacement and stress distribution are discussed. A feedback analysis of the deformation of the Lijiaxia arch dam and based on the modified ant colony optimization method is also conducted. By considering various material parameters obtained using different analysis methods, comparative analyses were conducted on dam displacements, stress distribution characteristics, and overall dam stability. The comparison results show that the proposal model can effectively solve for feedback multiple parameters of dam concrete and rock material and basically satisfy assessment requirements for geotechnical structural engineering discipline.

  15. Stability Analysis Of Earth Dam Slopes Subjected To Earthquake Using ERT Results Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Andi Suryo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth Dam stability can be affected significantly by the existence of excessive leakage. This is due to decreasing of shear strength of the dam material and additional overturning moment. In such scenario, the non-destructive soil investigation method is needed to analyze the stability of earth dam in current condition. This paper examines the use of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT to investigate soil layers and to measure parameters of soil shear strength indirectly. First survey was carried out at dam crest and downstream using Wenner Configuration along profile lines at electrode spacing of 5 m. There were 5 profile lines of 180m long each and 10m distance of spacing. Furthermore, two profiles lines at weak cross-section based on its resistivity soil values were undertaken. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine relationship between resistivity value, moisture content, cohesion and angle of friction for each type of dam materials. From the ERT results and lab testing, a model dam can be obtained using current material parameters to perform stability analysis of dam subjected to earthquake. The lowest FOS was found at the upstream side about 1.15 and at the downstream side about 1.14 after applying seismic load of 100 years return period. Keywords: Stability Analysis, ERT,resistivity, leakage, dam

  16. Simulation analysis of temperature control on RCC arch dam of hydropower station

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIA, Shi-fa

    2017-12-01

    The temperature analysis of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam plays an important role in their design and construction. Based on three-dimensional finite element method, in the computation of temperature field, many cases are included, such as air temperature, elevated temperature by cement hydration heat, concrete temperature during placing, the influence of water in the reservoir, and boundary temperature. According to the corresponding parameters of RCC arch dam, the analysis of temperature field and stress field during the period of construction and operation is performed. The study demonstrates that detailed thermal stress analysis should be performed for RCC dams to provide a basis to minimize and control the occurrence of thermal cracking.

  17. Vulnerability of Karangkates dams area by means of zero crossing analysis of data magnetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaryo,, E-mail: sunaryo@ub.ac.id, E-mail: sunaryo.geofis.ub@gmail.com; Susilo, Adi [Geophysics Program Study, Physics Dept., Sciences Faculty, University of Brawijaya, Malang (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Study with entitled Vulnerability Karangkates Dam Area By Means of Zero Crossing Analysis of Data Magnetic has been done. The study was aimed to obtain information on the vulnerability of two parts area of Karangkates dams, i.e. Lahor dam which was inaugurated in 1977 and Sutami dam inaugurated in 1981. Three important things reasons for this study are: 1). The dam age was 36 years old for Lahor dam and 32 years old for Sutami dam, 2). Geologically, the location of the dams are closed together to the Pohgajih local shear fault, Selorejo local fault, and Selorejo limestone-andesite rocks contact plane, and 3). Karangkates dams is one of the important Hydro Power Plant PLTA with the generating power of about 400 million KWH per year from a total of about 29.373MW installed in Indonesia. Geographically, the magnetic data acquisition was conducted at coordinates (112.4149oE;-8.2028oS) to (112.4839oE;-8.0989oS) by using Proton Precession Magnetometer G-856. Magnetic Data acquisition was conducted in the radial direction from the dams with diameter of about 10 km and the distance between the measurements about 500m. The magnetic data acquisition obtained the distribution of total magnetic field value in the range of 45800 nT to 44450 nT. Residual anomalies obtained by doing some corrections, including diurnal correction, International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) correction, and reductions so carried out the distribution of the total magnetic field value in the range of -650 nT to 700 nT. Based on the residual anomalies, indicate the presence of 2 zones of closed closures dipole pairs at located in the west of the Sutami dam and the northwest of the Lahor dam from 5 total zones. Overlapping on the local geological map indicated the lineament of zero crossing patterns in the contour of residual anomaly contour with the Pohgajih shear fault where located at about 4 km to the west of the Sutami dam approximately and andesite-limestone rocks contact where located

  18. Multiobjective Risk Partitioning: An Application to Dam Safety Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    distribucions were the normal , uniform, Gumbel, log- normal , Pearson type-Ill, Weibuli , and Pareto distributions. Wallis et al. [1976] found, on the basis of...the dam modification problems in question assuming four p different distributions (the Log- normal , Paretor, Wcibull, and Gumbel) and four different...the PMRM calculations were performed for the dam modification problem in questLon assuming four different distributions (the Log- normal , Pareto

  19. Seismic stability analysis of concrete gravity dams with penetrated cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-yan Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The seismic stability of a cracked dam was examined in this study. Geometric nonlinearity and large deformations, as well as the contact condition at the crack site, were taken into consideration. The location of penetrated cracks was first identified using the concrete plastic-damage model based on the nonlinear finite element method (FEM. Then, the hard contact algorithm was used to simulate the crack interaction in the normal direction, and the Coloumb friction model was used to simulate the crack interaction in the tangential direction. After verification of numerical models through a case study, the seismic stability of the Koyna Dam with two types of penetrated cracks is discussed in detail with different seismic peak accelerations, and the collapse processes of the cracked dam are also presented. The results show that the stability of the dam with two types of penetrated cracks can be ensured in an earthquake with a magnitude of the original Koyna earthquake, and the cracked dam has a large earthquake-resistant margin. The failure processes of the cracked dam in strong earthquakes can be divided into two stages: the sliding stage and the overturning stage. The sliding stage ends near the peak acceleration, and the top block slides a long distance along the crack before the collapse occurs. The maximum sliding displacement of the top block will decrease with an increasing friction coefficient at the crack site.

  20. Visual gamma-ray analysis. VIPF program (WINDOW 95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    VIsual Peak Fitting (VIPF) program for the analysis of gamma radiation peaks from Ge detectors which works on WINDOWS 95 as an operating system has been developed. Gamma-ray peaks are simulated as Gauss function with 1st- or 2nd-order polynomial function for the background spectrum. Any function can be further added to for parameter fitting. The VIPF program can be obtained through internet by down-loading: http://w3.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~yamada. Details of the program procedure, explanation of the fitting function to be used and peak search routine, and manuals of the code are given. (Ohno, S.)

  1. Application of the Periodic Average System Model in Dam Deformation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqian Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dams are among the most important hydraulic engineering facilities used for water supply, flood control, and hydroelectric power. Monitoring of dams is crucial since deformation might have occurred. How to obtain the deformation information and then judge the safe conditions is the key and difficult problem in dam deformation monitoring field. This paper proposes the periodic average system model and creates the concept of “settlement activity” based on the dam deformation issue. Long-term deformation monitoring data is carried out in a pumped-storage power station, this model combined with settlement activity is used to make the single point deformation analysis, and then the whole settlement activity profile is drawn by clustering analysis. Considering the cumulative settlement value of every point, the dam deformation trend is analyzed in an intuitive effect way. The analysis mode of combined single point with multipoints is realized. The results show that the key deformation information of the dam can be easily grasped by the application of the periodic average system model combined with the distribution diagram of settlement activity. And, above all, the ideas of this research provide an effective method for dam deformation analysis.

  2. Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu

    2016-01-01

    Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value.

  3. Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Distribution in Arch Dams considering Solar Radiation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzabozorg, H.; Hariri-Ardebili, M. A.; Shirkhan, M.; Seyed-Kolbadi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation on thermal distribution in thin high arch dams is investigated. The differential equation governing thermal behavior of mass concrete in three-dimensional space is solved applying appropriate boundary conditions. Solar radiation is implemented considering the dam face direction relative to the sun, the slop relative to horizon, the region cloud cover, and the surrounding topography. It has been observed that solar radiation changes the surface temperature drastically and leads to nonuniform temperature distribution. Solar radiation effects should be considered in thermal transient analysis of thin arch dams. PMID:24695817

  4. Strength analysis of welded corners of PVC window profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, P.; Stachowiak, T.; Gnatowski, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of researches which main purpose was to define the influence of welding parameters on strength of welded corners of PVC window profile. PVC profiles of a branded name GENEO® produced by Rehau Company were used for this research. The profiles were made by using a co-extrusion method. The surface of the profile was made of PVC mixture with no additives. Its main task was to get a smooth surface resistant to a smudge. The use of an unfilled polyester provides an aesthetic look and improves the resistance of extrudate to water getting into inner layers. The profile's inner layers have been filled up with glass fibre in order to improve its stiffness and mechanical properties. Window frames with cut corners used for this research, were produced on technological line of EUROCOLOR Company based in Pyskowice (Poland). The main goal of this analysis was to evaluate the influence of the main welding parameter (temperature upsetting) on hardness of welds we received in whole process. A universal testing machine was used for the research.

  5. Stability analysis of concrete gravity dam on complicated foundation with multiple slide planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xuhua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A key problem in gravity dam design is providing enough stability to prevent slide, and the difficulty increases if there are several weak structural planes in the dam foundation. Overload and material weakening were taken into account, and a finite difference strength reserve method with partial safety factors based on the reliability method was developed and used to study the anti-slide stability of a concrete gravity dam on a complicated foundation with multiple slide planes. Possible slide paths were obtained, and the stability of the foundation with possible failure planes was evaluated through analysis of the stress distribution characteristics. The results reveal the mechanism and process of sliding due to weak structural planes and their deformations, and provide a reference for anti-slide stability analysis of gravity dams in complicated geological conditions.

  6. Stress distributions in finite element analysis of concrete gravity dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravity dams are solid structures built of mass concrete material; they maintain their stability against the design loads from the geometric shape, the mass, and the strength of the concrete. The model was meshed with an 8-node biquadratic plane strain quadrilateral (CPE8R) elements, using ABAQUS, a finite element ...

  7. Fracture analysis of concrete gravity dam under earthquake induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, seismic fracture behavior of the concrete gravity dam using finite element (2D) theory has been studied. Bazant model which is non-linear fracture mechanics criteria as a measure of growth and smeared crack was chosen to develop profiles of the crack. Behavior of stress - strain curves of concrete as a ...

  8. The social impacts of dams: A new framework for scholarly analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.

    2016-01-01

    No commonly used framework exists in the scholarly study of the social impacts of dams. This hinders comparisons of analyses and thus the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to unify scholarly understanding of dams' social impacts via the analysis and aggregation of the various frameworks currently used in the scholarly literature. For this purpose, we have systematically analyzed and aggregated 27 frameworks employed by academics analyzing dams' social impacts (found in a set of 217 articles). A key finding of the analysis is that currently used frameworks are often not specific to dams and thus omit key impacts associated with them. The result of our analysis and aggregation is a new framework for scholarly analysis (which we call ‘matrix framework’) specifically on dams' social impacts, with space, time and value as its key dimensions as well as infrastructure, community and livelihood as its key components. Building on the scholarly understanding of this topic enables us to conceptualize the inherently complex and multidimensional issues of dams' social impacts in a holistic manner. If commonly employed in academia (and possibly in practice), this framework would enable more transparent assessment and comparison of projects.

  9. The social impacts of dams: A new framework for scholarly analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchherr, Julian, E-mail: julian.kirchherr@sant.ox.ac.uk; Charles, Katrina J., E-mail: katrina.charles@ouce.ox.ac.uk

    2016-09-15

    No commonly used framework exists in the scholarly study of the social impacts of dams. This hinders comparisons of analyses and thus the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to unify scholarly understanding of dams' social impacts via the analysis and aggregation of the various frameworks currently used in the scholarly literature. For this purpose, we have systematically analyzed and aggregated 27 frameworks employed by academics analyzing dams' social impacts (found in a set of 217 articles). A key finding of the analysis is that currently used frameworks are often not specific to dams and thus omit key impacts associated with them. The result of our analysis and aggregation is a new framework for scholarly analysis (which we call ‘matrix framework’) specifically on dams' social impacts, with space, time and value as its key dimensions as well as infrastructure, community and livelihood as its key components. Building on the scholarly understanding of this topic enables us to conceptualize the inherently complex and multidimensional issues of dams' social impacts in a holistic manner. If commonly employed in academia (and possibly in practice), this framework would enable more transparent assessment and comparison of projects.

  10. Mechanical and thermal analysis of beryllium windows for RF cavities in a muon cooling channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Derun; Ladran, A.; Lozano, D.; Rimmer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Thin beryllium windows (foils) may be utilized to increase shunt impedance of closed-cell RF cavities. These windows are subject to ohmic heating from RF currents. The resulting temperature gradients in the windows can produce out of plane displacements that detune the cavity frequency. The window displacement can be reduced or eliminated by pre-stressing the foils in tension. Because of possible variations during manufacture, it is important to quantify the actual prestress of a Be window before it is put into service. We present the thermal and mechanical analyses of such windows under typical operating conditions and describe a simple non-destructive means to quantify the pre-stress using the acoustic signature of a window. Using finite element analysis, thin plate theory and physical measurements of the vibration modes of a window we attempted to characterize the actual Be window pre-stress in a small number of commercially sourced windows (30% of yield strength is typical). This method can be used for any window material and size, but this study focused on 16 cm diameter Be Windows ranging in thickness from 125 microns to 508 microns and with varying pre-stresses. The method can be used to nondestructively test future Be windows for the desired prestress

  11. Numerical earthquake response analysis of the Liyutan earth dam in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Feng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of the Liyutan earth dam to the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (ML=7.3 in Taiwan was numerically analyzed. First, the staged construction of the dam was simulated. Then, seepage analysis, considering a 60-m water level, was performed. After seepage analysis, the initial static stress (prior to dynamic loading was established in the dam. Both the horizontal and vertical acceleration time histories recorded at the base of the dam were used in the numerical simulations. The dynamic responses of the dam were analyzed for 50 s in the time domain. The simulated results were in agreement with the monitored data. The transfer function analysis and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT were used to compare the results and to perceive the response characteristics of the dam. In particular, the time-frequency-energy plots of the HHT can reveal the timing and time frame of the dominant frequencies of the dynamic response. The influences of the initial shear modulus and uni-axial earthquake loading were also investigated.

  12. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1987-06-01

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined

  13. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  14. Investigation on sensitive warning index of earth dam by use of dimensionality reduction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    FANG, Weihua; ZHANG, Na; JIN, Youjie

    2017-06-01

    The main damage cause of homogeneous earth dams is overtopping failure. In order to uncover the overall change rule of measured data when comes to overtopping failure and to establish foundation for earth dam warning indicators, this paper presents a new exact method of homogeneous earth dam overtopping rushed burst data analysis based on KPCA. Sliding window was used to construct the time series of measured data and two indicators were obtained which were the number of principal components and matrix norm of PCA or KPCA based on the 85% contribution rate. In-situ test showed that, Corresponding dam state deteriorated and final burst, these two indicators increased, decreased, and finally increased. Different size of sliding window and norm calculation shows that the two indicators are not sensitive to the window size and type of norm. Therefore, these two indicators can be taken as the first and second level sensitive warning indicators for the earth dam safety condition.

  15. Hydrogen Safety Project: Chemical analysis support task. Window ``E`` analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T E; Campbell, J A; Hoppe, E W; Greenwood, L R; Gillespie, B M

    1992-09-01

    Core samples taken from tank 101-SY at Hanford during ``window E`` were analyzed for organic and radiochemical constituents by staff of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford company submitted these samples to the laboratory.

  16. Canadian dam safety conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A conference was held on the subject of dam safety in Canada. Sessions concerned assessment of existing dam safety under seismic loading, seismic analysis of concrete and embankment dams, selection of seismic criteria, landslides, risk analysis, and floods. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 24 papers presented at the conference

  17. Advances on the Failure Analysis of the Dam—Foundation Interface of Concrete Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Altarejos-García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Failure analysis of the dam-foundation interface in concrete dams is characterized by complexity, uncertainties on models and parameters, and a strong non-linear softening behavior. In practice, these uncertainties are dealt with a well-structured mixture of experience, best practices and prudent, conservative design approaches based on the safety factor concept. Yet, a sound, deep knowledge of some aspects of this failure mode remain unveiled, as they have been offset in practical applications by the use of this conservative approach. In this paper we show a strategy to analyse this failure mode under a reliability-based approach. The proposed methodology of analysis integrates epistemic uncertainty on spatial variability of strength parameters and data from dam monitoring. The purpose is to produce meaningful and useful information regarding the probability of occurrence of this failure mode that can be incorporated in risk-informed dam safety reviews. In addition, relationships between probability of failure and factors of safety are obtained. This research is supported by a more than a decade of intensive professional practice on real world cases and its final purpose is to bring some clarity, guidance and to contribute to the improvement of current knowledge and best practices on such an important dam safety concern.

  18. The Effect of Moving Window on Acoustic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Min; Jiang, Jack J; Willey, Malachi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the moving window method on acoustic measures and discrimination ability between normal and disordered voices. Fifty-three normal voices and 50 disordered voices were recruited. Three selection methods, the moving window method, the mid-vowel method, and the whole vowel method, were applied to each raw audio signal to determine the most stable segment of each signal. Acoustic parameters such as percent jitter, percent shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), cepstral peak prominence (CPP), and correlation dimension (D2) were calculated. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the stability of these segments across different methods. An artificial neural network was used for estimating how well disordered voices were discriminated from normal ones. Segments selected using the moving window method were more stable than those selected using the other two methods, meaning lower perturbation and nonlinear dynamic measurements as well as higher SNR and CPP values. The discrimination accuracy rate for the moving window method was 91.90 ± 8.73%, whereas the mid-vowel method and the whole vowel method were 72.34 ± 12.94% and 70.34 ± 5.24%, respectively. The moving window method is capable of providing a more stable audio segment and can discriminate disordered voices from normal ones more effectively. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SCENARIO OF AN ACCIDENT OF SOIL DAMS IN CASE OF WATER SPILL OVER A DAM CREST BY USING FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Dmitriy Viktorovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of a hydrodynamic accident of water flow over a crest of a soil dam is considered by the method of fault tree analysis, for which the basic reasons and controlled diagnostic indicators of an accident have been defined. Logical operators “AND”/”OR” were used for creation of a sequence of logically connected events, leading to an undesired event in the scenario of accident. The scenario of the accident was plotted in case of three basic reasons - an excessive settling of a dam crest, an excess flood, an inoperable spillway, taking into account the sequence of the events’ development and with observance of the necessary conditions leading to an accident. “Technical” reasons were observed in the present scenario, force majeure events were not considered. The provided scenario of the accident consists of two branches of events’ development: the left one that depends on an upstream level, and the right one that depends on settling of a dam crest. In each of the considered events an accident “the water spill over a crest of a soil dam” is possible only in case of execution of two different conditions at the same time, i.e. in case of an appropriate upstream level and the appropriate mark of a crest of a soil dam. The conditions of the accident are defined by diagnostic indices - the upstream level and settling of a dam crest, which at the same time are safety criteria of the hydraulic structure for soil dams. They allow defining the technical condition of the construction. Four possible technical conditions are suggested for the definition of technical statuses - normative, operable, limited operable, abnormal. Criteria of safety are the boundaries of the state: for loading and impact - it is the upstream level, for geometrical compliance of the construction - it is a dam crest mark.

  20. Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California: Summary of Fieldwork and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Geophysical field investigations have been carried out at the Hidden Dam in Raymond, California for the purpose of better understanding the hydrogeology and seepage-related conditions at the site. Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam are documented by Cedergren. Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a subdrain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain within the downstream portion of the dam. The purpose of the current geophysical work is to (1) identify present-day seepage areas that may not be evident due to the effectiveness of the drainage blanket in redirecting seepage water, and (2) provide information about subsurface geologic structures that may control subsurface flow and seepage. These tasks are accomplished through the use of two complementary electrical geophysical methods, self-potentials (SP) and direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity, which have been commonly utilized in dam-seepage studies. SP is a passive method that is primarily sensitive to active subsurface groundwater flow and seepage, whereas DC resistivity is an active-source method that is sensitive to changes in subsurface lithology and groundwater saturation. The focus of this field campaign was on the downstream area on the right abutment, or northwest side of the dam, as this is the main area of interest regarding seepage. Two exploratory self-potential lines were also collected on the downstream left abutment of the dam to identify

  1. Three-dimensional window analysis for detecting positive selection at structural regions of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2004-12-01

    Detection of natural selection operating at the amino acid sequence level is important in the study of molecular evolution. Single-site analysis and one-dimensional window analysis can be used to detect selection when the biological functions of amino acid sites are unknown. Single-site analysis is useful when selection operates more or less constantly over evolutionary time, but less so when selection operates temporarily. One-dimensional window analysis is more sensitive than single-site analysis when the functions of amino acid sites in close proximity in the linear sequence are similar, although this is not always the case. Here I present a three-dimensional window analysis method for detecting selection given the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. In the three-dimensional structure, the window is defined as the sphere centered on the alpha-carbon of an amino acid site. The window size is the radius of the sphere. The sites whose alpha-carbons are included in the window are grouped for the neutrality test. The window is moved within the three-dimensional structure by sequentially moving the central site along the primary amino acid sequence. To detect positive selection, it may also be useful to group the surface-exposed sites in the window separately. Three-dimensional window analysis appears not only to be more sensitive than single-site analysis and one-dimensional window analysis but also to provide similar specificity for inferring positive selection in the analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of human influenza A viruses. This method, however, may fail to detect selection when it operates only on a particular site, in which case single-site analysis may be preferred, although a large number of sequences is required.

  2. Statistical analysis of the strength of the contact between concrete dams and rock foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.Y.; Hefny, A.

    1998-01-01

    A new methodology developed for assessing the safety of Ontario Hydro's existing dams is described. The components of the new methodology are summarized, accompanied by a discussion of the results of laboratory tests on contact samples from 38 dams. The operational strength parameters for the entire dam-foundation interface and major rock discontinuities in the foundation controlling stability for the 38 dams are also described. The probability distributions of the shear strength parameters of the interface was also studied. Simple shear tests on unbonded concrete-rock contacts showed that the variation of the basic friction angle is very small and that the basic friction angle can be considered as a constant. It was concluded that the variance of the tensile strength almost reached a constant value when the number of samples was larger than 44. It is reasonable to assume that for the reliability analysis of dams, the variance of the tensile strength of bonded contact should be equal to the population variance. The large data base that has been created as a result of this study, makes it possible to adopt a rational probabilistic approach to safety assessment. 9 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Univariate Cubic L1 Interpolating Splines: Spline Functional, Window Size and Analysis-based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Cherng Fang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We compare univariate L1 interpolating splines calculated on 5-point windows, on 7-point windows and on global data sets using four different spline functionals, namely, ones based on the second derivative, the first derivative, the function value and the antiderivative. Computational results indicate that second-derivative-based 5-point-window L1 splines preserve shape as well as or better than the other types of L1 splines. To calculate second-derivative-based 5-point-window L1 splines, we introduce an analysis-based, parallelizable algorithm. This algorithm is orders of magnitude faster than the previously widely used primal affine algorithm.

  4. Analysis Of The Windows Vista Security Model And The Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an in-depth technical assessment of the security improvements implemented in the new Microsoft Windows Vista (officially released February, 2007), focusing primarily on the areas of User Account Protection and User Interface Privilege Isolation. This paper discusses these features and touches on ...

  5. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references

  6. 3-D Spatial Analysis of Deformation at Ikpoba Dam From GPS Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of the measurement data obtained by differential GPS at the Ikpoba River Dam was carried out. The measurement system consisted of 19 control and reference stations. DGPS data were collected during two measurement campaigns carried out in 2008 and 2009 respectively using five dual frequency ...

  7. A New Method for System Reliability Analysis of Tailings Dam Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Tang, H.; Xiong, C.; Ni, W.

    2012-12-01

    For the purpose of stability evaluation, a tailings dam can be considered as an artificial slope made of special soil materials which mainly come from mine tailings. As a particular engineering project, a tailings dam generally has experienced multi-loop hydraulic sediments as well as a long-term consolidation in the process of construction. The characteristics of sediment and consolidation result in a unique distribution of the soil layers with significant uncertainties, which come from both nature development and various human activities, and thus cause the discrete and the variability of the physical-mechanical properties dramatically greater than the natural geo-materials. Therefore, the location of critical slip surface (CSS) of the dam usually presents a notable drift. So, it means that the reliability evaluation task for a tailings dam is a system reliability problem indeed. Unfortunately, the previous research of reliability of tailings dam was mainly confined to the limit equilibrium method (LEM), which has three obvious drawbacks. First, it just focused on the variability along the slip surface rather than the whole space of the dam. Second, a fixed CSS, instead of variable one, was concerned in most cases. Third, the shape of the CSS was usually simplified to a circular. The present paper tried to construct a new reliability analysis model combined with several advanced techniques involving finite difference method (FDM), Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The new framework was consisted of four modules. The first one is the limit equilibrium finite difference mode, which employed the FLAC3D code to generate stress fields and then used PSO algorithm to search the location of CSS and corresponding minimum factor of safety (FOS). The most value of this module was that each realization of stress field would lead to a particular CSS and its FOS. In other words, the consideration of the drift of

  8. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M. M.; Bellmore, J. R.; O'Connor, J. E.; Duda, J. J.; East, A. E.; Grant, G. E.; Anderson, C. W.; Bountry, J. A.; Collins, M. J.; Connolly, P. J.; Craig, L. S.; Evans, J. E.; Greene, S. L.; Magilligan, F. J.; Magirl, C. S.; Major, J. J.; Pess, G. R.; Randle, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Torgersen, C. E.; Tullos, D.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  9. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Bellmore, James; O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff; East, Amy E.; Grant, Gordon G.; Anderson, Chauncey; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Collins, Mathias J.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Craig, Laura S.; Evans, James E.; Greene, Samantha; Magilligan, Francis J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Major, Jon J.; Pess, George R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Tullos, Desiree D.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  10. Evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on Consequence Estimation through Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Thames, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dam breach modeling often includes application of models that are sophisticated, yet computationally intensive to compute flood propagation at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This results in a significant need for computational capacity that requires development of newer flood models using multi-processor and graphics processing techniques. Recently, a comprehensive benchmark exercise titled the 12th Benchmark Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Dams, is organized by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) to evaluate the performance of these various tools used for dam break risk assessment. The ICOLD workshop is focused on estimating the consequences of failure of a hypothetical dam near a hypothetical populated area with complex demographics, and economic activity. The current study uses this hypothetical case study and focuses on evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on consequence estimation and analysis. The current study uses ICOLD hypothetical data including the topography, dam geometric and construction information, land use/land cover data along with socio-economic and demographic data. The objective of this study is to evaluate impacts of using four different dam breach methods on the consequence estimates used in the risk assessments. The four methodologies used are: i) Froehlich (1995), ii) MacDonald and Langridge-Monopolis 1984 (MLM), iii) Von Thun and Gillete 1990 (VTG), and iv) Froehlich (2008). To achieve this objective, three different modeling components were used. First, using the HEC-RAS v.4.1, dam breach discharge hydrographs are developed. These hydrographs are then provided as flow inputs into a two dimensional flood model named Flood2D-GPU, which leverages the computer's graphics card for much improved computational capabilities of the model input. Lastly, outputs from Flood2D-GPU, including inundated areas, depth grids, velocity grids, and flood wave arrival time grids, are input into HEC-FIA, which provides the

  11. THERMAL SHOCK ANALYSIS OF WINDOWS INTERACTING WITH ENERGETIC, FOCUSED BEAM OF THE BNL MUON TARGET EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; KIRK, H.; PRIGL, R.; BROWN, K.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, issues associated with the interaction of a proton beam with windows designed for the muon targetry experiment E951 at BNL are explored. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam up to 16 TP per pulse and a pulse length of 100 ns is tightly focused (to 0.5 mm rms radius) on an experimental target. The need to maintain an enclosed environment around the target implies the use of beam windows that will survive the passage of the proton beam. The required beam parameters in such a setting will induce very high thermal, quasi-static and shock stresses in the window structure that exceed the strength of most common materials. In this effort, a detailed analysis of the thermal/shock response of beam windows is attempted through a transient thermal and stress wave propagation formulation that incorporates energy deposition rates calculated the by hadron interaction code MARS. The thermal response of the window structure and the subsequent stress wave generation and propagation are computed using the finite element analysis procedures of the ANSYS code. This analysis attempts to address issues pertaining to an optimal combination of material, window thickness and pulse structure that will allow for a window to safely survive the extreme demands of the experiment

  12. WCGM. A gamma-spectrum analysis program rewritten in Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, G.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Introduction The original code was written in Fortran in 1985 and it worked mostly in batch mode. Later the code was redesigned in Pascal and several graphics tools were added. This version (called PGM) is still used, but the limits of MSDOS (memory, graphics, filename length, etc.) make it more and more obsolete. Because of these reasons the redesign of the code is started in order to be able to use it on the most frequently used operating systems, which are nowadays Windows XP and Windows 7. This paper describes the present state of this work and shows some new ways of the usage of the code. In the same time it invites the reader to visit the home page of the code in order to contribute to the further development. Data input Probably one of the main reasons why the original DOS code is still used is that a lot of input formats are accepted. The following short names identify the currently available input spectrum formats: 'ASCII', 'Binary', 'I-format', 'Jyvaeskylae', 'K-format', 'MCA', 'MCAtxt', 'MSI', 'NBI', 'Ortec', 'Oxford/ Nucleus', 'PCA9', 'Tukan'. The most simple ones (ASCII, Binary) contain only the counts of the gamma spectrum, but the more sophisticated ones (I-format, Tukan) also include data for the energy, resolution and efficiency calibrations. The user can choose different levels of interaction during the input process. One can put everything to a control data file and tell the code to use it, or one can manually find the input spectrum and the calibration data during running the code. Spectrum processing After reading the input data the whole spectrum is shown in the main window. To find the peak positions one can use 'Process| Automatic peak search' menu item to scan the displayed interval of the spectrum and assign the peaks with black vertical lines, which were selected by the built-in algorithm. Then the user can fine tune this peak set by manually insert or remove peaks, with the help of the right hand

  13. Application of thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models of concrete in the seismic analysis of concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Fei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the seismic analysis of concrete dams with consideration of material nonlinearity. Based on a consistent rate-dependent model and two thermodynamics-based models, two thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models were developed with consideration of the influence of the strain rate. They can describe the dynamic behavior of concrete and be applied to nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete dams taking into account the rate sensitivity of concrete. With the two models, a nonlinear analysis of the seismic response of the Koyna Gravity Dam and the Dagangshan Arch Dam was conducted. The results were compared with those of a linear elastic model and two rate-independent thermodynamics-based constitutive models, and the influences of constitutive models and strain rate on the seismic response of concrete dams were discussed. It can be concluded from the analysis that, during seismic response, the tensile stress is the control stress in the design and seismic safety evaluation of concrete dams. In different models, the plastic strain and plastic strain rate of concrete dams show a similar distribution. When the influence of the strain rate is considered, the maximum plastic strain and plastic strain rate decrease.

  14. Probabilistic Analysis of Failures Mechanisms of Large Dams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shams Ghahfarokhi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is presently being performed in almost all fields of engineering depending upon the specific field and its particular area. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), also called quantitative risk analysis (QRA) is a central feature of hydraulic engineering structural design.

  15. Application of decoupled modal approach in dynamic analysis of concrete gravity dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfi, V. [Amirkabir Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A new approach for the dynamic analysis of general concrete gravity dam-reservoir systems has been proposed. The basis for this approach is the decoupled modal method, which relies on mode shapes extracted by considering the symmetric parts of total mass and stiffness matrices. This method allows for the evaluation of the responses of an idealized triangular dam and the study of the convergence under different conditions encountered at the reservoir bottom. The formulation of the dynamic analysis was presented. It involved the modification of the MAP-76 computer program. It is assumed that water is a compressible fluid. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the modal solution converges to the exact solution as the number of modes increases and the errors are negligible, and (2) the formulation that was introduced proved effective and convenient. It is not dependent on non-standard eigenvalue extraction routines. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  16. Preliminary Feasibility and Risk Analysis of a Carbon Dioxide Barrier at Brandon Road Lock and Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A fish barrier using elevated aqueous carbon dioxide (CO2...ER D C TR -1 7- 12 Preliminary Feasibility and Risk Analysis of a Carbon Dioxide Barrier at Brandon Road Lock and Dam En gi ne er R...September 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the

  17. Seismic signal time-frequency analysis based on multi-directional window using greedy strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingpin; Peng, Zhenming; Cheng, Zhuyuan; Tian, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) is an important time-frequency analysis technology with a high energy distribution in seismic signal processing. However, it is interfered by many cross terms. To suppress the cross terms of the WVD and keep the concentration of its high energy distribution, an adaptive multi-directional filtering window in the ambiguity domain is proposed. This begins with the relationship of the Cohen distribution and the Gabor transform combining the greedy strategy and the rotational invariance property of the fractional Fourier transform in order to propose the multi-directional window, which extends the one-dimensional, one directional, optimal window function of the optimal fractional Gabor transform (OFrGT) to a two-dimensional, multi-directional window in the ambiguity domain. In this way, the multi-directional window matches the main auto terms of the WVD more precisely. Using the greedy strategy, the proposed window takes into account the optimal and other suboptimal directions, which also solves the problem of the OFrGT, called the local concentration phenomenon, when encountering a multi-component signal. Experiments on different types of both the signal models and the real seismic signals reveal that the proposed window can overcome the drawbacks of the WVD and the OFrGT mentioned above. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a seismic signal's spectral decomposition. The results show that the proposed method can explore the space distribution of a reservoir more precisely.

  18. Iterative analysis of concrete gravity dam-nonlinear foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Nonlinear SSI analysis for a structure embedded in a half space for a vertical earthquake excitation was carried out by Wolf and. Darbre (1986). Wolf and Obernhuber (1985) used indirect boundary element method which involves Green's function in time domain for nonlinear SSI analysis for a surface foundation.

  19. Analysis of Factors Affecting Stress Solution at Concrete Gravity Dam Heel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Vu Hoang; Quoc Cong, Trinh; Tongchun, Li

    2010-05-01

    Along with Vietnam's development, various hydraulic constructions including concrete gravity dams have been being built. In some of these dams, the fractures occurred at the heel of the dams are even in small and media dams. There are various reasons cause the factures at dam heel but the main reason is the stress states at dam heel are not determined correctly while designing dam. In this paper, several factors affecting stress solution at concrete gravity dam heel such as element mesh size, crack joints of upstream foundation, execution process are investigated by using finite element model of Banve concrete gravity dam. This work is very significant when the more high concrete gravity dams will be constructed in Vietnam year after year.

  20. Launch Window Analysis for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor W.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will fly four spinning spacecraft in formation in highly elliptical orbits to study the magnetosphere of the Earth. This paper describes the development of an MMS launch window tool that uses the orbitaveraged Variation of Parameter equations as the basis for a semi-analytic quantification of the dominant oblateness and lunisolar perturbation effects on the MMS orbit. This approach, coupled with a geometric interpretation of all of the MMS science and engineering constraints, allows a scan of 180(sup 2) = 32,400 different (RAAN, AOP) pairs to be carried out for a specified launch day in less than 10 s on a typical modern laptop. The resulting plot indicates the regions in (RAAN, AOP) space where each constraint is satisfied or violated: their intersection gives, in an easily interpreted graphical manner, the final solution space for the day considered. This tool, SWM76, is now used to provide launch conditions to the full fidelity (but far slower) MMS simulation code: very good agreement has been observed between the two methods.

  1. Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 8 for Windows a guide for social scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bryman, Alan

    2002-01-01

    The latest edition of this best-selling introduction to Quantitative Data Analysis through the use of a computer package has been completely updated to accommodate the needs of users of SPSS Release 8 for Windows. Like its predecessor, it provides a non-technical approach to quantitative data analysis and a user-friendly introduction to the widely used SPSS for Windows. It assumes no previous familiarity with either statistics or computing but takes the reader step-by-step through the techniques, reinforced by exercises for further practice. Techniques explained in Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 8 for Windows include: * correlation * simple and multiple regression * multivariate analysis of variance and covariance * factor analysis The book also covers issues such as sampling, statistical significance, conceptualization and measurement and the selection of appropriate tests. For further information or to download the book's datasets, please visit the webstite: http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/...

  2. Iterative analysis of concrete gravity dam-nonlinear foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with finite element analysis of the soil–structure systems considering the coupled effect of elastic structure and materially nonlinear soil. The equations of motion of both soil and structure have been expressed in terms of displacement variable. The structure and the soil domain are treated as two separate ...

  3. Three-dimensional analysis of a vacuum window connected to waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, as the experimental tokamak-type system for nuclear fusion has become larger, the additional heating system by microwave power has become more and more important. In this heating system the pillbox-type vacuum window is arranged for isolation, but discharge by local concentration of the electric field and destruction by local heating in this window are becoming serious problems. So far designing the system of the vacuum window and deciding on the matching condition, it is indispensable to know exactly the characteristics of the electromagnetic field. But the electromagnetic field inside such a system is very complicated because of its three-dimensional structure with various medium conditions. For the analysis of this complicated field numerical methods are generally known to be useful. The analysis by Bergeron's method has been shown to be effective for problems of this type involving complex boundary and medium conditions in three-dimensional space. In this paper, the authors show Bergeron's formulation of the pillbox-type vacuum window system and the fundamental characteristics of the electromagnetic field within this system. For an effective additional heating system in the experimental tokamak-type system the pillbox-type vacuum window is proposed to isolate each part. In this paper, the authors describe Bergeron's formulation of the pillbox-type vacuum window connected to cylindrical waveguides and show the fundamental characteristics of the electromagnetic field within this system

  4. Monitoring As A Helpful Means In Forensic Analysis Of Dams Static Instability Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring is a means of controlling the behavior of a structure, which during its operational life is subject to external actions as ordinary loading conditions and disturbing ones; these factors overlap with the random manner defined by the statistical parameter of the return period. The analysis of the monitoring data is crucial to gain a reasoned opinion on the reliability of the structure and its components, and also allows to identify, in the overall operational scenario, the time when preparing interventions aimed at maintaining the optimum levels of functionality and safety. The concept of monitoring in terms of prevention is coupled with the activity of Forensic Engineer who, by Judiciary appointment for the occurrence of an accident, turns its experience -the "Scientific knowledge"- in an "inverse analysis" in which he summed up the results of a survey, which also draws on data sets arising in the course of the constant control of the causes and effects, so to determine the correlations between these factors. His activity aims at giving a contribution to the identification of the typicality of an event, which represents, together with "causal link" between the conduct and events and contra-juridical, the factors judging if there an hypothesis of crime, and therefore liable according to law. In Italy there are about 10,000 dams of varying sizes, but only a small portion of them are considered "large dams" and subjected to a rigorous program of regular inspections and monitoring, in application of specific rules. The rest -"small" dams, conventionally defined as such by the standard, but not for the impact on the area- is affected by a heterogeneous response from the local authorities entrusted with this task: there is therefore a high potential risk scenario, as determined by the presence of not completely controlled structures that insist even on areas heavily populated. Risk can be traced back to acceptable levels if they were implemented with the

  5. Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Flood Risks in Aging-Dam Management in China: A Framework and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (<0.20) was found for some residential and commercial buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites. PMID:21655125

  6. Dynamic Allan Variance Analysis Method with Time-Variant Window Length Based on Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem that dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR with fixed length of window cannot meet the identification accuracy requirement of fiber optic gyro (FOG signal over all time domains, a dynamic Allan variance analysis method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control is proposed. According to the characteristic of FOG signal, a fuzzy controller with the inputs of the first and second derivatives of FOG signal is designed to estimate the window length of the DAVAR. Then the Allan variances of the signals during the time-variant window are simulated to obtain the DAVAR of the FOG signal to describe the dynamic characteristic of the time-varying FOG signal. Additionally, a performance evaluation index of the algorithm based on radar chart is proposed. Experiment results show that, compared with different fixed window lengths DAVAR methods, the change of FOG signal with time can be identified effectively and the evaluation index of performance can be enhanced by 30% at least by the DAVAR method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control.

  7. Thermal hydraulic analysis of window target unit for LBE cooled XADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, N.I.; Neitzel, H.J.; Chen, H.Y.; Cheng, X.

    2004-10-01

    A window target unit for a LBE cooled primary core is one of the basic options considered in the framework of the Preliminary Design Study of eXperimental Accelerator Driven System (PDS-XADS). In the present work, thermal hydraulic analysis has been performed for this option focusing on the window cooling. At first system analysis has been performed for the entire target unit using the one-dimensional system code, HERETA. Then Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been carried out for lower part of the target to study the cooling capability of the window. The CFX 5.6 code has been applied using an advanced turbulence model, called Sheer Stress Transport (SST) model, combined with the advanced wall treatment available in the new CFX 5 version. The results of the HERETA calculations show that a stable natural circulation flow, with a steady state flow rate of 192 kg/s, is established. No temperature peak is observed by a start up procedure with beam ramp having a period of 200 s. It is found, however, a start up procedure with beam jump has to be avoided to prevent the overheating of the window. Based on the results of CFX 5.6 calculations, the window thickness is reduced to 2 mm in the center from the initial proposal of 3 mm in order to satisfy the thermal design limit. The maximum temperature change rate of the window under beam trips is predicted as high as 412 C/s after 0.1 s of the beam interrupt. It is judged that beam trips with a beam interrupt duration less than 1 s could also be crucial to the integrity of the window. Finally, three postulated accidents (i.e., beam focusing, loss of heat sink, and unexpected beam jump) have been analyzed to find out the time for the beam to be switched off in order to avoid window failure. The present results show that window failure occurs in 0.1∝0.8 second after the start of the beam focusing and in about 200 seconds after loss of heat sink. However, window failure is not expected for a beam jump scenario

  8. Methodology for Risk Analysis of Dam Gates and Associated Operating Equipment Using Fault Tree Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patev, Robert C; Putcha, Chandra; Foltz, Stuart D

    2005-01-01

    .... This report summarizes research on methodologies to assist in quantifying risks related to dam gates and associated operating equipment, and how those risks relate to overall spillway failure risk...

  9. The Stability Analysis of the Lusi Mud Volcano Embankment Dams using FEM with a Special Reference to the Dam Point P10.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukandi .

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the eruption of the Lusi Mud volcano in Sidoarjo, East Java, on May 2006, soil embankment dams have been built to keep hot mud within the ponds. Unfortunately, since the dams were sitting on poor weak ground, land subsidence intensively occurred around the dams. A finite element method (FEM was, then, applied to evaluate the stability of the dams particularly of the dam point P10.D, being considered as the most unstable point over 29 other dam points. Results show that the dam displacements in vertical and horizontal directions were high. The total displacements of the final design were about 1.5 m in both static- and dynamic-state conditions. These modelled data show a similar trend with field measurement data. The dam had only a factor of safety of about 1.1, and the dam might fail through a deep slide mode.

  10. [Development of an analysis system for X-ray cephalometry by Windows platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-bin; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Shi-pei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jian-qi; Yang, Bo; Duan, Yin-zhong

    2002-07-01

    Here in this paper introduced is an analysis system for X-ray cephalometry developed through Windows platform,which includes three parts: data input, cephalometry analysis & calculation, and display & printing of diagnostic results. It has been applied in orthodontic department of Stomatological Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, and it is quite convenient for doctors' cephalometry diagnosis.

  11. Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

  12. Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

  13. Offline Forensic Analysis Of Microsoft Windows XP Physical Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, John S

    2006-01-01

    .... Existing forensic tools that analyze non-volatile memory are not capable of analyzing volatile memory and the few tools that are capable of detailed analysis of volatile memory are not openly available to the public...

  14. Analysis of a grid window structure for RF cavities in a Muon cooling channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladran, A.; Li, D.; Moretti, A.; Rimmer, R.; Staples, J.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the electromagnetic and thermal analysis of a grid window structure for high gradient, low frequency RF cavities. Windows may be utilized to close the beam iris and increase shunt impedance of closed-cell RF cavities. This work complements previous work presented for windows made of solid beryllium foil. An electromagnetic and thermal analysis of the thin wall tubes in a grid pattern was conducted using both MAFIA4 and ANSYS finite element analyses. The results from both codes agreed well for a variety of grid configurations and spacing. The grid configuration where the crossing tubes touched was found to have acceptable E-Fields and H-Fields performance. The thermal profiles for the grid will also be shown to determine a viable cooling profile

  15. Inductive Sensor for Lightning Current Measurement, Fitted in Aircraft Windows-Part I: Analysis for a Circular Window

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Deursen, A.P.J.; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 199-204 ISSN 1530-437X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Lightning * inductive sensor * aircraft * window * viewport Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  16. study and analysis of asa river hypothetical dam break using hec-ras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    Impounded reservoirs provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, hydropower and water supply but they also carry potential risks. Spontaneous dam break phenomenon can occur and the resultant flooding may cause substantial loss of life and property damage downstream of the dam. A hypothetical dam ...

  17. Long-term trend analysis on total and extreme precipitation over Shasta Dam watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toride, Kinya; Cawthorne, Dylan L; Ishida, Kei; Kavvas, M Levent; Anderson, Michael L

    2018-06-01

    California's interconnected water system is one of the most advanced water management systems in the world, and understanding of long-term trends in atmospheric and hydrologic behavior has increasingly being seen as vital to its future well-being. Knowledge of such trends is hampered by the lack of long-period observation data and the uncertainty surrounding future projections of atmospheric models. This study examines historical precipitation trends over the Shasta Dam watershed (SDW), which lies upstream of one of the most important components of California's water system, Shasta Dam, using a dynamical downscaling methodology that can produce atmospheric data at fine time-space scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is employed to reconstruct 159years of long-term hourly precipitation data at 3km spatial resolution over SDW using the 20th Century Reanalysis Version 2c dataset. Trend analysis on this data indicates a significant increase in total precipitation as well as a growing intensity of extreme events such as 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72-hour storms over the period of 1851 to 2010. The turning point of the increasing trend and no significant trend periods is found to be 1940 for annual precipitation and the period of 1950 to 1960 for extreme precipitation using the sequential Mann-Kendall test. Based on these analysis, we find the trends at the regional scale do not necessarily apply to the watershed-scale. The sharp increase in the variability of annual precipitation since 1970s is also detected, which implies an increase in the occurrence of extreme wet and dry conditions. These results inform long-term planning decisions regarding the future of Shasta Dam and California's water system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the temperature and stress distributions in ceramic window materials subjected to microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferber, M.K.; Kimrey, H.D.; Becher, P.F.

    1983-07-01

    The temperature and stress and distributions generated in ceramic materials currently employed in microwave gyrotron tube windows were determined for a variety of operating conditions. Both edge- and face-cooled windows of either polycrystalline BeO or polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 were considered. The actual analysis involved three steps. First, a computer program was used to determine the electric field distribution within the window at a given power level and frequency (TE 02 wave propagation assumed). This program was capable of describing both the radial and axial dependence of the electric field. The effects of multiple internal reflections at the various dielectric interfaces were also accounted for. Secondly, the field distribution was used to derive an expression for the heat generated per unit volume per unit time within the window due to dieletric losses. A generalized heat conduction computer code was then used to compute the temperature distribution based on the heat generation function. Third, the stresses were determined from the temperature profiles using analytical expression or a finite-element computer program. Steady-state temperature and stress profiles were computed for the face-cooled and edge-cooled windows

  19. Estimation of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Earth Fill Dam by 3-D Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shin-Ichi

    It is necessary to calculate strength and strain for estimation of hydraulic fracturing in the earth fill dam, and to which the FEM is effective. 2-D analysis can produce good results to some extent if an embankment is linear and the plain strain condition can be set to the cross section. However, there may be some conditions not possible to express in the 2-D plain because the actual embankment of agricultural reservoirs is formed by straight and curved lines. Moreover, it may not be possible to precisely calculate strain in the direction of dam axis because the 2-D analysis in the cross section cannot take the shape in the vertical section into consideration. Therefore, we performed 3-D built up analysis targeting the actually-leaked agricultural reservoir to examine hazards of hydraulic fracturing based on the shape of an embankment and by rapid impoundment of water. It resulted in the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing to develop by water pressure due to the vertical cracks caused by tensile strain in the valley and refractive section of the foundation.

  20. 11 Foot Unitary Plan Tunnel Facility Optical Improvement Large Window Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Veronica M.

    2015-01-01

    The test section of the 11 by 11-foot Unitary Plan Transonic Wind Tunnel (11-foot UPWT) may receive an upgrade of larger optical windows on both the North and South sides. These new larger windows will provide better access for optical imaging of test article flow phenomena including surface and off body flow characteristics. The installation of these new larger windows will likely produce a change to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow in the Test Section. In an effort understand the effect of this change, a computational model was employed to predict the flows through the slotted walls, in the test section and around the model before and after the tunnel modification. This report documents the solid CAD model that was created and the inviscid computational analysis that was completed as a preliminary estimate of the effect of the changes.

  1. Thermal and Lorentz Force Analysis of Beryllium Windows for the Rectilinear Muon Cooling Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Tianhuan [LBL, Berkeley; Li, D. [LBL, Berkeley; Virostek, S. [LBL, Berkeley; Palmer, R. [Brookhaven; Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven; Bowring, D. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    Reduction of the 6-dimensional phase-space of a muon beam by several orders of magnitude is a key requirement for a Muon Collider. Recently, a 12-stage rectilinear ionization cooling channel has been proposed to achieve that goal. The channel consists of a series of low frequency (325 MHz-650 MHz) normal conducting pillbox cavities, which are enclosed with thin beryllium windows (foils) to increase shunt impedance and give a higher field on-axis for a given amount of power. These windows are subject to ohmic heating from RF currents and Lorentz force from the EM field in the cavity, both of which will produce out of the plane displacements that can detune the cavity frequency. In this study, using the TEM3P code, we report on a detailed thermal and mechanical analysis for the actual Be windows used on a 325 MHz cavity in a vacuum ionization cooling rectilinear channel for a Muon Collider.

  2. Thermal and Lorentz force analysis of beryllium windows for a rectilinear muon cooling channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratakis, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Virostek, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bowring, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Reduction of the 6-dimensional phase-space of a muon beam by several orders of magnitude is a key requirement for a Muon Collider. Recently, a 12-stage rectilinear ionization cooling channel has been proposed to achieve that goal. The channel consists of a series of low frequency (325 MHz-650 MHz) normal conducting pillbox cavities, which are enclosed with thin beryllium windows (foils) to increase shunt impedance and give a higher field on-axis for a given amount of power. These windows are subject to ohmic heating from RF currents and Lorentz force from the EM field in the cavity, both of which will produce out of the plane displacements that can detune the cavity frequency. In this study, using the TEM3P code, we report on a detailed thermal and mechanical analysis for the actual Be windows used on a 325 MHz cavity in a vacuum ionization cooling rectilinear channel for a Muon Collider.

  3. Two-dimensional windowed Fourier frames for noise reduction in fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemao, Qian; Soon, Seah Hock

    2005-07-01

    The two-dimensional continuous windowed Fourier transform has been shown to be effective for fringe pattern analysis in our previous work. In this paper, we first estimate the sampling intervals, using frame theory, to discretize the transform. Suitable sampling intervals are estimated as 1/σx and 1/σy, which is verified by simulations. Noise reduction using windowed Fourier frames is then investigated and compared with that using the orthogonal wavelet transform. Due to the coherence of its kernels and fringe patterns and its redundancy, windowed Fourier frames are able to reduce noise more effectively, which is verified by processing both simulated and experimental fringe patterns. The relative errors are reduced by half, in various simulations, from those with orthogonal wavelet filtering.

  4. Precision of periprosthetic bone mineral density measurements using Hologic Windows versus DOS-based analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Nitin R; Hamer, Andrew J; Stockley, Ian; Eastell, Richard; Wilkinson, J Mark

    2006-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a precise tool for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) around total joint prostheses. The Hologic "metal-removal hip" analysis package (Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA) is a Microsoft DOS-based analysis platform that has undergone a change in the operating platform to a Microsoft Windows-based system that has also incorporated changes to DXA image manipulation on-screen. We evaluated the impact of these changes on instrument precision by analysis of sequential DXA scans taken on the same day using the Hologic QDR-4500A fan beam densitometer (Hologic Inc.) in 29 subjects after total hip arthroplasty. The coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) for the net pelvic region was 3.04 for Windows versus 2.36 for DOS (p>0.05). The CV% for the net femoral region was 1.75 for Windows versus 1.51 for DOS (p>0.05). Absolute BMD values for the net pelvic and net femoral regions were similar (Bland-Altman, Windows minus DOS; pelvic region mean=-1.0%; femoral region mean=1.3%; p>0.05 for both comparisons). Our results suggest that scans analyzed using each platform may be used interchangeably without the need for a calibration correction.

  5. Landsat Image Analysis of the Rebea Agricultural Project, Mosul Dam and Lake, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, W.; Alassadi, F.

    2014-12-01

    An archive of 70 good-to-excellent quality Landsat TM and ETM+ images acquired between 1984 and 2011 were identified through visual examination of the GLOVIS web portal. After careful consideration of factors relevant to agriculture in the region (e.g., crop calendar) and associated image processing needs (e.g., preference for anniversary dates), the images deemed most appropriate were downloaded. Standard preprocessing, including visual quality and statistical inspection, sub-setting to the study area, was performed, and the results combined in a database with available GIS data. The resolution merge spatial enhancement technique was applied to any ETM+ imagery to improve visual clarity and interpretability. The NDVI was calculated for all images in the time series. Unsupervised classification of images was performed for dates ranging from 1987 just before the inception of the Rebea project in 1989 through 2011. In order to reduce uncertainty related to lack of detailed ancillary and/or ground reference data, simple land cover classes were mapped, specifically: surface water, agriculture, and other. Results were able to quantify and track areas of each class over time, and showed a marked decrease in agriculture between the Iraq invasion in 2003 to the end of the study period in 2011, despite massive efforts and capital by the United States and Iraqi governments to improve agriculture in the area. Complications to understanding the role of warfare and conflict on the environment in the Mosul region include severe drought and water shortages, including effects of the Turkish GAP water resource development project in the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates, as well as Mosul Dam structural problems associated with geologically-unsuitable conditions upon which the dam is constructed. Now, the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) likely captured the Mosul Dam on the day this abstract was submitted. Our Landsat-based monitoring and analysis of the Rebea Project and

  6. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a

  7. Analysis on residual strain of Zipingpu Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam after Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenping; Chi, Shichun

    2013-06-01

    The Zipingpu Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam (CFRD) was subjected to significant local damage in the "5.12" Wenchuan earthquake. It is the first rockfill dam of more than one hundred meters high to encounter a strong earthquake anywhere in the world. Based on the finite element smoothing method, the residual strains at a typical cross-section and a downstream slope of the dam were obtained by processing the dam monitored displacement data. The position of and reason for the dam settlement and deformation of rockfill dilatancy in the earthquake were analyzed according to the section residual strain. The results show that the maximum settlement ratio on the dam body approximately occurs at 2/3 of the dam height; dilatancy occurs from the dam crest to 25-30 m in the upstream and downstream slope; the immediate cause of the face slabs horizontal construction joint dislocation is excessive residual shear strain. Meanwhile, the position of and reason for the dam fissure in the earthquake were analyzed according to the dam slope residual strain.

  8. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  9. Construction of a Dry Ash Dam with Soilbags and Slope Stability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Song, Yingjun; Gao, Jiaorong; Li, Longhua; Zhou, Yuqi; Qi, Hui

    2017-12-01

    In thermal power plants, it is necessary to build ash dams to store fly ash, which is the by-product after the combustion of coals. To solve the problem of lacking rockfill materials in Africa, A new technology of constructing ash dams using solibags filled with local sands is proposed and the method of analyzing its slope stability is suggested. The design of the ash dam using soilbags in Lamb Thermal Power Plant of Kenya is introduced in detail. The slope stability of the soilbags-constructed ash dam was analyzed by adopting the suggested method. The results show that the soilbags filled with ash or sands have high compressive strength, and the primary dam constructed with soilbags can effectively retain the backfill ash and the stacking dam reinforced with soilbags can stand stable even with the slope of 1:1.5.

  10. Surface EMG-based Sketching Recognition Using Two Analysis Windows and Gene Expression Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongliang; Chen, Yumiao

    2016-01-01

    Sketching is one of the most important processes in the conceptual stage of design. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of sketching process and outcomes; whereas surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals associated with sketching have received little attention. In this study, we propose a method in which 11 basic one-stroke sketching shapes are identified from the sEMG signals generated by the forearm and upper arm muscles from 4 subjects. Time domain features such as integrated electromyography, root mean square and mean absolute value were extracted with analysis windows of two length conditions for pattern recognition. After reducing data dimensionality using principal component analysis, the shapes were classified using Gene Expression Programming (GEP). The performance of the GEP classifier was compared to the Back Propagation neural network (BPNN) and the Elman neural network (ENN). Feature extraction with the short analysis window (250 ms with a 250 ms increment) improved the recognition rate by around 6.4% averagely compared with the long analysis window (2500 ms with a 2500 ms increment). The average recognition rate for the eleven basic one-stroke sketching patterns achieved by the GEP classifier was 96.26% in the training set and 95.62% in the test set, which was superior to the performance of the BPNN and ENN classifiers. The results show that the GEP classifier is able to perform well with either length of the analysis window. Thus, the proposed GEP model show promise for recognizing sketching based on sEMG signals. PMID:27790083

  11. Seismic Damage Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam Based on Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunben Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to the dam damage assessment is analyzing the remaining seismic carrying capacity after an earthquake occurs. In this paper, taking Koyna concrete gravity dam as the object of study, the dynamic response and damage distribution of the dam are obtained based on the concrete damage plastic constitutive model. By using time-frequency localization performance of wavelet transform, the distribution characteristics of wavelet energy for gravity dam dynamic response signal are revealed under the action of different amplitude earthquakes. It is concluded by numerical study that the wavelet energy is concentrated in low-frequency range with the improving of seismic amplitude. The ultimate peak seismic acceleration is obtained according to the concentration degree of low-frequency energy. The earthquake damage of the dam under the moderate-intensity earthquake is simulated and its residual seismic bearing capacity is further analyzed. The new global damage index of the dam is proposed and the overall damage degree of the dam can be distinguished using defined formula under given earthquake actions. The seismic bearing capacity of the intact Koyna dam is 591 gal considering the dam-water interaction and its residual seismic bearing capacity after simulating earthquake can be calculated.

  12. Seismic Fortification Analysis of the Guoduo Gravity Dam in Tibet, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research was to analyze the seismic performance of the Guoduo gravity dam. A nonlinear FEM method was implemented to study the deformation, stress, and overall stability of dam under both static and dynamic loading conditions, including both normal and overloading conditions. A dam seismic failure risk control method is proposed based on the cracking mechanism induced by the dynamic load to ensure dam safety and stability. Numerical simulation revealed that (1 under normal static and dynamic loading the symmetry of the displacement distributions is good, showing that the dam abutments and riverbed foundation have good overall stiffness. The stress distribution is a safe one for operation under both normal water loading and seismic loading. (2 Attention should be paid to the reinforcement design of outlets of the diversion dam monoliths, and enhance the capability of sustaining that tensile stress of dam monoliths. (3 The shape of the dam profile has a significant effect on the dynamic response of the dam. (4 By employing the “overload safety factor method,” the overall seismic fortification is as follows: K1=1.5, K2= 2~3, and K3= 3~4.

  13. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  14. A coupled FE and scaled boundary FE-approach for the earthquake response analysis of arch dam-reservoir-foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Lin Gao; Hu Zhiqiang

    2010-01-01

    For efficient and accurate modelling of arch dam-reservoir-foundation system a coupled Finite Element method (FEM) and Scaled Boundary Finite Element method (SBFEM) is developed. Both the dam-foundation interaction and the dam-reservoir interaction including the effect of reservoir boundary absorption are taken into account. The arch dam is modelled by FEM, while the reservoir domain and the unbounded foundation are modelled by SBFEM. In order to make comparison with the results available in the literature, the Morrow Point arch dam is selected for numerical analysis. The analyses are carried out in the frequency domain, and then the time-domain response of the dam-reservoir-foundation system is obtained by Inverse Fourier Transform.

  15. Evaluation of the Three Gorges Dam project using multi-criteria analysis (MCA) based on a sustainable perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Junshan; Ma, Yihe; Ding, Junqi; Zhu, Lingkai; Che, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2018-02-01

    Abstract . The Three Gorges dam of China is one of the largest and expensive hydropower projects of the world. The four main purposes of the project are flood control,energy production, improved navigation and fresh water supply. The dam project has been completed and running successfully with the potential benefits. However, this project is still a controversial issue among many environmentalists and socialists due to various impacts. This study focuses on the benefit and the impacts of the project, and also evaluates the performance of the project using multi-criteria analysis (MCA) approach from a sustainable perspective. Different sustainability criteria related with the dam project have been identified and used for the ranking and rating process. The final result of MCA comes with this scoring process and pairwise comparison, which evaluates the performance of the project considering different positive and negative aspects.

  16. Dynamic Sustainability. Sustainability Window Analysis of Chinese Poverty-Environment Nexus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Luukkanen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability Window is a new analysis tool for assessing the sustainability of development simultaneously in all of its three dimensions (environmental, economic, and social. The analysis method provides information of the maximum and minimum economic development that is required to maintain the direction of social and environmental development towards more sustainable targets. With the Sustainability Window method it is possible to easily analyze the sustainability using different indicators and different time periods making comparative analyses easy. The new method makes it also possible to analyze the dynamics of the sustainability and the changes over time in the width of the window. This provides a new perspective for analyzing the trends of sustainability and the impacts of underlying sustainability policies. As an illustration of the method, we have carried out an analysis of Chinese development using CO2 and SO2 emissions as indicators of the environmental dimension, number of non-poor people as an indicator of the social dimension and GDP as an indicator of the economic dimension.

  17. Analytic Hierarchy and Economic Analysis of a Plasma Gasification System for Naval Air Station Oceana-Dam Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-30

    fixed-bed gasification occur in the waste column, and finally produces a combustible gas mixture known as syngas . The main combustible species in...Old Dominion University Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Department ENMA 605 Program Capstone Final Project Analytic...Hierarchy and Economic Analysis of a Plasma Gasification System for Naval Air Station Oceana-Dam Neck Matthew R. Yost Report

  18. Sliding-window analysis tracks fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity associated with physiological arousal and vigilance during fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczkowski, Blazej M; Johnstone, Tom; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne; Veer, Ilya M

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated whether sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant brain network dynamics during a well-established fear conditioning paradigm. To this end, we tested if fMRI fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity (FC) can be related to task-induced changes in physiological arousal and vigilance, as reflected in the skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in the study. For the sliding-window analysis we used windows that were shifted by one volume at a time. Amygdala FC was calculated for each of these windows. Simultaneously acquired SCL time series were averaged over time frames that corresponded to the sliding-window FC analysis, which were subsequently regressed against the whole-brain seed-based amygdala sliding-window FC using the GLM. Surrogate time series were generated to test whether connectivity dynamics could have occurred by chance. In addition, results were contrasted against static amygdala FC and sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, which was chosen as a control seed, while a physio-physiological interaction (PPI) was performed as cross-validation. During periods of increased SCL, the left amygdala became more strongly coupled with the bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex, core areas of the salience network. The sliding-window analysis yielded a connectivity pattern that was unlikely to have occurred by chance, was spatially distinct from static amygdala FC and from sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, but was highly comparable to that of the PPI analysis. We conclude that sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant fluctuations in connectivity in the context of an externally cued task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Seepage Analysis of Upper Gotvand Dam Concerning Gypsum Karstification (2D and 3D Approaches)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrekarimi, Jamshid; Kiyani, Majid; Fakhri, Behnam

    2011-01-01

    Upper Gotvand Dam is constructed on the Karun River at the south west of Iran. In this paper, 2D and 3D models of the dam together with the foundation and abutments were established, and several seepage analyses were carried out. Then, the gypsum veins that are scattered throughout the foundation...

  20. Short segment search method for phylogenetic analysis using nested sliding windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, A. A.; Bustamam, A.; Trimarsanto, H.

    2017-10-01

    To analyze phylogenetics in Bioinformatics, coding DNA sequences (CDS) segment is needed for maximal accuracy. However, analysis by CDS cost a lot of time and money, so a short representative segment by CDS, which is envelope protein segment or non-structural 3 (NS3) segment is necessary. After sliding window is implemented, a better short segment than envelope protein segment and NS3 is found. This paper will discuss a mathematical method to analyze sequences using nested sliding window to find a short segment which is representative for the whole genome. The result shows that our method can find a short segment which more representative about 6.57% in topological view to CDS segment than an Envelope segment or NS3 segment.

  1. Impact of assimilation window length on diurnal features in a Mars atmospheric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective simulation of diurnal variability is an important aspect of many geophysical data assimilation systems. For the Martian atmosphere, thermal tides are particularly prominent and contribute much to the Martian atmospheric circulation, dynamics and dust transport. To study the Mars diurnal variability and Mars thermal tides, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars Global Climate Model with the 4D-local ensemble transform Kalman filter (4D-LETKF is used to perform an analysis assimilating spacecraft temperature retrievals. We find that the use of a ‘traditional’ 6-hr assimilation cycle induces spurious forcing of a resonantly enhanced semi-diurnal Kelvin waves represented in both surface pressure and mid-level temperature by forming a wave 4 pattern in the diurnal averaged analysis increment that acts as a ‘topographic’ stationary forcing. Different assimilation window lengths in the 4D-LETKF are introduced to remove the artificially induced resonance. It is found that short assimilation window lengths not only remove the spurious resonance, but also push the migrating semi-diurnal temperature variation at 50 Pa closer to the estimated ‘true’ tides even in the absence of a radiatively active water ice cloud parameterisation. In order to compare the performance of different assimilation window lengths, short-term to mid-range forecasts based on the hour 00 and 12 assimilation are evaluated and compared. Results show that during Northern Hemisphere summer, it is not the assimilation window length, but the radiatively active water ice clouds that influence the model prediction. A ‘diurnal bias correction’ that includes bias correction fields dependent on the local time is shown to effectively reduce the forecast root mean square differences between forecasts and observations, compensate for the absence of water ice cloud parameterisation and enhance Martian atmosphere prediction. The implications of these results for

  2. Multi-causal pathways of public opposition to dam projects in Asia: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars overwhelmingly adopt the case study method when analyzing causal conditions inducing anti-dam-protests. We have carried out the first medium-N-study on this topic analyzing public opposition to 12 dam projects in Asia. For this purpose, we employ a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

  3. Seepage and stress analysis of anti-seepage structures constructed with different concrete materials in an RCC gravity dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-chao Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used the finite element method (FEM to analyze the stress field and seepage field of a roller-compacted concrete (RCC dam, with an upstream impervious layer constructed with different types of concrete materials, including three-graded RCC, two-graded RCC, conventional vibrated concrete (CVC, and grout-enriched vibrated RCC (GEVR, corresponding to the design schemes S1 through S4. It also evaluated the anti-seepage performance of the imperious layer in the four design schemes under the normal water level and flood-check level. Stress field analysis of a retaining section and discharge section shows that the maximum tensile stress occurs near the dam heel, the maximum compressive stress occurs near the dam toe, and the stress distributions in the four schemes can satisfy the stress control criteria. Seepage field analysis shows that the uplift pressure heads in schemes S3 and S4 descend rapidly in the anti-seepage region, and that the calculated results of daily seepage flow under the steady seepage condition in these two schemes are about 30% to 50% lower than those in the other two schemes, demonstrating that CVC and GEVR show better anti-seepage performance. The results provide essential parameters such as the uplift pressure head and seepage flow for physical model tests and anti-seepage structure selection in RCC dams.

  4. Seepage and stress analysis of anti-seepage structures constructed with different concrete materials in an RCC gravity dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-chao Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used the finite element method (FEM to analyze the stress field and seepage field of a roller-compacted concrete (RCC dam, with an upstream impervious layer constructed with different types of concrete materials, including three-graded RCC, two-graded RCC, conventional vibrated concrete (CVC, and grout-enriched vibrated RCC (GEVR, corresponding to the design schemes S1 through S4. It also evaluated the anti-seepage performance of the imperious layer in the four design schemes under the normal water level and flood-check level. Stress field analysis of a retaining section and discharge section shows that the maximum tensile stress occurs near the dam heel, the maximum compressive stress occurs near the dam toe, and the stress distributions in the four schemes can satisfy the stress control criteria. Seepage field analysis shows that the uplift pressure heads in schemes S3 and S4 descend rapidly in the anti-seepage region, and that the calculated results of daily seepage flow under the steady seepage condition in these two schemes are about 30%–50% lower than those in the other two schemes, demonstrating that CVC and GEVR show better anti-seepage performance. The results provide essential parameters such as the uplift pressure head and seepage flow for physical model tests and anti-seepage structure selection in RCC dams.

  5. Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.S.; Zhou, L.; Yazdanian, M.; Inkarojrit, V.; Slack, J.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    A DOE-2.1E energy simulation analysis of a switchable electrochromic (EC) glazing with daylighting controls has been conducted for prototypical office buildings in New York (NY). The modeling included four types of office buildings: ''old'' and ''new'' vintages and large (10,405 m(sup 2) , 112,000 ft(sup 2)) and small (502 m(sup 2), 5400 ft(sup 2)) buildings. Five commercially-available, base case windows with and without interior shades were modeled. Window area varied from 0 to 60% of the exterior floor-to-floor wall area. The electric lighting had either no controls or continuous daylighting controls. The prototypes were modeled in New York City or Buffalo. Energy performance data are given for each of the four perimeter zones. Data are presented as a function of window-to-wall ratio in order to better understand the interactions between (1) electric lighting energy use and daylight admission and (2) solar heat gains and space-conditioning energy use. Maximum and minimum reductions in energy use between the EC glazing and all other base case conditions are also presented. Projected energy use reductions relative to typical specified NY office buildings are presented as an indication of the potential impacts EC glazings might have in retrofit and new construction. The energy and demand reductions provided by EC glazings with daylighting controls relative to what is typically specified in office buildings in NY are quite substantial. EC glazings will also dampen fluctuations in interior daylight levels and window brightness, potentially increasing visual comfort

  6. Seismic analysis of high arch dams considering contraction-peripheral joints coupled effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad; Mirzabozorg, Hasan; Kianoush, M.

    2013-09-01

    Dam-reservoir interaction is one of the classic coupled problems in which two various environments with different physical characteristics are in contact with each other on interface boundary. Consideration of such interaction is important in design of new dams as well as on safety evaluation of the existing ones. In the present study, the effect of hydrodynamic pressures at various reservoir operational levels on seismic behavior of an arch dam is investigated. Dez ultra-high arch dam in Iran was selected as case study and all contraction and peripheral joints were simulated using node-to-node contact elements which have the ability of opening/closing and tangential movement. In addition, stage construction effects including joint grouting based on available construction reports were considered. The reservoir was assumed to be compressible and the foundation rock was modeled to account for its flexibility. The TABAS earthquake record was used to excite the finite element model of dam-reservoir-foundation system. It was found that dam-reservoir interaction has significant structural effects on the system and generally, operating the considered arch dam at different water levels can highly affects the distribution of the crack prone area under the maximum credible earthquake.

  7. Seasonal trend analysis and ARIMA modeling of relative humidity and wind speed time series around Yamula Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymen, Abdurrahman; Köylü, Ümran

    2018-02-01

    Local climate change is determined by analysis of long-term recorded meteorological data. In the statistical analysis of the meteorological data, the Mann-Kendall rank test, which is one of the non-parametrical tests, has been used; on the other hand, for determining the power of the trend, Theil-Sen method has been used on the data obtained from 16 meteorological stations. The stations cover the provinces of Kayseri, Sivas, Yozgat, and Nevşehir in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. Changes in land-use affect local climate. Dams are structures that cause major changes on the land. Yamula Dam is located 25 km northwest of Kayseri. The dam has huge water body which is approximately 85 km2. The mentioned tests have been used for detecting the presence of any positive or negative trend in meteorological data. The meteorological data in relation to the seasonal average, maximum, and minimum values of the relative humidity and seasonal average wind speed have been organized as time series and the tests have been conducted accordingly. As a result of these tests, the following have been identified: increase was observed in minimum relative humidity values in the spring, summer, and autumn seasons. As for the seasonal average wind speed, decrease was detected for nine stations in all seasons, whereas increase was observed in four stations. After the trend analysis, pre-dam mean relative humidity time series were modeled with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) model which is statistical modeling tool. Post-dam relative humidity values were predicted by ARIMA models.

  8. Performance-based seismic assessment of vulnerability of dam using time history analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmrabet Oumnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current performance-based seismic assessment procedure can be computationally intensive as it requires many time history analyses (THA each requiring time intensive post-processing of results. Time history analysis is a part of structural analysis and is the calculation of the response of a structure to any earthquake. It is one of the main processes of structural design in regions where earthquakes are prevalent. The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of embankment dam located on the Oued RHISS in the Province of AL HOCEIMA using the THA method. To monitor structural behavior, the seismic vulnerability of structure is evaluated under real earthquake records with considering the soil-structure-fluide interaction. In this study, a simple assistant program is developed for implementing earthquake analyses of structure with ANSYS, ground acceleration–time history data are used for seismic analysis and dynamic numerical simulations were conducted to study and identify the total response of the soil-structure system.

  9. Analysis of past and future dam formation and failure in the Santa Cruz River (San Juan province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Volpi, Michele; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Around 11.5 ∗ 106 m3 of rock detached from the eastern slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina) in the first fortnight of January 2005. The rockslide-debris avalanche blocked the course, resulting in the development of a lake with maximum length of around 3.5 km. The increase in the inflow rate from 47,000-74,000 m3/d between April and October to 304,000 m3/d between late October and the first fortnight of November, accelerated the growing rate of the lake. On 12 November 2005 the dam failed, releasing 24.6 ∗ 106 m3 of water. The resulting outburst flood caused damages mainly on infrastructure, and affected the facilities of a hydropower dam which was under construction 250 km downstream from the source area. In this work we describe causes and consequences of the natural dam formation and failure, and we dynamically model the 2005 rockslide-debris avalanche with DAN3D. Additionally, as a volume ~ 24 ∗ 106 m3of rocks still remain unstable in the slope, we use the results of the back analysis to forecast the formation of a future natural dam. We analyzed two potential scenarios: a partial slope failure of 6.5 ∗ 106 m3 and a worst case where all the unstable volume remaining in the slope fails. The spreading of those potential events shows that a new blockage of the Santa Cruz River is likely to occur. According to their modeled morphometry and the contributing watershed upstream the blockage area, as the one of 2005, the dams would also be unstable. This study shows the importance of back and forward analysis that can be carried out to obtain critical information for land use planning, hazards mitigation, and emergency management.

  10. Analysis of the sediments of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam by the INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.E.; Lugo, J.F.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C.; Miller, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Its were taken eight samples of sediment of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam located in the Villanueva municipality, in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico; with the end of determining the presence of elements of anthropogenic origin, as well as the concentration of the same ones. It was used the Instrumental neutron activation analysis (AANI) with a flow of thermal neutrons of 8 x 10 13 and 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . With the purpose of determining the concentration of these elements at level of traces; finding presence of 32 elements among which its were find elements in greater concentrations and others at level of traces. Of these 32 elements, five of anthropogenic origin were identified which its were: Cr, Co, Zn, As and Mn; but that whose concentration is very low, in comparison with the one reported in other places of the world. In this work there are presented the obtained results of the elementary analysis of this samples. (Author)

  11. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 2006 through 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center)

    2011-08-22

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. A report released in January 2011 examined the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. This report continues the analysis and examines the financial implications of the experimental flows conducted at the GCD from 2006 to 2010. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western

  12. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  13. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  14. Meta-analysis of environmental effects of beaver in relation to artificial dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Frauke; Levanoni, Oded; Audet, Joachim; Carlson, Peter; Eklöf, Karin; Hartman, Göran; McKie, Brendan; Ledesma, José; Segersten, Joel; Truchy, Amélie; Futter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Globally, artificial river impoundment, nutrient enrichment and biodiversity loss impair freshwater ecosystem integrity. Concurrently, beavers, ecosystem engineers recognized for their ability to construct dams and create ponds, are colonizing sites across the Holarctic after widespread extirpation in the 19th century, including areas outside their historical range. This has the potential to profoundly alter hydrology, hydrochemistry and aquatic ecology in both newly colonized and recolonized areas. To further our knowledge of the effects of beaver dams on aquatic environments, we extracted 1366 effect sizes from 89 studies on the impoundment of streams and lakes. Effects were assessed for 16 factors related to hydrogeomorphology, biogeochemistry, ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. Beaver dams affected concentrations of organic carbon in water, mercury in water and biota, sediment conditions and hydrological properties. There were no overall adverse effects caused by beaver dams or ponds on salmonid fish. Age was an important determinant of effect magnitude. While young ponds were a source of phosphorus, there was a tendency for phosphorus retention in older systems. Young ponds were a source methylmercury in water, but old ponds were not. To provide additional context, we also evaluated similarities and differences between environmental effects of beaver-constructed and artificial dams (767 effect sizes from 75 studies). Both are comparable in terms of effects on, for example, biodiversity, but have contrasting effects on nutrient retention and mercury. These results are important for assessing the role of beavers in enhancing and/or degrading ecological integrity in changing Holarctic freshwater systems.

  15. Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, George Emm.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper, using data envelopment (DEA) window analysis and generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators, examines the existence of a Kuznets type relationship between countries' environmental efficiency and national income. Specifically, it measures the environmental efficiency of 17 OECD countries by constructing environmental efficiency ratios for the time period 1980-2002. The analysis with the application of dynamic panel data reveals that there isn't a Kuznets type relationship between environmental efficiency and income. Allowing for dynamic effects we find that the adjustment to the target ratio is instantaneous. We also find that increased economic activity does not always ensure environmental protection and thus the path of growth is important in addition to the growth itself. (author)

  16. Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halkos, George Emm.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G. [Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Korai 43, 38333, Volos (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    This paper, using data envelopment (DEA) window analysis and generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators, examines the existence of a Kuznets type relationship between countries' environmental efficiency and national income. Specifically, it measures the environmental efficiency of 17 OECD countries by constructing environmental efficiency ratios for the time period 1980-2002. The analysis with the application of dynamic panel data reveals that there isn't a Kuznets type relationship between environmental efficiency and income. Allowing for dynamic effects we find that the adjustment to the target ratio is instantaneous. We also find that increased economic activity does not always ensure environmental protection and thus the path of growth is important in addition to the growth itself. (author)

  17. A study on the operating characteristics by heat flow analysis of HYPER beam window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Geun; Choi, Jin Ho; Ju, Eun Sun; Song, Tae Young

    2001-01-01

    A spent fuel problem has prevented the nuclear power from claiming to be a completely clean energy source. The nuclear transmutation technology to incinerate the long lived radioactive nuclides and produce energy during the incineration process is believed to be one or the best solutions. HYPER(HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) is the accelerator driven transmutation system which is being developed by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Some major feature of HYPER have been developed and employed. On-power fueling concepts are employed to keep system power constant with minimum variation of accelerator power. A hollow cylinder-type metal fuel is designed for the on-line refueling concept. Lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi) is adopted as a coolant and Spallation target material. HYPER is a subcritical reactor which needs an external neutron source. 1GeV proton beam is irradiated to Lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi) target inside HYPER, and spallation neutrons are produced. When proton beams are irradiated, much heat is also deposited in the Pb-Bi target and beam window which separates Pb-Bi and accelerator vacuum. Therefore, an effective cooling is needed for HYPER target. In this paper, we performed the thermal-hydraulic analysis of HYPER target using FLUENT code, and also calculated thermal and mechanical stress of the beam window using ANSYS code

  18. Study on Real-Time Simulation Analysis and Inverse Analysis System for Temperature and Stress of Concrete Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the concrete dam construction, it is very necessary to strengthen the real-time monitoring and scientific management of concrete temperature control. This paper constructs the analysis and inverse analysis system of temperature stress simulation, which is based on various useful data collected in real time in the process of concrete construction. The system can produce automatically data file of temperature and stress calculation and then achieve the remote real-time simulation calculation of temperature stress by using high performance computing techniques, so the inverse analysis can be carried out based on a basis of monitoring data in the database; it fulfills the automatic feedback calculation according to the error requirement and generates the corresponding curve and chart after the automatic processing and analysis of corresponding results. The system realizes the automation and intellectualization of complex data analysis and preparation work in simulation process and complex data adjustment in the inverse analysis process, which can facilitate the real-time tracking simulation and feedback analysis of concrete temperature stress in construction process and enable you to discover problems timely, take measures timely, and adjust construction scheme and can well instruct you how to ensure project quality.

  19. Processor, method and computer program for processing an audio signal using truncated analysis or synthesis window overlap portions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A processor for processing an audio signal (200), comprises: an analyzer (202) for deriving a window control signal (204) from the audio signal (200) indicating a change from a first asymmetric window (1400) to a second window (1402), or indicating a change from a third window (1450) to a fourth asymmetric window (1452), wherein the second window (1402) is shorter than the first window (1400), or wherein the third window (1450) is shorter than the fourth window (1452); a window constructor (2...

  20. Douglas County Dam Breach Inundation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Dam breach analysis provides a prediction of the extent and timing of flooding from a catastrophic breach of the dams. These results are sufficient for developing...

  1. Window Regression: A Spatial-Temporal Analysis to Estimate Pixels Classified as Low-Quality in MODIS NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data are largely used in multitemporal analysis of various Earth-related phenomena, such as vegetation phenology, land use/land cover change, deforestation monitoring, and time series analysis. In general, the MODIS products used to undertake multitemporal analysis are composite mosaics of the best pixels over a certain period of time. However, it is common to find bad pixels in the composition that affect the time series analysis. We present a filtering methodology that considers the pixel position (location in space and time (position in the temporal data series to define a new value for the bad pixel. This methodology, called Window Regression (WR, estimates the value of the point of interest, based on the regression analysis of the data selected by a spatial-temporal window. The spatial window is represented by eight pixels neighboring the pixel under evaluation, and the temporal window selects a set of dates close to the date of interest (either earlier or later. Intensities of noises were simulated over time and space, using the MOD13Q1 product. The method presented and other techniques (4253H twice, Mean Value Iteration (MVI and Savitzky–Golay were evaluated using the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE and Akaike Information Criteria (AIC. The tests revealed the consistently superior performance of the Window Regression approach to estimate new Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values irrespective of the intensity of the noise simulated.

  2. Decision analysis to support development of the Glen Canyon Dam long-term experimental and management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; LaGory, Kirk E.; Russell, Kendra; Balsom, Janet R.; Butler, R. Alan; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Grantz, Katrina A.; Hayse, John; Hlohowskyj, Ihor; Korman, Josh; May, James E.; O'Rourke, Daniel J.; Poch, Leslie A.; Prairie, James R.; VanKuiken, Jack C.; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A.; Varyu, David R.; Verhaaren, Bruce T.; Veselka, Thomas D.; Williams, Nicholas T.; Wuthrich, Kelsey K.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Billerbeck, Robert P.; Knowles, Glen W.

    2016-01-07

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, National Park Service, and Argonne National Laboratory, completed a decision analysis to use in the evaluation of alternatives in the Environmental Impact Statement concerning the long-term management of water releases from Glen Canyon Dam and associated management activities. Two primary decision analysis methods, multicriteria decision analysis and the expected value of information, were used to evaluate the alternative strategies against the resource goals and to evaluate the influence of uncertainty.

  3. Ecohydrology of a Dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, K. A.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon River watershed is the world's largest river basin and provides >US$30 billion/yr in ecosystem services to local populations, national societies and humanity at large. Construction of >30 large hydroelectric dams and >170 small dams in the Brazilian Amazon is currently underway as a result of governmental plans geared toward increased energy security, economic growth, improved living standards and industrialization. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from the development of hydropower will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects at local to global scales. Here we demonstrate the extensive and large-scale effects of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon region on hydrologic parameters calculated using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) method applied to 33 small and large dams in the Brazilian Amazon. Our analysis provides the first holistic assessment of hydrological alterations (HA) caused by Amazonian dams and offers insight on the primary physical and management drivers of dam impacts. Across sites, results show that dams have affected all ecologically important flow characteristics (i.e., magnitude, duration, timing, frequency and rate of change of pulse events). While each dam/river system are unique, some dams cause substantially greater HA. The "worst" dams were Balbina (HA=108%), Manso (HA=62%), and Serra da Mesa (HA=48%). All three are "large" dams with substantial reservoirs, however Serra da Mesa produces 6 times more electricity than either Balbina or Manso, with lower impact. The most dramatic dam-induced shifts in hydrologic regime were related to the frequency/duration and frequency/rate of change of pulse events. HA on rivers with multiple dams was only 8% higher than those with individual dams. Dam elevation and reservoir area were the best environmental predictors of HA. Results suggest that hydrological impacts from dams are similar among temperate and tropical climates (i.e., peak flows are often

  4. Performance Analysis of an Optical CDMA MAC Protocol With Variable-Size Sliding Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Aly A.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Abdel-Moety El-Badawy, El-Sayed

    2006-10-01

    A media access control protocol for optical code-division multiple-access packet networks with variable length data traffic is proposed. This protocol exhibits a sliding window with variable size. A model for interference-level fluctuation and an accurate analysis for channel usage are presented. Both multiple-access interference (MAI) and photodetector's shot noise are considered. Both chip-level and correlation receivers are adopted. The system performance is evaluated using a traditional average system throughput and average delay. Finally, in order to enhance the overall performance, error control codes (ECCs) are applied. The results indicate that the performance can be enhanced to reach its peak using the ECC with an optimum number of correctable errors. Furthermore, chip-level receivers are shown to give much higher performance than that of correlation receivers. Also, it has been shown that MAI is the main source of signal degradation.

  5. Data analysis using SPSS for Windows, versions 8 - 10 a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy J, Dr

    2001-01-01

    A new edition of this best-selling introductory book to cover the latest SPSS versions 8.0 - 10.0 This book is designed to teach beginners how to use SPSS for Windows, the most widely used computer package for analysing quantitative data. Written in a clear, readable and non-technical style the author explains the basics of SPSS including the input of data, data manipulation, descriptive analyses and inferential techniques, including; - creating using and merging data files - creating and printing graphs and charts - parametric tests including t-tests, ANOVA, GLM - correlation, regression and factor analysis - non parametric tests and chi square reliability - obtaining neat print outs and tables - includes a CD-Rom containing example data files, syntax files, output files and Excel spreadsheets.

  6. Dynamic Principal Component Analysis with Nonoverlapping Moving Window and Its Applications to Epileptic EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of electroencephalography (EEG is the most useful diagnostic and monitoring procedure for epilepsy study. A reliable algorithm that can be easily implemented is the key to this procedure. In this paper a novel signal feature extraction method based on dynamic principal component analysis and nonoverlapping moving window is proposed. Along with this new technique, two detection methods based on extracted sparse features are applied to deal with signal classification. The obtained results demonstrated that our proposed methodologies are able to differentiate EEGs from controls and interictal for epilepsy diagnosis and to separate EEGs from interictal and ictal for seizure detection. Our approach yields high classification accuracy for both single-channel short-term EEGs and multichannel long-term EEGs. The classification performance of the method is also compared with other state-of-the-art techniques on the same datasets and the effect of signal variability on the presented methods is also studied.

  7. Use of nuclear techniques and hydrochemical analysis to evaluate the impact of tailings dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Flaviane M.; Fleming, Peter M.; Fonseca, Flávio H. da R.; Pimenta, Rafael C.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: flaviane@cdtn.br, E-mail: pmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: flavio.fonseca@cdtn.br, E-mail: colombopimenta@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The mining industry is a most important productive segment to country's economy. However, it is important to recognize and monitor the environmental impacts caused by mining, such as dams. They are structures built to store the waste produced by the beneficiation of ores, through chemical and mechanical processes classified as concentrate, crude ore or tailings. Tailings dams are associated with a potential risk of disruption and can therefore cause various images to the environment and population. Seepage flows and transport mechanisms are parameters to indicate the structural integrity. Nuclear technology can be used as a tool to trace these parameters. The objective of this work is to use isotopic techniques and hydrochemical characterization to detect leaks in dams belonging to a mining company. The isotopic techniques are used to measure the concentration of environmental isotopes in dam waters and their mediations, among which deuterium ({sup 2}H) and oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O) are measured. These isotopes will be used as environmental tracers to investigate the presence of infiltrations through the displacement of the water in its flow in the aquifer, since they are constituent of the molecule of water. In parallel, the basic physical chemical parameters and water quality parameters will be measured in-situ to aid in the interpretation of the results of the isotopic analyzes. Thus, it is intended to provide data that can help the environmental agencies to make decisions regarding the decommissioning of the mine. (author)

  8. Use of nuclear techniques and hydrochemical analysis to evaluate the impact of tailings dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Flaviane M.; Fleming, Peter M.; Fonseca, Flávio H. da R.; Pimenta, Rafael C.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2017-01-01

    The mining industry is a most important productive segment to country's economy. However, it is important to recognize and monitor the environmental impacts caused by mining, such as dams. They are structures built to store the waste produced by the beneficiation of ores, through chemical and mechanical processes classified as concentrate, crude ore or tailings. Tailings dams are associated with a potential risk of disruption and can therefore cause various images to the environment and population. Seepage flows and transport mechanisms are parameters to indicate the structural integrity. Nuclear technology can be used as a tool to trace these parameters. The objective of this work is to use isotopic techniques and hydrochemical characterization to detect leaks in dams belonging to a mining company. The isotopic techniques are used to measure the concentration of environmental isotopes in dam waters and their mediations, among which deuterium ( 2 H) and oxygen-18 ( 18 O) are measured. These isotopes will be used as environmental tracers to investigate the presence of infiltrations through the displacement of the water in its flow in the aquifer, since they are constituent of the molecule of water. In parallel, the basic physical chemical parameters and water quality parameters will be measured in-situ to aid in the interpretation of the results of the isotopic analyzes. Thus, it is intended to provide data that can help the environmental agencies to make decisions regarding the decommissioning of the mine. (author)

  9. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinued monitoring well into the 21st century as glacier retreat ... 53 E) and Galongco. (28. ◦. 19 N, 85. ◦. 51 E) are moraine-dammed lakes. ('co' means lake in the Tibetan language), located at elevations of 5220 m and 5089 m a.s.l. on the southeastern ..... Russia) and modeling of their potential outburst; Nat. Hazards 61 ...

  10. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes. 1. Introduction. As global climate warms, glaciers generally shrink and their retreat sometimes allows unstable forma- tion of moraine-dammed lakes.

  11. Thermal analysis of a solar collector with a standard approach and software used to study windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A method of calculating the overall heat loss coefficient of a solar collector was presented. The method was based on a standard approach used to obtain total window U-values. A model of the solar collector was developed with a finite element analysis (FEA) program. Heat loss from the solar collector was represented as the gross collector area; the overall heat loss coefficient; and the difference between the assumed mean absorber plate temperature and ambient temperature. The edge heat loss coefficient was approximated by assuming that there was a 1-D sideways heat flow through the edge area of the collector. Regional heat loss coefficients obtained with the model were then used to calculate the overall heat loss coefficient. Equations used for parallel tube type collectors were applied to the serpentine tube collector. The sightline of the solar collector was defined as being the position along the top cover below absorber plate. The same definitions for the extents of the frame, edge and center-of-glass regions for a window were applied to the collector. Multiple U-values were defined to account for heat flows outward across the top, bottom, and side surfaces of the collector. The absorber plate was simulated as being isothermal. Results were then compared with an experimental study in order to validate the method. The method was also compared with results obtained from a conventional analysis for estimating heat loss coefficients. It was concluded that the new method provided more accurate results than those obtained using the conventional method. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  12. Experimental analysis of energy performance of a ventilated window for heat recovery under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    transmittance introduced by the ventilation was higher than the effect of heat recovery. Accordingly, the use of the ventilated windows might be most suitable for window unit with low ventilation rates. The results correlated with theoretical calculations in standards and software. However, the concept......A ventilated window in cold climates can be considered as a passive heat recovery system. This study carried out tests to determine the thermal transmittance of ventilated windows by using the Guarded Hot Box. By testing under defined boundary conditions, the investigation described the heat...

  13. Purged window apparatus. [On-line spectroscopic analysis of gas flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, E.O.

    1982-04-05

    A purged window apparatus is described which utilizes tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube thereby preventing backstreaming of flowing gases under investigation in a chamber to which a plurality of similar purged apparatus is attached with the consequent result that spectroscopic analyses can be undertaken for lengthy periods without the necessity of interrupting the flow for cleaning or replacing the windows due to contamination.

  14. A population growth trend analysis for Neotricula aperta, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mekongi, after construction of the Pak-Mun dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Attwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth.Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy.The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work.

  15. A population growth trend analysis for Neotricula aperta, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mekongi, after construction of the Pak-Mun dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Stephen W; Upatham, E Suchart

    2013-11-01

    The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth. Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy. The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work.

  16. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced

  17. Comparative Study on Interface Elements, Thin-Layer Elements, and Contact Analysis Methods in the Analysis of High Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiang Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the numerical performance of three contact simulation methods, namely, the interface element, thin-layer element, and contact analysis methods, through the analysis of the contact behavior between the concrete face slab and the dam body of a high concrete-faced rockfill dam named Tianshengqiao-I in China. To investigate the accuracy and limitations of each method, the simulation results are compared in terms of the dam deformation, contact stress along the interface, stresses in the concrete face slab, and separation of the concrete face slab from the cushion layer. In particular, the predicted dam deformation and slab separation are compared with the in-situ observation data to classify these methods according to their agreement with the in-situ observations. It is revealed that the interface element and thin-layer element methods have their limitations in predicting contact stress, slab separation, and stresses in the concrete face slab if a large slip occurs. The contact analysis method seems to be the best choice whether the separation is finite or not.

  18. Impacts of dams on the suspended sediment load in the Chinese part of the Mekong - a quantitative analysis by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Weinmann, Claudia; Heege, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The construction of dams alters the flow regime and suspended sediment dynamics of a river essentially. This is also the case in the Lancang, the Chinese part of the Mekong river. The impact of the cascade of dams has been reported in a number of papers, but because the actual measured data are not accessible after the closure of the first dam in the early 1990s, these analysis are either based on the first gauging station outside China only, or just provides aggregated numbers over long time periods. In order to fill this knowledge and data gap, a long time series of Landsat images of the Lancang was used to determine the nephelometric turbidity, which in turn is closely correlated to the suspended sediments. Turbidity is determined by the backward scattering of light between 450 to 800nm wave length. The Landsat scenes provided 7-10 images per year allowing for a low but continuous temporal coverage of the river reach upstream of the Dachaoshan and Xiaowan dam. This data collection and analysis of this kind is the first publicly available for this part of the river. From these images the turbidity, resp. the suspended sediment load was derived along the covered river reach. The temporal analysis the suspended sediment loads showed the impact of the dams in terms of reduction of the mean sediment load as well as the variability within the time spans between dam closures. Particularly the closure of the huge Xiaowan dam in 2010 caused a dramatic decline both before and after the dam.

  19. Analysis of occupants' behavior related to the use of windows in German households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cali, Davide; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Mueller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    occupants to interact with windows and how these actions can be modeled. A method to analyze the probability of a state change of the windows, based on logistic regression, was applied to monitored data (measured each minute) from two refurbished demonstration buildings. The weather and the five rooms...

  20. Analysis of Energy Saving Potential and Optimization of Thermally Broken Fiberglass Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the energy saving potential and development process of fiberglass window frames, with intention for application in cold climates. A method is presented, where different means of improving thermal performance of a window frame are evaluated. Firstly, very simple geometries...

  1. Study of Dam-break Due to Overtopping of Four Small Dams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaraya Alhasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-break due to overtopping is one of the most common types of embankment dam failures. During the floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic, several small dams collapsed due to overtopping. In this paper, an analysis of the dam break process at the Luh, Velký Bělčický, Melín, and Metelský dams breached during the 2002 flood is presented. Comprehensive identification and analysis of the dam shape, properties of dam material and failure scenarios were carried out after the flood event to assemble data for the calibration of a numerical dam break model. A simple one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed for use in dam breach simulation, and a computer code was compiled. The model was calibrated using the field data mentioned above. Comparison of the erodibility parameters gained from the model showed reasonable agreement with the results of other authors.

  2. Social Sustainability Assessment across Provinces in China: An Analysis of Combining Intermediate Approach with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Window Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizhen Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories (i.e., radial and non-radial category in conventional DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis. Recently, intermediate approach was put forward as a new third category. Intermediate approach is a newly proposed approach and there are quite limited related studies. This study contributes to the DEA studies by putting forward an analytical framework of combining intermediate approach and DEA window analysis along with the concepts of natural and managerial disposability. Such combination is quite meaningful and this new approach has three important features. To the best of our knowledge, such type of research has never been investigated by the existing studies. As an application, this approach is used to evaluate the performance of provinces in China from 2007 to 2014. Furthermore, this study develops a series of performance indices from different perspectives. This study identifies the three important findings. Firstly, eco-technology advancements can achieve economic prosperity and environmental protection simultaneously, and thus should become a new direction of climate policies. Secondly, considerable differences exist in a series of indices that evaluates the performance of various provinces and pollutants from different respective. Then, sufficient attention should be given to the provinces and the pollutants with poor performance. Finally, the Chinese government should promote efficiency improvement by “catching up” for provinces with poor performance in the short term. In addition, the central government should reduce regional disparity in order to promote the social sustainability in the long term.

  3. Experimental analysis of single sided ventilation through a centre pivot roof window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Heiselberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    In the present study bidirectional airflow characteristics of a centre-pivot roof window were analysed in-situ. Both wind and temperature differences were present at the time of measurements. Tracer gas technique using N2O gas was used to estimate the air change rates in the experimental space....... Leakages through the experimental space were estimated using the blower door tests. Air-change rates increased with increase in the window sash opening angle. When the window was open all the way, with an average wind speed of 4 m/s, the average air-change rate was 2. Flow factor was used to characterise...... the bidirectional airflow rates through window. The flow factor of the window increased with increase in the sash opening angle....

  4. Analysis of occupants' behavior related to the use of windows in German households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cali, Davide; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Mueller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    , there is a need for a better understanding of occupants' behavior and in particular the reasons of their adjustments of building controls such as window opening, heating set points, etc. The purpose of this paper was to analyze window opening behavior in residential buildings, investigate which drivers lead...... occupants to interact with windows and how these actions can be modeled. A method to analyze the probability of a state change of the windows, based on logistic regression, was applied to monitored data (measured each minute) from two refurbished demonstration buildings. The weather and the five rooms...... to close a window was the daily average outdoor temperature, followed by the time of the day. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Settlement Analysis of Saturated Tailings Dam Treated by CFG Pile Composite Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement fly ash gravel (CFG pile composite foundation is an effective and economic foundation treatment approach, which is significant to building foundation, subgrade construction, and so forth. The present paper aims at investigating the settlement behaviors of saturated tailings dam soft ground under CFG pile composite foundation treatment, in which FEM and laboratory model test were utilized. The proposed findings demonstrate that CFG pile treatment is effective in reinforcing saturated tailings dam and loading has little influence on settlement of soil between piles. The variation of soil between piles settlement in FEM has a good agreement with the laboratory model test. Additionally, the cushion deformation modulus has a small effect on the composite foundation settlement, although the cushion thickness will generate certain influence on the settlement distribution of the composite foundation.

  6. Analysis and modelization of short-duration windows of seismic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriani, B.; Lacoume, J.L.; Martin, N.; Cliet, C.; Dubesset, M.

    1987-01-01

    The spectral analysis of a seismic arrival is of a great interest, but unfortunately the common Fourier analysis is unserviceable on short-time windows. So, in order to obtain the spectral characteristics of the dominant components of a seismic signal on a short-time interval, the authors study parametric methods. At first, the autoregressive methods are able to localize a small number of non-stationary pure frequencies. But the amplitude determination is impossible with these methods. So, they develop a combination of AR and Capon's methods. In the Capon's method, the amplitude is conserved for a given frequency, at the very time when the contribution of the other frequencies is minimized. Finally, to characterize completely the different pure-frequency dominant components of the signal and to be able to reconstruct the signal and to be able to reconstruct the signal with these elements, the authors need also the phase and the attenuation; for that, they use the Prony's method where the signal is represented by a sum of damped sinusoids. This last method is used to modelize an offset VSP. It is shown that, using four frequencies and their attributes (amplitude, phase, attenuation), it is possible to modelize quasi-exactly the section. When reconstructing the signal, if one (or more) frequency is eliminated, an efficient filtering can be applied. The AR methods, and Prony's in particular, are efficient tools for signal component decomposition and information compression

  7. Application of the Linux cluster for exhaustive window haplotype analysis using the FBAT and Unphased programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Hiroyuki; Lidral, Andrew C; Ni, Jun

    2008-05-28

    Genetic association studies have been used to map disease-causing genes. A newly introduced statistical method, called exhaustive haplotype association study, analyzes genetic information consisting of different numbers and combinations of DNA sequence variations along a chromosome. Such studies involve a large number of statistical calculations and subsequently high computing power. It is possible to develop parallel algorithms and codes to perform the calculations on a high performance computing (HPC) system. However, most existing commonly-used statistic packages for genetic studies are non-parallel versions. Alternatively, one may use the cutting-edge technology of grid computing and its packages to conduct non-parallel genetic statistical packages on a centralized HPC system or distributed computing systems. In this paper, we report the utilization of a queuing scheduler built on the Grid Engine and run on a Rocks Linux cluster for our genetic statistical studies. Analysis of both consecutive and combinational window haplotypes was conducted by the FBAT (Laird et al., 2000) and Unphased (Dudbridge, 2003) programs. The dataset consisted of 26 loci from 277 extended families (1484 persons). Using the Rocks Linux cluster with 22 compute-nodes, FBAT jobs performed about 14.4-15.9 times faster, while Unphased jobs performed 1.1-18.6 times faster compared to the accumulated computation duration. Execution of exhaustive haplotype analysis using non-parallel software packages on a Linux-based system is an effective and efficient approach in terms of cost and performance.

  8. Analysis environment meteorology data around PPNY using PC with windows system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaya, S. G.; Yazid, M.; Isman, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Installation of a small station to measure some meteorological parameters had been done in Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre (PPNY) in order to keep the weather conditions under control, especially wind direction, wind speed, and outdoor temperature. The anemometer with temperature probe (WS-10T) was connected to the game adapter of the Personal Computer (PC) using 40 feet flat cable. A data file entry was automatically written by WS-10T at six minutes interval whenever the program was in operation. The data files are labeled by date as MMDD.log (MM=Months, DD=Day) and if the program is operated continuously. a new file be started each midnight. By the analysis data using SPSS for windows. The range of temperature were 67 o F until 97.6 o F . he maximum speed of wind was 17.7 Mph and the frequency of wind direction at the most was to the North (18.9 %). The analysis of meteorological data around vicinity was done to get the annual profile of wind speed , wind direction and outdoor temperature. (author)

  9. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  10. Analysis of Energy Saving Potential and Optimization of Thermally Broken Fiberglass Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    of a window frame can be significantly reduced by these means. Performance of an actual fiberglass frame optimized in this work is significantly improved, but still not competitive against state of the art frames. This indicates that more drastic improvements need to be done in order to achieve satisfying......This paper elaborates on the energy saving potential and development process of fiberglass window frames, with intention for application in cold climates. A method is presented, where different means of improving thermal performance of a window frame are evaluated. Firstly, very simple geometries...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES OPERATING SYSTEM WINDOWS 8 FOR LEARNING THE PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg M. Spirin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many innovations such as interface and software development were realized in Windows 8 of Microsoft Corporation that certainly must be taken into account in computer science teaching. The latest software platform of Windows 8 — WinRT is completely new implementation of ideas which has been implemented in technologies Win32 API and NET. The article describes the software development technology used in the environment of the operating system, Windows 8. There is presented the information about the development of these technologies. It is substantiated expediency of some approaches to consideration the latest technologies of software development in learning programming.

  12. Analysis of Casimir forces with window functions : Kramers-Kronig general approach for real measured dielectric data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shpak, O.; Palasantzas, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we describe how the window method, which has been used with ideal Kramers-Kroning (K-K) consistent dielectric functions, is affected by real optical data where some degree of K-K inconsistency is always present. Analysis using measured data of the frequency-dependent dielectric function

  13. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...... of ethnographic tools that required their involvement, such as making a diary of their heating experiences during a random week in the summer of 2014, taking photos of windows and sending postcards with specific tasks....

  14. Analysis of pressure distribution originated over the external plate window of the RA-10 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, M A; Garcia, J.C

    2012-01-01

    The RA10 is a pool type multipurpose research reactor. The core consists of a rectangular array of MTR fuel type. The refrigeration system at full power and normal operations conditions is carried out by an ascendant flow through the core. To ensure the refrigeration in the sub-channel formed between two adjacent fuels, there is a window orifice over the outer fuel plate. Part of the coolant flow that gets into the fuel will be derived by the window orifice to the sub-channel. Due to the change in the coolant flow direction is necessary to establish the pressure distribution originated over the window In order to achieve this goal a CFD commercial code (FLUENT v6.3.26) was used to perform numerical simulations to obtain the pressure distribution over the window. A quarter of the fuel was modeled using proper symmetry and boundaries conditions (author)

  15. Environmental, economic and social analysis of materials for doors and windows in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundra, U.G. Yasantha; Babel, Sandhya; Sharp, Alice [Environmental Technology Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, School of Energy and Materials Building, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-05-15

    This paper compares the environmental, economic and social impacts of two types of doors and windows (elements), namely timber and aluminum taking into consideration the life cycle perspective. These elements are widely used for the buildings in Sri Lanka. Thus, it will help in the decision-making process when selecting materials for these elements. Major materials used for these elements are timber, brass, glass, paint, aluminum, rubber, steel and PVC boards. Environmental burdens associated with these materials are analyzed in terms of embodied energy, and environmental impacts that are relevant to Sri Lanka, such as global warming (GWP), acidification (ACP) and nutrient enrichment (NEP). Economic analysis is done using market prices of materials and affordability for those materials. Social concerns such as thermal comfort, good interior (aesthetics), ability to construct fast, and durability are analyzed based on the data collected through the questionnaires and also, interviews with the stakeholders of the buildings such as engineers, architects, building contractors and building users. It was found that timber elements are superior to aluminum elements in environmental scores (GWP, ACP and NEP). On economic score, also, timber elements are better. But on social score, aluminum elements are better than timber. It was also found that the higher the recycling percentage of aluminum, the higher the environmental favorability of the aluminum. (author)

  16. A deep analysis of the Siles dam (Jaén, Spain) area with Sentinel-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Centolanza, G.; Escayo, J.; Duro, J.; Mallorqui, J. J.; Garcia-Cerezo, P.

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel-1 was the first Earth Observation satellite of the Copernicus program launched in 2014. Thanks to its advanced C-band radar payload, it is capable of offering SAR images with a great coverage (300x300 Km) at a non-square resolution of 5x20 m. The mission is designed to have a great revisiting time, recently improved up to 6 days thanks to the twin sensor Sentinel-1b launched in April 2016. All these characteristics make of this sensor a very powerful data source for continuous monitoring over large areas worldwide and for different geological applications. However, it is still pending of demonstration what could be the contribution of this mission for the monitoring of small and isolated critical infrastructures, typically performed with high resolution and X-band data.This presentation aims to present and discuss first results in Spain achieved on the application of this mission for the monitoring and survey of relatively small and isolated hydrological critical infrastructures like a dam and surroundings. In this work we present the performance on the measurements of deformations over the Siles dam in Jaén, South of Spain, considering the resolution of the sensor, the revisiting time, the surrounding topography and most important the orientation of the dam.It is done through the PSI processing of this very large stack of data performed by using the Subsidence software, based in the Coherent Pixels Technique (CPT) algorithm, which allows us to derive very dense time series for correlation analysis of deformation trends during the filling process in the reservoir.

  17. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Palmer, C. S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Loftin, S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Osiek, B. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2014-08-18

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  18. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, Diane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, Leslie A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Palmer, C. S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Loftin, S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Osiek, B. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  19. EVALUASI KEAMANAN DAM JATILUHUR BERBASIS INDEKS RESIKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazbek Ishbaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dams have very important roles to agricultural activities. Especially, West Java with 240,000 hectares of agricultural land, needs a good dam structure that can be used sustainably. Jatiluhur dam in Purwakarta, West Java is one of big dams in Indonesia which has important rules not only for Purwakarta but also for Jakarta, Karawang and Bekasi residents. A study and observation about safety and dam stability is needed to prevent any damage. The purpose of this research were to identify parameters that influenced dam safety and to evaluate dam reliability based on index tools. Analysis was done using risk index tools. The result showed that the condition of the dam of Jatiluhur is still satisfied with indicators, "Idam"-750. The total index risk was 127.22 and the safety factor was 83.04 out of 100. Therefore, Jatiluhur dam could be classified as safe and no need for particular treatments. Jatiluhur dam can be operated in normal condition or abnormal condition with periodic monitoring. Keywords: dam safety, evaluation, Jatiluhur Dam, risk index tools

  20. ANALYSIS OF JURE LANDSLIDE DAM, SINDHUPALCHOWK USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On 2nd August 2014, a rainfall-induced massive landslide hit Jure village, Sindhupalchowk killing 156 people at a distance of 70 km North-East of Kathmandu, Nepal. The landslide was a typical slope failure with massive rock fragments, sand and soil. A total of estimated 6 million cubic meters debris raised more than 100 m from the water level and affected opposite side of the bank. The landslide blocked the Sunkoshi River completely forming an estimated 8 million cubic meter lake of 3km length and 300-350m width upstream. It took nearly 12 hour to fill the lake and overflow the debris dam. The lake affected five Village Development Committees (VDC including highway, school, health post, postal service, police station, VDC office and temple upstream. The bottom of the dam was composed of highly cemented material and the derbies affected Sunkoshi hydropower downstream. Moreover, it caused the potential threat of Lake Outburst Flood. The lake was released by blasting off part of the landslide blockade and facilitated release of water from the lake. With the help of Remote Sensing (RS, series satellite images were used to identified, compared with previous state and quick estimation of potential treat was analysed. Using geographic information System (GIS technology, estimation of volume, affected households, service centres, parcels etc. in the area was possible. In such hilly regions where disaster are very frequent, using GIS and RS technology comes very handy for immediate planning and response.

  1. Analysis of Observation Data of Earth-Rockfill Dam Based on Cloud Probability Distribution Density Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liwei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring data on an earth-rockfill dam constitutes a form of spatial data. Such data include much uncertainty owing to the limitation of measurement information, material parameters, load, geometry size, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the calculation model. So the cloud probability density of the monitoring data must be addressed. In this paper, the cloud theory model was used to address the uncertainty transition between the qualitative concept and the quantitative description. Then an improved algorithm of cloud probability distribution density based on a backward cloud generator was proposed. This was used to effectively convert certain parcels of accurate data into concepts which can be described by proper qualitative linguistic values. Such qualitative description was addressed as cloud numerical characteristics-- {Ex, En, He}, which could represent the characteristics of all cloud drops. The algorithm was then applied to analyze the observation data of a piezometric tube in an earth-rockfill dam. And experiment results proved that the proposed algorithm was feasible, through which, we could reveal the changing regularity of piezometric tube’s water level. And the damage of the seepage in the body was able to be found out.

  2. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  3. NRC inventory of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information

  4. Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

    1955-12-01

    An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

  5. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Palmer, C. S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration; Loftin, S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration; Osiek, B. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration

    2015-09-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2014. It is the sixth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013), and a report released June 2014 examined water year 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014).

  6. Deformation Monitoring of Geomechanical Model Test and Its Application in Overall Stability Analysis of a High Arch Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomechanical model testing is an important method for studying the overall stability of high arch dams. The main task of a geomechanical model test is deformation monitoring. Currently, many types of deformation instruments are used for deformation monitoring of dam models, which provide valuable information on the deformation characteristics of the prototype dams. However, further investigation is required for assessing the overall stability of high arch dams through analyzing deformation monitoring data. First, a relationship for assessing the stability of dams is established based on the comprehensive model test method. Second, a stability evaluation system is presented based on the deformation monitoring data, together with the relationships between the deformation and overloading coefficient. Finally, the comprehensive model test method is applied to study the overall stability of the Jinping-I high arch dam. A three-dimensional destructive test of the geomechanical model dam is conducted under reinforced foundation conditions. The deformation characteristics and failure mechanisms of the dam abutments and foundation were investigated. The test results indicate that the stability safety factors of the dam abutments and foundation range from 5.2 to 6.0. These research results provide an important scientific insight into the design, construction, and operation stages of this project.

  7. Update of the NIOSH life table analysis system: a person-years analysis program for the windows computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Hein, Misty J; Raudabaugh, William M; Ruder, Avima M; Silver, Sharon R; Spaeth, Steven; Steenland, Kyle; Petersen, Martin R; Waters, Kathleen M

    2011-12-01

    Person-years analysis is a fundamental tool of occupational epidemiology. A life table analysis system (LTAS), previously developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, was limited by its platform and analysis and reporting capabilities. We describe the updating of LTAS for the Windows operating system (LTAS.NET) with improved properties. A group of epidemiologists, programmers, and statisticians developed software, platform, and computing requirements. Statistical methods include the use of (indirectly) standardized mortality ratios, (directly) standardized rate ratios, confidence intervals, and P values based on the normal approximation and exact Poisson methods, and a trend estimator for linear exposure-response associations. We show examples using LTAS.NET to stratify and analyze multiple fixed and time-dependent variables. Data import, stratification, and reporting options are highly flexible. Users may export stratified data for Poisson regression modeling. LTAS.NET incorporates improvements that will facilitate more complex person-years analysis of occupational cohort data. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparison of Kayzero for Windows and k0-IAEA software packages for k0 standardization in neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubešová, Marie; Kučera, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 654, č. 1 (2011), s. 206-212 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0363 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * ko standardization * Kayzero for Windows program * ko-IAEA program Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  9. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal, institutional and financial obstacles, and incentives to the development of hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam on the Monongahela River are analyzed. The study is one of five studies prepared by the Energy Law Institute pursuant to a contract with the National Conference of State Legislators. Each of the five studies views dam development by a different category of developer. These categories include a municipality, a public utility, a state, a private developer, and a cooperative. The Maxwell case study concerns potential development by Allegheny Electric Cooperative. Thus, the analysis of obstacles and incentives is focused on those factors which have particular impact on a cooperative. Subjects covered include a description of the site; developer description; the feasibility study; the economic feasibility; financing; Federal licensing by FERC; state licensing; local interest and requirements; the effect of locks and dam operation by the Army Corp of Engineers; and power marketing.

  10. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-04-21

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental

  11. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy to predict soil properties using windows and full-spectrum analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B; van Henten, Eldert J

    2013-11-27

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0-15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0-15 cm soil depths than in the 15-30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.

  12. Back Analysis of the Permeability Coefficient of a High Core Rockfill Dam Based on a RBF Neural Network Optimized Using the PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to determine the seepage field parameters of a high core rockfill dam using the seepage data obtained during operation. For the Nuozhadu high core rockfill dam, a back analysis model is proposed using the radial basis function neural network optimized using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO-RBFNN and the technology of finite element analysis for solving the saturated-unsaturated seepage field. The recorded osmotic pressure curves of osmometers, which are distributed in the maximum cross section, are applied to this back analysis. The permeability coefficients of the dam materials are retrieved using the measured seepage pressure values while the steady state seepage condition exists; that is, the water lever remains unchanged. Meanwhile, the parameters are tested using the unstable saturated-unsaturated seepage field while the water level rises. The results show that the permeability coefficients are reasonable and can be used to study the real behavior of a seepage field of a high core rockfill dam during its operation period.

  13. Stress Analysis of CFG Pile Composite Foundation in Consolidating Saturated Mine Tailings Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement fly-ash gravel (CFG pile is a widely used ground reinforcement technique. This paper aims to address the mechanical characteristics of CFG composite foundation in consolidating saturated mine tailings (MTs dam. The field static load tests were employed to explore the bearing capacity of the CFG composite foundation, and finite element (FE models in three dimensions validated through comparison with experimental results were used to discuss the pile-soil stress distribution and pile-soil stress ratio of the CFG composite foundation. The results indicate that the distribution of earth pressure and pile stress is relatively homogeneous and stable over depth and load, while the development of CFG composite foundation bearing capacity is insufficient, in which the developed bearing capacity of CFG piles is less than 50% of its characteristic value. Additionally, compared with the laboratory model test results, the pile-soil stress ratio decreases with the increasing of the load in FEM results proved to better conform to the actual engineering conditions. Furthermore, the deformation modulus and thickness of cushion exert significant influence on pile-soil stress ratio and integral bearing capacity of CFG composite foundation.

  14. Worldwide review of existing standards and procedures for monitoring and analysing dam deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, A.; Avella, S.; Frodge, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study was carried out of existing standards and procedures for dam monitoring worldwide. The survey covers worldwide distribution of large dams, dam failures and dam safety legislation, required accuracy and frequency of monitoring surveys, and geometrical analysis of dam deformations. Information is tabulated, on a per-country basis, of number of dam types, actual or preferred method of monitoring, dam safety legislation in place, standards and specifications for monitoring, whether automation of monitoring is included, whether geodetic systems have been designed, and sample specifications for monitoring concrete dams as recommended by the Swiss National Committee on Large Dams. 29 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaiotov, Stefan; Simeonovski, Ivan; Levterova, Victoria; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Brankova, Nadia; Tankova, Kristin; Campbell, Katrina; Jacob, Pauline; Helmi, Karim; Boots, Bas; D'Ugo, Emilio; Marcheggiani, Stefania; Mancini, Laura; Breitenbach, Ulrich; Mielke, Erik; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-06-30

    The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM) is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected-24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012-2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  16. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  17. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaiotov, Stefan; Simeonovski, Ivan; Levterova, Victoria; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Brankova, Nadia; Tankova, Kristin; Campbell, Katrina; Jacob, Pauline; Helmi, Karim; Boots, Bas; D’Ugo, Emilio; Marcheggiani, Stefania; Mancini, Laura; Breitenbach, Ulrich; Mielke, Erik; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM) is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported. PMID:26133133

  18. Impact of the ATATÜRK DAM Lake on Agro-Meteorological Aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia Region Using Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.

    2012-07-01

    meteorological time series. For all images, geometric corrections including digital elevation information and Tasseled Cap transformations were carried out to attain changes in surface reflectance and denoting disturbance of Landsat reflectance data. Consequently, thematic maps of the affected areas were created by using appropriate visualization and classification techniques in conjunction with geographical information system. The resulting dataset was used in a linear trend analysis to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation-cover development. Analysis has been conducted in ecological units that have been determined by climate and land cover/use. Based on the results of the trend analysis and the primary factor analysis, selected parts of South-eastern Anatolia region are analyzed. The results showed that approximately 368 km2 of agricultural fields have been affected because of inundation due to the Atatürk Dam Lake. However, irrigated agricultural fields have been increased by 56.3% of the total area (1552 km2 of 2756km2) on Harran Plain within the period of 1984 - 2011. This study presents an effective method for time-series analysis that can be used to regularly monitor irrigated fields in the Southeastern Anatolia region.

  19. IMPACT OF THE ATATÜRK DAM LAKE ON AGRO-METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozcan

    2012-07-01

    using a 30-year meteorological time series. For all images, geometric corrections including digital elevation information and Tasseled Cap transformations were carried out to attain changes in surface reflectance and denoting disturbance of Landsat reflectance data. Consequently, thematic maps of the affected areas were created by using appropriate visualization and classification techniques in conjunction with geographical information system. The resulting dataset was used in a linear trend analysis to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation-cover development. Analysis has been conducted in ecological units that have been determined by climate and land cover/use. Based on the results of the trend analysis and the primary factor analysis, selected parts of South-eastern Anatolia region are analyzed. The results showed that approximately 368 km2 of agricultural fields have been affected because of inundation due to the Atatürk Dam Lake. However, irrigated agricultural fields have been increased by 56.3% of the total area (1552 km2 of 2756km2 on Harran Plain within the period of 1984 – 2011. This study presents an effective method for time-series analysis that can be used to regularly monitor irrigated fields in the Southeastern Anatolia region.

  20. Comorbidities confounding the outcomes of surgery for third window syndrome: Outlier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackym, P Ashley; Mackay-Promitas, Heather T; Demirel, Shaban; Gianoli, Gerard J; Gizzi, Martin S; Carter, Dale M; Siker, David A

    2017-10-01

    Patients with third window syndrome and superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) symptoms whose surgical outcomes placed them as outliers were systematically studied to determine comorbidities that were responsible for their poor outcomes due to these confounding factors. Observational analytic case-control study in a tertiary referral center. Twelve adult patients with clinical SSCD syndrome underwent surgical management and had outcomes that did not resolve all of their subjective symptoms. In addition to one of the neurotologists, 2 neurologists (one specializing in migraine and the other a neuro-ophthalmologist), and a psychologist clinician-investigator completed comprehensive evaluations. Neuropsychology test batteries included: the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic; Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7); Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale; the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, including the 3 domains of verbal memory, visual memory, and attention/concentration; Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The control cohort was comprised of 17 participants who previously underwent surgery for third window syndrome that resulted in the expected outcomes of resolution of their third window syndrome symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. There was a high rate of psychological comorbidity (n = 6) in the outlier cohort; multiple traumatic brain injuries were also a confounding element (n = 10). One patient had elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting to control the recurrence of dehiscence and one patient with a drug-induced Parkinson-like syndrome and idiopathic progressive neurological degenerative process. Components of the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 results suggest that these instruments would be useful as screening tools preoperatively to identify psychological comorbidities

  1. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, AliReza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  2. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams

  3. Analysis on Time Window of Shared Parking in Hospitals Based on Parking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are essential components of a city; huge traffic demand is generated and attracted, causing contradiction between parking supply and demand. By sharing parking berths, limited space can serve more demand which is beneficial to alleviating parking problems. Aimed at improving the capacity of shared parking, the paper analyzes four parking groups in typical hospitals, which are medical staff, outpatients, emergency patients, and visiting groups. The parking demand of medical staff is rigid. For outpatients and visiting groups, longer walking distance is acceptable and more attention is paid to parking fee. By contrast, emergency patients can accept shorter walking distance and focus more on convenience due to urgency. Under this circumstance, parking behaviors selection models are established by means of Multinomial Logit Model. On this basis, time value is adopted to calculate the tolerance of alterative parking time. Moreover, this paper explores the variation of time window, under different parking impedance. A case study is conducted and suggests that start and end point of a certain time window can be influenced by external factors.

  4. A CUSUM analysis of discharge patterns by a hydroelectric dam and discussion of potential effects on the upstream migration of American eel elvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, B.M.; Harvie, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    American eel elvers are among the diadromous fishes native to the Saint John River in New Brunswick that have been affected by the construction of hydroelectric dams. Before 1980, large numbers of elvers were observed entering the fishway of the Mactaquac Dam in May and June for upstream migration, but their presence abruptly ceased after 1980. A study was conducted to determine why they disappeared at the Mactaquac Dam. A cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis was performed to determine the variability in magnitude, duration, timing, frequency, and rate of change in the daily and seasonal average level of water discharge associated with the installation of the last two of six turbines in late 1979 and early 1980. It is believed that the rapid, short-term fluctuations in water discharge which is characteristic of peaking hydroelectric dam operations, could seriously affect life cycle transitions of diadromous fishes. Upstream and downstream migration of the elvers may be affected along with their abundance, diversity and productivity. Young fish in particular are at higher risk of mortality during high flows, depending on the species. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  5. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Western Area Power Administration)

    2012-07-16

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2011. It is the third report in a series examining financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), and a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the

  6. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2015. It is the seventh report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined WYs 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011); a report released in August 2011 examined WYs 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011); a report released June 2012 examined WY 2011 (Poch et al. 2012); a report released April 2013 examined WY 2012 (Poch et al. 2013); a report released June 2014 examined WY 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014); and a report released September 2015 examined WY 2014 (Graziano et al. 2015). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. Only one experimental release was conducted at GCD in WY 2015; specifically, a high flow experimental (HFE) release conducted in November 2014. For this experimental release, financial costs of approximately $2.1 million were incurred because the HFE required sustained water releases that exceeded the powerplant’s maximum flow rate. In addition, during the month of the experiment, operators were not allowed to shape GCD power production to either follow firm power customer loads or to respond to market prices. This study identifies the main factors that contribute to HFE costs and examines the interdependencies among these factors. It applies an integrated set of tools to estimate financial impacts by simulating the GCD operations under two scenarios: (1) a baseline scenario that mimics both HFE operations during the experiment and during the rest of the year when it complies with the 1996 ROD operating criteria, and (2) a “without experiments” scenario that is identical to the baseline except it assumes that the HFE did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the

  7. An improved solution of local window parameters setting for local singularity analysis based on Excel VBA batch processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daojun; Cheng, Qiuming; Agterberg, Frits; Chen, Zhijun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper Excel VBA is used for batch calculation in Local Singularity Analysis (LSA), which is for the information extracting from different kinds of geoscience data. Capabilities and advantages of a new module called Batch Tool for Local Singularity Index Mapping (BTLSIM) are: (1) batch production of series of local singularity maps with different settings of local window size, shape and orientation parameters; (2) local parameter optimization based on statistical tests; and (3) provision of extra output layers describing how spatial changes induced by parameter optimization are related to spatial structure of the original input layers.

  8. Role of SeqA and Dam in Escherichia coli gene expression: A global/microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Marinus, M.G.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2003-01-01

    High-density oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor global transcription patterns in Escherichia coli with various levels of Dam and SeqA proteins. Cells lacking Dam methyltransferase showed a modest increase in transcription of the genes belonging to the SOS regulon. Bacteria devoid...... of the SeqA protein, which preferentially binds hemimethylated DNA, were found to have a transcriptional profile almost identical to WT bacteria overexpressing Dam methyltransferase. The latter two strains differed from WT in two ways. First, the origin proximal genes were transcribed with increased...... frequency due to increased gene dosage. Second, chromosomal domains of high transcriptional activity alternate with regions of low activity, and our results indicate that the activity in each domain is modulated in the same way by SeqA deficiency or Dam overproduction. We suggest that the methylation status...

  9. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  10. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  11. Alpine dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  12. Analysis of free and forced convection in air flow windows using numerical simulation of heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi, Mohammad; Ghadamian, Hossein [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Energy Engineering, Science and Research Branch; Hamidi, Aliasghar A. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fazelpour, Farivar [Islamic Azad Univ. of South Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Energy System Engineering; Behghadam, Mehdi [Islamic Azad Univ. of Roudehen Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    The present paper describes a two-dimensional finite volume numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer in airflow windows by free and forced convection techniques. The governing equations are the fully elliptic, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The simple algorithm is employed to correct the pressure term. The second-order upwind scheme is used to discretize the convection terms. The (k-{epsilon}/RNG) turbulence model is applied for the flow simulation. The mesh used is the body-fitted, multi-plane grid system. Results on the variations of velocity and temperature profiles with geometrical parameters, at different temperature and velocity, for heat transfer by free and forced convection techniques are presented. Comparisons of the present results on temperature distribution for forced convection and for free convection with the available experimental forced convection data indicate that the airflow-influenced forced convection methods are considerably enhanced. (orig.)

  13. Geophysical and hydrologic analysis of an earthen dam site in southern Westchester County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anthony; Stumm, Frederick; Joesten, Peter K.; Noll, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Ninety percent of the drinking water for New York City passes through the Hillview Reservoir facility in the City of Yonkers, Westchester County, New York. In the past, several seeps located downslope from the reservoir have flowed out from the side of the steepest slope at the southern end of the earthen embankment. One seep that has been flowing continuously was discovered during an inspection of the embankment in 1999. Efforts were made in 2001 to locate the potential sources of the continuous flowing seep. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York City Department of Environmental Protection, began a cooperative study to investigate the relevant hydrogeologic framework to characterize the local groundwater-flow system and to determine possible sources of the seeps. The two agencies used hydrologic and surface geophysical techniques to assess the earthen embankment of the Hillview Reservoir. Between April 1, 2005 and March 1, 2008, water levels were measured manually each month at 46 wells surrounding the reservoir, and flow was measured monthly at three of the five seeps on the embankment. Water levels were measured hourly in the East Basin of the reservoir, at 24 of 46 wells, and discharge was measured hourly at two of the five seeps. Slug tests were performed at 16 wells to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material surrounding the screened zone. Estimated hydraulic conductivities for 25 wells on the southern embankment ranged from 0.0063 to 1.2 feet per day and averaged 0.17 foot per day. The two-dimensional resistivity surveys indicate a subsurface mound of electrically conductive material (low-resistivity zone) beneath the terrace area (top of dam) surrounding the reservoir with a distinct elevation increase closer to the crest. Two-dimensional shear wave velocity surveys indicate a similar structure of the high shear wave velocity materials (high-velocity zone), increasing in elevation toward the crest and

  14. Evaluation of uncertainty in dam-break analysis resulting from dynamic representation of a reservoir; Evaluation de l'incertitude due au modele de representation du reservoir dans les analyses de rupture de barrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchamen, G.W.; Gaucher, J. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Direction Barrage et Environnement, Unite Barrages et Hydraulique

    2010-08-15

    Owners and operators of high capacity dams in Quebec have a legal obligation to conduct dam break analysis for each of their dams in order to ensure public safety. This paper described traditional hydraulic methodologies and models used to perform dam break analyses. In particular, it examined the influence of the reservoir drawdown submodel on the numerical results of a dam break analysis. Numerical techniques from the field of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics have provided the basis for developing effective hydrodynamic codes that reduce the level of uncertainties associated with dam-break analysis. A static representation that considers the storage curve was compared with a dynamic representation based on Saint-Venant equations and the real bathymetry of the reservoir. The comparison was based on breach of reservoir, maximum water level, flooded area, and wave arrival time in the valley downstream. The study showed that the greatest difference in attained water level was in the vicinity of the dam, and the difference decreased as the distance from the reservoir increased. The analysis showed that the static representation overestimated the maximum depth and inundated area by as much as 20 percent. This overestimation can be reduced by 30 to 40 percent by using dynamic representation. A dynamic model based on a synthetic trapezoidal reconstruction of the storage curve was used, given the lack of bathymetric data for the reservoir. It was concluded that this model can significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with the static model. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of grouting curtain on the basis of the analysis of groundwater temperature fluctuations behind the dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors considered the technique of evaluating the performance of a grouting curtain basing on the analysis of mathematical forecasting and regular measurements of water temperature in the reservoir and in the rock mass behind the dam. The initial data for the solution of heat transfer problem are the rate of filtration, obtained from the solution of the stationary problem of filtration, and the experimental factor, generalizing thermophysical properties of rocks. For calculating the period of time from to the change of the water temperature in the reservoir till the change of water temperature at the reference point of the rock mass a computer program was designed, which allows defining the path and time of filtration from the reservoir to the reference point in the rock mass with the help of the reverse conversion on flow lines. The calculation was carried out from the point in question in the rock mass till the crossing paths of filtration with the bottom boundary of the reservoir. As an example, we present the results of computational studies of filtration and temperature regimes in the rock foundation of a concrete dam at the design work of the grouting curtain and in case of the presence of pervious area. The calculations were performed with a time step dt = 2 days. At each time step, with account of water motion along the lines of the current through the rock mass, the previous position of the reference points in space has been determined, for which the value of the velocity vector of filtration field was corrected. In the first case, the motion of water from the reservoir was carried out in the circumvention of the grouting curtain. In the second case, the motion of water took place from the reservoir through the permeable portion of the grouting curtain. The change of the water temperature during its seepage from the water reservoir through permeable area of grouting curtain because of conductive heat transmission in

  16. A novel power harmonic analysis method based on Nuttall-Kaiser combination window double spectrum interpolated FFT algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Chen, Yiyang; Flesch, Rodolfo C. C.

    2017-11-01

    Harmonics pose a great threat to safe and economical operation of power grids. Therefore, it is critical to detect harmonic parameters accurately to design harmonic compensation equipment. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is widely used for electrical popular power harmonics analysis. However, the barrier effect produced by the algorithm itself and spectrum leakage caused by asynchronous sampling often affects the harmonic analysis accuracy. This paper examines a new approach for harmonic analysis based on deducing the modifier formulas of frequency, phase angle, and amplitude, utilizing the Nuttall-Kaiser window double spectrum line interpolation method, which overcomes the shortcomings in traditional FFT harmonic calculations. The proposed approach is verified numerically and experimentally to be accurate and reliable.

  17. Descriptive characteristics of the large Italian dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dello Vicario, E.; Petaccia, A.; Savanella, V.

    1999-01-01

    In the present note the characteristics of the Italian dams are examined, underlining, in a statistical view, story, geographical location, types and use of the most important works. Such a review can be useful for a more detailed analysis, both for the dams characterization and for further studies relevant to water resources utilization [it

  18. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  19. Analysis of methods to determine the sediment retained by check dams and to estimate erosion rates in badlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Diez, Iván; Navarro-Hevia, Joaquín; San Martín Fernández, Roberto; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Virginia; Mongil-Manso, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Check dams are useful structures at a catchment scale to determine erosion rates using the sediment retained in their wedges. Several studies employ different complex, accurate methods to estimate them. We likewise evaluate which catchment variables affect these erosion rate values. Our study aims to compare five frequently used methods (two prismatic and three topographic) to evaluate how they estimate total sediment yield (TSY) at two locations in Central Spain. For this purpose, we determine the sediment trapped in each area by 25 check dams built during the twentieth century. We also evaluate the catchment variables influencing TSY rates. Results show differences between methods in TSY determinations at the 90 % confidence level, although there are no differences between locations or the location-method iteration. We found that the natural logarithm of the drainage area was the factor that best explained TSY, presenting a negative trend (partial correlation coefficient, 0.83). Vegetation cover factor had no influence in estimating TSY for the two locations. We conclude that the determination of TSY rates depends on the chosen method and four related variables: check dam length, check dam height, wedge length and check dam drainage area. Furthermore, it is important to analyse and select the best method to estimate erosion rates based on the sediment retained by check dams depending on the characteristics of the study area (channel and sediment wedge shape), method accuracy and field effort. A more accurate estimation of erosion rates will allow researchers to determine the role of check dams in controlling sediment in each specific restoration project.

  20. A dome-shaped BE window for x-rays and its thermal and thermal stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin (about 10 μm to 300 μm in thickness) beryllium foil that is brazed onto a cooled frame. Beryllium (Be) is a low-atomic-number material so that a thin beryllium window will let useful x-rays pass through. Because beryllium has a relatively high strength and good plasticity, the thin beryllium window can keep the vacuum system tight without failure when carefully engineered. Even if the majority of high-energy photons from x-rays is transmitted through the window, some low-energy photons will be absorbed. This absorbed part turns into heat in the window. A good design of a beryllium window should be as thin as possible so that more low-energy photons can be transmitted through the window while it can still withstand the heat load and vacuum pressure. Due to the high heat load from the third-generation synchrotron radiation X-ray beams, it becomes a very challenging problem to design a safe window. This paper presents a new dome-shaped Be window concept. A novel dome-shaped Be window design with varying cross section is proposed, and its thermal and thermal stress analyses are presented in this paper. All the safety criteria for the window are checked after a full understanding of this window's behavior under heat and pressure. The dome Be window analyses are based on the assumption that the low-energy photon transmission at the first harmonic of APS Undulator A (4.09 keV) through the filter/window assembly should be at least 50 percent of the original photon flux. The results promise that a feasible filter/window assembly for APS Undulator A can be designed and built

  1. Creation of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: analysis of planning experience and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC ' Gidrospetsproekt' (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Results of complex instrument observations and video taping during large-scale blasts detonated for creation of the dam at the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Kyrgyz Republic are analyzed. Tests of the energy effectiveness of the explosives are evaluated, characteristics of LSB manifestations in seismic and air waves are revealed, and the shaping and movement of the rock mass are examined. A methodological analysis of the planning and production of the LSB is given.

  2. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  3. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  4. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    artificial from natural stimuli and detects common and individual needs by measuring heart pulse and body temperature. The focal point here is light and how light affects human perception while at the same time the perception of sound and how gesture can provide the best possible cognition of actual needs...... light is a form that adapts natures’ properties and modifies the artificial environment as a stage direction, implying at the same time mood and modifying it in collaboration with sound. Having evaluated how this affects the body and human perception in this particular time that we experience nowadays......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  5. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids, including sockeye salmon, in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the valuable information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional (hereafter referred to as 3-D) tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and testing of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting 3-D results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we used a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis allowed us to numerically summarize the behavior of fish in the forebay. This report is the second report published in 2012 that uses this analytical method. The first report included only fish released as part of the annual studies conducted at McNary Dam. This second report includes sockeye salmon that were released as part of studies conducted by the Chelan and Grant County Public Utility Districts at mid-Columbia River dams. The studies conducted in the mid-Columbia used the same transmitters as were used for McNary Dam studies, but transmitter pulse width was different between studies. Additionally, no passive integrated transponder tags were implanted in sockeye salmon. Differences in transmitter pulse width resulted in lower detection probabilities for sockeye salmon at McNary Dam. The absence of passive integrated transponder tags prevented us from determining if fish passed the powerhouse through the juvenile bypass system (JBS) or turbines. To

  6. Climate-informed flood frequency analysis based on Bayesian theory and teleconnection for the Three Gorges Dam (TGD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DONG, Q.; Zhang, X.; Lall, U.; Sang, Y. F.; Xie, P.

    2017-12-01

    With the current global climate changing and human activities intensifying, the uncertainties and danger of floods increased significantly. However, the current flood frequency analysis is still based on the stationary assumption. This assumption not only limits the benefits of the water conservancy projects, but also brings hazard because it ignores the risk of flooding under climate change. In this paper, we relax the stationary hypothesis in the flood frequency analysis model based on the teleconnection and use the intrinsic relation of flood elements to improve the annual flood frequency results by Bayesian inference approaches. Daily discharges of the the Three Gorges Dam(TGD) in 1953-2013 years are used as an example. Firstly, according to the linear correlation between the climate indices and the distribution parameters, the prior distributions of peak and volume are established with the selected large scale climate predictors. After that, by using the copula function and predictands, the conditional probability function of peak and volume is obtained. Then, the Bayesian theory links the prior distributions and conditional distributions and get the posterior distributions. We compare the difference under different prior distributions and find the optimal flood frequency distribution model. Finally, we discuss the impact of dynamic flood frequency analysis on the plan and management of hydraulic engineering. The results show that compared with the prior probability, the posterior probability considering the correlation of the flood elements is more accurate and the uncertainty is smaller. And the dynamic flood frequency model has a great impact on the management of the existing hydraulic engineering, which can improve the engineering operation benefit and reducing its flood risk, but it nearly didn't influence the plan of hydraulic engineering. The study of this paper is helpful to the dynamic flood risk management of TGD, and provide reference for the

  7. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  8. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  9. Moisture problems of functional joints of wooden windows – causes analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palková Adela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of the humidity regimen of a functional wooden window joint. Current energy-saving trends in the buildings bring secondary effects associated with indoor climate change. Increase of the thermal-technical quantification, non-breathability, and diffusion resistance of the building envelope without the solution of controlled ventilation brings an extreme rise of the interior moisture. The passage of moisture through a functional joint is ensured mainly by exfiltration. The energy standard applicable after the year 2020 assumes buildings with almost zero energy need that cannot be reached without a recuperation system. The concept of the recuperation systems usually works as a pressure system, which increases the likelihood of exfiltration. Measurements done in a large climate chamber show that the diffusion of water vapor can overcome the infiltration flow of the outside air. The passage of moisture results in icing or condensation in the functional joint, which subsequently damages the surface treatment of the wood. Another serious defect is the subsequent mold growth.

  10. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.

  11. Coordinate reduction for the seismic analysis of dam-foundation-reservoir systems with non-proportional damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehai, L.; Paultre, P.; Leger, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of dams to withstand seismic events, recent studies have shown that the dam-foundation and dam-reservoir interactions have a significant influence on the dynamic response of the dam. The hypothesis of proportional damping is not realistic for such structures, in which the mechanisms of energy dissipation present notable differences between their various components. A comparative study is presented of different methods of resolution of linear systems with non-proportional damping, using recent techniques of coordinate reduction. Parametric studies were conducted on a 2-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam-foundation system. The comparison focuses essentially on the numerical efficiency and precision in the calculation of dynamic parameters (displacements, accelerations, and internal stresses) and in the distribution of damping energy among the components of the system. The evaluation of the energy dissipated in the absorbing boundaries has indicated that the algorithms retained for reducing the coordinates in real and complex space conveniently model the conditions at the limits of the structure. The high degree of numerical stability and the efficiency of the interative procedure of Ibrahimbegovic and Wilson (1989), applied to systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, has been confirmed. 10 refs., 8 figs

  12. Folsom Dam Outlet Works Modification Project; Simplified Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis of Monolith 12

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheu, Enrique E; Garner, Sharon B

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a finite-element stress analysis of monolith 12 conducted to assess any potential adverse effects caused by the proposed dimensions of the air vent near the base of the spillway pier wall...

  13. Seismic performance assessment of latyan concrete buttress dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to design earthquake resistant dams and evaluate the safety of existing dams that will be exposed to future earthquakes, it is essential to have accurate and reliable analysis procedures to predict the stresses and deformations in dams subjected to earthquake ground motion. For a damwater- foundation system, the ...

  14. Mechanics of slide dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.

    1970-01-01

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  15. A multi-year analysis of passage and survival at McNary Dam, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Walker, C.E.; Perry, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004–09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to determine how dam operations and environmental conditions affect passage and survival of juvenile salmonids. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how environmental variables and dam operations relate to passage behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam. We used the Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to environmental variables and dam operations. Total project discharge and the proportion of flow passing the spillway typically had a positive effect on survival for all species and routes. As the proportion of water through the spillway increased, the number of fish passing the spillway increased, as did overall survival. Additionally, survival generally was higher at night. There was no meaningful difference in survival for fish that passed through the north or south portions of the spillway or powerhouse. Similarly, there was no difference in survival for fish released in the north, middle, or south portions of the tailrace. For subyearling Chinook salmon migrating during the summer season, increased temperatures had a drastic effect on passage and survival. As temperature increased, survival of subyearling Chinook salmon decreased through all passage routes and the number of fish that passed through the turbines increased. During years when the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) were installed, passage through the spillway increased for spring migrants. However, due to the changes made in the location of the TSW between years and the potential effect of other confounding environmental conditions, it is not certain if the increase in spillway passage was due solely to the presence of the TSWs. The TSWs appeared to improve forebay survival during years when they were operated.

  16. Moving-window bis-correlation coefficients method for visible and near-infrared spectral discriminant analysis with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The moving-window bis-correlation coefficients (MW-BiCC was proposed and employed for the discriminant analysis of transgenic sugarcane leaves and β-thalassemia with visible and near-infrared (Vis–NIR spectroscopy. The well-performed moving-window principal component analysis linear discriminant analysis (MW-PCA–LDA was also conducted for comparison. A total of 306 transgenic (positive and 150 nontransgenic (negative leave samples of sugarcane were collected and divided to calibration, prediction, and validation. The diffuse reflection spectra were corrected using Savitzky–Golay (SG smoothing with first-order derivative (d=1, third-degree polynomial (p=3 and 25 smoothing points (m=25. The selected waveband was 736–1054nm with MW-BiCC, and the positive and negative validation recognition rates (V_REC+, V_REC− were 100%, 98.0%, which achieved the same effect as MW-PCA–LDA. Another example, the 93 β-thalassemia (positive and 148 nonthalassemia (negative of human hemolytic samples were collected. The transmission spectra were corrected using SG smoothing with d=1, p=3 and m=53. Using MW-BiCC, many best wavebands were selected (e.g., 1116–1146, 1794–1848 and 2284–2342nm. The V_REC+ and V_REC− were both 100%, which achieved the same effect as MW-PCA–LDA. Importantly, the BiCC only required calculating correlation coefficients between the spectrum of prediction sample and the average spectra of two types of calibration samples. Thus, BiCC was very simple in algorithm, and expected to obtain more applications. The results first confirmed the feasibility of distinguishing β-thalassemia and normal control samples by NIR spectroscopy, and provided a promising simple tool for large population thalassemia screening.

  17. Damming the genomic data flood using a comprehensive analysis and storage data structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marc; Phillips, Michael S; Brown, Andrew M K; Marsh, Sharon; Tardif, Jean-Claude; van Rooij, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Data generation, driven by rapid advances in genomic technologies, is fast outpacing our analysis capabilities. Faced with this flood of data, more hardware and software resources are added to accommodate data sets whose structure has not specifically been designed for analysis. This leads to unnecessarily lengthy processing times and excessive data handling and storage costs. Current efforts to address this have centered on developing new indexing schemas and analysis algorithms, whereas the root of the problem lies in the format of the data itself. We have developed a new data structure for storing and analyzing genotype and phenotype data. By leveraging data normalization techniques, database management system capabilities and the use of a novel multi-table, multidimensional database structure we have eliminated the following: (i) unnecessarily large data set size due to high levels of redundancy, (ii) sequential access to these data sets and (iii) common bottlenecks in analysis times. The resulting novel data structure horizontally divides the data to circumvent traditional problems associated with the use of databases for very large genomic data sets. The resulting data set required 86% less disk space and performed analytical calculations 6248 times faster compared to a standard approach without any loss of information. Database URL: http://castor.pharmacogenomics.ca.

  18. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Dams, Hydrology and Risk in Future River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Across America there are over 80,000 large to medium dams and globally the number is in excess of 800,000. Currently there are over 1,400 dams and diversion structures being planned or under construction globally. In addition to these documented dams there are thousands of small dams populating watersheds. Governments, agencies, native tribes, private owners and regulators all have a common interest in safe dams. Often dam safety is characterized as reducing structural risk while providing for maximum operational flexibility. In the 1970's there were a number of large and small dam failures in the United States. These failures prompted the federal government to issue voluntary dam safety guidelines. These guidelines were based on historic information incorporated into a risk assessment process to analyze, evaluate and manage risk with the goal to improve the quality of and support of dam management and safety decisions. We conclude that historic and new risks need to be integrated into dam management to insure adequate safety and operational flexibility. A recent assessment of the future role of dams in the United States premises that future costs such as maintenance or removal beyond the economic design life have not been factored into the long-term operations or relicensing of dams. The converging risks associated with aging water storage infrastructure, multiple dams within watersheds and uncertainty in demands policy revisions and an updated strategic approach to dam safety. Decisions regarding the future of dams in the United States may, in turn, influence regional water planning and management. Leaders in Congress and in the states need to implement a comprehensive national water assessment and a formal analysis of the role dams play in our water future. A research and national policy agenda is proposed to assess future impacts and the design, operation, and management of watersheds and dams.

  20. Thermal monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.E.; Choi, E.; Hu, G.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    In a practical gyrotron device, the design of a reliable vacuum window to withstand high mean power densities is of utmost importance. Computer modelling of an actual window assumes a number of conditions including the power density profile, the electromagnetic wave attenuation constant of the window material and heat transfer coefficients. The last two factors can vary significantly with temperature. A technique for actually monitoring the real time temperature distribution over the window surface with an IR camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. This measurement serves as an aid for developing the analysis of window designs. The ability to observe small hot spots due to tiny metallic specks on the window surface is also of great value in quality control and window failure prevention. The experimental arrangement involves an infrared camera (AGA780) with an indium antimonide detector (3-5 μm) observing the window through a grid pattern of tiny holes (cutoff for the 3rd harmonic of 60 GHz). A 12 0 FOV lens with a 12mm extension ring was used to defocus the grid. The thermal emissivity E /sub w/ approx. = 0.95. Thus, an IR measurement of the window is a surface temperature measurement. To minimize the problem of external reflections, the outside surface of the waveguide was painted black. This then requires a cool waveguide; room temperature is sufficient

  1. Evaluating safety of concrete gravity dam on weak rock: Scott Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.E.; Ahlgren, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Scott Dam is owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) as part of the Potter Valley Project. Although it is an unimpressive concrete gravity dam [233 m (765 ft) long with maximum water surface 33.4 m (110 ft) above tail water], the dam has unusually complex and weak foundation rocks; thick condition caused design changes during construction, numerous subsequent special investigations, and several corrections and additions. A main stumbling block to clarification of the dam safety issue for Scott Dam has always been difficulty in characterizing the foundation material. This paper discusses an approach to this problem as well s how the safety of the dam was subsequently confirmed. Following a comprehensive program of research, investigations, and analysis from 1991 to 1997

  2. Error analysis and new dual-cosine window for estimating the sensor frequency response function from the step response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang-Long; Liang, Li-Ping; Liu, Hou-De; Xu, Ke-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at reducing the estimation error of the sensor frequency response function (FRF) estimated by the commonly used window-based spectral estimation method, the error models of interpolation and transient errors are derived in the form of non-parameter models. Accordingly, window effects on the errors are analyzed and reveal that the commonly used hanning window leads to smaller interpolation error which can also be significantly eliminated by the cubic spline interpolation method when estimating the FRF from the step response data, and window with smaller front-end value can restrain more transient error. Thus, a new dual-cosine window with its non-zero discrete Fourier transform bins at -3, -1, 0, 1, and 3 is constructed for FRF estimation. Compared with the hanning window, the new dual-cosine window has the equivalent interpolation error suppression capability and better transient error suppression capability when estimating the FRF from the step response; specifically, it reduces the asymptotic property of the transient error from O(N-2) of the hanning window method to O(N-4) while only increases the uncertainty slightly (about 0.4 dB). Then, one direction of a wind tunnel strain gauge balance which is a high order, small damping, and non-minimum phase system is employed as the example for verifying the new dual-cosine window-based spectral estimation method. The model simulation result shows that the new dual-cosine window method is better than the hanning window method for FRF estimation, and compared with the Gans method and LPM method, it has the advantages of simple computation, less time consumption, and short data requirement; the actual data calculation result of the balance FRF is consistent to the simulation result. Thus, the new dual-cosine window is effective and practical for FRF estimation.

  3. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development II: Design Consideration for Passing Fish Upstream Around Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, S. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, M. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richey, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parkhurst, Z. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide general information for use by potential developers of small scale hydroelectric projects that will include facilities to pass migrating fish upstream around dams. The document is not intended to be a textbook on design of fish passage facilities, but rather to be a general guide to some factors that are important when designing such facilities.

  4. Technology transfer in the hydropower industry: An analysis of Chinese dam developers’ undertakings in Europe and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial

    2018-01-01

    Technology transfer is essential for transitioning to a low carbon economy which can include hydropower. Chinese dam developers allegedly dominate the global hydropower industry. Studies have been carried out on technology transfer in their undertakings in Africa and Asia. However, such work is

  5. Model analysis of check dam impacts on long-term sediment and water budgets in southeast Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Niraula, Rewati

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of check dam infrastructure on soil and water conservation at the catchment scale using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). This paired watershed study includes a watershed treated with over 2000 check dams and a Control watershed which has none, in the West Turkey Creek watershed, Southeast Arizona, USA. SWAT was calibrated for streamflow using discharge documented during the summer of 2013 at the Control site. Model results depict the necessity to eliminate lateral flow from SWAT models of aridland environments, the urgency to standardize geospatial soils data, and the care for which modelers must document altering parameters when presenting findings. Performance was assessed using the percent bias (PBIAS), with values of ±2.34%. The calibrated model was then used to examine the impacts of check dams at the Treated watershed. Approximately 630 tons of sediment is estimated to be stored behind check dams in the Treated watershed over the 3-year simulation, increasing water quality for fish habitat. A minimum precipitation event of 15 mm was necessary to instigate the detachment of soil, sediments, or rock from the study area, which occurred 2% of the time. The resulting watershed model is useful as a predictive framework and decision-support tool to consider long-term impacts of restoration and potential for future restoration.

  6. Dams and transnational advocacy: Political opportunities in transnational collective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng

    Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even

  7. Do we need construct more dams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Shi, H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews global dam development in association with the growths of global population, economy, and energy consumption in the past several decades, and also evaluates contributions of dam development to future world sustainable development. Eventually, this paper answers whether we need more dams in the future or not. The world population has rapidly increased from 1.6 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1950, 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.0 billion in 2011, and is projected to reach 9.5 billion in 2050; similarly, the world economy has dramatically expanded. To maintain socioeconomic development, the consumption of water, food and energy has increased rapidly as well. However, the total volume of available water resource over the world is limited, the food production largely depends on water supply, and the main energy sources are still oil, coal and gas at present, which are regarded as non-renewable resources. Accordingly, it is expected that we will face serious problems to deal with the challenges of water crisis, food security and energy shortage in the near future. In order to enhance the capability of regulating water resource, a great number of global dams (and related reservoirs) have been constructed in the last one hundred years; currently, almost all large rivers over the world have been regulated by dams. The reservoirs can supply sufficient water for irrigated land to ensure food production, and the associated hydropower stations can generate electricity. This article collects the dam data from the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) and GRanD (Global Reservoir and Dam) databases, and some socioeconomic data, including population, economy, and consumptions of water, food and energy over the world. Analysis of these data reveals that global dam development has a great impact on the world sustainable development. Further, it is concluded that we need further dam development to maintain our future development.

  8. Global field synchronization in gamma range of the sleep EEG tracks sleep depth: Artifact introduced by a rectangular analysis window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter; Dürr, Roland; Koenig, Thomas; Tarokh, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Investigating functional connectivity between brain networks has become an area of interest in neuroscience. Several methods for investigating connectivity have recently been developed, however, these techniques need to be applied with care. We demonstrate that global field synchronization (GFS), a global measure of phase alignment in the EEG as a function of frequency, must be applied considering signal processing principles in order to yield valid results. Multichannel EEG (27 derivations) was analyzed for GFS based on the complex spectrum derived by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). We examined the effect of window functions on GFS, in particular of non-rectangular windows. Applying a rectangular window when calculating the FFT revealed high GFS values for high frequencies (>15Hz) that were highly correlated (r=0.9) with spectral power in the lower frequency range (0.75-4.5Hz) and tracked the depth of sleep. This turned out to be spurious synchronization. With a non-rectangular window (Tukey or Hanning window) these high frequency synchronization vanished. Both, GFS and power density spectra significantly differed for rectangular and non-rectangular windows. Previous papers using GFS typically did not specify the applied window and may have used a rectangular window function. However, the demonstrated impact of the window function raises the question of the validity of some previous findings at higher frequencies. We demonstrated that it is crucial to apply an appropriate window function for determining synchronization measures based on a spectral approach to avoid spurious synchronization in the beta/gamma range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mass Media and Society: A Content Analysis of the "Window-To-The-Field" Course Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Donald R.

    A content analysis was performed on 3,134 questions from 62 examinations given in the mass communications and society courses in colleges throughout the United States. The questions were analyzed and categorized on the basis of three general groups: geographical reference, media reference, and topic reference. The findings revealed the following:…

  10. Beyond Mirrors and Windows: A Critical Content Analysis of Latinx Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Eliza G.; Rodriguez, Sanjuana C.

    2016-01-01

    This critical content analysis examines the representation of Latinx characters in 15 picture books published in 2013 and identified by Children's Cooperative Book Center (CCBC) as having significant Latinx content. The theoretical framework undergirding this study is Critical Race Theory (Ladson-Billings, 1998; Solórzano & Yosso, 2002;…

  11. Approach to seismic hazard analysis for dam safety in the Sierra Nevada and Modoc Plateau of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, W.U.; McLaren, M.K.; Edwards, W.D.; Page, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company's hydroelectric generating system involves about 150 dams located in the Sierra Nevada and Modoc Plateau region of central and northern California. The utility's strategy for earthquake hazard assessment is described. The approach includes the following strategies: integrating regional tectonics, seismic geology, historical seismicity, microseismicity, and crustal structure to form a comprehensive regional understanding of the neotectonic setting; performing local studies to acquire data as needed to reduce uncertainties in geologic and seismic parameters of fault characteristics near specific dam sites; applying and extending recently developed geologic, seismologic, and earthquake engineering technologies to the current regional and site-specific information to evaluate fault characteristics, to estimate maximum earthquakes, and to characterize ground motion; and encouraging multiple independent reviews of earthquake hazard studies by conducting peer reviews, making field sites available to regulating agencies, and publishing results, methods and data in open literature. 46 refs., 8 tabs

  12. Analysis and interpretation of the structural behaviour of Alqueva dam during the first filling of the reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares de Castro, A.; Batista, A. L.; Serra, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the most relevant monitoring data and the interpretation of the structural behaviour of Alqueva dam during the first filling of the reservoir, which took place between February 2002 and January 2010. The safety control and the interpretation of the dam’s behaviour make use of the data provided by the monitoring system. In particular, the interpretation of the structural behaviour is based on: planimetric (radial and tangential) displacements, measured through plumb-line...

  13. On-site Raman analysis of ancient glasses and stained-glass windows: modeling, procedure, lixiviation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournie, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the possibilities of Raman spectrometry to identify on site old glasses (objects, stained-glass windows...) whatever been their preserving state. The efficiency of Raman analysis depends strongly of the structural organization of glasses and then of their technological history. In order to differentiate the great silicate family compounds from their Raman analysis, a methodology has been developed: data acquisition and spectrum processing, Raman parameters extraction and classification of these glasses. This approach has then been extended to crystalline phosphates and silicates. Beforehand, correlations between crystallo-chemical parameters and vibrational signatures have been considered. The old glasses are often recovered by a corrosion layer which induces important changes on the Raman signature. Four layers have been identified and characterized by a multi-scale study: leached porous layer, transition zone, cracked zone and sound glass. The results show that only an analytical chemistry approach (databases of Raman signatures) is not sufficient and that a solid chemistry and physics approach is required to explain the spectral answers and extract the relevant parameters from glasses preserving [fr

  14. Estimation of temporary change of activation areas by moving an analysis time window in fMRI measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Ishikawa, Fumito; Saito, Yoichi

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to acquire temporal changes of activations by moving an analysis time window. An advantage of this method is that it can acquire rough changes of activated areas even with the data having low time resolution. We ascertained that activations from our method do not contradict previous reports on the oddball paradigm, thus showing its effectiveness. Eight normal subjects participated in the study, which consisted of a random series of 30 target and 70 nontarget stimuli. We investigated the activated area in three kinds of analysis time sections, from stimulus onset to 5 s after the stimulus (time section A), from 2 to 7 s after (B) and from 4 to 9 s after (C). In time section A, representative activated areas were regions including the left and supplementary motor areas (SMA), and cerebellum. In B, regions including the left motor area and SMA, right parahippocampal gyrus (Broadmann Area (BA) 30), right limbic lobe and cerebellum were activated. In C, bilaterally postcentral gyrus (BA 3,40), right anterior cingulate (ACC, BA 32), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9) and right parahippocampal gyrus were activated. Most activations were consistent with previous studies.

  15. Research on the aero-thermal effects by 3D analysis model of the optical window of the infrared imaging guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Li, Lin; Zhu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Researches on hypersonic vehicles have been a hotspot in the field of aerospace because of the pursuits for higher speed by human being. Infrared imaging guidance is playing a very important role in modern warfare. When an Infrared Ray(IR) imaging guided missile is flying in the air at high speed, its optical dome suffers from serious aero-optic effects because of air flow. The turbulence around the dome and the thermal effects of the optical window would cause disturbance to the wavefront from the target. Therefore, detected images will be biased, dithered and blurred, and the capabilities of the seeker for detecting, tracking and recognizing are weakened. In this paper, methods for thermal and structural analysis with Heat Transfer and Elastic Mechanics are introduced. By studying the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, a 3D analysis model of the optical window is established by using finite element method. The direct coupling analysis is employed as a solving strategy. The variation regularity of the temperature field is obtained. For light with different incident angles, the influence on the ray propagation caused by window deformation is analyzed with theoretical calculation and optical/thermal/structural integrated analysis method respectively.

  16. Dams: Pros and Cons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steve

    Many Dams have been constructed in different parts of the world and for different purposes. While these dams have in most cases served the reason for their construction, the resultant environmental impact have been a subject of concern. The creation of a reservoir not only changes the ecology and hydrology of the ...

  17. A progressive methodology for structural safety evaluation of gravity dams subjected to floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, P.; Tinawi, R.; Leclerc, M.; Rheault, S.

    1996-01-01

    Failure mechanisms that could be expected for gravity dams subjected to hydrostatic overloads, and flood safety performance criteria for gravity dams, were reviewed. A progressive structural analysis methodology, divided into four structural analysis levels of increasing complexity to evaluate the flood safety of gravity dams was proposed. Application of the proposed methodology was illustrated by parametric analysis performed on a typical 52 m gravity dam. Results of a coupled hydro-fracture analysis of an old masonry dam was also presented to provide qualitative correlations between numerical analysis procedures and traditional observations of failure mechanisms of gravity dams under hydrostatic overload. 9 refs., 8 figs

  18. The application of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) window analysis in the assessment of influence on operational efficiencies after the establishment of branched hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tongying; Yuan, Huiyun

    2017-04-12

    Many large-scaled public hospitals have established branched hospitals in China. This study is to provide evidence for strategy making on the management and development of multi-branched hospitals by evaluating and comparing the operational efficiencies of different hospitals before and after their establishment of branched hospitals. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) window analysis was performed on a 7-year data pool from five public hospitals provided by health authorities and institutional surveys. The operational efficiencies of sample hospitals measured in this study (including technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency) had overall trends towards increase during this 7-year period of time, however, a temporary downturn occurred shortly after the establishment of branched hospitals; pure technical efficiency contributed more to the improvement of technical efficiency compared to scale efficiency. The establishment of branched-hospitals did not lead to a long-term negative effect on hospital operational efficiencies. Our data indicated the importance of improving scale efficiency via the optimization of organizational management, as well as the advantage of a different form of branch-establishment, merging and reorganization. This study brought an insight into the practical application of DEA window analysis on the assessment of hospital operational efficiencies.

  19. New Therapeutic Window of Regenerative Opportunity in Diabetic Retinopathy by VESGEN Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingert, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular pattern may serve as a useful new biomarker principle of complex, multi-scale signaling in pathological, physiological angiogenesis and microvascular remodeling. Each angiogenesis stimulator or inhibitor we have analyzed, including VEGF, bFGF, TGF-beta1, angiostatin and triamcinolone acetonide, has induced a novel "fingerprint" or "signature" biomarker vascular pattern that is spatio-temporally unique. Remodeling vasculature thereby provides an informative read-out of dominant molecular signaling, when analyzed by innovative, fractal-based VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis software. Using VESGEN to analyze ophthalmic clinical vascular images, we recently introduced a potential paradigm shift to the understanding of early-stage progression that suggests new regenerative opportunities for human diabetic retinopathy (DR), the major blinding disease for working-aged adults. In a pilot study, we discovered that angiogenesis oscillates as a surprising, homeostatic-like regeneration of retinal vessels during early progression of DR (IOVS 51(1):498). Results suggest that the term non-proliferative DR may be a misnomer. In new studies, normalization of the vasculature will be determined from the response of vascular pattern to therapeutic monitoring and treatment. We have mapped and quantified in vivo experimental models of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and intravital blood flow from cellular/molecular to higher systems levels that include a murine model of infant retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); developing and pathological coronary and placental-like vessel models; progressive intestinal inflammation, growing murine tumors, and other pathological, physiological and therapeutically treated tissues of transgenic mice and avian embryos. Vascular Alterations, Visual Impairments (VIIP) & Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP), Immunosuppression & Bone Loss: NASA-defined risk categories for human space exploration and ISS Utilization

  20. Rehabilitation of an 80 year old Ambursen dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matich, M.A.J.; Eddy, W.; Tyler, R.J.; Budgell, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Abitibi-Price Inc. hydroelectric facility at Bishop's Falls, NF, as built comprised an earth dam, a hollow concrete Ambursen type dam, and intake works at the powerhouse, as the main retaining structures. On January 13, 1983, an unprecedented flood occurred in the region which completely destroyed the earth dam connecting the powerhouse building to the riverbank of the town of Bishop's Falls. Major items of remedial work included a new earth dam and a new gated spillway. The flood did not result in any serious damage to the Ambursen dam, but exposure of the dam to the elements did result in stress which required rehabilitation. The favourable performance of the dam through a long service life in a northern Canadian climatic setting was a significant factor in the decision that the structure could be used without serious modification for at least 50 years. The evaluation of the dam, together with the distress experienced as a result of the flood and the remedial action applied are described as a case history. On the basis of condition and stability analysis, it was considered that repairs consisting of a new lining on the upstream side, grouting of deformation related cracking in the interior of the dam, and shotcrete treatment to the exterior of the downstream side, would give the dam a long service life. These remedial actions were applied, and the performance of the dam to date has met design expectations. 26 refs., 10 figs

  1. Dynamic response of Masjed-Soleyman rockfill dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, F. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]|[Moshanir Power Eng. Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Earth dams are large three-dimensional non-homogeneous structures constructed from inelastic materials. One of the main mechanical characteristics of earth dams is the nonlinear behaviour of soil materials under large strains such as those induced by earthquakes. In order to determine the seismic safety of earth dams, it is necessary to predict the dynamic response of embankment dams to earthquake motions. This study examined the response of the newly constructed, 177 metre high Masjed-Soleyman rock filled dam located in a seismic region of southwest Iran. This paper described the dam site geology and seismicity, dam instrumentation, response to ground motions, and numerical simulations. Some earthquakes which registered more than 5 on the Richter scale occurred near the dam site just after impounding. Accelerometers at the crest and downstream shell recorded the response of the dam body. This paper presented the time and frequency history of the dam response. Dynamic properties such as fundamental frequencies of the dam were estimated using 2 constitutive models called equivalent linear and elastoplastic nested surface models. Good agreement was noted between recorded characteristics and numerical analysis. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  2. Tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of the impact of privatization and globalization on traditional dam safety practice and the Canadian experience of the environmental dimension of dam failures, various aspects of tailings dam safety have much to offer the wider dam safety community. General design principles for tailings dams are not described, rather an attempt is made to frame some contemporary issues of tailings dam safety in ways that bring out their relevance in a broader dam safety context. Lessons applicable to future dam safety practice in related areas are examined, and the dam safety traditions of the mining, hydroelectric and related industries in Canada are brought together by illustrating some of the common elements and concerns they share. It is becoming evident that future dam safety activities for the hydroelectric, water supply and related dams will be carried out in a more privatized and globalized context by organizations less acquainted with traditional dam safety practices than in the past. If so, then tailings dam experience can be a pathfinder for how and why dam safety needs to be addressed in a corporate setting. It shows that the perceived effects of dam failures, environmental and otherwise, influence corporate damowners in ways that can amplify manyfold the objective consequences that dam safety assessments usually address. Dam safety professionals might do well to better understand and effectively communicate the financial and organizational impacts of dam failure on the corporate entity in ways that go beyond the traditional assessment of downstream hazard and failure consequences. Dam safety efforts can come to be seen less as imposed burdens of dam ownership and more as activities consistent with shareholder accountability and corporate self-interest. The Canadian mining industry, in adopting this perspective, is confirming that support for dam safety activities from the highest corporate level is essential for implementing them throughout the

  3. Dam safety operating guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.; Leung, T.; Kirkham, A.; Lum, D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of Ontario Hydro's dam structure assessment program, the hydraulic design review of several river systems has revealed that many existing dam sites, under current operating procedures, would not have sufficient discharge capacity to pass the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) without compromising the integrity of the associated structures. Typical mitigative measures usually considered in dealing with these dam sites include structural alterations, emergency action plans and/or special operating procedures designed for extreme floods. A pilot study was carried out for the Madawaska River system in eastern Ontario, which has seven Ontario Hydro dam sites in series, to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of the Dam Safety Operating Guidelines (DSOG). The DSOG consist of two components: the flood routing schedules and the minimum discharge schedules, the former of which would apply in the case of severe spring flood conditions when the maximum observed snowpack water content and the forecast rainfall depth exceed threshold values. The flood routing schedules would identify to the operator the optimal timing and/or extent of utilizing the discharge facilities at each dam site to minimize the potential for dam failures cased by overtopping anywhere in the system. It was found that the DSOG reduced the number of structures overtopped during probable maximum flood from thirteen to four, while the number of structures that could fail would be reduced from seven to two. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Vis-NIR spectroscopy with moving-window PLS method applied to rapid analysis of whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiemei; Yin, Zhiwei; Tang, Yi; Pan, Tao

    2017-04-01

    A rapid analytical method of human whole blood viscosity with low, medium, and high shear rates [WBV(L), WBV(M), and WBV(H), respectively] was developed using visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy combined with a moving-window partial least squares (MW-PLS) method. Two groups of peripheral blood samples were collected for modeling and validation. Separate analytical models were established for male and female groups to avoid interference in different gender groups and improve the homogeneity and prediction accuracy. Modeling was performed for multiple divisions of calibration and prediction sets to avoid over-fitting and achieve parameter stability. The joint analysis models for three indicators were selected through comprehensive evaluation of MW-PLS. The selected joint analysis models were 812-1278 nm for males and 670-1146 nm for females. The root-mean-square errors (SEP) and the correlation coefficients of prediction (R P ) for all validation samples were 0.54 mPa•s and 0.91 for WBV(L), 0.25 mPa•s and 0.92 for WBV(M), and 0.22 mPa•s and 0.90 for WBV(H). Results indicated high prediction accuracy, with prediction values similar to the clinically measured values. Overall, the findings confirmed the feasibility of whole blood viscosity quantification based on Vis-NIR spectroscopy with MW-PLS. The proposed rapid and simple technique is a promising tool for surveillance, control, and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in large populations. Graphical Abstract The caption/legend of the online abstract figure: The selected wavebands and the prediction effects for the three indicators of whole blood viscosity.

  5. Fish passage post-construction issues: analysis of distribution, attraction and passage efficiency metrics at the Baguari Dam fish ladder to approach the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Martins da Silva

    Full Text Available Fish passages are considered the oldest management tool used to minimize the impact of blocking fish migratory routes by hydroelectric power plants. However, fish passages are being installed without specific criteria in Brazil, with severe consequences to the conservation of the local fish fauna. Therefore, basic data gathered for fish passages already constructed could contribute to define operational rules, in addition to offer subsidies to decision-making and design of future facilities. Thus, the fish ladder of Baguari Dam was evaluated regarding temporal distribution, attraction, and ascension of the local fish fauna. A total of 20 fish samples were conducted immediately downstream of the dam and inside the fish ladder, from January 2010 to June 2011. Seasonal variation in fish abundance and richness was registered below the dam and inside the passage, with higher number of migratory fish in the reproductive season (Kruskall-Wallis, p = 0.04 and p = 0.05. Furthermore, higher concentration of migratory allochthonous and non-migratory species was registered for the spill bay (Wilcoxon, p = 0.009 and p = 0.006 compared to the tailrace, where the fish ladder entrance is located. This result suggests low efficiency of the attraction system of the mechanism during the reproductive period. Once entering the fish ladder, migratory species apparently ascend the facility due to the similar distribution throughout different stretches. Generally, the results showed that an operational rule for the Baguari Dam fish ladder should consider running the facility only during the reproductive period, unless the objectives of the passage are well defined. The attraction system must be more precisely evaluated, using technologies such as radiotelemetry. Similarly, fish ascension also should be better analyzed to evaluate the time spent to ascend and its influence in the reproductive biology of the species using the ladder. Pit-tag system could be used to

  6. Permeability analysis of Asbuton material used as core layers of water resistance in the body of dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H.; Tjaronge, M. W.; Thaha, A.; Djamaluddin, R.

    2017-11-01

    In order to increase consumption of the local materials and national products, large reserves of Asbuton material about 662.960 million tons in the Buton Islands became an alternative as a waterproof core layer in the body of dam. The Asbuton material was used in this research is Lawele Granular Asphalt (LGA). This study was an experimental study conducted in the laboratory by conducting density testing (content weight) and permeability on Asbuton material. Testing of the Asbuton material used Falling Head method to find out the permeability value of Asbuton material. The data of test result to be analyzed are the relation between compaction energy and density value also relation between density value and permeability value of Asbuton material. The result shows that increases the number of blow apply to the Asbuton material at each layer will increase the density of the Asbuton material. The density value of Asbuton material that satisfies the requirements for use as an impermeable core layer in the dam body is 1.53 grams/cm3. The increase the density value (the weight of the contents) of the Asbuton material will reduce its permeability value of the Asbuton material.

  7. Infrared monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.; Lopez, N.; Hu, G.; Choi, E.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for monitoring the gyrotron output window surface temperature with an infrared camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. The IR camera views the window through a perforated waveguide wall, and serves both as a guide for the safe operation at high average power of the tube, as well as an aid in the analysis of new window designs. Window temperatures were studied as a function of a number of parameters, including gun anode voltage, beam current, magnetic field, coolant flow, and load matching. The IR technique is applicable to many types of high average power microwave and millimeter wave tubes. Successful operation of the Varian 60 GHz gyrotron to 214 kW CW was guided by the infrared camera. Analyses on 28, 56 and 60 GHz gyrotrons have led to a number of design changes. A comparison with computer calculations is also presented

  8. Problems of hydroelectric development at existing dams: an analysis of institutional, economic, and environmental restraints in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.

    1979-04-01

    The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.

  9. Automated brain tumor segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging based on sliding-window technique and symmetry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yanyun; Song, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumor segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important step toward surgical planning, treatment planning, monitoring of therapy. However, manual tumor segmentation commonly used in clinic is time-consuming and challenging, and none of the existed automated methods are highly robust, reliable and efficient in clinic application. An accurate and automated tumor segmentation method has been developed for brain tumor segmentation that will provide reproducible and objective results close to manual segmentation results. Based on the symmetry of human brain, we employed sliding-window technique and correlation coefficient to locate the tumor position. At first, the image to be segmented was normalized, rotated, denoised, and bisected. Subsequently, through vertical and horizontal sliding-windows technique in turn, that is, two windows in the left and the right part of brain image moving simultaneously pixel by pixel in two parts of brain image, along with calculating of correlation coefficient of two windows, two windows with minimal correlation coefficient were obtained, and the window with bigger average gray value is the location of tumor and the pixel with biggest gray value is the locating point of tumor. At last, the segmentation threshold was decided by the average gray value of the pixels in the square with center at the locating point and 10 pixels of side length, and threshold segmentation and morphological operations were used to acquire the final tumor region. The method was evaluated on 3D FSPGR brain MR images of 10 patients. As a result, the average ratio of correct location was 93.4% for 575 slices containing tumor, the average Dice similarity coefficient was 0.77 for one scan, and the average time spent on one scan was 40 seconds. An fully automated, simple and efficient segmentation method for brain tumor is proposed and promising for future clinic use. Correlation coefficient is a new and effective feature for tumor location.

  10. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  11. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  12. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  13. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  14. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  15. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  16. Analysis of Vibrant Soundbridge placement against the round window membrane in a human cadaveric temporal bone model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Ho, A.; Brown, J.; Wijhe, R.G. van; Bance, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate optimal placement of the Floating Mass Transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge (Med-El, Innsbruck, Austria) against the round window membrane, particularly the impact of interposed coupling fascia and of covering materials. METHOD: : Six fresh human cadaveric temporal bones were

  17. Seismic response of concrete gravity dam reinforced with FRP sheets on dam surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring the effects of anti-seismic reinforcement with the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP material bonded to the dam surface in dam engineering. Time-history analysis was performed to simulate the seismic failure process of a gravity dam that was assumed to be reinforced at the locations of slope discontinuity at the downstream surface, part of the upstream face, and the dam heel. A damage model considering the influence of concrete heterogeneity was used to model the nonlinearity of concrete. A bond-slip model was applied to the interface between FRP and concrete, and the reinforcement mechanism was analyzed through the bond stress and the stress in FRP. The results of the crack pattern, displacement, and acceleration of the reinforced dam were compared with those of the original one. It is shown that FRP, as a reinforcement material, postpones the occurrence of cracks and slows the crack propagation, and that cracks emanating from the upstream surface and downstream surface are not connected, meaning that the reinforced dam can retain water-impounding function when subjected to the earthquake. Anti-seismic reinforcement with FRP is therefore beneficial to improving the seismic resistant capability of concrete dams.

  18. TSSGNÉO suggestions for refinement of safety criteria for dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savich, A. I.; Gaziev, É. G.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of radial-displacements of the dam, measured by direct and inverted plumb lines, indicates that curves of the variation in radial displacements of the dam at different elevations make it possible to plot diagrams of increases in the radial displacement over the entire height of the dam, i.e., inclines of the axis of the dam to the vertical

  19. Pengaruh Window Level Dan Window Width Pada Lung Window Dan Mediastinum Window Pada Kualitas Citra CT-Scan Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Syahnaro Lumban

    2015-01-01

    This Research of image CT-SCAN thorax with influence of window level and window width, to obtain, get value of window level and optimal window width lung window and mediastinum window, so that get image of CT-SCAN thorax which with image quality. Image of CT-SCAN thorax obtained for mediastinum window use window width 350, 400, 450, 500 HU. And Window level 50,100,150 HU. While for lung window use window width 1000,1100 HU. The window level - 500-,600,-700,-800,-900,-1000 HU, by three observe...

  20. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  1. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  2. An experimental investigation on the effects of exponential window and impact force level on harmonic reduction in impact-synchronous model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Ong Zhi; Cheet, Lim Hong; Yee, Khoo Shin; Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul; Ismail, Zubaidah

    2016-01-01

    A novel method called Impact-synchronous modal analysis (ISMA) was proposed previously which allows modal testing to be performed during operation. This technique focuses on signal processing of the upstream data to provide cleaner Frequency response function (FRF) estimation prior to modal extraction. Two important parameters, i.e., windowing function and impact force level were identified and their effect on the effectiveness of this technique were experimentally investigated. When performing modal testing during running condition, the cyclic loads signals are dominant in the measured response for the entire time history. Exponential window is effectively in minimizing leakage and attenuating signals of non-synchronous running speed, its harmonics and noises to zero at the end of each time record window block. Besides, with the information of the calculated cyclic force, suitable amount of impact force to be applied on the system could be decided prior to performing ISMA. Maximum allowable impact force could be determined from nonlinearity test using coherence function. By applying higher impact forces than the cyclic loads along with an ideal decay rate in ISMA, harmonic reduction is significantly achieved in FRF estimation. Subsequently, the dynamic characteristics of the system are successfully extracted from a cleaner FRF and the results obtained are comparable with Experimental modal analysis (EMA)

  3. An experimental investigation on the effects of exponential window and impact force level on harmonic reduction in impact-synchronous model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Ong Zhi; Cheet, Lim Hong; Yee, Khoo Shin [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan (Malaysia); Ismail, Zubaidah [Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    A novel method called Impact-synchronous modal analysis (ISMA) was proposed previously which allows modal testing to be performed during operation. This technique focuses on signal processing of the upstream data to provide cleaner Frequency response function (FRF) estimation prior to modal extraction. Two important parameters, i.e., windowing function and impact force level were identified and their effect on the effectiveness of this technique were experimentally investigated. When performing modal testing during running condition, the cyclic loads signals are dominant in the measured response for the entire time history. Exponential window is effectively in minimizing leakage and attenuating signals of non-synchronous running speed, its harmonics and noises to zero at the end of each time record window block. Besides, with the information of the calculated cyclic force, suitable amount of impact force to be applied on the system could be decided prior to performing ISMA. Maximum allowable impact force could be determined from nonlinearity test using coherence function. By applying higher impact forces than the cyclic loads along with an ideal decay rate in ISMA, harmonic reduction is significantly achieved in FRF estimation. Subsequently, the dynamic characteristics of the system are successfully extracted from a cleaner FRF and the results obtained are comparable with Experimental modal analysis (EMA)

  4. Empirical Study on Total Factor Productive Energy Efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region-Analysis based on Malmquist Index and Window Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.

  5. Dam safety guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.; Raska, C.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this report are (1) to define the requirements and outline the guidelines so that the safety of existing dams can be investigated and identified in a consistent and adequate manner across Canada, (2) to enable the consistent evaluation of dam safety deficiencies leading to the construction of improvements which contribute to dam safety, and (3) to provide a basis for dam safety legislation and regulation. The document contains statements of safety requirements, explanatory guidelines and commentaries. These clarify and expand upon some of the requirements and guidelines, and discuss alternative approaches to meeting the safety requirements. The report is divided into 12 sections which address criteria for earthquakes, floods and emergency preparedness. Geotechnical considerations and the effects of the reservoir environment are also discussed. These guidelines are not intended as design specifications for dam safety evaluation, design, construction or rehabilitation. From time to time, portions of these guidelines will be updated and issued to CDSA members. The user is responsible for ensuring that the most up-to-date version is being used. refs, tabs

  6. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  7. In Situ Geophysical Investigation to Evaluate Dynamic Soil Properties at Success Dam, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liopis, Jose

    1997-01-01

    ...) velocities of the dam and foundation. The S-wave values are used in conjunction with conventional field and laboratory soil testing methods to provide soil property values for an earthquake analysis of the dam and foundation...

  8. Development of Window-based program for analysis and visualization of two-dimensional stress field in digital photoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichet Pinit

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a Window-based framework for analyzing and visualizing two-dimensional stress field in digital photoelasticity. The program is implemented as stand-alone software. The program contains mainly two parts: computational part and visual part supplemented with several image-processing functions. The computation method used in the program for retrieval of photoelastic parameters (isoclinic and isochromatic parameters is the phase stepping method. The visualization links between the results and the user by a gray scale or color map of such parameters, which is very convenient to the user for physical interpretation. With the Windows-based framework, additional modules eithercomputation or visualization can be simply added to the program.

  9. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...

  10. Revised financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2011-01-11

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases

  11. Investigation on the Causes of Cracking in Earth Dams (Case study: Mahmood-Abad Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cracking of earth dams is a one of the main threat causes of stability of embankment dams. In this research by modeling of the behavior of an embankment dam and employing conditions of the earthquake, the reasons of cracking were inspected using by modeling of earth dam behavior. Based on the literature, one of the main causes of dam failures is sliding and cracking of the dam structure during earthquake. Localized liquefaction of foundation soils was one of the causes of the observed post-earthquake distress within these dams. Material and Methods: In order to study the causes and the results of crack on earth dams, Mahmoodabad earthen dam with a height of 19 m, is located in Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, which suffered a longitudinal crack on the crest and slight sliding of the upstream slope due to 2001 Avaj earthquake was studied. This dam has faced earthquake two times with an interval of two years. During the first earthquake with the magnitude about 6.6 in Richter scale small longitudinal cracks had created on the crest. The developed cracks had been repaired by injecting the cement and then has been hidden by passing the time. After the second earthquake with the magnitude about 6.5 in Richter scale the hidden cracks had been appeared again and the slight movement of the upper slopes of dam reported. Based on the site investigation and documented information about dam, including maps and parameter data, the behavior of the dam has modeled by using Plaxis as a finite element model. In order to check the accuracy of the design of dam, the stability analysis has been conducted using by Xslope as a limit equilibrium model. The foundation conditions and the Geotechnical properties of the layer beneath the dam has been inspected by open excavation. Results and Discussion: Underground investigation about Geotechnical properties of dam foundation has showed that there is a thin sandy layer confined in alluvium material of the

  12. csaw: a Bioconductor package for differential binding analysis of ChIP-seq data using sliding windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Aaron T.L.; Smyth, Gordon K.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) is widely used to identify binding sites for a target protein in the genome. An important scientific application is to identify changes in protein binding between different treatment conditions, i.e. to detect differential binding. This can reveal potential mechanisms through which changes in binding may contribute to the treatment effect. The csaw package provides a framework for the de novo detection of differentially bound genomic regions. It uses a window-based strategy to summarize read counts across the genome. It exploits existing statistical software to test for significant differences in each window. Finally, it clusters windows into regions for output and controls the false discovery rate properly over all detected regions. The csaw package can handle arbitrarily complex experimental designs involving biological replicates. It can be applied to both transcription factor and histone mark datasets, and, more generally, to any type of sequencing data measuring genomic coverage. csaw performs favorably against existing methods for de novo DB analyses on both simulated and real data. csaw is implemented as a R software package and is freely available from the open-source Bioconductor project. PMID:26578583

  13. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  14. Social Sustainability of Provinces in China: A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Window Analysis under the Concepts of Natural and Managerial Disposability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sueyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural and managerial disposability are two important strategic concepts, whose priorities are economic prosperity and environmental protection, respectively. This study defines social sustainability as the simultaneous achievement of economic prosperity and environmental protection, and then assesses the degree of social sustainability across provinces in China. In addition, this study combines the concepts of natural and managerial disposability with Data Envelopment Analysis window analysis. The method allows for frontier shifts among different time periods and thus can provide more stable and reliable results. This method is applied to assess the energy and environmental performances across the provinces of China during 2003–2014, and provides detailed information about provincial variations, which are valuable and important to policy makers (especially for those in local governments. This study identifies three important findings. First, there were no significant improvements in China’s environmental performance during the analysis periods, since, historically, the governments have not paid enough attention to environmental protection. Second, there are increasing trends in the provincial gaps regarding the environmental performance. In this regard, the central government should help the poor provinces to protect the environment. Third, there are significant differences between the results obtained under natural disposability and those obtained under managerial disposability, since they have different priorities regarding the operational and the environmental performances. Thus, significant contributions can be made by eco-technology progress combined with managerial performance improvements by business leaders and policy makers. This can be a new policy direction for the Chinese government.

  15. Understanding the role of farm dams in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia through hydrological analysis coupled with stakeholder interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuil, Linda; Winnubst, Madelinde; van Dijk, Albert

    2013-04-01

    Climate predictions suggest that surface water availability in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia is more likely to decline than to increase in the next decades. In 2000, farm dams were first recognized as a significant risk to future flows in the MDB and have since been the subject of hydrological research. This study was conducted to provide insight into the role of farm dams in the Yass catchment, which is a subcatchment of the MDB close to Canberra, in order to indentify obstacles for integrated water management. The role of farm dams was investigated from both a hydrological and social perspective. Model prediction and data inference were used to estimate the impact of farm dams on streamflow. The density of farm dams in the catchment was estimated at 5.7 dams km-2. The impact on the Yass River was simulated to be in the order of 20 percent of mean annual streamflow. To understand why farm dams are used, semi-structured interviews were conducted to capture views and opinions of land holders. Research found that farm dams play a very important role in terms of individuals' water supply, although other systems are also used. Furthermore, land holders are responsible for their own water supply for drinking and agricultural water needs. Water rights are based on a right to rainfall or groundwater that is present on an individual's property. This means that landholders have both a need and a right to collect and store runoff. Current legislation put in place by the New South Wales government to restrict the amount of rain water to be captured does not seem to affect most people. If additional policy to minimize the impact of farm dams on streamflow were to be introduced, this has to be based on well-thought-out arguments based on a long term vision as the interview results indicate that farm dams are deeply embedded in Australian rural culture.

  16. Small dams need better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  17. High Power Coax Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T.S.; Rimmer, R.A.; Stirbet, M.

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting RF (SRF) power coupler capable of handling 500 kW CW RF power is required for present and future storage rings and linacs. There are over 35 coupler designs for SRF cavities ranging in frequency from 325 to 1500 MHz. Coupler windows vary from cylinders to cones to disks, and RF power couplers are limited by the ability of ceramic windows to withstand the stresses due to heating and mechanical flexure. We propose a novel robust co-axial SRF coupler design which uses compressed window technology. This technology will allow the use of highly thermally conductive materials for cryogenic windows. Using compressed window techniques on disk co-axial windows will make significant improvements in the power handling of SRF couplers. We present the bench test results of two window assemblies back to back, as well as individual window VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vacuum test assembly was made and the windows baked out at 155C. The processes used to build windows is scalable to larger diameter coax and to higher power levels.

  18. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  19. Dam health diagnosis and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongru; Su, Huaizhi

    2005-06-01

    Based on the bionics principle in the life sciences field, we regard a dam as a vital and intelligent system. A bionics model is constructed to observe, diagnose and evaluate dam health. The model is composed of a sensing system (nerve), central processing unit (cerebrum) and decision-making implement (organism). In addition, the model, index system and engineering method on dam health assessment are presented. The proposed theories and methods are applied to evaluate dynamically the health of one concrete dam.

  20. Estimation of permanent displacements of the Tehri dam in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the embankment dams are increasingly being studied by finite element and finite difference methods with ... dam and compares their performance with that obtained from a 2-D nonlinear finite element analysis. In this .... dynamic soil properties iteratively until those properties are compatible with the calculated strain level.

  1. Proceedings of dam safety seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A seminar was held to discuss issues of dam safety. Presentations concerned dam safety evaluation, dam monitoring, erosion protection, ice loads, spillway design, flood prediction, emergency preparedness, reservoir management, rehabilitation, and foundation design. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 16 papers from the seminar

  2. Multi-window counting of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, T.M.; Beach, S.E.; Khan, A.J.; Bari, A.; Bradt, C.J.; Haines, D.K.; Syed, U.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In counting of radioactivity, using for example gas proportional (GP) or liquid scintillation (LS) counters, one can set up two or more electronic windows, which can measure two or more radiation components. In this work, we derived general equations for n-window counting in matrix notation, including mutual crosstalk between the windows using both the ratio (not normalized) and the fraction (normalized) methods. A solution for n radiation components is presented. For the two-window measurements, we report complete statistical analysis of the results including propagation of all uncertainties. The decision-level and the detection-limit equations were derived including crosstalk correction, uncertainties of the variables, Gaussian continuity correction, interference correction, and the overdispersion correction. Numerical verifications of the two-window systems are presented, including conditions for the detection of a minor component in the presence of a major component. In addition, limited experimental verifications of the two-window systems using LS counting are reported.

  3. Limnology of hartbeespoort dam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Hartbeespoort Dam is a hypertrophic, warm, monomictic impoundment. With a mean depth of 9.6 m and a surface area of 20 km2, the system demonstrates that hypertrophy is not confined to small shallow lakes as concluded by Barica (1981...

  4. Numerical Modeling of Sliding Stability of RCC dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughieda, O.; Hazirbaba, K.; Bani-Hani, K.; Daoud, W.

    2017-06-01

    Stability and stress analyses are the most important elements that require rigorous consideration in design of a dam structure. Stability of dams against sliding is crucial due to the substantial horizontal load that requires sufficient and safe resistance to develop by mobilization of adequate shearing forces along the base of the dam foundation. In the current research, the static sliding stability of a roller-compacted-concrete (RCC) dam was modelled using finite element method to investigate the stability against sliding. A commercially available finite element software (SAP 2000) was used to analyze stresses in the body of the dam and foundation. A linear finite element static analysis was performed in which a linear plane strain isoperimetric four node elements was used for modelling the dam-foundation system. The analysis was carried out assuming that no slip will occur at the interface between the dam and the foundation. Usual static loading condition was applied for the static analysis. The greatest tension was found to develop in the rock adjacent to the toe of the upstream slope. The factor of safety against sliding along the entire base of the dam was found to be greater than 1 (FS>1), for static loading conditions.

  5. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  6. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  7. Windows Powershell Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This portable reference to Windows PowerShell summarizes both the command shell and scripting language, and provides a concise reference to the major tasks that make PowerShell so successful. Written by Microsoft PowerShell team member Lee Holmes, and excerpted from his Windows PowerShell Cookbook, Windows PowerShell Pocket Reference offers up-to-date coverage of PowerShell's 1.0 release. It's an ideal on-the-job tool for Windows administrators who don't have time to plow through huge books or search online.

  8. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  9. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  10. Integration of ground-penetrating radar, ultrasonic tests and infrared thermography for the analysis of a precious medieval rose window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Calia, A.; Liberatore, D.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2010-04-01

    The integration of high-resolution, non-invasive geophysical techniques (such as ground-penetrating radar or GPR) with emerging sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) can complement limited destructive tests to provide a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the state of preservation, material and construction components of monuments. This paper presents the results of the application of GPR, infrared thermography (IRT) and ultrasonic tests to the 13th century rose window of Troia Cathedral (Apulia, Italy), affected by widespread decay and instability problems caused by the 1731 earthquake and reactivated by recent seismic activity. This integrated approach provided a wide amount of complementary information at different scales, ranging from the sub-centimetre size of the metallic joints between the various architectural elements, narrow fractures and thin mortar fillings, up to the sub-metre scale of the internal masonry structure of the circular ashlar curb linking the rose window to the façade, which was essential to understand the original building technique and to design an effective restoration strategy.

  11. The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.

  12. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  13. The windows method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neighbour, Roger; Larsen, Jan-Helge

    2017-01-01

    through in sequence, each one opening a different viewpoint or window on the case. To experienced tutors, the windows method’s prescriptive structure may at first seem somewhat rigid. However, for learners with less experience of reflection and self-disclosure, it provides the security necessary...

  14. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  15. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Horóczi, Eszter

    2017-01-01

    integrated into the window. A qualitative experiment is carried out by integrating controllable LED in the frame of a façade window in a full-scale mock-up. It is examined how this set-up can support the colour spectrum and intensity of the daylight intake during the transmission time from daylight...

  16. Air transparent soundproof window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr [Division of Marine Engineering, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  17. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of non-point sources in a water quality model applied to a dammed low-flow-reach river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nayana G M; von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Downstream of Capim Branco I hydroelectric dam (Minas Gerais state, Brazil), there is the need of keeping a minimum flow of 7 m3/s. This low flow reach (LFR) has a length of 9 km. In order to raise the water level in the low flow reach, the construction of intermediate dikes along the river bed was decided. The LFR has a tributary that receives the discharge of treated wastewater. As part of this study, water quality of the low-flow reach was modelled, in order to gain insight into its possible behaviour under different scenarios (without and with intermediate dikes). QUAL2E equations were implemented in FORTRAN code. The model takes into account point-source pollution and diffuse pollution. Uncertainty analysis was performed, presenting probabilistic results and allowing identification of the more important coefficients in the LFR water-quality model. The simulated results indicate, in general, very good conditions for most of the water quality parameters The variables of more influence found in the sensitivity analysis were the conversion coefficients (without and with dikes), the initial conditions in the reach (without dikes), the non-point incremental contributions (without dikes) and the hydraulic characteristics of the reach (with dikes). (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. Analysis of the sediments of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam by the INAA; Analisis de sedimentos de la presa Julian Adame Alatorre por la tecnica de AANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.E.; Lugo, J.F.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C. [UAZ, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, E2433 Engineering Building East, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]. e-mail: jeolivag@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    Its were taken eight samples of sediment of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam located in the Villanueva municipality, in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico; with the end of determining the presence of elements of anthropogenic origin, as well as the concentration of the same ones. It was used the Instrumental neutron activation analysis (AANI) with a flow of thermal neutrons of 8 x 10{sup 13} and 5 x 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. With the purpose of determining the concentration of these elements at level of traces; finding presence of 32 elements among which its were find elements in greater concentrations and others at level of traces. Of these 32 elements, five of anthropogenic origin were identified which its were: Cr, Co, Zn, As and Mn; but that whose concentration is very low, in comparison with the one reported in other places of the world. In this work there are presented the obtained results of the elementary analysis of this samples. (Author)

  20. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  1. Lessons from the autumn 2014 flash floods in the city of Nîmes and its neighborhood (France: behavior of several mitigation dams and hydrological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouchier Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Languedoc area, in Southern France, is prone to autumnal flash floods which are characteristic of the Mediterranean climate. To cope with this threat, the local authorities have chosen to build several dams on the main dangerous rivers of the area. We have focused on the flood mitigation facilities of two operators: the City of Nîmes and the Gardons Rivers Managing authority. After the catastrophic flash flood of October 1988, the city of Nîmes built flood mitigation dams on many of its high-risk streams. These flood barriers worked several times during the intense rainfalls of autumn 2014. The on-site conclusions drawn from these floods and the computation carried out with hydrological models confirmed how well the dams functioned. In 2010, the Gardons Rivers Managing authority built a flood mitigation dam on the Esquielle River to protect the village of Saint-Geniès-de-Malgoirès. The spillway of this dam worked for the first time in the autumn of 2014. We analyzed one of the major floods monitored on that occasion at its outlet. The goals of this study are: (i to evaluate dams efficiency and (ii to test, on a catchment which was not used for its calibration, the AIGA flash flood warning method, which was developed by IRSTEA.

  2. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  3. Some aspects in the legal regulation of the dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancev, Ljubomir

    1996-01-01

    In order to ensure high quality and low cost design and building of dams and appurtenant structures, as well as safe exploitation, it is obvious to have appropriate legislation. Keeping in mind that the dams are unique structures, for the design stage the legislation should be less strong. For the next phases - building, maintenance and exploitation - detail and rigorous legislation is recommended. It is emphasised that the engineers should have more freedom designing the dams, but they should be obvious to apply the most recent achievement in the field of the dam design and construction. For illustration, some aspects of three important questions are discussed - 1) the choice of maximum flood discharge, 2) the application of new materials and construction methods and 3) the application of modern methods for static and dynamic analysis of dams. (Author)

  4. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  5. Grouting design for slope stability of kedung uling earthfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kedung Uling earthfill dam locates at Wonogiri Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The dam encountered sliding and settlement at the embankment wall. To minimize sliding and settlement and to optimize the dam, both field investigation and laboratory tests have been proceeded for slope stability analysis and remedial embankment wall. Soil and rock investigation around the dam, which is followed by 10 core drillings, have been conducted. Laboratory tests such as direct shear and index properties have also been carried on. The results were further used for dam slope stability model using slide 6.0 and were used to analyzed factor of safety (FS of Kedunguling dam. 10 conditions of dam were simulated and strengthening body of dam with grouting was designed. The results showed two conditions, which are condition of maximum water level with and without earthquake at downstream, were unsatisfy Indonesia National Standard (SNI for building and infrastructure. These conditions can be managed by using grouting for increasing stabilization of embankment wall. By setting up grouting, factor of safety increases and meet the SNI standard requirement.

  6. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  7. South Channel Dam Rehabilitation Project - Successfully Addressing Dam Rehabilitation Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Graeser, M. D.; Jensen, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Post Falls South Channel Dam is located on the Spokane River in Post Falls, Idaho. The concrete gravity dam was constructed in 1906 and was recently rehabilitated. The rehabilitation project included several design elements; the primary objectives were the replacement of the six spillway gates and hoists and significant rehabilitation of the concrete. The South Channel Dam rehabilitation encountered several challenges due to the age and condition of the existing structure, the large scale...

  8. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  9. The emergence of the vertical birth in Ecuador: an analysis of agenda setting and policy windows for intercultural health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Ana; Mayhew, Susannah

    2016-01-01

    Maternal mortality continues to claim the lives of thousands of women in Latin America despite the availability of effective treatments to avert maternal death. In the past, efforts to acknowledge cultural diversity in birth practices had not been clearly integrated into policy. However, in Otavalo (Ecuador) a local hospital pioneered the implementation of the ‘Vertical Birth’—a practical manifestation of an intercultural health policy aimed at increasing indigenous women’s access to maternity care. Drawing on agenda-setting theory, this qualitative research explores how the vertical birth practice made it onto the local policy agenda and the processes that allowed actors to seize a window of opportunity allowing the vertical birth practice to emerge. Our results show that the processes that brought about the vertical birth practice took place over a prolonged period of time and resulted from the interplay between various factors. Firstly, a maternal health policy community involving indigenous actors played a key role in identifying maternal mortality as a policy problem, defining its causes and framing it as an indigenous rights issue. Secondly, previous initiatives to address maternal mortality provided a wealth of experience that gave these actors the knowledge and experience to formulate a feasible policy solution and consolidate support from powerful actors. Thirdly, the election of a new government that had incorporated the demands of the indigenous movement opened up a window of opportunity to push intercultural health policies such as the vertical birth. We conclude that the socioeconomic and political changes at both national and local level allowed the meaningful participation of indigenous actors that made a critical contribution to the emergence of the vertical birth practice. These findings can help us advance our knowledge of strategies to set the agenda for intercultural maternal health policy and inform future policy in similar settings

  10. Sphere-cone-polynomial special window with good aberration characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Zhang Xin; Qu He-Meng; Wang Ling-Jie; Wang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Optical windows with external surfaces shaped to satisfy operational environment needs are known as special windows. A novel special window, a sphere-cone-polynomial (SCP) window, is proposed. The formulas of this window shape are given. An SCP MgF 2 window with a fineness ratio of 1.33 is designed as an example. The field-of-regard (FOR) angle is ±75°. From the window system simulation results obtained with the calculated fluid dynamics (CFD) and optical design software, we find that compared to the conventional window forms, the SCP shape can not only introduce relatively less drag in the airflow, but also have the minimal effect on imaging. So the SCP window optical system can achieve a high image quality across a super wide FOR without adding extra aberration correctors. The tolerance analysis results show that the optical performance can be maintained with a reasonable fabricating tolerance to manufacturing errors

  11. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  12. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  13. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  14. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  15. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  16. 1000 dams down and counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff J.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Forty years ago, the demolition of large dams was mostly fiction, notably plotted in Edward Abbey's novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Its 1975 publication roughly coincided with the end of large-dam construction in the United States. Since then, dams have been taken down in increasing numbers as they have filled with sediment, become unsafe or inefficient, or otherwise outlived their usefulness (1) (see the figure, panel A). Last year's removals of the 64-m-high Glines Canyon Dam and the 32-m-high Elwha Dam in northwestern Washington State were among the largest yet, releasing over 10 million cubic meters of stored sediment. Published studies conducted in conjunction with about 100 U.S. dam removals and at least 26 removals outside the United States are now providing detailed insights into how rivers respond (2, 3).

  17. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B; Ruijssenaars, A J J M

    2014-01-01

    While optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is 'focused on the environment' or 'alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to shed light on the sequential relationship between different stimuli and alertness levels in individuals with PIMD. Video observations were conducted for 24 participants during one-on-one interactions with a direct support person in multisensory environments. Time-window sequential analyses were conducted for the 120 s following four different stimuli. For the different stimuli, different patterns in terms of alertness became apparent. Following visual stimuli, the alertness levels of the individuals with PIMD changed in waves of about 20 s from 'active alert' to 'passive alert'. While auditory and tactile stimuli led to 'alert' reactions shortly after the stimulation, alertness levels decreased between seconds 20 and 120. Reactions to vestibular stimuli were only visible after 60 s; these were 'active alert' or 'withdrawn'. The results of the present study show that individuals with PIMD show their reactions to stimuli only slightly, so that 'waves' might reflect the optimal alertness pattern for learning and development. Consequently, it is especially important that direct support persons follow and stimulate these individual 'waves' in the activities they provide to their clients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. DAM BREACH PARAMETERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON FLOOD HYDROGRAPHS FOR MOSUL DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TALAL A. BASHEER

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dams breach geometry prediction is crucial in dam break studies. The characteristics of flood hydrographs resulting from a dam breach essentially depend on the breach geometry and the required time for breach formation. To investigate the impact of breach parameters on maximum breaching outflows, five breach prediction approaches were implemented to calculate the flood hydrographs using HEC-RAS model, for Mosul dam. Numerous reservoir water levels for each approach were considered. ensitivity analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of each parameter on the resulting flood hydrographs. The time and value of peak discharge for each scenario were analysed and discussed. Results show that the most suitable method for estimating breach parameters for Mosul dam was the Froehlich approach. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that the breach side slope does not affect the peak discharge time and has a minor influence on peak outflow values. Meanwhile, the required time for the breach to develop was highly sensitive to both peak discharge and peak discharge time.

  19. Windows 10 Technical Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Jyväsjärvi, Teppo

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutustaan uuden kesällä 2015 virallisesti julkaistavan Windows 10 -käyttöjärjestelmän Technical Preview -kehitysversioon. Ensimmäinen Technical Preview -versio julkaistiin syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyössä tutustaan Windows 10:n uusin ominaisuuksiin ja tehdään vertailua aiemman Windows 8.1 -version kanssa. Työssä Windows 10 Technical Preview asennetaan virtuaalikoneelle, käydään läpi asennuksen eri vaiheet sekä suurimmat muutokset käyttöliittymässä ja sovelluksissa. Op...

  20. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  1. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  2. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  3. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  4. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  5. High Performance Window Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2∙ F∙h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  6. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  7. Economic Analysis of the Effects of Climate Change Induced by Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Agricultural Productions and Available Water Resources (Case Study: Down Lands of the Taleghan Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mozaffari

    2016-03-01

    to survey the impacts of climate variables on the selected products yield. Changes in agricultural production, farmer’s gross profit and economic value of irrigation water were analyzed and compared with the base year by the regression analysis results in the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP model. This methodology that was developed by Howitt (1995 to calibrate agricultural supply models has been used to link biophysical and economic information in an integrated biophysical and economic modeling framework and to assess the impacts of agricultural policies and scenarios. These models are also accepted for analyzing the impact of climate change and water resources management policies and scenarios. The PMP model used in this paper is a three-step procedure in which a non-linear cost function is calibrated to observe values of inputs usage in agricultural production. In the basic formulation, the first step is a linear program providing marginal values that are used in the second step to estimate the parameters for a non-linear cost function and a production function. In the third step, the calibrated production and cost functions are used in a non-linear optimization program. The solution to this non-linear program calibrates to observed values of production inputs and output. The required data in this paper were collected from meteorological stations and the relevant agencies in the Qazvin province. Regression functions estimated in Eviews software package and the PMP model were solved in GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System software. Results and Discussion: The results obtained in this paper showed that with emissions of greenhouse gases under the studied scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1, the average annual climate variables of temperature and precipitation changes from 1.64 to 2.28 °C and from20.92 to 1.1 mm, respectively. With these change, the yield of the most selected products decreases in the down lands of Taleghan Dam. Moreover, the obtained results

  8. Transport, dam passage, and size selection of adult Atlantic Salmon in the Penobscot River, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigourney, Douglas B.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Hughes, Edward; Cox, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2012, returning adult Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar had to pass through fishways at three dams in the lower section of the Penobscot River, Maine: Veazie Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 48; removed in 2013), Great Works Dam (rkm 60; removed in 2012), and Milford Dam (rkm 62). To facilitate better passage through the lower river, a fish transport program was implemented in 2010 and 2011. Fish were captured at Veazie Dam and were either transported by truck above Milford Dam (TRKD group) or released into the head pond above Veazie Dam (run-of-the-river [ROR] group). To assess the efficacy of transport, we used PIT telemetry to compare the performance and passage of TRKD and ROR fish based on their (1) success in reaching one of the three dams upstream of Milford Dam, (2) time taken to reach an upstream dam (transit time), and (3) success in passing that upstream dam. In both years, the percentage of fish detected at upstream dams was higher for the TRKD group (82.4% in 2010; 78.6% in 2011) than for the ROR group (41.3% in 2010; 22.4% in 2011). In addition, median transit time was faster for TRKD fish (7 d in 2010; 5 d in 2011) than for ROR fish (23 d in 2010; 25 d in 2011). However, passage success through the upstream dams did not differ between the two release groups. Our analysis also revealed a strong, negative size-selective force on dam passage: larger fish were consistently less likely to successfully pass dams than smaller fish. Finally, environmental conditions also influenced passage success. Our analysis shows that the transport of adult Atlantic Salmon can be an effective means by which to increase migration success in systems where upstream passage is poor.

  9. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Temel

    2008-09-03

    Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam.

  10. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Bayrak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam.

  11. Use of geoprossesing for analysis of the River Basin Of Alves' Dam Cachoeira, Municipality Of Itaporanga-PB

    OpenAIRE

    João Miguel de Moraes Neto; Carlos Lamarque Guimarães; Ridelson Farias de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    The sedimentation of reservoir is a process natural resultant of the detachment, transport and deposition of sediments and your acceleration has been provoking upset and damages concerning the water resources as reduction of the capacity of accumulation of water of the reservoirs among others. This work consisted of a development of a methodology for rising and analysis of the degree of sedimentation of Alves' reservoir Waterfall, located in the municipal district of Itaporanga - PB, as well ...

  12. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  13. Window modelling in Syrthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, V.; Peniguel, C. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France); Rupp, I. [Simulog, N3S, Estet, Simail, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelyne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Developments to take into account windows from a thermal point of view have been implemented in SYRTHES. Windows are discretized along their lateral surfaces in several independent patches. Then a one-dimensional analytical model solves the semi-transparent radiation and conduction problem occurring across the window for each patch. The spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient (`non grey` medium) is taken into account through a multi-band model. This window model is coupled with the conduction and radiation capabilities already existing in SYRTHES. When convection is taking place, it is handled by ESTET. This development will be applied to an infra-red system designed to dry paper. The simplified test case presented here consists very schematically in two cavities separated by a window (vitro-ceramic). The top cavity contains a very hot tungsten wire (the infrared source) surrounded by a tube made of quartz. The bottom cavity is where the fast moving sheet of paper will be located. Of Course the real geometry is much more complex. (authors)

  14. Dam construction in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezierski, H.

    1984-01-01

    Dam Construction is a key task for the safety of the Gorleben repository. In order to seal a fille disposal field from the part in operation and to minimize radionuclide migration during the post-operating time a dam is to be developed and tested under certain accident conditions i.e., mainly the intrusion of brines and natural gas from either side of the dam. The development of this dam is subject of an extensive engineering project. This report summarizes the goals, problems, concepts, and first results of these systematical project studies. By analysing and characterizing special design criteria under site-specific aspects the major development priorities are investigated. First results will be presented concerning concrete based materials and their property changes due to the corrosive behavior of brines at elevated temperatures. Based on these investigations, pilot dams will be built and tested to prove their efficiency

  15. National Dam Safety Program. Roxbury Dam (Inventory Number 788) Delaware River Basin, Delaware County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-21

    num~ber) This report provides information and analys’s on the physical condition o0 4 Sthe dam as of the report date. Information and anaLysis nre...based on visuL ’ inspection of the dam by the performing organization. W Examination of available documents’ and a visual inspection of the C- C.2 dam...c ’U . ELA AR-E iV pf@8% L / ........ DELWARE COUNTY,-NEW YORK, TABLE OFCNTI’ r ".. PAGE NO. ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW PHOTOGRAPH 1 PROJECT INFORMATION 1

  16. Phosphate accumulation in farm dam sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, H.D.; Gilkes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Large amounts of phosphate are applied to agricultural regions in Australia each year. Phosphate is incorporated into organic materials, sorbed onto the surface of clay minerals, carbonates, iron oxides/hydroxides and other colloids or dissolved in soil solution. Phosphate in soil solution may leach into dam, or absorbed and particulate phosphate may be washed into dams during soil erosion and eventually accumulate in sediments. Variable and sometimes high concentrations of phosphate in water and sediments occur in farm dams in the York area of Western Australia. Phosphate accumulation in farm dam sediments (O to about 2 cm) was investigated using chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Concentrations of phosphorus up to 5 ppm in water and 1100 ppm in sediment were observed. The results of this study indicate that the amounts of total, organic and inorganic phosphate in sediment are approximately equal and are linearly related the dissolved phosphate concentration in dam water. High concentrations of nitrogen also exit in sediments and are closely related to the phosphate content of sediment presumably reflecting the high content of organic matter in sediments, ranging from 3 to 7% C. The concentration of phosphate in sediments is closely related to the organic matter concentration measured by LECO CHN analyser. X-ray diffraction patterns show that clay minerals in sediments consist of minor to large amounts of smectite and kaolinite, minor to moderate amounts of illite, mica and feldspars. Minor amounts of calcite and iron oxides were present only in a few samples. Clay minerals and iron oxides have moderate to high phosphate sorption capacities because the reactive sites on crystal surfaces and their high surface area. Thus colloidal minerals, organic materials and organo-mineral complexes may provide reactive sites for phosphate sorption

  17. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  18. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  19. Windows Deployment Services : Esiasennuspalvelin

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Arto

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on Windows Deployment Services, jonka tarkoituksena on toimia esiasennus-palvelimena Windows-käyttöjärjestelmien levykuvien jakamiseen sekä asentamiseen. Opinnäytetyö to-teutettiin yhteistyössä Concept.10 IT:n ja tuotannon kanssa. Concept.10:n tuotannon lähtökohtana on valmistaa ja asentaa Suomen markkinoille tietokonelaitteistoja ohjelmistoineen ja tukipalveluineen. Tuo-tantoon olennaisena osana kuuluu esiasennuspalvelin, jolla voidaan asentaa useita tietokoneita samaa...

  20. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  1. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  2. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  3. Rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.; Middleton, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation work on areas denuded of vegetation during the exploration phase of the Olympic Dam project was used to test various methods for regeneration of vegetation cover in the arid zone. The test work carried out on drill pads and access tracks has indicated that, with adequate site preparation, natural regeneration is the most economical and effective method to ensure post-operational stability of the affected land-forms. An on-going monitoring regime, utilising a computer data base, has been set up to allow year-to-year comparison of rehabilitation effectiveness. The database also provides a catalogue of initial colonising plants and a measure of variations in species diversity with time

  4. Rapid classification of turmeric based on DNA fingerprint by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with moving window partial least squares-discrimination analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Suttiwijitpukdee, Nattaporn; Keeratinijakal, Vichein

    2017-01-01

    In this research, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in combination with moving window partial least squares-discrimination analysis (MWPLS-DA) was utilized to discriminate the variety of turmeric based on DNA markers, which correlated to the quantity of curcuminoid. Curcuminoid was used as a marker compound in variety identification due to the most pharmacological properties of turmeric possessed from it. MWPLS-DA optimized informative NIR spectral regions for the fitting and prediction to {-1/1}-coded turmeric varieties, indicating variables in the development of latent variables in discrimination analysis. Consequently, MWPLS-DA benefited in the selection of combined informative NIR spectral regions of 1100 – 1260, 1300 – 1500 and 1880 – 2500 nm for classification modeling of turmeric variety with 148 calibration samples, and yielded the results better than that obtained from a partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) model built by using the whole NIR spectral region. An effective and rapid strategy of using NIR in combination with MWPLS-DA provided the best variety identification results of 100% in both specificity and total accuracy for 48 test samples. (author)

  5. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  6. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  7. Opening the Literature Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  8. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  9. Simulating dam-breach flood scenarios of the Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods from failures of landslide dams can pose a hazard to people and property downstream, which have to be rapidly assessed and mitigated in order to reduce the potential risk. The Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Mw = 7.9 2008 Wenchuan earthquake had impounded the largest lake in the earthquake affected area with an estimated volume of 3 × 108 m3, and the potential catastrophic dam breach posed a serious threat to more than 2.5 million people in downstream towns and Mianyang city, located 85 km downstream. Chinese authorities had to evacuate parts of the city until the Tangjiashan landslide dam was artificially breached by a spillway, and the lake was drained. We propose an integrated approach to simulate the dam-breach floods for a number of possible scenarios, to evaluate the severity of the threat to Mianyang city. Firstly, the physically-based BREACH model was applied to predict the flood hydrographs at the dam location, which were calibrated with observational data of the flood resulting from the artificial breaching. The output hydrographs from this model were inputted into the 1-D–2-D SOBEK hydrodynamic model to simulate the spatial variations in flood parameters. The simulated flood hydrograph, peak discharge and peak arrival time at the downstream towns fit the observations. Thus this approach is capable of providing reliable predictions for the decision makers to determine the mitigation plans. The sensitivity analysis of the BREACH model input parameters reveals that the average grain size, the unit weight and porosity of the dam materials are the most sensitive parameters. The variability of the dam material properties causes a large uncertainty in the estimation of the peak flood discharge and peak arrival time, but has little influence on the flood inundation area and flood depth downstream. The effect of cascading breaches of smaller dams downstream of the Tangjiashan dam was

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Dam Association's 2006 annual conference: dams: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed particular technical challenges regarding the operation of dams with particular focus on best practices for improving dam management and safety. It featured 4 workshops and a technical program led by experts on dams and tailings facilities that addressed topics such as dam construction, design and rehabilitation; dam management in a hydrological uncertainty context; monitoring, instrumentation and maintenance; dam behaviour; dam safety, dam failure and practical approaches to emergency preparedness planning for dam owners; historical aspects and environmental issues and conflicting water use. Recent developments in dam construction were reviewed along with discharge and debris management, tailings dam issues, asset management, seismic issues, public safety, seepage monitoring, flow control, dam rehabilitation, concrete testing, hydrotechnical issues, risk assessment methodology, and dam safety guidelines for extreme flood analyses and their applications. All 80 presentations from this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  12. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  13. Study on Rock Bolt Reinforcement for a Gravity Dam Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. H.; Yang, Z. M.; Wang, W. M.; Shahrour, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the rock bolt reinforcement mechanism is discussed, and the gravity method as well as the finite element method for the bolted rock is presented. These methods are applied to study the gravity dam foundation of the Xiaoxi Hydropower Project, which is influenced by the presence of a large fault with a cracked zone over 180 m wide. Rock bolt reinforcement was used to improve the stability of the dam foundation, and the reinforcement parameters were determined from a semi-empirical equation controlled by in situ test. The stability analysis was conducted using the above methods, and the improvement in terms of deformation and stress as well as stability of the dam foundation due to the reinforcement is assessed. Rock bolt reinforcement was completed successfully, and the dam started normal operations in January 2008.

  14. Safety of gravity dams and spillways against floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lariviere, R.; Leger, P.; Tinawi, R.; Roussel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The structural safety of concrete gravity dams and spillways during major floods was discussed, concentrating on failure mechanisms, the methodology for hydrological safety evaluation for existing dams, the notion of imminent failure flood, the resistance to overtopping and the effects of floating debris. In particular, the incidence of overtopping on structural stability of typical gravity dams was investigated using a variety of assumptions concerning the peak and residual shear strength parameters of construction joints according to CDSA guidelines. Some considerations regarding rehabilitation techniques to increase the hydrological safety of gravity dams and spillways, such as functional safety analysis of electro-mechanical equipment of gated spillways in case of major floods, emergency planning, and the availability of qualified personnel to ensure the safety of the installation, were also discussed. 19 refs., 8 figs

  15. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines, is...

  16. Dam safety from theory to practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings on dam safety consists of 20 papers divided into seven sessions. The first session dealt with tailings dams; sessions 2 to 5 with technology transfer as related to dam safety; the sixth session with dam rehabilitation; and the last session with environmental concerns. The conference took place at Banff, Alberta, in October 1995.refs., figs., tabs

  17. Worry as a window into the lives of people who use injection drugs: a factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowen Laura

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of risk dominates the HIV/AIDS literature pertaining to People Who Use Injection Drugs (PWUID. In contrast the associated concept of worry is infrequently applied, even though it can produce important perspectives of PWUID's lives. This study asked a sample (n = 105 of PWUID enrolled in a Victoria, British Columbia needle exchange program to evaluate their degree of worry about fourteen factors they may encounter in their daily lives. Methods Exploratory factor analysis was used to analyze their responses. Results Factor analysis delineated three factors: 1 overall personal security, 2 injection drug use-specific risks including overdosing and vein collapse and, 3 contracting infectious diseases associated with injection drug use (e.g. HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Conclusion PWUID in this study not only worry about HIV/AIDS but also about stressful factors in their daily life which have been linked to both increased HIV/AIDS risk behaviour and decreased anti-retroviral treatment adherence. The importance PWUID give to this broad range of worry/concerns emphasizes the need to place HIV/AIDS intervention, education, and treatment programs within a broader harm-reduction framework that incorporates their perspectives on both worry and risk.

  18. Perspectives on dam safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canadian dam safety issues were reviewed from the perspective of a water resources engineer who is not a dam safety practitioner. Several external factors affecting dam safety were identified along with perceived problems in dam safety administration. The author claims that the main weakness in safety practices can be attributed to provincial oversights and lack of federal engagement. Some additions to the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines were proposed to address these weaknesses. Canada has hundreds of large dams and high hazard dams whose failure would result in severe downstream consequences. The safety of dams built on boundary waters shared with the United States have gained particular attention from the International Joint Commission. This paper also examined safety criteria for concerns such as aging dams, sabotage and global climate change that may compromise the safety of a dam. 26 refs

  19. Analysis of environmental issues related to small scale hydroelectric development. II. Design considerations for passing fish upstream around dams. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1567

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-08-01

    The possible requirement of facilities to move migrating fish upstream around dams may be a factor in determining the feasibility of retrofitting small dams for hydroelectric generation. Basic design considerations are reported that should be evaluated on a site-specific basis if upstream fish passage facilities are being considered for a small scale hydroelectric project (defined as an existing dam that can be retrofitted to generate 25 MW or less). Information on general life history and geographic distribution of fish species that may require passage is presented. Biological factors important in the design of upstream passage facilities are discussed: gas bubble disease, fish swimming speed, oxygen consumption by fish, and diel and photo behavior. Three general types of facilities (fishways, fish locks, and fish lifts) appropriate for upstream fish passage at small scale hydroelectric projects are described, and size dimensions are presented. General design criteria for these facilities (including fish swimming ability and behavior) and general location of facilities at a site are discussed. Basic cost considerations for each type of passage facility, including unit cost, operation and maintenance costs, and costs for supplying attraction water, are indicated.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of Temperature Control Parameters and Study of the Simultaneous Cooling Zone during Dam Construction in High-Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are unprecedented difficulties in building concrete gravity dams in the high altitude province Tibet with problems induced by lack of experience and technologies and unique weather conditions, as well as the adoption of construction materials that are disadvantageous to temperature control and crack prevention. Based on the understandings of the mentioned problems and leveraging the need of building gravity dam in Tibet, 3D finite element method is used to study the temperature control and crack prevention of the dam during construction. The calculation under recommend temperature control measures and standards shows that the height and number of simultaneous cooling zone have the more obvious influencers on concrete stress; therefore, it is suggested to increase the height of simultaneous cooling zone to decrease the stress caused by temperature gradient of adjoin layers so as to raise the safety level of the whole project. The research methods and ideas used on this project have significant values and can be taken as references in similar projects in high altitude regions.

  1. SIMSAS - a window based software package for simulation and analysis of multiple small-angle scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaswal, B.; Mazumder, S.

    1998-09-01

    Small-angle scattering data from strong scattering systems, e.g. porous materials, cannot be analysed invoking single scattering approximation as specimen needed to replicate the bulk matrix in essential properties are too thick to validate the approximation. The presence of multiple scattering is indicated by invalidity of the functional invariance property of the observed scattering profile with variation of sample thickness and/or wave length of the probing radiation. This article delineates how non accounting of multiple scattering affects the results of analysis and then how to correct the data for its effect. It deals with an algorithm to extract single scattering profile from small-angle scattering data affected by multiple scattering. The algorithm can process the scattering data and deduce single scattering profile in absolute scale. A software package, SIMSAS, is introduced for executing this inversion step. This package is useful both to simulate and to analyse multiple small-angle scattering data. (author)

  2. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  3. Dam overtopping risk using probabilistic concepts – Case study: The Meijaran Dam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Goodarzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic risk assessment and uncertainty analysis by mathematical and statistical methods provide useful information for decision makers. This study presents the application of risk and uncertainty analysis to dam overtopping due to various inflows and wind speeds for the Meijaran Dam in the north of Iran. The procedure includes univariate flood and wind speed frequency analyses, reservoir routing, and integration of wind set-up and run-up to calculate the reservoir water elevation. Afterwards, the probability of overtopping was assessed by applying two uncertainty analysis methods (Monte Carlo simulation and Latin hypercube sampling, and considering the quantile of flood peak discharge, initial depth of water in the reservoir, and spillway discharge coefficient as uncertain variables. The results revealed that rising water level in the reservoir is the most important factor in overtopping risk analysis and that wind speed also has a considerable impact on reservoirs that are placed in windy areas.

  4. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The open office area (Figure 9) is 48’ deep with a sloped ceiling designed to disperse light down into the cubicle workstations. The sloped ceiling...Ceiling Ht. 9’ , 10’* Window VT 40%, 70%* Office Furniture 60” Cubicle * Lighting Schedule ASHRAE 90.1* Blinds Control Always Closed, Automated...2829 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ESTCP Program Office Dr. James

  5. Development of vacuum barrier windows for high power gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Problems in the realization of vacuum barrier windows for 1MW CW gyrotrons are reviewed from the viewpoint of removing heat generation in the window materials. The merits and demerits of various window structures currently in use or under proposal are explained in detail. The design of a multiple disk window, including RF design and thermal stress analysis, is also described. As an example of a recent successful window structure, the experimental results of a forced gas-cooled single disk window with low loss silicon nitride composite are presented. By this window structure, 130kW CW (8kW/cm 2 ) transmission was achieved with an effective diameter of only 88.9 mm. (author)

  6. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  7. Abstracts and electronic proceedings of the Canadian Dam Association's 2008 annual conference : emerging technologies for dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference provided a national forum to explore and discuss emerging technologies which can be used to enhance dam safety and construction practices on both new and existing projects. Advancements in the fields of dam design, construction, and remedial works were reviewed as well as new techniques for dam monitoring programs. Engineers, geoscientists, dam owners and operators and other stakeholders exchanged ideas and information regarding the operation, maintenance and management of water and tailings dams. The conference sessions dealt with a variety of topics, including dam foundations; mining dams; dams and the environment; embankment dams; dams and seismicity; hydrotechnics; assessment and investigative technologies; dam instrumentation and monitoring; computational hydraulics; and dam safety. The conference featured 46 presentations, of which 37 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2016-03-18

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number.

  9. Tracking the curing process of automotive paint by moving-window two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Moving-window two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (MW2DCOS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were combined to interpret the time serial infrared spectra. The curing process of an automotive paint sample was tracked by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Score plots of the first and second principal components showed that the curing process contained three stages. Meanwhile, the loading spectra indicated that the solvent was a mixture of aromatic compounds. Absorption peaks which changed significantly in each stage were revealed by auto-peak MW2DCOS. Furthermore, point-line and point-point MW2DCOS demonstrated the time-resolved relationship between absorption peaks from toluene, xylene and resin. In summary, the evaporation of toluene was the first stage of the curing process of this automotive paint sample. Next, the mixture of o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene began to evaporate in the second stage. After the evaporation of the solvent, the solid paint membrane was formed. For the interpretation of the time serial spectra, PCA is useful to estimate the number of significant chemical components and to find out the important turning points of the process, while MW2DCOS can show the changes of the spectral peaks and the relationship between them step by step. The combination of PCA and MW2DCOS is very interesting to extract and display the time-resolved information in the time serial spectra.

  10. DNA Adenine Methyltransferase (Dam Overexpression Impairs Photorhabdus luminescens Motility and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Payelleville

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dam, the most described bacterial DNA-methyltransferase, is widespread in gamma-proteobacteria. Dam DNA methylation can play a role in various genes expression and is involved in pathogenicity of several bacterial species. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by the dam ortholog identified in the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Complementation assays of an Escherichia coli dam mutant showed the restoration of the DNA methylation state of the parental strain. Overexpression of dam in P. luminescens did not impair growth ability in vitro. In contrast, compared to a control strain harboring an empty plasmid, a significant decrease in motility was observed in the dam-overexpressing strain. A transcriptome analysis revealed the differential expression of 208 genes between the two strains. In particular, the downregulation of flagellar genes was observed in the dam-overexpressing strain. In the closely related bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, dam overexpression also impaired motility. In addition, the dam-overexpressing P. luminescens strain showed a delayed virulence compared to that of the control strain after injection in larvae of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis. These results reveal that Dam plays a major role during P. luminescens insect infection.

  11. Management and utilization of monitoring data of EDF dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Electricite de France (EdF) exploits about 475 dams over the whole French territory, the monitoring of which depends on the risks: natural risks, risks linked with the constructive works, and risks linked with the exploitation of the dam. Real situations are in general a combination of several type of risks. The monitoring of dams is based on visual inspection, sounding (measurements) and periodical tests of safety systems. The monitoring activity is placed under a quality assurance procedure. Two levels of redundant continuous monitoring are considered, one performed by the operator and the other by specialists. Monitoring devices are chosen according to their reliability, their stability, their simpleness and their robustness. The measured data are not numerous and well defined. Integrating phenomena are preferred. The statistical analysis of chronological series of data is performed periodically through simple, robust and general models allowing to determine the dam responses to stresses (reversible effects), and to obtain data in 'identical conditions' for a measurement of the evolution of the dam with time. The general trend is an increase of safety requirements with legislative changes, leading to more rigorous studies of dam risks. (J.S.)

  12. Thermally-induced cracking of a concrete arch dam using COMSOL Multiphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Gasch, Tobias; Ericsson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The design and maintenance of concrete dams in cold regions is a challenging task, in large due to the temperature difference between summer and winter. In order to enhance the knowledge of this, theme A of the 14th International Benchmark Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Dams is dedicated to the prediction of the extent of cracking in a concrete arch dam due to temperature variations. The current study proposes a solution to this using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. A glob...

  13. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  14. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  15. Role of the check dam in land development on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Zhang, Luo-Hao; Zhu, Tongxin; Dang, Tian-Min; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Xu, Shi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Check dam is one of the most effective measures to reduce flow connectivity, which can retain soil and water, and increase land productivity. More than 100,000 check dams have been built on the Loess Plateau since 1950s. However, quantifying the effect of check dams on water resources and water environments remains a challenge. In this study, an in-depth field investigation together with a credible statistical analysis was carried out in two representative catchments on the Loess Plateau, Nanxiaohegou Catchment and Jiuyuangou Catchment, to assess the effectiveness of check dams in soil, water and nutrients conservation. The results show: (1) Check dam plays an important role in conserving water, soil, and nutrients on the Loess Plateau. About half of the total transported water and more than 80 % of the total transported soil and nutrients, had been locally retained in the selected catchments. Hence check dams had a significant benefit to improve soil fertility in the small watersheds, and reducing water pollution downstream of dams. (2) Compared to terrace farmlands, forest lands and grasslands, check-dam lands were much more important in conserving water, soil and nutrients in the catchments. Nearly 50% of the reduced water and more than 70% of the stored soil and nutrients in the study catchments were solely retained by the check dams, whereas the area of the dam lands was less than 7% of the total conservation land area. (3) Check dams are still effective in large storms even if dams were damaged by floods. It is often assumed that check dams could only retain sediment in small flood events whereas most of the stored soil may be washed out as the dams may be destroyed in a disastrous flood. Furthermore, if a major check dam, namely the key project dam, was built in the gully outlet, the flood could be controlled, and thereupon the dam-break can be also avoided. We suggest that a compensation and incentive policy be implemented on dam building to realize the

  16. Economic Efficiency and Equity in Dams Removal: Case studies in Northeastern Massachusetts Doina Oglavie, Ellen Douglas, David Terkla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglavie, D. R.; Douglas, E. M.; Terkla, D.

    2009-12-01

    According to American Rivers (www.americanrivers.org), Massachusetts has almost 3,000 dams under state regulation, 296 of which have been classified as high hazard, meaning they pose a serious threat to human life if they should fail. Most of these dams, however, are low head, “run-of-the-river” dams that no longer serve the purpose for which they were built. The presence of these dams has fragmented aquatic and riparian ecosystems, impeded fish passage and generally impacted the natural ecological and hydrological functioning of the streams in which they reside. Dam removal should be considered when a dam no longer serves its function. Although in many cases, the removal of a dam is environmentally beneficial (at least over the long term), sometimes the removal of a dam can incur environmental costs, such as release of contaminants that were sequestered behind the dam. Dam removal is a complex issue especially with respect to privately owned dams. In many cases, dam removal is less costly than dam maintenance or upgrade, hence dam removal decisions tend to be based on purely monetary considerations, and the environmental costs or benefits associated with the dam are not considered. Typically, the main objective for the dam owner is to incur the lowest possible cost (private cost), whether it be operating and maintenance or removal; external costs (environmental degradation) are rarely, if ever, considered, hence the true cost to society is not included in the economic analysis. If dam operation and removal decisions are to be economically efficient, then they have to include both the private costs as well as the external (environmental) costs. The purpose of this work is to 1) attempt to quantify the externalities associated with the maintenance and the removal of dams, 2) assess whether or not the current dam removal evaluation process maximizes social welfare (efficiency and equity) and 3) suggest ways in which this process can be improved by including the

  17. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foundation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D geomechanics model test and finite element analysis results indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  18. Importance of using roller compacted concrete in techno-economic investigation and design of small dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouissat, Bouchrit; Smail, N.; Zenagui, S.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, and under constraints caused by persistent drought, Algeria has launched a new mobilization strategy for surface water resources from small and medium dams. However, by making a review of the studies and achievements of twenty small dams in the west of Algeria, some deficiencies appeared. In addition to reservoir siltation assessment, operation spillways have been the major constraint on the reliability of these types of dams. The objective of this paper is to use the roller compacted concrete (RCC) for small dams' design for the benefit it offers and its ability to incorporate spillways. The development of this reflection was applied to the Khneg Azir earth dam situated in southwest of Algeria. Its uncontrolled lateral spillway has registered significant damage following the flood of October 2005, amounted, at that time, to more than 100 million Algerian dinars (1 million US Dollars). The present research encompasses a technical and economical comparative analysis concerning multiple criteria dam design types coupled with the conjugation of the spillways. Thus, on the basis of financial estimates calculated for all design types, the variant RCC remains competitive with that of the earth dam's spillway isolated (Less than 40% of the cost). To assess the mechanical behavior of the foundations for both types of dams, (earth and RCC dams), numerical modeling has been undertaken, according to the comparative analysis of deformations in the foundations. Analysis of deformations showed that the average foundation deformations was between (0.052-0.85) m for earth dam and (0.023-0.373) m for RCC dam. These economical and technical considerations open up important prospects for the use of RCC in the design of small dams.

  19. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  20. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  1. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  2. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  3. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised......-value of 0.7 W/m²K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m²K. No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. At a Danish location and North facing, the energy balance...

  4. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  5. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  6. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  7. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  8. Performance of the Analog Moving Window Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. Gregers

    1970-01-01

    A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning of the ante......A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning....... Finally the influence on detection performance of the width used for the moving window is investigated....

  9. Simulating daily water temperatures of the Klamath River under dam removal and climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Risley, John C.; Brewer, Scott J.; Jones, Edward C.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional daily averaged water temperature model was used to simulate Klamath River temperatures for two management alternatives under historical climate conditions and six future climate scenarios. The analysis was conducted for the Secretarial Determination on removal of four hydroelectric dams on the Klamath River. In 2012, the Secretary of the Interior will determine if dam removal and implementation of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) (Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement, 2010) will advance restoration of salmonid fisheries and is in the public interest. If the Secretary decides dam removal is appropriate, then the four dams are scheduled for removal in 2020.

  10. Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny, Elad; Tawfeeq, Kochar Jamal; Ghabraie, Kazem

    2015-10-01

    Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10-8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.

  11. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  12. Variable-intercept panel model for deformation zoning of a super-high arch dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhongwen; Gu, Chongshi; Qin, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study determines dam deformation similarity indexes based on an analysis of deformation zoning features and panel data clustering theory, with comprehensive consideration to the actual deformation law of super-high arch dams and the spatial-temporal features of dam deformation. Measurement methods of these indexes are studied. Based on the established deformation similarity criteria, the principle used to determine the number of dam deformation zones is constructed through entropy weight method. This study proposes the deformation zoning method for super-high arch dams and the implementation steps, analyzes the effect of special influencing factors of different dam zones on the deformation, introduces dummy variables that represent the special effect of dam deformation, and establishes a variable-intercept panel model for deformation zoning of super-high arch dams. Based on different patterns of the special effect in the variable-intercept panel model, two panel analysis models were established to monitor fixed and random effects of dam deformation. Hausman test method of model selection and model effectiveness assessment method are discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of established models is verified through a case study.

  13. Comparison between Duncan and Chang’s EB Model and the Generalized Plasticity Model in the Analysis of a High Earth-Rockfill Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear elastic model and elastoplastic model are two main kinds of constitutive models of soil, which are widely used in the numerical analyses of soil structure. In this study, Duncan and Chang's EB model and the generalized plasticity model proposed by Pastor, Zienkiewicz, and Chan was discussed and applied to describe the stress-strain relationship of rockfill materials. The two models were validated using the results of triaxial shear tests under different confining pressures. The comparisons between the fittings of models and test data showed that the modified generalized plasticity model is capable of simulating the mechanical behaviours of rockfill materials. The modified generalized plasticity model was implemented into a finite element code to carry out static analyses of a high earth-rockfill dam in China. Nonlinear elastic analyses were also performed with Duncan and Chang's EB model in the same program framework. The comparisons of FEM results and in situ monitoring data showed that the modified PZ-III model can give a better description of deformation of the earth-rockfill dam than Duncan and Chang’s EB model.

  14. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  16. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Group prepares guidelines for documenting dam performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, M.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Association of State Dam Safety Officials and the Center on the Performance of Dams at Stanford University later this summer expect to complete guidelines for reporting the performance of state, federal, and private dams: A working group of state and federal dam safety engineers and consultants is developing the guidelines to identify incidents that should be reported and to establish reporting requirements. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is funding preparation and publication of the guidelines. The guidelines are expected to expedite the process for reporting information on dam incidents in a timely and complete manner. Much the same as the health care industry compiles and evaluates data related to the incidence of disease and the benefits of treatment, a single standard for reporting the performance of dams in the US will help create a national information base on the occurrence and consequence of dam incidents. Currently, incidents involving dam performance are not reported on a regular basis. The guidelines will define dam incidents in terms of events of engineering interest that provide insights to the safety and structural or operational integrity of dams. Examples of incidents include the performance of a dam that experiences ground motion from a large earthquake, extreme spillway or dam overtopping, rehabilitations made to satisfy dam safety requirements, embankment sliding of an earthen dam, and improper operations that leads to damage downstream. When an incident occurs, the satisfactory or unsatisfactory performance of a dam will be reported, either by a state dam safety official, the owner of the dam, or the owner's engineer

  18. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  19. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  20. High-power RF window and coupler development for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Fant, K.; Hodgson, J.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of the RF windows designed to transmit power to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. Design choices to maximize the reliability of the window are discussed. Fabrication technologies for the window are described and finite-element analysis of the assembly process is presented. Conditioning and high-power testing of the window are discussed. Design of the coupler assembly including the integration of the window and other components is reported

  1. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  2. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Muda, Rahsidi Sabri; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Mansor, Faezah Hanum; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-01-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  3. The Sulphate Effect on Lijiaxia Concrete Dam (China Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufen Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete degradation is one of the most serious problems for a dam construct during the normal operation, which determines the dam service life. Hence, it is very important to reduce the extent of the dam concrete degradation for the safety of the dam normal operation. Here, Lijiaxia hydroelectric station is taken as an example, and a comprehensive method to assess the sulphate effect on dam gallery is proposed. Eleven samples in total were taken from three difference locations by the drill bore. The microstructural investigations including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were conducted to assess the sulphate attack and the degradation degree. Meanwhile, the water chemical analysis was applied to reveal the mechanism of concrete degradation. The experimental and analysis results indicate that the concrete degradation degree varies with the location of the samples. The components of the concrete change and the content of SO3 increase dramatically during degradation. Moreover, the mineral facies of the concrete change correspondingly, with the cement paste substituted by the calcite, calcium vitriol, and gypsum. The reinforcement and precaution measures are suggested based on the results of the degradation assessment.

  4. Dam pre-release as an important operation strategy in reducing flood impact in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayah Ishak Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 flood was reported to be one of the worst natural disaster has ever affected several states in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Overwhelming rainfall was noted as one of the main factors causing such impact, which was claimed to be unprecedented to some extent. The state of Perak, which is blessed with four cascading dams had also experienced flood damage at a scale that was considered the worst in history. The rainfall received had caused the dam to reach danger level that necessitated additional discharge to be released. Safety of the dams was of great importance and such unavoidable additional discharge was allowed to avoid catastrophic failure of the dam structures. This paper discusses the dam pre-release as a significant dam management strategy in reducing flood impact. An important balance between required dam storage to be maintained and the risk element that can be afforded is the crucial factor in such enhanced operation strategy. While further possibility in developing a carefully engineered dam pre-release strategy can be explored for dam operation in Malaysia, this has already been introduced in some developed countries. Australia and South Africa are examples where pre-release has been practiced and proven to reduce flood risk. The concept involves controlling the dam lake level throughout the year, in reference to the rainfall data and the hydrological properties for the catchment area of the dams. Plentiful data analysis need to be done in contemplation of producing the optimal pre-release model. The amount of heavy rainfalls received is beyond human control but the distribution of the discharge from the dams can be further managed with the appropriate pre-release strategy.

  5. Dam pre-release as an important operation strategy in reducing flood impact in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah Ishak, Nurul; Mustafa Hashim, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The 2014 flood was reported to be one of the worst natural disaster has ever affected several states in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Overwhelming rainfall was noted as one of the main factors causing such impact, which was claimed to be unprecedented to some extent. The state of Perak, which is blessed with four cascading dams had also experienced flood damage at a scale that was considered the worst in history. The rainfall received had caused the dam to reach danger level that necessitated additional discharge to be released. Safety of the dams was of great importance and such unavoidable additional discharge was allowed to avoid catastrophic failure of the dam structures. This paper discusses the dam pre-release as a significant dam management strategy in reducing flood impact. An important balance between required dam storage to be maintained and the risk element that can be afforded is the crucial factor in such enhanced operation strategy. While further possibility in developing a carefully engineered dam pre-release strategy can be explored for dam operation in Malaysia, this has already been introduced in some developed countries. Australia and South Africa are examples where pre-release has been practiced and proven to reduce flood risk. The concept involves controlling the dam lake level throughout the year, in reference to the rainfall data and the hydrological properties for the catchment area of the dams. Plentiful data analysis need to be done in contemplation of producing the optimal pre-release model. The amount of heavy rainfalls received is beyond human control but the distribution of the discharge from the dams can be further managed with the appropriate pre-release strategy.

  6. Dams. Bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams; Barrages. Bulletin du Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Four papers were selected in this issue of the bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams. The first one concerns the `Catastrophe Medicine` congress which took place in Amiens (France) in December 5 to 7 1996 and during which the analysis of experience feedbacks and lessons gained after dam accidents and organisation of emergency plans was discussed. The second one is a report of the conclusions of the decennial and annual inspections of French dams. The third paper describes the reinforcement of the Lavaud-Gelade dam embankment and the last paper reports on the Control Services activities concerning the French dams in operation for the forth quarter of the year 1996. (J.S.)

  7. Design considerations for the SINQ target window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubs, M.; Ulrich, J.

    1991-01-01

    Since the proton-beam enters the SINQ liquid lead-bismuth target from below, a special window design is needed at attain safe operation for at least one year. The present design consist of a double-walled water cooled entrance-window and a third wall cooled by lead-bismuth. The intermediate volume contains circulating helium in order to detect any leaks in the 2nd or 3rd wall at an early stage. Several investigations have been made in the fields of radiation-damage, thermohydraulics and stress analysis. (author)

  8. Evaluating the Mosul Dam's Instability after Resumption of Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-husseinawi, Y.; Li, Z.; Clarke, P. J.; Edwards, S.

    2017-12-01

    There is serious concern about the safety of Mosul dam in the north of Iraq. Millions of people in the downstream area are exposed to risk of catastrophic collapse of this dam due to its soluble foundation. Recent study (Milillo et al., 2016, Scientific Report/10.1038/srep37408) reported that the dam deformation has accelerated since August 2014, when grouting operations were interrupted due to the conflict in the region. In this study, we investigate the health of Mosul dam since Jun 2016 using three independent datasets: Sentinel-1A/B SAR images, levelling, and GPS measurement. The latter are based on three epochs of terrestrial observation for levelling and GPS data: March 2016, December 2016 and July 2017. During this period, maintenance operations are being recovered to keep the dam stable. The monitoring network, on which the levelling and GPS observations are based, consists of eighty-seven pillars distributed on the dam surface. The results from InSAR and leveling data show that the dam crest is settling by 9 mm/yr. In contrast to previous studies, our results show a deceleration in the settlement. This may be due to the maintenance operations performed in the last few months. InSAR time series analysis was performed using the in-house tool TM-SBAS. When using the small baseline Sentinel-1 constellation, all possibilities of image choice are taken into consideration and the SRTM DEM accuracy is sufficient to generate the differential interferograms. Data from both Sentinel-1A and -1B images are used, and these results can be compared with multi-platform (Envisat, Sentinel-1, Cosmo-SkyMed, and TerraSar-X) data collected during the period between March 2003 and September 2016.

  9. Destabilization of Masjed-Soleyman rockfill dam observed by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas Haghighi, Mahmud; Motagh, Mahdi; Emadali, Lotfollah

    2017-04-01

    Differential interferometry using Envisat, ALOS, ALOS-2, TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1 data, and terrestrial geodetic surveys are used to assess post-construction settlement of the Masjed-Soleyman embankment dam, southwest Iran. The Masjed-Soleyman dam, a rockfill dam with a vertical central clay core, was constructed between 1995 and 2000 on the Karoun River, which is one of the largest and longest rivers in Iran (length 950 km) and one of the most important surface water resources in the country. Soon after the first impoundment of the dam in December 2000, cross and longitudinal cracks developed in the dam crest, especially at the junction of concrete or steel elements to the rockfill dam shell, causing growing concern that dam might be at risk of failure. Therefore, geodetic monitoring of Masjed-Soleyman dam became particularly important. In this paper, we report on the detection and analysis of ongoing destabilization of this dam from both space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements and ground-based terrestrial survey and evaluate the potential of various space technologies and processing algorithms for efficient monitoring of this infrastructure.

  10. Dam safety surveillance and sustainability: what can be learnt from isotope techniques?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Johari Abd Latif

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly discuss in general the use of isotope (natural and artificial) tracer techniques for the investigation of dam safety surveillance and dam sustainability, particularly in diagnosing seepage and leakage problems in dams throughout its life cycle. Two selected case studies are presented. First study deals with the effort to develop a database comprising stable isotopic compositions of different water bodies at and around dams for a number of did-owned dams (existing and newly impounded reservoirs). It was aimed to provide information for later reference should seepage appearance and disappearance issues requiring analysis arise in the future as well as possibility of its inter-connection with reservoir and dam bodies (piezo metric wells). Preliminary results of isotopic dam signatures (fingerprinting) lines from piezo metric wells with respect to local meteoric water line, reservoir, leakage point(s) and dam designed seepage water are presented. Less apparent variations ( 198 Au and HTO) adsorbed onto fine powders were introduced into the reservoir and used to locate the seepage regions along the dam wall as well as reservoir bed by using radiation detectors. (Author)

  11. Performance Evaluation of Vinyl Replacement Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-15

    Grids, Nikolaev Branch of Odessa Div., Engineering Inst., UKR SSR, 1979. Grandjean, E., The Ergonomics of the Hone, Halsted Pr., New York, 1974. Griffin...Richard H.; Marshall, Stephen J., Infrared Thermography of Buildings: Qualitative Analysis of Window Infiltration Loss, Federal Office Building, Burlington

  12. Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...

  13. Design considerations for foil windows for PET radioisotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughey, B.J.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study performed at SRL to develop analytical and computational techniques for optimizing the design of conduction-cooled foil windows for PET targets. Single foil conduction cooled windows have been found to be good target entrance windows for both low energy accelerators and medium energy cyclotrons. Detailed thermal analysis has given an approximate analytical expression for the maximum temperature reached in a foil window under conditions of realistic ion beam bombardment. The effects of 'hot spots' in the beam density profile were investigated. It was shown that a factor of two safety margin in window design should be adequate to compensate for any possible beam hot spots. In addition, the reduction of foil stress by slack mounting was verified by experiments. The properties of conventional and novel foil materials were investigated for use in conduction cooled windows. Novel foil materials include two-component Al/Ti and Al/Havar foil. Results on the testing of candidate foil materials for thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at elevated temperature were presented. Two optimum foil window geometries were analyzed: a high aspect ratio window and a multiply slotted window. The multiply slotted window combines the advantages of a high aspect ratio foil window with a circular beam strike and is a promising window design for both TCA and cyclotron targets. A multiply slotted window for a N 2 gas target for 15 O production was designed using the methodologies discussed above. This prototype target was successfully tested using the TCA beam at SRL. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  14. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  15. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  16. Beam line windows at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The A-6 main beam-line window at LAMPF separates the vacuum of the main beam line from the isotope production station, proton irradiation ports, and the beam stop, which operate in air. This window must withstand the design beam current of 1 mA at 800 MeV for periods of at least 3000 hours without failure. The window is water cooled and must be strong enough to withstand the 2.1 MPa (300 psig) cooling water pressure, as well as beam-induced thermal stresses. Two designs have been used to meet these goals, a stepped-plate window and a hemispherical window, both made from a precipitation-hardened nickel base alloy, Alloy 718. Calculations of the temperatures and stresses in each of these windows are presented

  17. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    . Heat loss through windows represents a considerably part of the total heat loss from houses. However windows provide a unique potential of solar energy gain to the building besides from providing daylight access and view. This results in a need for development of windows with improved energy...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  18. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  19. Renovation and design of double casement windows with regard to the occurrence of water vapour condensation or mould on the interior surface of the window jamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnacova, L.; Balik, L.

    2017-10-01

    The condensation of water vapour on the interior surface is an indicator of construction dysfunction or ignoring of the surroundings temperature and relative humidity. This paper deals with analysis of the occurrence of condensation on the jamb of double casement windows (windows with two window casements). More precisely, this is a surface in the interior where water vapour condensation or mould occur. For the renovation of existing double casement windows, there are different solutions based on window design: application of double insulating glazing on the interior window casement, application of double insulating glazing on the exterior casement, or installation of a simple window. We first describe measurement of an existing double casement window located in a mountain cottage. Second, the results and comparison of 2D thermal model of different types of double casement window construction. Also, the external insulation of the peripheral wall was included in the model.

  20. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  1. 76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional.... Project No.: 13237-002. c. Date Filed: February 14, 2011. d. Applicant: Whitman River Dam, Inc. e. Name of Project: Crocker Dam Hydro Project. f. Location: On the Whitman River, in the Town of Westminster...

  2. 78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Rate AGENCY: Southwestern... the power rate for the Sam Rayburn Dam (Rayburn) project pursuant to the Rayburn rate schedule (SRD-13..., Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Contract No...

  3. Seismic resistant design of a nuclear category I earth dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, N.R.; Ries, E.R.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    An integral part of many nuclear power plants is the ultimate heat sink (UHS); the purpose of which is to retain and deliver a supply of service water to the plant when water from the primary circulating water system is not available. The earth dam described herein is designed to retain the reservoir for the UHS of a nuclear power plant in Southern Europe. The usual pseudo-static analysis is only as good as the estimate for the seismic coefficient used to compute an equivalent horizontal static force on a potential sliding mass. In view of the earth dam considered herein, a more accurate computation of the seismic coefficients is to be made. A two-dimensional dynamic finite element analysis is made to predict the response of the earth dam to a Safe Shutdown Earthquake excitation which is in the form of a time history of accelerations appropriately deconvoluted from the surficial time history and applied at the base of the model. The material properties such as shear modulus and damping are adjusted to be compatible with the level of strain obtained. Thus, non-linear behavior of soil is considered in the analysis and a more realistic response is predicted. Acceleration and stress are determined throughout the dam and are used to compute a seismic coefficient for a pseudo-static stability analysis and the dynamic strength to stress ratios at several points in the body of the dam. The need to design the dam to resist a progressive erosion accident resulting from postulated concentrated leaks is discussed. This may be accomplished by providing a wide, well graded core protected by wide transition cores also heavily compacted

  4. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  5. Design and Application of CVD Diamond Windows for X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Yifei; Cookson, David

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented

  6. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasana Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions.

  7. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  8. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  9. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  10. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  11. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  12. Safety assessment of existing dams for earthquake conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, B.D.; Vick, S.G.; Garga, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    A study was commissioned by the Canadian Electrical Association to define procedures for the seismic safety analysis of existing dams. The guidelines include recommended criteria for seismic safety objectives, methods for estimation of seismic ground motions, analysis procedures for embankment and concrete dams, and methods for making decisions on remedial options. Details are presented on the seismic analysis of embankment dams and foundations. Guidelines are presented in three levels, each level requiring increasing data and analysis detail: screening, site specific investigation, and detailed site investigation. A level one analysis of liquefaction and crest deformation employs standard physical classification and descriptions of embankment materials. Documented field experience can be used together with estimates of peak ground acceleration to establish the seismic stability of the structure. Level two analyses rely on site specific data on soils in the embankment and foundation, often obtained from in-situ testing, and supplemented by analyses of static stresses and dynamic responses of the dam. Level 3 assessments are only required where the potential for liquefaction cannot be determined from level one and two analyses. This type of analysis requires extensive site exploration, laboratory testing and significant computational effort. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Large dams and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazelais, N.

    2003-01-01

    In July 1996, Quebec's Saguenay region was subjected to intensive rainfall which caused severe floods and uncontrolled release of several reservoirs, resulting in extensive damage to dam structures and reservoirs. The probability of occurrence for that disaster was 1:10,000. Following the disaster, the Quebec government established a dam management body entitled the Commission scientifique et technique sur la gestion des barrages, which pointed out several safety shortcomings of existing dams. Many were either very old or had undergone significant function change without being subsequently re-evaluated. A report by the Commission stated that damage following the floods could have been limited if the design and operating standards of the dams had been more stringent. A Dam Safety Act was adopted by the Quebec National Assembly on May 30, 2000 following recommendations to retain safer structures. The Act demands regular reporting of operating procedures. Seismic activity was noted as being a topic that requires in-depth examination since Quebec's St. Lawrence Valley, particularly the Charlevoix region, is one of Canada's largest seismic zones. The other is on the west coast in British Columbia. Earthquakes in Quebec are less intense than the ones in British Columbia, but they have higher frequency content which exerts a quasi-resonance wave effect which impacts roads, bridges, buildings and hydroelectric generating facilities. Hydro-Quebec is a public utility which owns 563 retaining structures, of which 228 are ranked as large dams that measure more than 15 metres high, 400 metres long and with a reservoir capacity of more than 1 million cubic metres of water. Hydro-Quebec addresses hydrological, seismic, technological and human risks through a dam safety procedure that includes structured plans for choosing best alternatives through staged exercises. Hazard levels are minimized through the adoption of emergency, prevention and alleviation measures. The utility

  14. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  15. Research on Safety Factor of Dam Slope of High Embankment Dam under Seismic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant development of construction technology of embankment dam, the constructed embankment dam becomes higher and higher, and the embankment dam with its height over 200m will always adopt the current design criteria of embankment dam only suitable for the construction of embankment dam lower than 200m in height. So the design criteria of high embankment dam shall be improved. We shall calculate the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam under different dam height, slope ratio and different seismic intensity based on ratio of safety margin, and clarify the change rules of stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m. We calculate the ratio of safety margin of traditional and reliable method by taking the stable, allowable and reliability index 4.2 of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m as the standard value, and conduct linear regression for both. As a result, the conditions, where 1.3 is considered as the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m under seismic condition and 4.2 as the allowable and reliability index, are under the same risk control level.

  16. Assessing the catalogue module of Alice for window software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a general description of Alice For Window Software with a detailed analysis of the catalogue module. It highlights the basic features of the module such as add, edit, delete, search field and the grab button. The cataloguing process is clearly delineated. The paper also discusses Alice For Window ...

  17. Photodetachment neutralizer development: Laser window design study: Volume 2, Window design details: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    During 1983, TRW conducted a photodetachment neutralizer development (PDN) - Laser Resonator study. The emphasis of this contract was to assess a technology base of the PDN concept. Three technology assessments were conducted: Mirror Technology assessments, Window Engineering Analysis/Technology assessment, and COIL medium modeling with emphasis on PDN issues. Based on the results of these technology assessments the follow-on contract was funded to develop a technology verification. Due to funding limitations this technology verification program was divided into two separate follow-on contracts. Under this follow-on contract, the following tasks were performed: Measure Attenuation Coefficient of 3M FC-104, FC-77, FC-43 with temperature and attenuation coefficient of sapphire, generate finite element/finite difference thermal/structural model of the HEX double window, determine thermal/structural response from the proposed operating conditions, develop option response data from the deflection/stress inputs, recommend design and operating parameters for demonstrator and operational HEX double window, generate Level 1 layouts and drawings of double paned demonstrator window and window mount/manifold, and generate preliminary layout drawings of shutter. Thermal and structural analyses were conducted for both the operational and demonstrator window heat exchanger (HEX) designs and operating conditions

  18. Vehicle speed prediction via a sliding-window time series analysis and an evolutionary least learning machine: A case study on San Francisco urban roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Mozaffari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current study is to take advantage of advanced numerical and intelligent tools to predict the speed of a vehicle using time series. It is clear that the uncertainty caused by temporal behavior of the driver as well as various external disturbances on the road will affect the vehicle speed, and thus, the vehicle power demands. The prediction of upcoming power demands can be employed by the vehicle powertrain control systems to improve significantly the fuel economy and emission performance. Therefore, it is important to systems design engineers and automotive industrialists to develop efficient numerical tools to overcome the risk of unpredictability associated with the vehicle speed profile on roads. In this study, the authors propose an intelligent tool called evolutionary least learning machine (E-LLM to forecast the vehicle speed sequence. To have a practical evaluation regarding the efficacy of E-LLM, the authors use the driving data collected on the San Francisco urban roads by a private Honda Insight vehicle. The concept of sliding window time series (SWTS analysis is used to prepare the database for the speed forecasting process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, a number of well-known approaches, such as auto regressive (AR method, back-propagation neural network (BPNN, evolutionary extreme learning machine (E-ELM, extreme learning machine (ELM, and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, are considered. The performances of the rival methods are then compared in terms of the mean square error (MSE, root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, median absolute percentage error (MDAPE, and absolute fraction of variances (R2 metrics. Through an exhaustive comparative study, the authors observed that E-LLM is a powerful tool for predicting the vehicle speed profiles. The outcomes of the current study can be of use for the engineers of automotive industry who have been

  19. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  20. Putting Roman Dams in Context: a Virtual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M. J.; Du Vernay, J. P.; Mcleod, J. B.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources and management have become a critical global issue. During the half-millennium of its existence, the Roman Empire developed numerous strategies to cope with water management, from large-scale urban aqueduct systems, to industrial-scale water mills designed to cope with feeding growing city populations. Roman engineers encountered, adopted, and adapted indigenous hydraulic systems, and left lasting imprints on the landscape of the Mediterranean and temperate Western Europe by employing a range of water technologies. A recent academic study has enabled the identification of remains of and references to seventy-two dams from the Roman era, constructed in Spain between the 1st and 4th century AD. Such unique heritage, without comparisons in the Mediterranean makes Spain an emblematic case study for the analysis of Roman hydraulic engineering and water management policies. Fifty dams have been located and detailed. The twenty-two outstanding, although identified on the ground, have not been able to be acceptably characterized, due in some cases to their being ruins in a highly degraded state, others due to their being masked by repairs and reconstructions subsequent to the Roman era. A good example of such neglected dams is the buttress dam of Consuegra , in Toledo province (Castilla-La Mancha). Dating to the 3rd - 4th century AD, the Dam of Consuegra, on the basin of the Guadiana, with its over 600 metres length and 4,80 metres height, is a remarkable case of Roman engineering mastery. It had a retaining wall upstream, numerous buttresses and perhaps an embankment downstream, of which no remains are left. The application of 3D digital imaging technique to create a high quality virtual model of such monuments has proved to be successful especially for the study of the technological aspects related its construction. The case study of the Roman dam of Muel (Zaragoza) has shown, in fact, as best practices in digital archaeology can provide an original and

  1. PUTTING ROMAN DAMS IN CONTEXT: A VIRTUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Decker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water resources and management have become a critical global issue. During the half-millennium of its existence, the Roman Empire developed numerous strategies to cope with water management, from large-scale urban aqueduct systems, to industrial-scale water mills designed to cope with feeding growing city populations. Roman engineers encountered, adopted, and adapted indigenous hydraulic systems, and left lasting imprints on the landscape of the Mediterranean and temperate Western Europe by employing a range of water technologies. A recent academic study has enabled the identification of remains of and references to seventy-two dams from the Roman era, constructed in Spain between the 1st and 4th century AD. Such unique heritage, without comparisons in the Mediterranean makes Spain an emblematic case study for the analysis of Roman hydraulic engineering and water management policies. Fifty dams have been located and detailed. The twenty-two outstanding, although identified on the ground, have not been able to be acceptably characterized, due in some cases to their being ruins in a highly degraded state, others due to their being masked by repairs and reconstructions subsequent to the Roman era. A good example of such neglected dams is the buttress dam of Consuegra , in Toledo province (Castilla-La Mancha. Dating to the 3rd - 4th century AD, the Dam of Consuegra, on the basin of the Guadiana, with its over 600 metres length and 4,80 metres height, is a remarkable case of Roman engineering mastery. It had a retaining wall upstream, numerous buttresses and perhaps an embankment downstream, of which no remains are left. The application of 3D digital imaging technique to create a high quality virtual model of such monuments has proved to be successful especially for the study of the technological aspects related its construction. The case study of the Roman dam of Muel (Zaragoza has shown, in fact, as best practices in digital archaeology can provide

  2. Remotely installed steam generator nozzle dam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Donald, F.X.; Weisel, E.M.; Schukei, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for remotely installing a dam unit in a nozzle or a nuclear steam generator head, the head including a manway. It comprises: mounting an articulated manipulator to an internal surface of the head, the manipulator having a free end which carries a jaw member; positioning the manipulator so that the jaw member is adjacent the manway and substantially on the manway axis; passing a first dam segment through the manway and attaching the jaw member to the first segment; positioning the manipulator so that the jaw member holds the first dam segment on one side of the manway axis; passing a second dam segment through the manway into engagement with the first dam segment to form a dam subassembly; translating the manipulator through the head until the dam subassembly is adjacent the nozzle; advancing the jaw member toward the nozzle until the cam subassembly is positioned substantially at the desired location of the dam unit with respect to the nozzle; and deploying the manipulator to install dam support structure between the dam subassembly and the steam generator, thereby forming an installed dam unit

  3. Thermal and structural behavior of filters and windows for synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Hahn, U.; Dejus, R.; Kuzay, T.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the following discussions: Introduction: Use of filters and windows in the front end designs; An interactive code for 3D graphic viewing of absorbed power in filters/windows and a new heat load generation algorithm for the finite element analysis; Failure criteria and analysis methods for the filter and window assembly; Comparison with test data and existing devices in HASYLAB; Cooling the filter: Radiation cooling or conduction cooling?; Consideration of window and filter thickness: Thicker or thinner?; Material selection criteria for filters/windows; Photon transmission through filters/windows; Window and filter design for APS undulators; Window and filter design for APS wigglers; and Window design for APS bending magnet front ends

  4. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  5. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  6. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  7. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  8. Dissolved organic matter characteristics along sabo dammed streams based on ultraviolet visible and fluorescence spectral properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praise, Susan; Ito, Hiroaki; An, Ying; Watanabe, Kazuya; Watanabe, Toru

    2018-02-17

    Changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics were investigated in two mountainous streams with closed-type sabo dams. Surface water was collected from four stations along the two mountainous streams and analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and excitation-emission fluorescence matrix (EEM) methods. Optical properties of DOM indicated an increase in molecular weight and aromaticity at stations near the sabo dams. Average spectral ratio values were low before and after the dam (i.e., Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA 254 ) increased in the vicinities of the dams. While chromophoric DOM characteristics from two sites were influenced by the dam, fluorescence components, however, did not show notable changes around dams. Instead, the three chromophoric components distinguished by EEM-parallel factor analysis, that is, humic-like (C1 and C2) and protein-like (C3) increase along the stream. Fulvic-like component (C1) had a high fluorescence intensity at all stations; all the three components were more abundant in the downstream section. Chromophoric DOM properties varied along the stream based on alterations in molecular size and aromaticity. Using multivariate analysis, the studied sites were grouped into three clusters related to sabo dams and other activities. We conclude that sabo dams modify DOM characteristics which influence the behavior of DOM transported along the stream.

  9. Total risk-analysing methods for dam structures and a case study in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, H. [Turkish Association of Dam Safety, Ankara (Turkey); Turkoz, M. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-07-01

    By considering the various factors of hazard, the total risk of dam structures in a basin can be systematically analyzed. These factors include structural factors such as settlement, seepage, leakage, and internal erosion; and, dam site factors such as seismic activity, landslide, rockfall and flooding. In order to increase safety, these hazards can be analyzed in detail and design and construction measures can be taken into account. This paper outlined the main principles of total risk analysis of dams in a basin. The paper discussed the geological setting and structural geology of the Euphrates-Tigris basin located in Turkey and dam properties of thirty-two large dams, which are located on different seismic zones of the Euphrates basin. Properties that were identified and compared included: structural height, function, type, completed year, volume of dam fill, and reservoir capacity. The paper discussed the methods of analysis using a computer program for the probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic hazard. It was concluded that peak ground acceleration changes within a wide range for the dam sites of the basins. In addition, sixteen large dams were in the high-risk class in the basins. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  11. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  12. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  13. The effect of interaction between reservoir and multi-layer foundation on the dynamic response of a typical arch dam (Karaj dam) to ''p'' and ''s'' waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Pedram Mosahebi; Noorzad, Asadollah; Rahimian, Mohammad; Omidvar, Babak

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the dynamic response of a three-dimensional arch dam is conducted taking into account the effects of dam-reservoir and dam-foundation interactions. The Karaj arch-dam in Iran is considered as a case study. The dam, fluid, and foundation domains are treated as substructures and modeled with boundary elements. The foundation domain is assumed to be layered and infinite. This study focuses on the effect of geotechnical conditions on the dynamic response of the dam to harmonic P and S waves. Latest investigations show that the foundation flexibility leads to a reduction in the response through radiation of energy. In this research, it is shown that the effect of soil layers may cause amplification of response in some frequency ranges. This study emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive modeling for site effects to resolve such problems. Also, by identifying the bands of excitation frequencies to which the dam may be more sensitive, it helps in the selection of the most critical earthquake records (as random phenomena) to be used in time domain analysis. (author)

  14. Some thoughts on dam safety assessment: Small dams with not-so-small reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helwig, P.C.; Smith, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    There are about 300 dams in Newfoundland and Labrador of which only 9 are higher than 30 m. A significant number of these dams are less than 3 m in height yet retain appreciable volumes of water. Approaches to safety evaluations of these small dams vary considerably. Some authorities exclude such dams from mandatory inspections altogether, while others apply provisions that were clearly designed for more important structures. Neither approach is wholly satisfactory. Drawing on experience from inspection of over 100 mainly small dams, the issue is discussed and approaches to improve methods for dams safety evaluation of very small dams are suggested. Selection of design flood criteria, design guidelines, and reservoir flood standards are discussed. Newfoundland Power's dam safety assessment procedures for such dams are described. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. False Windows - Yesterday and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  16. Effects of the Ben Franklin Dam on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1979-04-01

    A previous assessment of the effects of a Ben Franklin Dam on the Hanford Site made in 1967 was updated so that the potential adverse effects may be better understood in light of existing operations, current environmental and safety standards, and proposed facilities and operations. The major effects would probably arise from flooding of portions of the site by the reservoir associated with the dam and by the raising of the ground water table under the site. A preliminary analysis of the effects of the dam is presented, and a number of studies are recommended in order to fully evaluate and understand these potential impacts. The following seven tasks are identified and discussed: groundwater - hydrology analysis; soil liquefaction analysis; hydrostatic uplift and soil effects on structures; assessment of the potential for landsliding and sloughing; facility decommissioning; hydrothermal analysis; and, meteorological effects. Four other aspects commented upon in this report are: aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, socioeconomic effects, and public interaction. Possible effects on ongoing DOE-sponsored R and D are also noted. To the extent possible, cost estimates are developed for corrective actions which must be taken on the Hanford Site to accommodate the dam. Where this was not possible, appropriate courses of action leading to cost estimates are presented.

  17. A rapid method for determining chlorobenzenes in dam water systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method using direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of 7 chlorinated benzenes in dam water. The main parameters affecting the DI-SPME process were optimised. The optimised method ...

  18. A rapid method for determining chlorobenzenes in dam water systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-16

    Apr 16, 2012 ... A method using direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of 7 chlorinated benzenes in dam water. The main parameters affecting the DI-SPME process were optimised.

  19. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM ON JOINTED ROCK FOUNDATION DURING LARGE-SCALE EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Yutaka; Horii, Hideyuki; Yazdani, Mahmoud

    Dynamic cracking analysis of concrete gravity dam has been carried out during large-scale earthquake, considering the progressive failure of jointed rock foundation. Firstly, in order to take into account the progressive failure of rock foundation, the constitutive law of jointed rock is assumed and its validity is evaluated by simulation analysis based on the past experimental model. Finally, dynamic cracking analysis of 100-m high dam model is performed, using the previously proposed approach with tangent stiffness-proportional damping to express the propagation behavior of crack and the constitutive law of jointed rock. The crack propagation behavior of dam body and the progressive failure of jointed rock foundation are investigated.

  20. Crotch Lake dam rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, G.; Dobrowolski, E.

    1999-01-01

    Replacement of the existing wood crib dam structure on Crotch Lake on the Mississippi River in eastern Ontario that provided water storage for the power production at High Falls Generating Station, became necessary when it was determined that the dam did not meet Ontario-Hydro's safety standards. This paper describes the project of replacing the existing structure with a PVC coated gabion wall with waterproofing. The entire structure was covered with three layers of wire mesh, laced together, and criss-crossed for superior strength and rigidity. The work was completed in 28 days with no environmental impact . Life expectancy of the new structure is in excess of 40 years. With periodic maintenance of the gabion mat cover, life span could be extended an additional 20 to 40 years. 5 figs