WorldWideScience

Sample records for window solar water

  1. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  2. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explan...

  3. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Stepan

    2017-12-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explanation of economic efficiency of the proposed construction.

  4. Multistate Luminescent Solar Concentrator "Smart" Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Jeroen A.H.P.; Timmermans, Gilles H.; Breugel, van Abraham J.; Schenning, Albertus P.H.J.; Debije, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    A supertwist liquid crystalline luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) "smart" window is fabricated which can be switched electrically between three states: one designed for increased light absorption and electrical generation (the "dark" state), one for transparency (the "light" state), and one for

  5. High performance solar control office windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.J.

    1977-12-01

    Investigations conducted over a 9 month period on the use of ion beam sputtering methods for the fabrication of solar control windows for energy conservation are described. Principal emphasis was placed on colored, reflecting, heat rejecting, office building windows for reducing air conditioning loads and to aid in the design of energy conserving buildings. The coating techniques were developed primarily for use with conventional absorbing plate glass such as PPG solarbronze, but were also demonstrated on plastic substrates for retrofit applications. Extensive material investigations were conducted to determine the optimum obtainable characteristics, with associated weathering studies as appropriate aimed at achieving a 20 year minimum life. Conservative estimates indicate that successful commercialization of the windows developed under this program would result in energy savings of 16,000,000 barrels of oil/year by 1990 if installation were only 10 percent of new commercial building stock. These estimates are relative to existing design for energy conserving windows. Installation in a greater percentage of new stock and for retrofit applications could lead to proportionately greater energy savings. All such installations are projected as cost effective as well as energy effective. A secondary program was carried out to modify the techniques to yield thermal control windows for residential applications. These windows were designed to provide a high heat retention capability without seriously affecting their transmission of incident solar radiation, thereby enhancing the greenhouse effect. This part of the program was successful in producing a window form which could be interchanged for standard residential window material in a cost and energy effective manner. The only variation from standard stock in appearance is a very light rose or neutral gray coloring.

  6. Brushless Cleaning of Solar Panels and Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    Machine proposed for cleaning solar panels and reflectors uses multiple vortexes of air, solvent, and water to remove dust and dirt. Uses no brushes that might abrade solar surfaces and thereby reduce efficiency. Machine can be readily automated and can be used on curved surfaces such as aparbolic reflectors as well as on flat ones. Cleaning fluids are recycled, so that large quantities of water and solvent are not needed.

  7. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  8. Solar radiation glazing factors for window panes, glass structures and electrochromic windows in buildings-Measurement and calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2013-01-01

    Window panes, glass structures and electrochromic windows in buildings may be characterised by a number of solar radiation glazing factors, i.e. ultraviolet solar transmittance, visible solar transmittance, solar transmittance, solar material protection factor, solar skin protection factor, external visible solar reflectance, internal visible solar reflectance, solar reflectance, solar absorbance, emissivity, solar factor and colour rendering factor. Comparison of these solar quantities for d...

  9. Surface temperature of wooden window frames under influence of solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castenmiller, C.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Under influence of solar radiation the surface temperature of wooden window frames can reach values above 60 0C. High temperature can cause considerable tensions within the window frame; as a result joints can be cracked and rain water can penetrate into these joints. This penetration of rain water

  10. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  11. InP solar cell with window layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K. (Inventor); Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention features a thin light transmissive layer of the ternary semiconductor indium aluminum arsenide (InAlAs) as a front surface passivation or 'window' layer for p-on-n InP solar cells. The window layers of the invention effectively reduce front surface recombination of the object semiconductors thereby increasing the efficiency of the cells.

  12. Exploring the Solar Window Film: the Making of Landscape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Solar Window film is a 2ply celluloid clear and coloured material used for tinting solid plain surfaced glass(especially for car window glasses) for either decoration as in personal vehicles or as obscurity as in Ambulance vehicles against public viewing. This paper also emphasizes that its use is limited to only flat colour ...

  13. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  14. Advanced windows Information System (WIS): A uniform European tool to calculate the thermal and solar properties of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.G.; Dijk, H.A.L. van

    1996-01-01

    WIS is a uniform, user friendly, PC-based, European software tool to determine the thermal and solar character-istics of window systems (glazing, frames, solar shading, etc.) and window components. WIS includes databases with component properties and routines for calculation of the thermal-optical

  15. Advanced windows Information System (WIS): A uniform European tool to calculate the thermal and solar properties of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.G.; Dijk, H.A.L. van; Geus, A.C. de

    1996-01-01

    WIS is a uniform, user friendly, PC-based, European software tool to determine the thermal and solar characteristics of window systems (glazing, frames, solar shading, etc.) and window components. WIS includes databases with component propertjes and routines for calculation of the thermal-optical

  16. Attosecond light sources in the water window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Li, Jie; Yin, Yanchun; Zhao, Kun; Chew, Andrew; Wang, Yang; Hu, Shuyuan; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

    2018-02-01

    As a compact and burgeoning alternative to synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers, high harmonic generation (HHG) has proven its superiority in static and time-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy for the past two decades and has recently gained many interests and successes in generating soft x-ray emissions covering the biologically important water window spectral region. Unlike synchrotron and free-electron sources, which suffer from relatively long pulse width or large time jitter, soft x-ray sources from HHG could offer attosecond time resolution and be synchronized with their driving field to investigate time-resolved near edge absorption spectroscopy, which could reveal rich structural and dynamical information of the interrogated samples. In this paper, we review recent progresses on generating and characterizing attosecond light sources in the water window region. We show our development of an energetic, two-cycle, carrier-envelope phase stable laser source at 1.7 μm and our achievement in producing a 53 as soft x-ray pulse covering the carbon K-edge in the water window. Such source paves the ways for the next generation x-ray spectroscopy with unprecedented temporal resolution.

  17. Modification of circuit module of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) for solar windows applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, S. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This research has been conducted to obtain a modification of circuit producing the best efficiency of solar window modules as an alternative energy for daily usage. Solar window module was constructed by DSSC cells. In the previous research, solar window was created by a single cell of DSSC. Because it had small size, it could not be applied in the manufacture of solar window. Fabrication of solar window required a larger size of DSSC cell. Therefore, in the next research, a module of solar window was fabricated by connecting few cells of DSSC. It was done by using external electrical circuit method which was modified in the formation of series circuit and parallel circuit. Its fabrication used six cells of DSSC with the size of each cell was 1 cm × 9 cm. DSSC cells were sandwich structures constructed by an active layer of TiO2 as the working electrode, electrolyte solution, dye, and carbon layer. Characterization of module was started one by one, from one cell, two cells, three cells, until six cells of a module. It was conducted to recognize the increasing efficiency value as the larger surface area given. The efficiency of solar window module with series circuit was 0.06%, while using parallel circuit was 0.006%. Module with series circuit generated the higher voltage as the larger surface area. Meanwhile, module through parallel circuit tended to produce the constant voltage as the larger surface area. It was caused by the influence of resistance within the cable in each module. Module with circuit parallel used a longer cable than module with series circuit, so that its resistance increased. Therefore, module with parallel circuit generated voltage that tended to be constant and resulted small efficiency compared to the module with series circuit. It could be concluded that series external circuit was the best modification which could produce the higher efficiency.

  18. Solar water disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [Universal Recycled Water Systems, Orlando, FL (United States); Collier, R. [Enerscope, Inc., Merritt Island, FL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Non-potable drinking water is a major problem for much of the world`s population. It has been estimated that from 15 to 20 million children under the age of 5 die from diarrheal conditions brought on by infected drinking water every year. This is equivalent to a fully-loaded DC-10 crashing every ten minutes of every day, 365 days a year. Heat is one of the most effective methods of disinfecting drinking water. Using conventional means of heating water (heating on an open-flamed stove) results in an extremely energy-intensive process. The main obstacle is that for areas of the world where potable water is a problem, fuel supplies are either too expensive, not available, or the source of devastating environmental problems (deforestation). The apparatus described is a solar-powered water disinfection device that can overcome most if not all of the barriers that presently limit technological solutions to drinking water problems. It uses a parabolic trough solar concentrator with a receiver tube that is also a counterflow heat exchanger. The system is totally self-contained utilizing a photovoltaic-powered water pump, and a standard automotive thermostat for water flow control. The system is designed for simplicity, reliability and the incorporation of technology readily accessible in most areas of the world. Experiments at the Florida Solar Energy Center have demonstrated up to 2,500 liters of safe drinking water per day with 28 square meters of solar concentrator.

  19. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  20. Measurement of g-value for windows with different solar shading devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Gudum, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    The resulting g-value (total solar energy transmittance) of windows with different combinations of glazing type and solar shading type is investigated by means of measurements. The measurements are carried out by exposing the indoor test facility (METSET) to sun from the indoor solar simulator (64...

  1. Calculating the Effect of External Shading on the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient of Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shukla, Yash [CEPT Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Rawal, Rajan [CEPT Univ., Ahmedabad (India)

    2017-08-09

    Current prescriptive building codes have limited ways to account for the effect of solar shading, such as overhangs and awnings, on window solar heat gains. We propose two new indicators, the adjusted Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (aSHGC) which accounts for external shading while calculating the SHGC of a window, and a weighted SHGC (SHGCw) which provides a seasonal SHGC weighted by solar intensity. We demonstrate a method to calculate these indices using existing tools combined with additional calculations. The method is demonstrated by calculating the effect of an awning on a clear double glazing in New Delhi.

  2. Molded polymer solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  3. Effect of InAlAs window layer on the efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Landis, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cell efficiencies are limited by surface recombination. The effect of a wide-bandgap lattice-matched indium aluminum arsenide (In0.52Al0.48As) window layer on the performance of InP solar cells was investigated using a numerical code PC-1D. The p(+)n InP solar cell performance improves significantly with the use of a window layer. No improvement is seen for n(+)p InP cells. Cell results are explained by the band diagram of the heterostructure and the conduction-band energy discontinuity. The calculated I-V and internal quantum efficiency results clearly demonstrate that In0.52Al0.48As is a promising candidate as a window layer material for p(+)n InP solar cells.

  4. Effect of InAlAs window layer on efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cell efficiencies are limited by surface recombination. The effect of a wide bandgap, lattice-matched indium aluminum arsenide (In(0.52)Al(0.48)As) window layer on the performance of InP solar cells was investigated by using the numerical code PC-1D. The p(+)n InP solar cell performance improved significantly with the use of the window layer. No improvement was seen for the n(+)p InP cells. The cell results were explained by the band diagram of the heterostructure and the conduction band energy discontinuity. The calculated current voltage and internal quantum efficiency results clearly demonstrated that In(0.52)Al(0.48)As is a very promising candidate for a window layer material for p(+)n InP solar cells.

  5. Pairing of near-ultraviolet solar cells with electrochromic windows for smart management of the solar spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Nicholas C.; Sezen-Edmonds, Melda; Gao, Jia; Lin, Xin; Liu, Amy; Yao, Nan; Kahn, Antoine; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Current smart window technologies offer dynamic control of the optical transmission of the visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum to reduce lighting, heating and cooling needs in buildings and to improve occupant comfort. Solar cells harvesting near-ultraviolet photons could satisfy the unmet need of powering such smart windows over the same spatial footprint without competing for visible or infrared photons, and without the same aesthetic and design constraints. Here, we report organic single-junction solar cells that selectively harvest near-ultraviolet photons, produce open-circuit voltages eclipsing 1.6 V and exhibit scalability in power generation, with active layers (10 cm2) substantially larger than those typical of demonstration organic solar cells (0.04-0.2 cm2). Integration of these solar cells with a low-cost, polymer-based electrochromic window enables intelligent management of the solar spectrum, with near-ultraviolet photons powering the regulation of visible and near-infrared photons for natural lighting and heating purposes.

  6. Water vapor absorption in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Carlier, J.; Ma, Q.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz. The dependence on pressure as well as temperature has been obtained. The experimental data are compared with several theoretical or empirical models, and satisfactory agreement is obtained with the models involving a continuum; in the case of pure water vapor, the continuum contribution based upon recent theoretical developments gives good results. The temperature dependence is stronger than that proposed in a commonly used atmospheric transmission model.

  7. Experimental and theoretical evaluation on the thermal performance of a windowed volumetric solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.; Li, J.B.; Bai, F.W.; Liu, D.Y.; Xu, C.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Z.F.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we carried out an experimental analysis on the thermal performance of a windowed volumetric solar receiver (WVSR). A prototype was designed and tested in a dish concentrator system. Three silicon carbide (SiC) absorber slabs with different typical pore structures were tested. A unified theoretical model adequately considering the overall heat transfer processes for the WVSR is first put forward. The key component, a windowed cavity incorporated with the irradiated surface of the absorber was modeled in a coupled radiative-convection boundary condition, which detailedly concerning the porous surface structure of the absorber under local thermal non-equilibrium conditions. Model authentication was achieved by comparing the experimental and theoretical results. The maximum temperature of the outlet air was over 1003 K, and the best thermal efficiency (solar to thermal) obtained was 63.61%. The maximum deviations in the results were 9.4% and 2.3% for the temperature of the back wall and the outlet air, respectively. In terms of the thermal efficiency, the maximum deviation was 5.35%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of our model applied to describe the overall transport process from solar to thermal energy in a receiver. - Highlights: • A prototype test is presented on a windowed volumetric solar receiver (WVSR). • A uniform theoretical heat transfer model for WVSR is first put forward. • Boundary condition coupling the porous absorber surface and window is developed. • Model validation is finished by comparing the experimental and numerical results.

  8. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  9. Performances of solar water pumping station with solar tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V.V.; Vardanyan, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    For the solar water pumping stations ? solar tracking system with phototransistor is developed. On the basis of the experimental investigations the utility and efficiency of the PV water pumping station with solar tracker under different conditions of varying solar radiation in Armenia is shown

  10. Pinching Capillary Discharge as a Water Window Radiation Source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Zakharov, S.V.; Jančárek, A.; Vrbová, M.; Nevrkla, M.; Kolař, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 184, 3-6 (2011), s. 335-337 ISSN 0368-2048. [The 37th International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet and X-ray Physics (VUVX2010). Vancouver, 11.07.2010-16.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Capillary Z-pinch * water window radiation * soft x-ray spectral diagnostics * RHMD Z* engine Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.958, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0368204810002847

  11. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  12. An in-orbit Thermal Design of Optical Window in Space Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Zhang, Hai-ying

    2017-10-01

    A complex space environment will influence a space solar telescope during its in-orbit operation, and the temperature change of the optical window will affect directly the imaging quality of the optical system behind it. The purpose of the thermal design is to ensure that all the parts of the optical window keep their temperature in a normal range, more importantly, to ensure that the window can rapidly return to its working state as soon as the Earth shadowing is ended, and to complete the operation in a whole period. In order to obtain the temperature distribution and the temperature variation of the window under the space thermal load in the whole period, we have made the steady-state simulation analysis and transient-state simulation analysis of the window with and without heating during the Earth-shadow time. A good thermal control result is obtained by comparing the two kinds of transient state simulation results of the temperature distribution, and by accordingly taking the appropriate thermal control measures on the window.

  13. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  14. A Possibility of Determining the Optical Peoperties of Water from the Snell-Window Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, L. S.; Molkov, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    We develop an analytical model of the Snell window, which allows for the effects of absorption and multiple scattering of light in water. The effect of an abnormally weak dependence of the visual brightness of the Snell-window boundary on the water turbidity is revealed. This effect, along with the effect of the Snell-window boundary "blurring" because of the light scattering in water can be used to determine the absorption and scattering coefficients of water using the corresponding processing of the Snell window images. We propose and experimentally check the algorithms for determining the inherent hydrooptical characteristics from the Snell-window images using the empirical correlations between various characteristics.

  15. Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Max [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Skopintsev, Petr [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Dzhigaev, Dmitry [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Nuclear University ‘MEPhI’ (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorobtsov, Oleg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Center, ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Senkbeil, Tobias; Gundlach, Andreas von; Gorniak, Thomas [Analytical Chemistry - Biointerfaces, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Shabalin, Anatoly; Viefhaus, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Rosenhahn, Axel, E-mail: axel.rosenhahn@rub.de [Analytical Chemistry - Biointerfaces, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Vartanyants, Ivan, E-mail: axel.rosenhahn@rub.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Nuclear University ‘MEPhI’ (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-23

    Water window ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging was demonstrated at the P04 beamline of PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. The beam coherence was characterized with the non-redundant array method. A ptychographical coherent diffractive imaging experiment in the water window with focused soft X-rays at 500 eV is reported. An X-ray beam with high degree of coherence was selected for ptychography at the P04 beamline of PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. The beam coherence was measured with the newly developed non-redundant array method, and a coherence length of 4.1 µm and global degree of coherence of 35% at 100 µm exit slit opening in the vertical direction were determined. A pinhole, 2.6 µm in size, selected the coherent part of the beam that was used to obtain ptychographic reconstruction results of a lithographically manufactured test sample and a fossil diatom. The achieved resolution was 53 nm for the test sample and was only limited by the size of the detector. The diatom was imaged at a resolution better than 90 nm.

  16. Solar power water distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  17. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Muzammil; Ateeq, Ijlal Shahrukh; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  18. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  19. Renovation and design of double casement windows with regard to the occurrence of water vapour condensation or mould on the interior surface of the window jamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnacova, L.; Balik, L.

    2017-10-01

    The condensation of water vapour on the interior surface is an indicator of construction dysfunction or ignoring of the surroundings temperature and relative humidity. This paper deals with analysis of the occurrence of condensation on the jamb of double casement windows (windows with two window casements). More precisely, this is a surface in the interior where water vapour condensation or mould occur. For the renovation of existing double casement windows, there are different solutions based on window design: application of double insulating glazing on the interior window casement, application of double insulating glazing on the exterior casement, or installation of a simple window. We first describe measurement of an existing double casement window located in a mountain cottage. Second, the results and comparison of 2D thermal model of different types of double casement window construction. Also, the external insulation of the peripheral wall was included in the model.

  20. Optimal Design for the Diffusion Plate with Nanoparticles in a Diffusive Solar Cell Window by Mie Scattering Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Tang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A diffusive solar cell window comprises a diffusion plate with TiO2 nanoparticles sandwiched between two glass layers. It is a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-made, and highly reliable transparent solar energy module. To improve its power generation efficiency as well as maintain indoor natural lighting, we examined the scattering mechanism in the diffusion plate with TiO2 nanoparticles within a diffusive solar cell window by Mie scattering simulations. In this work, a multiwavelength ASAP ray tracing model for a diffusive solar cell window with acceptable accuracy was developed to investigate the influence of the diffusion plate design parameter, mainly concentration of a diffusion plate with determined particle size distribution, on power generation efficiency and color shift of transmitted sun light. A concept of “effective average radius” was proposed to account for the equivalent scattering effect of a size distribution of quasispherical particles. Simulation results demonstrated that both the transmitted light and its correlated color temperature decreased as the concentration increased for a large-size diffusive solar cell window. However, there existed a maximum power generation efficiency at around 160 ppm concentration. The optimal design for a large-size diffusion plate inside a diffusive solar cell window by taking indoor lighting into account was suggested based on the simulation results.

  1. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  2. Thermal analysis of a solar collector with a standard approach and software used to study windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A method of calculating the overall heat loss coefficient of a solar collector was presented. The method was based on a standard approach used to obtain total window U-values. A model of the solar collector was developed with a finite element analysis (FEA) program. Heat loss from the solar collector was represented as the gross collector area; the overall heat loss coefficient; and the difference between the assumed mean absorber plate temperature and ambient temperature. The edge heat loss coefficient was approximated by assuming that there was a 1-D sideways heat flow through the edge area of the collector. Regional heat loss coefficients obtained with the model were then used to calculate the overall heat loss coefficient. Equations used for parallel tube type collectors were applied to the serpentine tube collector. The sightline of the solar collector was defined as being the position along the top cover below absorber plate. The same definitions for the extents of the frame, edge and center-of-glass regions for a window were applied to the collector. Multiple U-values were defined to account for heat flows outward across the top, bottom, and side surfaces of the collector. The absorber plate was simulated as being isothermal. Results were then compared with an experimental study in order to validate the method. The method was also compared with results obtained from a conventional analysis for estimating heat loss coefficients. It was concluded that the new method provided more accurate results than those obtained using the conventional method. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. Design and engineering of IZO/Ag/glass solar filters for low-emissivity window performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Mainet, Luis C.; Aguilar, Miguel A.; Tamargo, Maria C.; Falcony, Ciro

    2017-10-01

    The electricity consumption in houses and commercial buildings generates about 18% of greenhouse gas emission. A critical issue of building energy consumption is heat and cooling loss through the window. Low-emissivity windows control thermal radiation through glass without decreasing the intensity of visible light. They are made up of optical filter coatings grown on a flat glass surface. Solar filters based on Ag/IZO multilayer films are grown and simulated on glass substrate. The targeted structure designs are grown by a sputtering system and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques. To accurately simulate transmission spectrum, silver (Ag) and IZO optical constants were estimated by fitting ellipsometric data at different thicknesses. Transmission spectrum shows a good agreement among experiment and simulation. In addition, optical constant curves strongly show layer thickness dependence in both materials. In particular, the ultrathin Ag layer displays a percolation threshold in the vicinity of 15 nm, which leads to surface plasmon resonance with absorption at about 450 nm. These types of optical filter coatings would have potential applications as low-emission windows.

  4. Solar Heat Gain Reduction of Ventilated Double Skin Windows without a Shading Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokyoung Koo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With global efforts to strengthen various energy-saving policies for buildings to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in South Korea, new laws and regulations have been in force since May 2015 to install shading devices in public buildings and to include the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC reduction performance of shading devices in the evaluation of building performance. By making a ventilated air layer outer glass and inner glass to lower the temperatures of the air layer and glass surface, it is possible to reduce the amount of heat flowing into the building while maintaining the same level of light transmission as plain window systems. This study proposes a double-skin façade window with a 20 mm ventilated air cavity, and assumes that insolation inflow indoors would be reduced through ventilation in the air cavity. The artificial solar lab test results show that the SHGC can be lowered through ventilation by 28% to 52.9%. Additionally, in an outdoor test cell experiment, the results show that the mean temperature was 0.6 K and the peak temperature was 0.9 K lower with ventilation in the air cavity than that without ventilation in the air cavity.

  5. External perforated window Solar Screens: The effect of screen depth and perforation ratio on energy performance in extreme desert environments

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, A.

    2012-09-01

    In hot arid desert environments, the solar radiation passing through windows increases the cooling loads and the energy consumption of buildings. Shading of windows can reduce these loads. Unlike the woven solar screens, wooden solar screens have a thickness that provides selective shading properties. Perforated wooden solar screens were traditionally used for windows shading. Developing modern types of these shading systems can lead to significant energy savings. The paper addresses the influence of changing the perforation percentage and depth of these screens on the annual energy loads, hence defining the optimum depth/perforation configurations for various window orientations. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical residential building in the Kharga Oasis, located in the Egyptian desert. A range of perforation percentages and depths were tested. Conclusions prove that external fixed deep perforated solar screens could effectively achieve energy savings up to 30% of the total energy consumption in the West and South orientations. Optimum range of depths and perforation percentages were recommended. These are: 80-90% perforation rate and 1:1 depth/opening width ratio. These lighter and deeper solar screen configurations were found to be more efficient in energy consumption in comparison with the traditional ones. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  7. Self-assembled nanotextures impart broadband transparency to glass windows and solar cell encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.

    2017-10-01

    Most optoelectronic components and consumer display devices require glass or plastic covers for protection against the environment. Optical reflections from these encapsulation layers can degrade the device performance or lessen the user experience. Here, we use a highly scalable self-assembly based approach to texture glass surfaces at the nanoscale, reducing reflections by such an extent so as to make the glass essentially invisible. Our nanotextures provide broadband antireflection spanning visible and infrared wavelengths (450-2500 nm) that is effective even at large angles of incidence. This technology can be used to improve the performance of photovoltaic devices by eliminating reflection losses, which can be as much as 8% for glass encapsulated cells. In contrast, solar cells encapsulated with nanotextured glass generate the same photocurrent as when operated without a cover. Ultra-transparent windows having surface nanotextures on both sides can withstand three times more optical fluence than commercial broadband antireflection coatings, making them useful for pulsed laser applications.

  8. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  9. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-31

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  10. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  11. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection.

  12. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  13. Comparison of the solar spectral ultraviolet irradiance in motor vehicles with windows in an open and closed position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Parisi, A. V.; Carter, B. D.; Turnbull, D.

    2002-06-01

    The solar ultraviolet (UV) spectrum was measured by a spectroradiometer located inside two common Australian vehicles: a family wagon and a four-wheel-drive vehicle. The entrance optics of the spectroradiometer was orientated, in turn, on a horizontal plane, towards the driver and passenger windows and towards the windshield. UV spectra were recorded when the vehicles' windows were in an open and closed position. For a typical Australian family wagon, on a horizontal plane inside the vehicle, closing the windows decreased, the total UV irradiance by a factor of 3.2, whilst in a four-wheel drive the irradiance decreased by a factor of 2.1. In order to reduce the likelihood of developing of UV-related eye and skin disorders, drivers should use appropriate UV protection whilst driving a vehicle with the windows in an open position. Results gained from this research provide new findings on the exposure of humans to UV in a vehicle.

  14. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Loredo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Peña-Méndez, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Messina-Fernández, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Alvarez-Gallegos, A. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez-Dimas, A.; Hernández-García, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −7} (Ω cm){sup −1}, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO{sub 2}:F/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  15. Collective solar hot water: best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutin, Philippe; Grouzard, Patrice; Coroller, Francoise

    2005-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a collection of good practices concerning the selection and installation of collective solar water heating systems in France. A first note presents the Garantie de Resultats solaires (GRS - Guarantee of Solar Results), a kind of certification that gives a long term guarantee of the annual solar energy produced quantity as a function of the hot water consumption. An overview of the collective solar market is given, followed by informations on the financial incentives for feasibility studies and installations, the technical design and optimization of a collective solar project, its economic assessment, etc. Numerous examples of collective of solar heating operations in collective buildings are presented, in various regions of France, in the east (Alsace), the center (Auvergne, Ile de France (Paris region)), and the south (Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrennes, PACA), giving technical data, financing, partnerships, etc

  16. Water purification using solar radiation in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udounwa, A.E.; Osuji, R.U.

    2005-12-01

    In developing countries, lack of safe and reliable drinking water constitutes a major problem. Contaminated water is the major cause of most water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Disinfection of water is accomplished by a number of different physical - chemical treatments including boiling, application of chlorine and filtration techniques. Solar energy, which is universally available, can also be used effectively in this process, that is, to deactivate the micro-organisms present in this contaminated water thereby improving its microbiological quality. This treatment process is called solar water disinfection. This paper therefore appraises the extent to which research work has been done as regards purification of water using solar radiation in Nigeria vis-a-vis outside the country. It is hoped that it will serve as a wake-up-call for Nigerians especially those in remote areas with no treated pipe borne water supply. The problems and prospects of this technology as well as the policy implications are presented. (author)

  17. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Miqdam T. Chaichan; Hussein A. Kazem

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temp...

  18. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... (bismuth vanadate) was investigated in view of combining this 2.4 eV large bandgap semiconductor with a Si back-illuminated photocathode. A device obtained by mechanical stacking of BiVO4 photoanode and standard Si photocathode performs non-assisted water splitting under illumination with Solar......-to-Hydrogen efficiency lower than 0.5%. In addition, BiVO4 was synthesized on the back-side of a Si back-illuminated photocathode to produce a preliminary monolithic solar water splitting device.The Faradaic efficiency of different types of catalysts for the electrochemical production of hydrogen or oxygen was evaluated...

  19. Basic principles of solar water heating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page-Shipp, RJ

    1980-09-10

    Full Text Available This article correctly reflects the principles of Solar Water Heating as they pertain to South African conditions. However, it was written in 1980 and the global energy situation has changed considerably. Furthermore, modern commercial units...

  20. [The impact of ZnS/CdS composite window layer on the quantun efficiency of CdTe solar cell in short wavelength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-xiang; Feng, Liang-huan; Wang, Wen-wu; Xu, Hang; Wu, Li-li; Zhang, Jing-quan; Li, Wei; Zeng, Guang-gen

    2015-02-01

    ZnS/CdS composite window layer was prepared by magnetron sputtering method and then applied to CdTe solar cell. The morphology and structure of films were measured. The data of I-V in light and the quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cells with different window layers were also measured. The effect of ZnS films prepared in different conditions on the performance of CdTe solar cells was researched. The effects of both CdS thickness and ZnS/CdS composite layer on the transmission in short wavelength were studied. Particularly, the quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cells with ZnS/CdS window layer was measured. The results show as follows. With the thickness of CdS window layer reducing from 100 to 50 nm, the transmission increase 18.3% averagely in short wavelength and the quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cells increase 27.6% averagely. The grain size of ZnS prepared in 250 degrees C is smaller than prepared at room temperature. The performance of CdTe solar cells with ZnS/CdS window layer is much better if ZnS deposited at 250 degrees C. This indicates grain size has some effect on the electron transportation. When the CdS holds the same thickness, the transmission of ZnS/CdS window layer was improved about 2% in short wavelength compared with CdS window layer. The quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cells with ZnS/CdS window layer was also improved about 2% in short wavelength compared with that based on CdS window layer. These indicate ZnS/CdS composite window layer can increase the photon transmission in short wavelength so that more photons can be absorbed by the absorbent layer of CdTe solar cells.

  1. Integrated solar water-heater and solar water cooler performance during winter time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.U.; Siddiqui, M.A

    2012-01-01

    Solar powered water heater and water cooler is an important contribution for the reduction of fossil fuel consumptions and harmful emissions to the environment. This study aims to harness the available solar potential of Pakistan and provide an option fulfilling the domestic hot and cold water demands during winter and summer seasons respectively. The system was designed for the tap-water temperature of 65 degree C (149 degree F) and the chilled drinking-water temperature of 14 degree C (57 degree F) that are the recommended temperatures by World Health Organization (WHO). The solar water heater serves one of the facilities of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NED University of Engineering and Technology whereas, the solar water cooler will provide drinking water to approximately 50 people including both faculty and students. A pair of single glazed flat plate solar collector was installed to convert solar radiations to heat. Hot water storage and supply system was carefully designed and fabricated to obtain the designed tap-water temperature. Vapour-absorption refrigeration system was designed to chill drinking water. Intensity of solar radiations falling on the solar collector, water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the solar collectors and the tap water temperature were measured and analyzed at different hours of the day and at different days of the month. The results show that the installed solar collector system has potential to feed hot water of temperatures ranging from 65 degree C (149 degree F) to 70 Degree C (158 degree F), that is the required hot water temperature to operate a vapour absorption chilled water production system. (author)

  2. Entrance Effects in Solar Hot Water Stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of water jets entering a solar storage tank is performed. CFD calculations of three inlet designs with different inlet flow rates were carried out to illustrate the varying behaviour of the thermal conditions in a solar store. The results showed the impact...... of the inlet design on the flow patterns in the tank and thus how the energy quality in a hot water tank is reduced with a poor inlet design. The numerical investigations were followed by experiments. A test solar store, similar to the store investigated by numerical modelling was constructed with cylindrical...

  3. Water content of acacia honey dertermined by two established methods and by optothermal window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szopos, S.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Ajtony, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of the research study described here was to explore the potential of the optothermal window (OW) technique as a new approach towards a simple, rapid determination of water content in honey. Water, major component of foods, influences their physical and chemical properties. Single

  4. An automatic window opening system to prevent drowning in vehicles sinking in water

    KAUST Repository

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G.

    2017-07-12

    Objective: Every year about 400 people die in submersed vehicles in North America and this number increases to 2,000–5,000 in all industrialized nations. The best way to survive is to quickly exit through the windows. An Automatic Window Opening System (AWOS; patent protected) was designed to sense when a vehicle is in water and to open the electric windows, but only when the vehicle is upright. Methods: The AWOS consists of a Detection Module (DM), in the engine compartment, and a Power Window Control Module (PWCM) inside the driver’s door. The DM contains a Water Sensor, a Level Sensor and a Microcontroller Unit (MCU). The Level Sensor provides the angular orientation of the car using a 3-axis acceleration sensor and prevents automatic window opening if the car is outside the orientation range (±20° in the roll axis, ±30° in the pitch axis, with a 2 s delay). Systems were installed on two cars and one SUV. A crane lowered vehicles in water either straight down (static tests) or by swinging the vehicles to produce forward movement (dynamic tests). Results: In all tests, when the vehicles landed upright, windows opened immediately and effectively. When vehicles landed inverted, or at a very steep angle, the system did not engage until an upright and level position was attained. Conclusions: This system may help decrease drowning deaths in sinking vehicles. If occupants do not know, or forget, what to do, the open window could hopefully prompt them to exit safely through that window.

  5. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI) [de

  6. Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullikson, E.M.; Salmassi, F.; Aquila, A.L.; Dollar, F.

    2006-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-section measurements for a mixture of ground and metastable states of Xe4+, Xe5+, and Xe6+ are reported in the photon energy range of 4d-nf transitions, which occur within or adjacent to the 13.5 nm window for extreme ultraviolet lithography light source development. The reported values allow the quantification of opacity effects in xenon plasmas due to these 4d-4f autoionizing states. The oscillator strengths for the 4d-4f and 4d-5f transitions in Xeq+ (q=1-6) ions are calculated using nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock and random phase approximations. These are compared with published experimental values for Xe+ to Xe3+ and with the values obtained from the present experimental cross-section measurements for Xe4+ to Xe6+. The calculations assisted in the determination of the metastable content in the ion beams for Xe5+T and Xe6+. The experiments were performed by merging a synchrotron photon beam generated by an undulator beamline of the Advanced Light Source with an ion beam produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

  7. A Dual-Responsive Nanocomposite toward Climate-Adaptable Solar Modulation for Energy-Saving Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heng Yeong; Cai, Yufeng; Bi, Shuguang; Liang, Yen Nan; Song, Yujie; Hu, Xiao Matthew

    2017-02-22

    In this work, a novel fully autonomous photothermotropic material made by hybridization of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel and antimony-tin oxide (ATO) is presented. In this photothermotropic system, the near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing ATO acts as nanoheater to induce the optical switching of the hydrogel. Such a new passive smart window is characterized by excellent NIR shielding, a photothermally activated switching mechanism, enhanced response speed, and solar modulation ability. Systems with 0, 5, 10, and 15 atom % Sb-doped ATO in PNIPAM were investigated, and it was found that a PNIPAM/ATO nanocomposite is able to be photothermally activated. The 10 atom % Sb-doped PNIPAM/ATO exhibits the best response speed and solar modulation ability. Different film thicknesses and ATO contents will affect the response rate and solar modulation ability. Structural stability tests at 15 cycles under continuous exposure to solar irradiation at 1 sun intensity demonstrated the performance stability of such a photothermotropic system. We conclude that such a novel photothermotropic hybrid can be used as a new generation of autonomous passive smart windows for climate-adaptable solar modulation.

  8. Optimization of solar water heating systems through water replenishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Govind N.; Kedare, Shireesh B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2009-01-01

    In a typical solar water heating system, cold water is replenished into the storage tank as soon as the load is served. However, it is possible to determine the water replenishment profile (i.e., the quantity of the cold makeup water to be supplied to the storage tank over a day) that optimizes the overall system. In this paper, the effect of water replenishment on the system sizing is studied and a novel strategy for water replenishment is proposed to improve the design and performance of solar water heating systems. Based on an analytical technique, an approximate water replenishment profile is proposed to size a solar water heating system near-optimally. The problem is analyzed using a methodology called design space approach. Design space of a solar water heating system identifies all possible and feasible designs on a collector area vs. storage volume diagram. For illustration of the proposed methodology, an example problem is solved. It is observed that the annualized system cost can be reduced by 13.7%. For the cost-optimal system configuration, a reduction of 12.7% in the collector area and 10.2% reduction in the storage volume are observed. The proposed methodology is particularly important and advantageous for large commercial and industrial solar water heating systems

  9. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  10. Potential for solar water heating in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341355909; Lysen, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071394923; van Egmond, S.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic, social and environmental benefits from using solar water heating (SWH) in Zimbabwe. By comparing different water heating technology usage in three sectors over a 25-year period, the potential of SWH is demonstrated in alleviating energy and economic problems that

  11. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  12. Solar photovoltaic water pumping for remote locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meah, Kala; Fletcher, Steven; Ula, Sadrul

    2008-01-01

    Many parts of the world as well as the western US are rural in nature and consequently do not have electrical distribution lines in many parts of villages, farms, and ranches. Distribution line extension costs can run from USD 10,000 to USD 16,000/km, thereby making availability of electricity to small water pumping projects economically unattractive. But, ground water and sunlight are available, which make solar photovoltaic (SPV) powered water pumping more cost effective in these areas' small scale applications. Many western states including Wyoming are passing through the sixth year of drought with the consequent shortages of water for many applications. The Wyoming State Climatologist is predicting a possible 5-10 years of drought. Drought impacts the surface water right away, while it takes much longer to impact the underground aquifers. To mitigate the effect on the livestock and wildlife, Wyoming Governor Dave Freudenthal initiated a solar water pumping initiative in cooperation with the University of Wyoming, County Conservation Districts, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and ranching organizations. Solar water pumping has several advantages over traditional systems; for example, diesel or propane engines require not only expensive fuels, they also create noise and air pollution in many remote pristine areas. Solar systems are environment friendly, low maintenance, and have no fuel cost. In this paper the design, installation, site selection, and performance monitoring of the solar system for small-scale remote water pumping will be presented. This paper also presents technical, environmental, and economic benefits of the SPV water pumping system compared to stand alone generator and electric utility. (author)

  13. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  14. Interferometric and optical tests of water window imaging x ray microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Interferometric tests of Schwarzchild X-ray Microscope are performed to evaluate the optical properties and alignment of the components. Photographic measurements of the spatial resolution, focal properties, and vignetting characteristics of the prototype Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscope are made and analyzed.

  15. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  16. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  17. Submicronic VO2–PVP composites coatings for smart windows applications and solar heat management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madida, IG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available (sup2) of coated windows worldwide with smart coatings, energy saving in the building and automotive economic fields is equivalent of CO(sub2) reduction by about ~100 millions of tons....

  18. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  19. Solar water heating in the hotel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A.

    1981-01-01

    There is an increasing number of hotels, pensions, guest-houses and boarding-houses whose owners attempt to lower their energy cost - especially for water heating in summer - by installing solar systems. The article presents some examples of buildings in West Germany.

  20. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited a novel CdS/CdSe composite window layer for CdTe thin film solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Bo; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel CdS/CdSe composite windows for CdTe cell were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. • SEM images show that CdS/CdSe composite windows are stacking together as the design. • CdTe cells with CdS/CdSe composite windows improved the blue response. • CdTe cells with composite windows show an obvious red shift in the absorption edge. • The volume proportion of CdSe affects the performance of CdTe solar cell. - Abstract: A novel CdS/CdSe composite window structure was designed and then the corresponding films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition as an improved window layer for CdTe-based solar cells. Two types of this composite window structure with 5 cycles and 10 cycles CdS/CdSe respectively both combined with CdS layers were prepared at 200 °C compared with pure CdS window layer and finally were applied into CdTe thin film solar cells. The cross section and surface morphology of the two composite window layers were monitored by using scanning electron microscopy and the result shows that the pulsed laser deposited composite window layers with good crystallinity are stacking together as the design. The devices based on CdS/CdSe composite window layers have demonstrated the enhanced photocurrent collection from both short and long wavelength regions compared to CdS/CdTe solar cell. The efficiency of the best reference CdS/CdTe solar cell was 10.72%. And the device with 5 cycles CdS/CdSe composite window showed efficiency of 12.61% with V OC of 772.92 mV, J SC of 25.11 mA/cm 2 and FF of 64.95%. In addition, there are some differences which exist within the optical transmittance spectra and QE curves between the two CdS/CdSe composite window samples, indicating that the volume proportion of CdSe may influence the performance of CdTe thin film solar cell.

  1. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited a novel CdS/CdSe composite window layer for CdTe thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Bo; Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-03-30

    Highlights: • Novel CdS/CdSe composite windows for CdTe cell were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. • SEM images show that CdS/CdSe composite windows are stacking together as the design. • CdTe cells with CdS/CdSe composite windows improved the blue response. • CdTe cells with composite windows show an obvious red shift in the absorption edge. • The volume proportion of CdSe affects the performance of CdTe solar cell. - Abstract: A novel CdS/CdSe composite window structure was designed and then the corresponding films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition as an improved window layer for CdTe-based solar cells. Two types of this composite window structure with 5 cycles and 10 cycles CdS/CdSe respectively both combined with CdS layers were prepared at 200 °C compared with pure CdS window layer and finally were applied into CdTe thin film solar cells. The cross section and surface morphology of the two composite window layers were monitored by using scanning electron microscopy and the result shows that the pulsed laser deposited composite window layers with good crystallinity are stacking together as the design. The devices based on CdS/CdSe composite window layers have demonstrated the enhanced photocurrent collection from both short and long wavelength regions compared to CdS/CdTe solar cell. The efficiency of the best reference CdS/CdTe solar cell was 10.72%. And the device with 5 cycles CdS/CdSe composite window showed efficiency of 12.61% with V{sub OC} of 772.92 mV, J{sub SC} of 25.11 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 64.95%. In addition, there are some differences which exist within the optical transmittance spectra and QE curves between the two CdS/CdSe composite window samples, indicating that the volume proportion of CdSe may influence the performance of CdTe thin film solar cell.

  2. The origin of inner Solar System water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M O'D

    2017-05-28

    Of the potential volatile sources for the terrestrial planets, the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites are closest to the planets' bulk H and N isotopic compositions. For the Earth, the addition of approximately 2-4 wt% of CI/CM material to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth can explain the abundances of many of the most volatile elements, although some solar-like material is also required. Two dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation predict that the carbonaceous chondrites formed either in the asteroid belt ('classical' model) or in the outer Solar System (5-15 AU in the Grand Tack model). To test these models, at present the H isotopes of water are the most promising indicators of formation location because they should have become increasingly D-rich with distance from the Sun. The estimated initial H isotopic compositions of water accreted by the CI, CM, CR and Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrites were much more D-poor than measured outer Solar System objects. A similar pattern is seen for N isotopes. The D-poor compositions reflect incomplete re-equilibration with H 2 in the inner Solar System, which is also consistent with the O isotopes of chondritic water. On balance, it seems that the carbonaceous chondrites and their water did not form very far out in the disc, almost certainly not beyond the orbit of Saturn when its moons formed (approx. 3-7 AU in the Grand Tack model) and possibly close to where they are found today.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  4. Solar Hot Water for an Industrial Laundry--Fresno, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Final report describes an integrated wastewater-heat recovery system and solar preheating system to supply part of hot-water requirements of an industrial laundry. Large retrofit solar-water-heating system uses lightweight collectors.

  5. Optical characterization of non-annealed CdS:O films for window layers in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Atsushi; Shim, YongGu [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Wakita, Kazuki [Faculty of Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Khalilova, Khuraman; Mamedov, Nazim; Bayramov, Ayaz; Huseynov, Emil; Hasanov, Ilham [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku 1143 (Azerbaijan)

    2013-08-15

    Optical constants of CdS:O window layers for solar cells were studied as a function of the oxygen content. The CdS:O thin films were deposited on glass substrates in the presence of oxygen at 0, 2, 3 and 5% values of O/Ar ratio by rf magnetron sputtering. Ellipsometric measurements on CdS:O thin films were carried out over 0.75-6.0 eV photon energies at room temperature. Optical constants were determined by using a the best-fit dispersion model. Broadening of spectral features of the obtained optical constants is found to increase with increasing O/Ar ratio. Besides, the CdS:O films grown at 100 C as compared to those grown at 200 C exhibit increased spectral broadening. In fact, almost complete smearing of band gap spectral feature is observed for CdS:O films deposited at 5% value of O/Ar ratio, resulting in appreciable transparency of the films in a spectral range above the energy gap of CdS. This, in turn, leads to an increased carrier collection in the UV spectral range and allows to considering CdS:O film as a candidate for improved window-layer material for solar cell application. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Electroplating of electrical circuitry on optoelectronic windows for thin film solar cells on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Rendering, H.; Peter, M.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    In many flexible electronic devices transparent conductive oxide (TCO) window layers are used for current collection. The trade-off between the electrical resistance and optical transmission of TCOs results in power losses. Increasing the electrical conductivity by combining metallic grids with TCOs

  7. Energy saving using solar filters with iron base in windows; Ahorro de energia usando filtros solares con base en hierro en ventanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Galan, Jesus

    2003-07-01

    For the high temperature seasons, the radiation emitted by the sun later introduced through the windows, provokes a great thermal gain in the buildings causing within them an excessive warming. For the cold seasons, the exterior is at low temperature and the window is the main element through which the building losses the heat generated in the interior. The former turns out into an elevated energy consumption (mainly electricity) to obtain the conditions of human thermal comfort; this altogether with the growing energy demand that the residential, commercial and public sector experiences in Mexico, constitutes a serious problem. As a proposal for the solution to the problem of thermal discomfort generated in the interior of the buildings because of the inadequate properties of the construction materials, in this work were developed solar filers with iron base by means of which it is obtained a selective control of the solar radiation that is transmitted through the windows. These solar filters consist in thin films of FeO deposited over subtracts of lime-soda glass (the most used in our country for buildings) of 600 x 300 x 3 mm, by means of the sputtering technique added with a radio frequency and flat magnetrons, starting from a pure iron target of 127 x 254 mm and using an argon plasma. To obtain the desired oxidation degree in the iron, small samples (45 x 22 mm) were subjected to a heating process in a reducing atmosphere constituted by 50% H{sub 2} + 50% N{sub 2} for a period of time of 10 minutes at a temperature of 400 centigrade. The solar filters with the FeO base present a transmissibility of 30.2 % for the visible interval of the electromagnetic spectrum (radiation with a wave length of 380-780 nm) and of 39.9 % for the near infrared (radiation with a wave length of 780-2500 nm); while the reflectivity is of 17.5 and 19% for the visible intervals and near infrared of electromagnetic spectrum respectively. A simulation was performed by means of the

  8. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  9. Purification Of Water From Nsukka Water Pond Using Solar Still.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwuoke E.C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work presents the analysis of a solar water distillation system. There is important need for good drinking water in the world today due to harmful effect of water borne diseases. Most water from rivers ponds seas are either salty or brackish and require purification before drinking. The water used in this work is collected from pond at Nsukka Urban and the experiment was performed at University of Nigeria Nsukka. Twenty litres of water was used for the experiment and 4 litres was obtained as the maximum volume after 10 days .The average temperature recorded during the experiment was 29C. The chemical and physical properties of the distillate correspond to world Health Organization Standard.

  10. Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells over a Broad Temperature Window : The Role of the Charge Carrier Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Shuyan; Liu, Jian; Fang, Hong-Hua; Qiu, Li; ten Brink, Gert H.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism behind the temperature dependence of the device performance in hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) is investigated systematically. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the reference cell using [60] PCBM as electron extraction layer (EEL) drops significantly from 11.9% at 295 K to

  11. Nanoscale imaging and optimization of a compact "water window" SXR microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Alfio; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Nawaz, Fahad; Bartnik, Andrzej; Kostecki, Jerzy; Wegrzyński, Lukasz; Jarocki, Roman; Szczurek, Mirosław; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2015-05-01

    The wavelength diffraction limit, described by the Rayleigh criterion, can be overcome if short wavelength radiations are employed, thus it is possible to resolve smaller features by the use of radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) spectral ranges. In particular way, radiation from the "water window" spectral range, which extends between K-absorption edges of carbon and oxygen (280÷540 eV), could be used in order to obtain high-contrast biological imaging. Laser-plasma double stream gas puff target source is suitable for SXR microscopy in the "water window" spectral range, which recently allowed to develop a system, operating at He-like nitrogen spectral line λ=2.88 nm, which permits to obtain images with half-pitch spatial resolution of ˜ 60 nm, exposure time as low as a few seconds and represents an important alternative for high resolution imaging for biomedical applications, material science and nanotechnology using a very compact laser source. The goal of measurements, presented herein, is to show SXR images of various biological samples, proving high contrast in the "water window" and characterize in more detail such compact microscopy system, based on a laser plasma source with a double stream gas puff target and a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) objective. The influence of various acquisition parameters on the quality of the obtained SXR images, expressed in terms of a signal-to-noise (SNR) will be demonstrated. Moreover, because the measurements are performed on SXR images, similar measurements might be performed as a benchmark in order to characterize different imaging systems as well.

  12. Packaged solar water heating technology: twenty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Graham; Wood, Byard

    2000-01-01

    The world market for packaged solar water heaters is reviewed, and descriptions are given of the different types of solar domestic water heaters (SDWH), design concepts for packaged SDWH, thermosyphon SDWH, evacuated insulation and excavated tube collectors, seasonally biased solar collectors, heat pump water heaters, and photovoltaic water heaters. The consumer market value for SDWHs is explained, and the results of a survey of solar water heating are summarised covering advantages, perceived disadvantages, the relative importance of purchase decision factors, experience with system components, and the most frequent maintenance problems. The durability, reliability, and performance of SDWHs are discussed

  13. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Otsuka, Takamitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Jiang Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O' Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2012-01-02

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  14. Efficient 'water window' soft x-ray high-Z plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, T; Otsuka, T; Jiang, W; Endo, A; Li, B; Dunne, P; O'Sullivan, G

    2013-01-01

    Unresolved transition array (UTA) is scalable to shorter wavelengths, and we demonstrate a table-top broadband emission 'water window' soft x-ray source based on laser-produced plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense UTAs in the 2 to 4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth (Bi) plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics

  15. A Compact "Water Window" Microscope with 60 nm Spatial Resolution for Applications in Biology and Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Torrisi, Alfio; Nawaz, Muhammad F; Bartnik, Andrzej; Adjei, Daniel; Vondrová, Šárka; Turňová, Jana; Jančarek, Alexandr; Limpouch, Jiří; Vrbová, Miroslava; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2015-10-01

    Short illumination wavelength allows an extension of the diffraction limit toward nanometer scale; thus, improving spatial resolution in optical systems. Soft X-ray (SXR) radiation, from "water window" spectral range, λ=2.3-4.4 nm wavelength, which is particularly suitable for biological imaging due to natural optical contrast provides better spatial resolution than one obtained with visible light microscopes. The high contrast in the "water window" is obtained because of selective radiation absorption by carbon and water, which are constituents of the biological samples. The development of SXR microscopes permits the visualization of features on the nanometer scale, but often with a tradeoff, which can be seen between the exposure time and the size and complexity of the microscopes. Thus, herein, we present a desk-top system, which overcomes the already mentioned limitations and is capable of resolving 60 nm features with very short exposure time. Even though the system is in its initial stage of development, we present different applications of the system for biology and nanotechnology. Construction of the microscope with recently acquired images of various samples will be presented and discussed. Such a high resolution imaging system represents an interesting solution for biomedical, material science, and nanotechnology applications.

  16. Thermal solar energy. Collective domestic hot water installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Cedric; Chauvet, Chrystele; Fourrier, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic outlook on the way to complete the installation of a collective domestic water solar heating system. After some recall of what is solar energy, the thermal solar technology and the energy savings it may induce, this document presents the main hydraulic configurations of a solar heating system with water storage, the dimensioning of a solar water heating system and its cost estimation, the installation and the commissioning of the system, the monitoring and maintenance operations

  17. Water vapour retrieval using the Precision Solar Spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Panagiotis-Ioannis; Kazadzis, Stelios; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Doppler, Lionel; Becker, Ralf; Helmis, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    The Precision Solar Spectroradiometer (PSR) is a new spectroradiometer developed at Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos - World Radiation Center (PMOD-WRC), Davos, measuring direct solar irradiance at the surface, in the 300-1020 nm spectral range and at high temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is to investigate the instrument's potential to retrieve integrated water vapour (IWV) using its spectral measurements. Two different approaches were developed in order to retrieve IWV: the first one uses single-channel and wavelength measurements, following a theoretical water vapour high absorption wavelength, and the second one uses direct sun irradiance integrated at a certain spectral region. IWV results have been validated using a 2-year data set, consisting of an AERONET sun-photometer Cimel CE318, a Global Positioning System (GPS), a microwave radiometer profiler (MWP) and radiosonde retrievals recorded at Meteorological Observatorium Lindenberg, Germany. For the monochromatic approach, better agreement with retrievals from other methods and instruments was achieved using the 946 nm channel, while for the spectral approach the 934-948 nm window was used. Compared to other instruments' retrievals, the monochromatic approach leads to mean relative differences up to 3.3 % with the coefficient of determination (R2) being in the region of 0.87-0.95, while for the spectral approach mean relative differences up to 0.7 % were recorded with R2 in the region of 0.96-0.98. Uncertainties related to IWV retrieval methods were investigated and found to be less than 0.28 cm for both methods. Absolute IWV deviations of differences between PSR and other instruments were determined the range of 0.08-0.30 cm and only in extreme cases would reach up to 15 %.

  18. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  19. Solar water heaters in China: A new day dawning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingyi; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively affluent province, as a case study area to assess the performance of solar water heater utilization in China. The study will focus on institutional setting, economic and technological performance, energy performance, and environmental and social impact. Results show that China has greatly increased solar water heater utilization, which has brought China great economic, environmental and social benefits. However, China is confronted with malfeasant market competition, technical flaws in solar water heater products and social conflict concerning solar water heater installation. For further development of the solar water heater, China should clarify the compulsory installation policy and include solar water heaters into the current 'Home Appliances Going to the Countryside' project; most of the widely used vacuum tube products should be replaced by flat plate products, and the technology improvement should focus on anti-freezing and water saving; the resources of solar water heater market should be consolidated and most of the OEM manufacturers should evolve to ODM and OBM enterprises.

  20. High-brightness water-window electron-impact liquid-jet microfocus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, P.; Lundstroem, U.; Vogt, U.; Hertz, H. M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate stable high-brightness operation of an electron-impact water-jet-anode soft x-ray source. A 30 kV, 7.8 W electron beam is focused onto a 20 μm diameter jet resulting in water-window oxygen line emission at 525 eV/2.36 nm with a brightness of 3.0x10 9 ph/(sxμm 2 xsrxline). Monte Carlo-based modeling shows good quantitative agreement with the experiments. The source has potential to increase the x-ray power and brightness by another 1-2 orders of magnitude and fluid-dynamical jet instabilities is determined to be the most important limiting factor. The source properties make it an attractive alternative for table-top x-ray microscopy.

  1. Opening a Window on ICME-driven GCR Modulation in the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Lugaz, Noé; Guo, Jingnan; Joyce, Colin J.; Jordan, Andrew P.; Wilson, Jody K.; Spence, Harlan E.; Lawrence, David J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Mays, M. Leila

    2018-04-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) often cause Forbush decreases (Fds) in the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). We investigate how a single ICME, launched from the Sun on 2014 February 12, affected GCR fluxes at Mercury, Earth, and Mars. We use GCR observations from MESSENGER at Mercury, ACE/LRO at the Earth/Moon, and MSL at Mars. We find that Fds are steeper and deeper closer to the Sun, and that the magnitude of the magnetic field in the ICME magnetic ejecta as well as the “strength” of the ICME sheath both play a large role in modulating the depth of the Fd. Based on our results, we hypothesize that (1) the Fd size decreases exponentially with heliocentric distance, and (2) that two-step Fds are more common closer to the Sun. Both hypotheses will be directly verifiable by the upcoming Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter missions. This investigation provides the first systematic study of the changes in GCR modulation as a function of distance from the Sun using nearly contemporaneous observations at Mercury, Earth/Moon, and Mars, which will be critical for validating our physical understanding of the modulation process throughout the heliosphere.

  2. Performance Improvement of Solar Water Stills by Using Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Hamusonde Maambo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of safe and clean drinking water sources is one of the problems faced in most rural communities in Zambia. Water in these communities is mostly obtained from shallow wells and rivers. However, this water might be potentially contaminated with harmful substances such as pathogenic bacteria and therefore, unsafe for drinking. Solar water distillation represents an important alternative to palliate problems of fresh water shortages. Solar water stills can be used to eliminate harmful substances from contaminated water by treating it using free solar energy before it can be consumed. Therefore, there is a need to improve solar still performance to produce a greater quantity of safe drinking water. One possible method to improve performance is through adding reflectors to solar stills. Reflectors improve performance by increasing the quantity of distillate by about 22.3 % at a water depth of 15 mm and about 2 9% at a water depth of 10 mm when compared to the distillate produced from a still without reflectors. The water produced using solar stills with reflectors was tested and adhered to World Health Organization (WHO drinking water standards. This implies that solar distillation with reflectors could be adopted at a larger scale to produce safer drinking water at a reduced cost.

  3. Joint risk of interbasin water transfer and impact of the window size of sampling low flows under environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xinjun; Du, Xiaoxia; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong; Du, Yiliang; Li, Kun

    2017-11-01

    Constructing a joint distribution of low flows between the donor and recipient basins and analyzing their joint risk are commonly required for implementing interbasin water transfer. In this study, daily streamflow data of bi-basin low flows were sampled at window sizes from 3 to183 days by using the annual minimum method. The stationarity of low flows was tested by a change point analysis and non-stationary low flows were reconstructed by using the moving mean method. Three bivariate Archimedean copulas and five common univariate distributions were applied to fit the joint and marginal distributions of bi-basin low flows. Then, by considering the window size of sampling low flows under environmental change, the change in the joint risk of interbasin water transfer was investigated. Results showed that the non-stationarity of low flows in the recipient basin at all window sizes was significant due to the regulation of water reservoirs. The general extreme value distribution was found to fit the marginal distributions of bi-basin low flows. Three Archimedean copulas satisfactorily fitted the joint distribution of bi-basin low flows and then the Frank copula was found to be the comparatively better. The moving mean method differentiated the location parameter of the GEV distribution, but did not differentiate the scale and shape parameters, and the copula parameters. Due to environmental change, in particular the regulation of water reservoirs in the recipient basin, the decrease of the joint synchronous risk of bi-basin water shortage was slight, but those of the synchronous assurance of water transfer from the donor were remarkable. With the enlargement of window size of sampling low flows, both the joint synchronous risk of bi-basin water shortage, and the joint synchronous assurance of water transfer from the donor basin when there was a water shortage in the recipient basin exhibited a decreasing trend, but their changes were with a slight fluctuation, in

  4. Semi-arid vegetation response to antecedent climate and water balance windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, David P.; Munson, Seth M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Bunting, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Questions Can we improve understanding of vegetation response to water availability on monthly time scales in semi-arid environments using remote sensing methods? What climatic or water balance variables and antecedent windows of time associated with these variables best relate to the condition of vegetation? Can we develop credible near-term forecasts from climate data that can be used to prepare for future climate change effects on vegetation? Location Semi-arid grasslands in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Methods We built vegetation response models by relating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS imagery in Mar–Nov 2000–2013 to antecedent climate and water balance variables preceding the monthly NDVI observations. We compared how climate and water balance variables explained vegetation greenness and then used a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance models to forecast monthly NDVI for three holdout years. Results Water balance variables explained vegetation greenness to a greater degree than climate variables for most growing season months. Seasonally important variables included measures of antecedent water input and storage in spring, switching to indicators of drought, input or use in summer, followed by antecedent moisture availability in autumn. In spite of similar climates, there was evidence the grazed grassland showed a response to drying conditions 1 mo sooner than the ungrazed grassland. Lead times were generally short early in the growing season and antecedent window durations increased from 3 mo early in the growing season to 1 yr or more as the growing season progressed. Forecast accuracy for three holdout years using a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance variables outperformed forecasts made with a naïve NDVI climatology. Conclusions We determined the influence of climate and water balance on vegetation at a fine temporal scale, which presents an opportunity to forecast vegetation

  5. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  6. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...

  7. Disinfection of contaminated water by using solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslake, Laurie F; Connolly, Daniel J; Menon, Vilas; Duncanson, Catriona M; Rojas, Ricardo; Tavakoli, Javad

    2004-02-01

    Contaminated water causes an estimated 6 to 60 billion cases of gastrointestinal illness annually. The majority of these cases occur in rural areas of developing nations where the water supply remains polluted and adequate sanitation is unavailable. A portable, low-cost, and low-maintenance solar unit to disinfect unpotable water has been designed and tested. The solar disinfection unit was tested with both river water and partially processed water from two wastewater treatment plants. In less than 30 min in midday sunlight, the unit eradicated more than 4 log10 U (99.99%) of bacteria contained in highly contaminated water samples. The solar disinfection unit has been field tested by Centro Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente in Lima, Peru. At moderate light intensity, the solar disinfection unit was capable of reducing the bacterial load in a controlled contaminated water sample by 4 log10 U and disinfected approximately 1 liter of water in 30 min.

  8. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  9. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  10. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  11. Plasmonic nanoparticle-semiconductor composites for efficient solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, M.; Jonsson, M.P.; Biskos, G.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Smith, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technology that uses light absorbing semiconductors to convert solar energy directly into a chemical fuel (i.e., hydrogen). PEC water splitting has the potential to become a key technology in achieving a sustainable society, if high solar

  12. South Africa. Fertile ground for solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oirere, Shem

    2012-07-01

    The national solar water heating plan, launched by South Africa's state power utility Eskom, seems to be making good progress with the power generator saying at least 215,000 solar water heater (SWH) systems had been installed by February this year. (orig.)

  13. An Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Setup with a Water Window Attosecond source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Andrew; Yin, Yanchun; Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond transient absorption, or time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, are excellent tools that can be used to investigate fast electron dynamics for a given atomic or molecular system. Recent push for high energy long wavelength few cycle laser sources has resulted in the production of x-ray spectra that would allow the probing of electron dynamics at the carbon k-edge in molecules such as CH4 and CO2. The motion of charges can be caused by photo-dissociation and charge migration. We present here the first results from our experimental setup where we produce a broadband attosecond pulse with spectra that stretches into the water window. National Science Foundation (1068604), Army Research Oce (W911NF-14-1-0383), Air Force Oce of Scientic Research (FA9550-15-1-0037, FA9550-16-1-0013) and the DARPA PULSE program by a Grant from AMRDEC (W31P4Q1310017).

  14. Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Eiji J.; Kanai, Tsuneto; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of a coherent water window x ray by extending the plateau region of high-order harmonics under a neutral-medium condition. The maximum harmonic photon energies attained are 300 and 450 eV in Ne and He, respectively. Our proposed generation scheme, combining a 1.6 μm laser driver and a neutral Ne gas medium, is efficient and scalable in output yields of the water window x ray. Thus, the precept of the design parameter for a single-shot live-cell imaging by contact microscopy is presented

  15. Solar water heating in apartment buildings - Fundamentals for decision-making on concepts for solar hot-water generation; Solare Wassererwaermung in Mehrfamilienhaeusern - Schlussbericht - Entscheidungsgrundlagen fuer solare Warmwasseraufbereitungskonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primas, A; Fotsch, P.; Ruf, N. [Basler und Hofmann AG, Ingenieure und Planer, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study that looked at various concepts for solar hot-water generation, with the aim of providing an overview of the various systems available to prospective housing investors and builders. Decision-making aids help decision makers adopt a systematic approach to selecting a solar hot-water system appropriate to their needs. Four typical situations are covered - hot water and heating per building, hot water per building and central heating for several buildings, central hot water and heating for several buildings, hot water per apartment and heating per building. The criteria used to judge the various options are discussed. Other topics covered include legionella, scaling-up of boilers and protection against overheating.

  16. Novel windows for "solar commodities": a device for CO2 reduction using plasmonic catalyst activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Alexander; Muñoz, Sergio; Sanz-Moral, Luis M; Brandner, Juergen J; Pfeifer, Peter; Martín, Ángel; Dittmeyer, Roland; Cocero, María J

    2015-01-01

    A novel plasmonic reactor concept is proposed and tested to work as a visible energy harvesting device while allowing reactions to transform CO2 to be carried out. Particularly the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction has been tested as a means to introduce renewable energy into the economy. The development of the new reactor concept involved the synthesis of a new composite capable of plasmonic activation with light, the development of an impregnation method to create a single catalyst reactor entity, and finally the assembly of a reaction system to test the reaction. The composite developed was based on a Cu/ZnO catalyst dispersed into transparent aerogels. This allows efficient light transmission and a high surface area for the catalyst. An effective yet simple impregnation method was developed that allowed introduction of the composites into glass microchannels. The activation of the reaction was made using LEDs that covered all the sides of the reactor allowing a high power delivery. The results of the reaction show a stable process capable of low temperature transformations.

  17. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  18. Solar warming systems of water installed in Colombia. Photovoltaic solar systems installed in the Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez P, F.

    1995-01-01

    Between the systems that operate as of solar energy, the solar collectors to heat water have had wide use and application in the Country. Basically, a solar collector is constituted by: Box, thermal insulator, ducts and transparent roof. Generally, the used materials are the following: As thermal insulator: Polyurethane or glass fiber; as absorbent plate: Copper or aluminum, painting in dull black or selective surfaces; for the ducts: Generally it is used copper pipeline; and for the cover: Common glass or temperate glass

  19. Economic feasibility of solar water and space heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, R H; Hirshberg, A S; Babcock, W H

    1979-03-23

    The economic feasibility in 1977 and 1978 of solar water and combined water and space heating is analyzed for single-family detached residences and multi-family apartment buildings in four representative U.S. cities: Boston, Massachusetts; Washington, D.C.; Grand Junction, Colorado; and Los Angeles, California. Three economic decision criteria are utilized: payback period, years to recovery of down payment, and years to net positive cash flow. The cost competitiveness of the solar systems compared to heating systems based on electricity, fuel oil, and natural gas is then discussed for each city, and the impact of the federal tax credit for solar energy systems is assessed. It is found that even without federal incentives some solar water and space heating systems are competitive. Enactment of the solar tax credit, however, greatly enhances their competitiveness. The implications of these findings for government tax and energy pricing policies are discussed.

  20. Simple Continuous-Flow Device for Combined Solar Thermal Pasteurization and Solar Disinfection for Water Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Amsberry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A collection unit and reflective concentrators were used to thermally preheat water to at least 70 °C for thermal pasteurization prior to a solar disinfection stage. The device is offered as a novel combined cycle to be used for either solar thermal pasteurization, during seasonalpeaks in solar irradiation, or as a solar preheat for UV solar disinfection which would occur in a flow-through solar disinfection trough. Inexpensive materials were used in order to simulate in field functionality and applicability to rural regions with low solar input. Solar incidence at Oregon State University, with latitude 45.5°, was recorded during trials conducted during May 1 to June 10 for the purpose of directly scaling the water treatment volumetric flowrate of the device for any future tests in other locations. This scaling by solar irradiation makes this dataset useful for other locations with higher or lower solar input and needing more or less treated water. The simple gravity-fed continuous system presented in this article makes use of a large cold water reservoir, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and a solar collector. The system, operating at flowrates of 100-150 mL/min is able to reach outlet temperatures of 74°C.  The system is projected to produce 55 L of purified water daily when operating on a sunny day with peak UV radiation above 700 W/m2. System cost was $55 with an added optional $15 for the shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

  1. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This analysis provides a detailed national and regional description of the water-related impacts and constraints of high solar electricity penetration scenarios in the U.S. in 2030 and 2050. A modified version of the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that incorporates water resource availability and costs as a constraint in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions was utilized to explore national and regional differences in water use impacts and solar deployment locations under different solar energy cost and water availability scenarios (Macknick et al. 2015). Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013a). Scenarios analyzed include two business-as-usual solar energy cost cases, one with and one without considering available water resources, and four solar energy cost cases that meet the SunShot cost goals (i.e., $1/watt for utility-scale PV systems), with varying levels of water availability restrictions. This analysis provides insight into the role solar energy technologies have in the broader electricity sector under scenarios of water constraints.

  2. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of a slanting-type solar water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system includes four major components; a wooden basin of surface area 0.16 m2, an absorber surface, a slanting glass roof and a condensate channel. Very cheap locally available materials were used to fabricate the solar still. The solar still produced an average of 0.09 m3 of distilled water per day, and this study was ...

  4. Solar water heaters in China: A new day dawning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively

  5. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  6. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-01-01

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  7. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2014-09-26

    Identifying the source of Earth's water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk's deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system's water. This finding implies that, if the solar system's formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-01-01

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  9. Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, W.; Asova, G.; Ayvazyan, V.; Azima, A.; Baboi, N.; Bähr, J.; Balandin, V.; Beutner, B.; Brandt, A.; Bolzmann, A.; Brinkmann, R.; Brovko, O. I.; Castellano, M.; Castro, P.; Catani, L.; Chiadroni, E.; Choroba, S.; Cianchi, A.; Costello, J. T.; Cubaynes, D.; Dardis, J.; Decking, W.; Delsim-Hashemi, H.; Delserieys, A.; di Pirro, G.; Dohlus, M.; Düsterer, S.; Eckhardt, A.; Edwards, H. T.; Faatz, B.; Feldhaus, J.; Flöttmann, K.; Frisch, J.; Fröhlich, L.; Garvey, T.; Gensch, U.; Gerth, Ch.; Görler, M.; Golubeva, N.; Grabosch, H.-J.; Grecki, M.; Grimm, O.; Hacker, K.; Hahn, U.; Han, J. H.; Honkavaara, K.; Hott, T.; Hüning, M.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Jaeschke, E.; Jalmuzna, W.; Jezynski, T.; Kammering, R.; Katalev, V.; Kavanagh, K.; Kennedy, E. T.; Khodyachykh, S.; Klose, K.; Kocharyan, V.; Körfer, M.; Kollewe, M.; Koprek, W.; Korepanov, S.; Kostin, D.; Krassilnikov, M.; Kube, G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Lilje, L.; Limberg, T.; Lipka, D.; Löhl, F.; Luna, H.; Luong, M.; Martins, M.; Meyer, M.; Michelato, P.; Miltchev, V.; Möller, W. D.; Monaco, L.; Müller, W. F. O.; Napieralski, O.; Napoly, O.; Nicolosi, P.; Nölle, D.; Nuñez, T.; Oppelt, A.; Pagani, C.; Paparella, R.; Pchalek, N.; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J.; Petersen, B.; Petrosyan, B.; Petrosyan, G.; Petrosyan, L.; Pflüger, J.; Plönjes, E.; Poletto, L.; Pozniak, K.; Prat, E.; Proch, D.; Pucyk, P.; Radcliffe, P.; Redlin, H.; Rehlich, K.; Richter, M.; Roehrs, M.; Roensch, J.; Romaniuk, R.; Ross, M.; Rossbach, J.; Rybnikov, V.; Sachwitz, M.; Saldin, E. L.; Sandner, W.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitz, M.; Schmüser, P.; Schneider, J. R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Schnepp, S.; Schreiber, S.; Seidel, M.; Sertore, D.; Shabunov, A. V.; Simon, C.; Simrock, S.; Sombrowski, E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Spanknebel, P.; Spesyvtsev, R.; Staykov, L.; Steffen, B.; Stephan, F.; Stulle, F.; Thom, H.; Tiedtke, K.; Tischer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Treusch, R.; Trines, D.; Tsakov, I.; Vogel, E.; Weiland, T.; Weise, H.; Wellhöfer, M.; Wendt, M.; Will, I.; Winter, A.; Wittenburg, K.; Wurth, W.; Yeates, P.; Yurkov, M. V.; Zagorodnov, I.; Zapfe, K.

    2007-06-01

    We report results on the performance of a free-electron laser operating at a wavelength of 13.7 nm where unprecedented peak and average powers for a coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation source have been measured. In the saturation regime, the peak energy approached 170 µJ for individual pulses, and the average energy per pulse reached 70 µJ. The pulse duration was in the region of 10 fs, and peak powers of 10 GW were achieved. At a pulse repetition frequency of 700 pulses per second, the average extreme-ultraviolet power reached 20 mW. The output beam also contained a significant contribution from odd harmonics of approximately 0.6% and 0.03% for the 3rd (4.6 nm) and the 5th (2.75 nm) harmonics, respectively. At 2.75 nm the 5th harmonic of the radiation reaches deep into the water window, a wavelength range that is crucially important for the investigation of biological samples.

  10. Solar photocatalysis - a possible step in drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubas, Davor

    2005-01-01

    Possibility of the use of solar radiation for reduction of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) content in natural lake water, as a source for drinking water preparation, was the topic of this research. Solar radiation alone does not have enough energy for sufficient degradation of NOM, but in combination with heterogeneous photocatalyst-titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), with or without other chemicals, the degradation potential could increase. In specific geographical conditions in Republic of Croatia, e.g. Adriatic islands or Dalmatia, solar radiation could be used for photocatalytic degradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters and therewith lighten the process of preparing them to the potable water. Specific quality of the geographical locality appears in fact that it is a very attractive tourist destination, especially in period June-September. In this period the drinking water demand is the biggest and, fortunately, the intensity of the solar radiation, too. So, there is a proportion between the drinking water demand and solar radiation available for the use in drinking water treatment. A number of tests with lake water exposed to solar radiation in non-concentrating reactors were performed and photodegradation of NOM for various combinations of doses and crystal forms of TiO 2 with H 2 O 2 was studied. Irradiation intensity was estimated from global solar radiation measurements. The best performance for the NOM degradation had combination of 1 g/L TiO 2 both anatase and rutile+solar radiation+H 2 O 2 , but - economically - it was not the best combination. An estimation of the biodegradation potential of dissolved organic matter after the photocatalytic step is given, too

  11. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  12. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-07-07

    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  13. Hot water from the sun: a consumer guide to solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Beth

    2005-02-15

    The following topics are discussed: how solar water heaters work, making good use of the sun, estimating costs and savings, choosing the right dealer/installer, choosing the right system, warranties and contracts, getting a good installation, and living with your solar energy system. The appendices discuss system performance and durability, and provide sources of additional information on solar energy and its applications. (MHR)

  14. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  15. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  16. Experimental investigation of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out. • Effect of storage tank and cotton absorber on productivity was investigated. • Efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than conventional still by 20%. • The day and night efficiency increases by 5% and 3.5% for salt and sea water. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank for sea and salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water before desalination is 57,100 and 2370 mg/l. A comparison study between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out to evaluate the developed desalination system performance under the same climate conditions. The effect of installing a storage tank and cotton black absorber for modified stepped solar still on the distillate productivity was investigated. The results indicate that, the productivity of the modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 43% and 48% for sea and salt water with black absorber respectively, while 53% and 47% of sea and salt water, respectively with cotton absorber. Also, the daily efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 20%. The maximum efficiency of modified stepped still is occurring at a feed water flow rate of 1 LPM for sea water and 3 LPM for salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water after desalination is 41, and 27 mg/l

  17. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochetti, D A; Metcalf, R H

    1984-02-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60 degrees C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65 degrees C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 62.8 degrees C for at least an hour, which appears sufficient to pasteurize contaminated water. On clear or partly cloudy days, with the SBC facing magnetic south in Sacramento, bottom water temperatures of at least 65 degrees C could be obtained in 11.1 liters of water during the 6 weeks on either side of the summer solstice, in 7.4 liters of water from mid-March through mid-September, and in 3.7 liters of water an additional 2 to 3 weeks at the beginning and end of the solar season. Periodic repositioning of the SBC towards the sun, adjusting the back reflective lid, and preheating water in a simple reflective device increased final water temperatures. Simultaneous cooking and heating water to pasteurizing temperatures was possible. Additional uses of the SBC to pasteurize soil and to decontaminate hospital materials before disposal in remote areas are suggested.

  18. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings.

  19. Solar radiation for sea-water desalination and electric power generation via vacuum solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottinelli, L.; Reali, M.; El-Nashar, A.M.; Giusiano, F.; Vigotti, R.

    1996-01-01

    The present report concerns the energetic potential of vacuum solar which are rather versatile and efficient devices for converting solar energy into thermal energy. Two main energetic applications have been analysed: the first one for a solar sea water desalination plant which has been operated in Abu Dhabi for the past ten years, the other for a conceptual solar thermoelectric-power plant having a fair thermodynamic efficiency (15-20%). A simple technology for the manufacture of vacuum solar collectors in a standard mechanical shop is being developed in collaboration between ENEL Sp A (DSR-CRIS, Milano) and WED (Abu Dhabi). Such technology should have an important economy-saving potential per se and would also make repair and substitution operations simple enough for the actual operators of the vacuum solar collector system without any need of external assistance. The technic-operative-economical features of the Abu Dhabi solar desalination plant suggest that the use novel simplified vacuum solar collectors could have a considerable technic economical potential. The analysis of the conceptual solar thermo-electric-power plant focuses on its general layout and singles out key technological issues which ought to be addressed in an overall feasibility study. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The Character of the Solar Wind, Surface Interactions, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the key characteristics of the proton-rich solar wind and describe how it may interact with the lunar surface. We suggest that solar wind can be both a source and loss of water/OH related volatiles, and review models showing both possibilities. Energy from the Sun in the form of radiation and solar wind plasma are in constant interaction with the lunar surface. As such, there is a solar-lunar energy connection, where solar energy and matter are continually bombarding the lunar surface, acting at the largest scale to erode the surface at 0.2 Angstroms per year via ion sputtering [1]. Figure 1 illustrates this dynamically Sun-Moon system.

  1. Parametric studies of an active solar water heating system with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generated from fossil fuels (Hitam 1999). Solar radiation in Malaysia, ... It means that, 150 L of water per day per family should be enough for hot water consumption in Malaysia. (Zahedi et al 2007). ... thermore, the average daily consumption of electricity per household of five people was assumed to be approximately 15 ...

  2. Economics of residential solar hot water heating systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmula, Ahmed Mohamed Omer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Haj Othman, Mohd Yosof

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has favorable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysian households but, because of the high initial cost of Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHSs) and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malyaysian families are still using Electric Water Heaters to hot their water needs. This paper is presented the comparing of techno-economic feasibility of some models of SWHS from Malaysian's market with the Electric Water Heaters )EWH) by study the annual cost of operation for both systems. The result shows that the annual cost of the electrical water heater becomes greater than than the annual cost of the SWHS for all models in long-team run so it is advantageous for the family to use the solar water heater, at least after 4 years. In addition with installation SWHS the families can get long-term economical benefits, environment friendly and also can doing its part to reduce this country's dependence on foreign oil that is price increase day after day.(Author)

  3. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  4. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplishing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' problem of science.

  5. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assistance of metal nanostructures and quantum dots to semiconductors attains vital importance as they are exuberant visible light harvesters and charge carrier amplifiers. Benevolent use of quantum dots in solar water splitting and photoelectrochemical water splitting provides scope to revolutionize the quantum efficiency ...

  6. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  7. Recent developments in solar H2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplish- ing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' prob-.

  8. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  9. Solar hot water space heating system. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, T

    1979-08-13

    A retrofit solar heating system was installed on Madison Hall at Jordan College, Cedar Springs, Michigan. The system provides heating and domestic water preheating for a campus dormitory. Freeze protection is provided by a draindown system. The building and solar system, construction progress, and design changes are described. Included in appendices are: condensate trap design, structural analysis, pictures of installation, operating instructions, maintenance instructions, and as-built drawings. (MHR)

  10. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, Val; Aspinwall, David B.

    1977-12-01

    The information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's (SEMCO) solar hot water system is presented. This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures. This system, being developed by SEMCO, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  11. Water recovery in a concentrated solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aikifa; Higgo, Alex R.; Alobaidli, Abdulaziz; Zhang, TieJun

    2016-05-01

    For CSP plants, water consumption is undergoing increasing scrutiny particularly in dry and arid regions with water scarcity conditions. Significant amount of water has to be used for parabolic trough mirror cleaning to maintain high mirror reflectance and optical efficiency in sandy environment. For this specific purpose, solar collectors are washed once or twice every week at Shams 1, one of the largest CSP plant in the Middle East, and about 5 million gallons of demineralized water is utilized every year without further recovery. The produced waste water from a CSP plant contains the soiling i.e. accumulated dust and some amount of organic contaminants, as indicated by our analysis of waste water samples from the solar field. We thus need to develop a membrane based system to filter fine dust particulates and to degrade organic contaminant simultaneously. Membrane filtration technology is considered to be cost-effective way to address the emerging problem of a clean water shortage, and to reuse the filtered water after cleaning solar collectors. But there are some major technical barriers to improve the robustness and energy efficiency of filtration membranes especially when dealing with the removal of ultra-small particles and oil traces. Herein, we proposed a robust and scalable nanostructured inorganic microporous filtration copper mesh. The inorganic membrane surface wettability is tailored to enhance the water permeability and filtration flux by creating nanostructures. These nanostructured membranes were successfully employed to recover water collected after cleaning the reflectors of solar field of Shams 1. Another achievement was to remove the traces of heat transfer fluid (HTF) from run-off water which was collected after accidental leakage in some of the heat exchangers during the commissioning of the Shams 1 for safe disposal into the main stream. We hope, by controlling the water recovery factor and membrane reusability performance, the membrane

  12. Design data brochure: solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    This Design Data Brochure is general in nature. The intent is to provide a preliminary, not too technical, approach to a subject that can be technically demanding. The example used for the design calculation has been for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. Drain-down freeze protection is used with the flat plate collectors. Drawing and specifications for the solar collectors, valves, pump, and flow regulators are included.

  13. Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-02-01

    The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

  14. Photocatalytic Enhancement for Solar Disinfection of Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anthony Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 884 million people lack access to improved water supplies. Many more are forced to rely on supplies that are microbiologically unsafe, resulting in a higher risk of waterborne diseases, including typhoid, hepatitis, polio, and cholera. Due to poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water, there are around 4 billion cases of diarrhea each year resulting in 2.2 million deaths, most of these are children under five. While conventional interventions to improve water supplies are effective, there is increasing interest in household-based interventions to produce safe drinking water at an affordable cost for developing regions. Solar disinfection (SODIS is a simple and low cost technique used to disinfect drinking water, where water is placed in transparent containers and exposed to sunlight for 6 hours. There are a number of parameters which affect the efficacy of SODIS, including the solar irradiance, the quality of the water, and the nature of the contamination. One approach to SODIS enhancement is the use of semiconductor photocatalysis to produce highly reactive species that can destroy organic pollutants and inactivate water pathogens. This paper presents a critical review concerning semiconductor photocatalysis as a potential enhancement technology for solar disinfection of water.

  15. Potential of Using Solar Energy for Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Batista, J.; Ahmad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Where water is essential to energy generation, energy usage is integral to life cycle processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution and disposal. Increasing population, climate change and greenhouse gas production challenges the water industry for energy conservation of the various water-related operations as well as limiting the associated carbon emissions. One of the ways to accomplish this is by incorporating renewable energy into the water sector. Treatment of drinking water, an important part of water life cycle processes, is vital for the health of any community. This study explores the feasibility of using solar energy for a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with the long-term goal of energy independence and sustainability. A 10 MGD groundwater DWTP in southwestern US was selected, using the treatment processes of coagulation, filtration and chlorination. Energy consumption in units of kWh/day and kWh/MG for each unit process was separately determined using industry accepted design criteria. Associated carbon emissions were evaluated in units of CO2 eq/MG. Based on the energy consumption and the existing real estate holdings, the DWTP was sized for distributed solar. Results showed that overall the motors used to operate the pumps including the groundwater intake pumps were the largest consumers of energy. Enough land was available around DWTP to deploy distributed solar. Results also showed that solar photovoltaics could potentially be used to meet the energy demands of the selected DWTP, but warrant the use of a large storage capacity, and thus increased costs. Carbon emissions related to solar based design were negligible compared to the original case. For future, this study can be used to analyze unit processes of other DWTP based on energy consumption, as well as for incorporating sustainability into the DWTP design.

  16. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  17. A passive solar water heating system for vineyard frost protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (Ireland); Skates, H. [Environmental Engineering Research Centre, School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast BT9 5AG (Ireland)

    2009-03-15

    The threat of frost during spring time (after 'bud burst') is an ever present danger to the vineyard owner. To minimise the risk, in addition to good site selection and vineyard management, a number of active frost protection systems are available. Most active methods of frost protection are costly in monetary terms and can also have a detrimental effect on the environment. This work presents the design and performance of a passive solar water heating quilt system under real vineyard operating conditions. Two vineyard sites were selected, and the solar water heating quilt design was evaluated over a three-month period. Detailed measurements of the temperature below and above the soil surface, levels of incident solar radiation and the wind direction and speed were recorded. Field study results indicate that the quilts can improve the solar collection and heat retention of the soil, resulting in increased temperatures during frost events of up to 1 C in air space immediately adjacent to the solar quilts when compared to conditions off the protected area. In addition, the time period during which the frost remains a danger to the vine is also reduced. When heat collection, storage and extraction rates are investigated, simplified calculations indicate that the solar quilt can improve collection by 38.5% over bare soil, resulting in the release of 32% more heat. Extrapolated to vineyard coverage, this could result in an extra 3500 MJ of heat per hectare per (typical frost event condition) day. (author)

  18. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  19. The effects of high temperature processing on the structural and optical properties of oxygenated CdS window layers in CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Grice, Corey R.; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yan, Yanfa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    High efficiency CdTe solar cells typically use oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) window layers. We synthesize CdS:O window layers at room temperature (RT) and 270 °C using reactive sputtering. The band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at RT increase when O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) ratios in the deposition chamber increase. On the other hand, the band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at 270 °C decrease as the O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) ratios increase. Interestingly, however, our high temperature closed-space sublimation (CSS) processed CdTe solar cells using CdS:O window layers deposited at RT and 270 °C exhibit very similar cell performance, including similar short-circuit current densities. To understand the underlying reasons, CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270 °C are annealed at temperatures that simulate the CSS process of CdTe deposition. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy characterization of the annealed films reveals that the CdS:O films deposited at RT undergo grain regrowth and/or crystallization and exhibit reduced band gaps after the annealing. Our results suggest that CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270 °C should exhibit similar optical properties after the deposition of CdTe layers, explaining the similar cell performance.

  20. Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.

  1. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  2. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  3. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  4. Structural and chemical evolution of the CdS:O window layer during individual CdTe solar cell processing steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A.; Meysing, D. M.; Reese, M. O.; Barnes, T. M.; Walls, J. M.; Wolden, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) is often used as the n-type window layer in high-performance CdTe heterojunction solar cells. The as-deposited layer prepared by reactive sputtering is XRD amorphous, with a bulk composition of CdS0.8O1.2. Recently it was shown that this layer undergoes significant transformation during device fabrication, but the roles of the individual high temperature processing steps was unclear. In this work high resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled to elemental analysis was used to understand the evolution of the heterojunction region through the individual high temperature fabrication steps of CdTe deposition, CdCl2 activation, and back contact activation. It is found that during CdTe deposition by close spaced sublimation at 600 degrees C the CdS:O film undergoes recrystallization, accompanied by a significant (~30%) reduction in thickness. It is observed that oxygen segregates during this step, forming a bi-layer morphology consisting of nanocrystalline CdS adjacent to the tin oxide contact and an oxygen-rich layer adjacent to the CdTe absorber. This bilayer structure is then lost during the 400 degrees C CdCl2 treatment where the film transforms into a heterogeneous structure with cadmium sulfate clusters distributed randomly throughout the window layer. The thickness of window layer remains essentially unchanged after CdCl2 treatment, but a ~25 nm graded interfacial layer between CdTe and the window region is formed. Finally, the rapid thermal processing step used to activate the back contact was found to have a negligible impact on the structure or composition of the heterojunction region.

  5. Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, M.; Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider

    2011-01-01

    Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m 2 of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m 2 a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m 2 a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

  6. Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jieyang; Seitz, Linsey C.; Benck, Jesse D.; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Bilir, Taner; Harris, James S.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage. PMID:27796309

  7. Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jieyang; Seitz, Linsey C.; Benck, Jesse D.; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Bilir, Taner; Harris, James S.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage.

  8. Renewable water: Direct contact membrane distillation coupled with solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, Francisco; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Childress, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of direct contact membrane distillation driven by solar ponds. • The DCMD/SGSP system treats ∼6 times the water flow treated by an AGMD/SGSP system. • Half of the energy extracted from the SGSP was used to transport water across the membrane. • Reducing heat losses through the DCMD/SGSP system would yield higher water fluxes. - Abstract: Desalination powered by renewable energy sources is an attractive solution to address the worldwide water-shortage problem without contributing significant to greenhouse gas emissions. A promising system for renewable energy desalination is the utilization of low-temperature direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) driven by a thermal solar energy system, such as a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP). This investigation presents the first experimental study of fresh water production in a coupled DCMD/SGSP system. The objectives of this work are to determine the experimental fresh water production rates and the energetic requirements of the different components of the system. From the laboratory results, it was found that the coupled DCMD/SGSP system treats approximately six times the water flow treated by a similar system that consisted of an air–gap membrane distillation unit driven by an SGSP. In terms of the energetic requirements, approximately 70% of the heat extracted from the SGSP was utilized to drive thermal desalination and the rest was lost in different locations of the system. In the membrane module, only half of the useful heat was actually used to transport water across the membrane and the remainder was lost by conduction in the membrane. It was also found that by reducing heat losses throughout the system would yield higher water fluxes, pointing out the need to improve the efficiency throughout the DCMD/SGSP coupled system. Therefore, further investigation of membrane properties, insulation of the system, or optimal design of the solar pond must be addressed in

  9. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  10. design and experimental study of a solar system for heating water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Ghodbane, B. Boumeddane, N. Said

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Solar energy; design, linear Fresnel reflector; thermal efficiency; solar water-heater. .... three techniques to get hot water using solar energy; these techniques are photovoltaic arrays, solar dynamic ...... [22] Energy minister of Algeria, Potentiels National des Énergies Renouvelables, Web site:.

  11. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K.; Bacha, H. Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results

  12. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K. [Sfax University, (Turkey); Bacha, H. Ben [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results.

  13. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  14. A solar water system acting as the building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Li [School of Architecture, Tianjin Univ., TJ (China); Wang Yiping; Ren Jianbo [School of Chemical Engineering and Tech., Tianjin Univ., TJ (China); Kong Jianguo [Tianjin Cuipinghu Science Park, TJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new type of solar water system in the form of building material is designed, and applied to an office building in Meijiang eco-district located in Tianjin City, China. In this project, 60m{sup 2} wall type and 30m{sup 2} solar roof collectors are used to supply hot water directly and also to be an evaporator for an auxiliary heat pump with a power of 4.5kW. The energy rejected by the condenser contributes to load requirements through a refrigerant (R22)-to-water heat exchanger immersed in a 3m{sup 3} hot water storage tank. Experimental results show that, the daily-averaged collector efficiency ranged from 40 to 50% and form 60% to 70% in winter and summer, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Solar PV energy for water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction into understanding the relative merits, characteristics, including economics, of photovoltically powered water pumping systems. Although more than 10,000 photovoltaic pumping systems are known to be operating through out the world, many potential users do not know how to decide weather feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can made an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with photovoltaics. (author)

  16. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  17. The Viability of Solar Energy for Domestic Water Heating in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the possible use of solar energy for domestic water heating is conducted for seven representative Ethiopian cities. In this study, the transient performance of the system is computed using a numerical heat transfer model of a flat-plate collector from the input of average annual climatic data and collector ...

  18. Parametric studies of an active solar water heating system with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This study simulated active photovoltaic thermal solar collectors (PV/T) for hot water production using TRNSYS. The PV/T collectors consist of the amor- phous, monocrystalline and polycrystalline. The long-term performances for the glazed and unglazed PV/T collectors were also evaluated. In this simulation, the.

  19. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  20. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  1. Multiple-Color-Generating Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin-Film Solar Cells via Dichroic Film Incorporation for Power-Generating Window Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gang Yeol; Jeong, Jae-Seung; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Youngki; Yoon, Hee Chang; Chu, Van Ben; Park, Gi Soon; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Kim, Woong; Min, Byoung Koun; Do, Young Rag

    2017-05-03

    There are four prerequisites when applying all types of thin-film solar cells to power-generating window photovoltaics (PVs): high power-generation efficiency, longevity and high durability, semitransparency or partial-light transmittance, and colorful and aesthetic value. Solid-type thin-film Cu(In,Ga)S 2 (CIGS) or Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 (CIGSSe) PVs nearly meet the first two criteria, making them promising candidates for power-generating window applications if they can transmit light to some degree and generate color with good aesthetic value. In this study, the mechanical scribing process removes 10% of the window CIGSSe thin-film solar cell with vacant line patterns to provide a partial-light-transmitting CIGSSe PV module to meet the third requirement. The last concept of creating distinct colors could be met by the addition of reflectance colors of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) dichroic film on the black part of a partial-light-transmitting CIGSSe PV module. Beautiful violets and blues were created on the cover glass of a black CIGSSe PV module via the addition of 1D PC blue-mirror-yellow-pass dichroic film to improve the aesthetic value of the outside appearance. As a general result from the low external quantum efficiency (EQE) and absorption of CIGSSe PVs below a wavelength of 400 nm, the harvesting efficiency and short-circuit photocurrent of CIGSSe PVs were reduced by only ∼10% without reducing the open-circuit voltage (V OC ) because of the reduced overlap between the absorption spectrum of CIGSSe PV and the reflectance spectrum of the 1D PC blue-mirror-yellow-pass dichroic film. The combined technology of partial-vacancy-scribed CIGSSe PV modules and blue 1D PC dichroic film can provide a simple strategy to be applied to violet/blue power-generating window applications, as such a strategy can improve the transparency and aesthetic value without significantly sacrificing the harvesting efficiency of the CIGSSe PV modules.

  2. Water heating solar system for popular houses; Sistema solar de aquecimento de agua para residencias populares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogawer, Tamer; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we present a case study for the design of a low cost solar heating system for a popular residence in an isolated rural community in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. This scaling can be extended to several rural communities that are in the same situation in Brazil as well as the wider use of solar power between the low-income people who do not have the benefits of electricity in their homes or want to have a lower cost of electricity. In this context, there are very interesting alternatives, among which is the replacement of electric heating bath water by heating by solar energy. According to several sources the electric shower, as it is now simple and extremely cheap, is the villain of the national electrical system. It is used in peak hours of consumption, something like 10% of electric generating capacity installed in Brazil, forcing many industries to switch off the machines because of the high cost of electricity during this period. Using the heating by solar energy, we can reduce consumption of electric shower and also increase the use of clean energy in popular homes and in isolated rural communities. This paper will address the use of solar energy with the basic purpose of heating water for bathing in popular residences and in isolated rural areas, using low cost systems, built with easily materials that is found in any area of the country. (author)

  3. Flat plate solar collector for water pre-heating using concentrated solar power (CSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Leonard Sunny; Shekh, Md. Al Amin; Sarker, Imran

    2017-12-01

    Numerous attempt and experimental conduction on different methods to harness energy from renewable sources are being conducted. This study is a contribution to the purpose of harnessing solar energy as a renewable source by using flat plate solar collector medium to preheat water. Basic theory of solar radiation and heat convection in water (working fluid) has been combined with heat conduction process by using copper tubes and aluminum absorber plate in a closed conduit, covered with a glazed through glass medium. By this experimental conduction, a temperature elevation of 35°C in 10 minutes duration which is of 61.58% efficiency range (maximum) has been achieved. The obtained data and experimental findings are validated with the theoretical formulation and an experimental demonstration model. A cost effective and simple form of heat energy extraction method for space heating/power generation has been thoroughly discussed with possible industrial implementation possibilities. Under-developed and developing countries can take this work as an illustration for renewable energy utilization for sustainable energy prospect. Also a full structure based data to derive concentrated solar energy in any geographical location of Bangladesh has been outlined in this study. These research findings can contribute to a large extent for setting up any solar based power plant in Bangladesh irrespective of its installation type.

  4. Metal-electrode-free Window-like Organic Solar Cells with p-Doped Carbon Nanotube Thin-film Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Delacou, Clement; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells are flexible and inexpensive, and expected to have a wide range of applications. Many transparent organic solar cells have been reported and their success hinges on full transparency and high power conversion efficiency. Recently, carbon nanotubes and graphene, which meet these criteria, have been used in transparent conductive electrodes. However, their use in top electrodes has been limited by mechanical difficulties in fabrication and doping. Here, expensive metal top electrodes were replaced with high-performance, easy-to-transfer, aerosol-synthesized carbon nanotubes to produce transparent organic solar cells. The carbon nanotubes were p-doped by two new methods: HNO3 doping via ‘sandwich transfer’, and MoOx thermal doping via ‘bridge transfer’. Although both of the doping methods improved the performance of the carbon nanotubes and the photovoltaic performance of devices, sandwich transfer, which gave a 4.1% power conversion efficiency, was slightly more effective than bridge transfer, which produced a power conversion efficiency of 3.4%. Applying a thinner carbon nanotube film with 90% transparency decreased the efficiency to 3.7%, which was still high. Overall, the transparent solar cells had an efficiency of around 50% that of non-transparent metal-based solar cells (7.8%).

  5. Decentralized water purification using solar thermal energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhardwaj, R.

    2016-01-01

    Provision of clean drinking water to poor can prevent a large number of deaths and illnesses amongst children around the world. In 2010, about 0.75 million child deaths were caused due to diarrhea, and a further 22.5 million years of life were lost due to ill-health, disability or early death caused

  6. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  7. Solar energy conversion by photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-04

    Summary: Solar energy is abundant and renewable energy: however, extensive conversion of the solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting (OWS) by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces H2 as a chemical energy in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. To achieve the OWS efficiently, the development of efficient photocatalysts is mandatory. The OWS hotocatalysis involves the electrocatalys is for both water reduction and oxidation on the surafce of photocatalysts, which is driven by particular semiconductors that absorb photons to generate excited carriers. Such photocatalysts must be designed to maximize the charge separation efficiency at the catalyst-semiconductor and semiconductor-electrolyte interface. In addition the low-overpotential electrocatalyts towards water redox reactions should be insensitive to the back-reaction of the produced H2 and O2 that produces H2O. In this presentation, some recent progress on the topic of the OWS in our group will be discussed.

  8. Solar water heating for aquaculture : optimizing design for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Thwaites, J. [Taylor Munro Energy Systems Inc., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a solar water heating project at Redfish Ranch, the first Tilapia tropical fish farm in British Columbia. The fish are raised in land-based tanks, eliminating the risk of contamination of local ecosystems. As a tropical species, they requires warm water. Natural gas or propane boilers are typically used to maintain tank temperatures at 26 to 28 degrees C. Redfish Ranch uses solar energy to add heat to the fish tanks, thereby reducing fossil-fuel combustion and greenhouse gas emissions. This unique building-integrated solar system is improving the environmental status of of this progressive industrial operation by offsetting fossil-fuel consumption. The system was relatively low cost, although substantial changes had to be made to the roof of the main building. The building-integrated design of the solar water heating system has reduced operating costs, generated local employment, and shows promise of future activity. As such, it satisfies the main criteria for sustainability. 7 refs.

  9. Solar Hot Water System Matter in Turkey (Mersin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan ŞEREFHANOĞLU SÖZEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the effects of sustainability on the construction sector have been taken into consideration, solar active systems on buildings emerge as an important design issue in the context of renewal energy usage. Solar hot water systems such as those widely used in Turkey are inefficient and have a negative effect on a building’s aesthetic and the urban view in general because of the poor quality of installation. Natural circulated open loop systems are commonly used, particularly in the south of Turkey, as they are highly economical and require no regulation to install. Solar hot water systems tend to be clustered together on the roofs, causing visual pollution, and this situation arises largely because are not considered part of the architectural design. It is therefore important to consider the negative effects of such systems in the form of treatment studies. This study aims to determine the positive effects that will be gained by the renovation of solar hot water systems in Mersin, a city in the southern region of Turkey.

  10. Drinking water treatment in solar reactors with immobilized photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichel, C.; Fernandez, P.; Blanco, J.; Lorenz, K.

    2005-07-01

    This work has been performed at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. As in our daily consumption of any other good, it is important to take an interest in sustainable treatment methods for purifying a vital water supply. Primary water treatment has no need for energy consuming techniques as any suspended particles can usually be removed by sand traps and sedimentation basin. Organic matter and biodegradable chemical contaminants ca be decomposed by activated sludge plants, bacteria beds, or in the case of highly organically loaded sewage by methanisation.In the recent years, another photocatalysts a photo sensitizer has been used in desinfection experiments. Ruthenium appears to have good potential for inactivation of bacteria in chelating coordination compounds. The SOLWATER project attempts to provide remote areas of such developing countries as Mexico, Peru and Argentina with drinking water disinfected by solar photocatalysis with immobilized TiO2 and Ru(II). (Author)

  11. Doping-Promoted Solar Water Oxidation on Hematite Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most promising materials for solar water oxidation, hematite has attracted intense research interest for four decades. Despite their desirable optical band gap, stability and other attractive features, there are great challenges for the implementation of hematite-based photoelectrochemical cells. In particular, the extremely low electron mobility leads to severe energy loss by electron hole recombination. Elemental doping, i.e., replacing lattice iron with foreign atoms, has been shown to be a practical solution. Here we review the significant progresses in metal and non-metal element doping-promoted hematite solar water oxidation, focusing on the role of dopants in adjusting carrier density, charge collection efficiency and surface water oxidation kinetics. The advantages and salient features of the different doping categories are compared and discussed.

  12. Solar water heating system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of using a solar water heater for a lunar base is described. During the investigation, computer codes were developed to model the lunar base configuration, lunar orbit, and heating systems. Numerous collector geometries, orientation variations, and system options were identified and analyzed. The results indicate that the recommended solar water heater could provide 88 percent of the design load and would not require changes in the overall lunar base design. The system would give a 'safe-haven' water heating capability and use only 7 percent to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric heating system. As a result, a fixed position photovoltaic array can be reduced by 21 sq m.

  13. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  14. Roadmap on solar water splitting: current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sheng; Li, Wei; Yan, Yanfa; Hamann, Thomas; Shih, Ishiang; Wang, Dunwei; Mi, Zetian

    2017-09-01

    Artificial photosynthesis via solar water splitting provides a promising approach to storing solar energy in the form of hydrogen on a global scale. However, an efficient and cost-effective solar hydrogen production system that can compete with traditional methods using fossil fuels is yet to be developed. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) tandem cell consisting of a p-type photocathode and an n-type photoanode, with the photovoltage provided by the two photoelectrodes, is an attractive route to achieve highly efficient unassisted water splitting at a low cost. In this article, we provide an overview of recent developments of semiconductor materials, including metal oxides, nitrides, chalcogenides, Si, III-V compounds and organics, either as photocathodes or photoanodes for water reduction and oxidation, respectively. In addition, recent efforts in constructing a PEC tandem system for unassisted water splitting are outlined. The importance of developing a single-photon photocathode and photoanode that can deliver high photocurrent in the low bias region for efficient PEC tandem system is highlighted. Finally, we discuss the future development of photoelectrode materials, and viable solutions to realize highly efficient PEC water splitting device for practical applications.

  15. Establishing Solar Water Disinfection as a water treatment method at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.1 billion People worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water and therefore are exposed to a high risk for diarrhoeal diseases. As a consequence, about 6,000 children die each day of dehydration due to diarrhoea. Adequate water treatment methods and safe storage of drinking water, combined with hygiene ...

  16. Solar hot-water generation and heating - Kombi-Kompakt+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, M.; Vogelsanger, P.

    2005-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes new testing facilities at the Institute for Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, that allow the testing of solar systems the whole year through. The systems tested feature the combined generation of heat for hot water storage vessels and heat for space heating. The test method used, the Concise Cycle Test (CCT) is described. The results of tests made on a large number of systems demonstrate that it is especially important to have a test system that allows the solar market to be protected from unsatisfactory systems. Good co-operation with manufactures is noted. As the test method includes tests with secondary energy sources such as oil or gas, certain problems in this area were discovered and corrected. Further tests are to be made with systems using biomass as a secondary source of heat

  17. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the ratio...... between the energy tapped in one storage volume and the energy content in the tank before the tapping is measured. Afterwards the mixing factor, corresponding to the measured ratio, can be determined. It is proposed that the mixing factor is taken into consideration when the governmental subsidy for SDHW...

  18. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  19. The Search for Surviving Direct Samples of Early Solar System Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. All classes of astromaterials studied show some degree of interaction with aqueous fluids. Nevertheless, we are still lacking fundamental information such as the location and timing of the aqueous alteration and the detailed nature of the aqueous fluids. Halite crystals in two meteorite regolith breccias were found to contain aqueous fluid inclusions (brines) trapped approx. 4.5 BYBP. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 C. The initial results of our O and H isotopic measurements on these brine inclusions can be explained by a simple model mixing asteroidal and cometary water. We have been analyzing solids and organics trapped alongside the brines in the halites by FTIR, C-XANES, SXRD and Raman, as clues to the origin of the water. The organics show thermal effects that span the entire range witnessed by organics in all chondrite types. Since we identified water-soluble aromatics, including partially halogenated methanol, in some of the halite, we suspected amino acids were also present, but have thus far found that levels of amino acids were undetectable (which is very interesting). We have also been locating aqueous fluid inclusions in other astromaterials, principally carbonates in CI and CM chondrites. Although we have advanced slowly towards detailed analysis of these ancient brines, since they require techniques right at or just beyond current analytical capabilities, their eventual full characterization will completely open the window onto the origin and activity of early solar system water.

  20. A hybrid desalination system using humidification-dehumidification and solar stills integrated with evacuated solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshir, S.W.; Peng, Guilong; Yang, Nuo; Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Ali, Mohamed Kamal Ahmed; Kabeel, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evacuated solar water heater integrated with humidification-dehumidification system. • Reuse of warm water drained from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills. • The thermal performance of hybrid system is increased by 50% and maximum yield is 63.3 kg/day. • The estimated price of the freshwater produced from the hybrid system is $0.034/L. - Abstract: This paper offers a hybrid solar desalination system comprising a humidification-dehumidification and four solar stills. The developed hybrid desalination system reuses the drain warm water from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills to stop the massive warm water loss during desalination. Reusing the drain warm water increases the gain output ratio of the system by 50% and also increased the efficiency of single solar still to about 90%. Furthermore, the production of a single solar still as a part of the hybrid system was more than that of the conventional one by approximately 200%. The daily water production of the conventional one, single solar still, four solar still, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were 3.2, 10.5, 42, 24.3 and 66.3 kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the cost per unit liter of distillate from conventional one, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were around $0.049, $0.058 and $0.034, respectively.

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  2. Likely near-term solar-thermal water splitting technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, C.; Weimer, A.W. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Engineering Center

    2004-12-01

    Thermodynamic and materials considerations were made for some two- and three-step thermochemical cycles to split water using solar-thermal processing. The direct thermolysis of water to produce H{sub 2} using solar-thermal processing is unlikely in the near term due to ultra-high-temperature requirements exceeding 3000 K and the need to separate H{sub 2} from O{sub 2} at these temperatures. However, several lower temperature (<2500 K) thermochemical cycles including ZnO/Zn, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnO, substituted iron oxide, and the sulfur-iodine route (S-I) provide an opportunity for high-temperature solar-thermal development. Although zirconia-based materials are well suited for metal oxide routes in terms of chemical compatibility at these temperatures, thermal shock issues are a major concern for solar-thermal applications. Hence, efforts need to be directed towards methods for designing reactors to eliminate thermal shock (ZrO{sub 2} based) or that use graphite (very compatible in terms of temperature and thermal shock) with designs that prevent contact of chemical species with graphite materials at high temperatures. Fluid-wall reactor configurations where inert gases provide a blanket to protect the graphite wall appear promising in this regard, but their use will impact process efficiency. For the case of S-I up to 1800 K, silicon carbide appears to be a suitable material for the high-temperature H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} dissociation. There is a need for a significant amount of work to be done in the area of high-temperature solar-thermal reactor engineering to develop thermochemical water splitting processes. (author)

  3. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  4. A mathematical procedure to estimate solar absorptance of shallow water ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongbo; Tang Runsheng; Li Zhimin; Zhong Hao

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mathematical procedure is developed for estimating solar absorption of shallow water ponds with different pond floor based on the fact that the solar radiation trapped inside the water layer undergoes multiplicative reflection and absorption and on that the solar absorption of water is selective. Theoretical model indicates that the solar absorption of a water pond is related to the reflectivity of the pond floor, the solar spectrum and the water depth. To validate the mathematical model, a concrete water pond measuring 3 x 3 x 0.24 m was constructed. Experimental results indicate that solar reflectivity calculated based on the mathematical model proposed in this work were in good agreement with those measured. For water ponds with a water-permeable floor, such as concrete floor, theoretical calculations of the solar absorptance of a water pond should be done based on the reflectivity of full wet floor, whereas for water ponds with a non-water-permeable floor, theoretical calculations should be done based on the fact that solar reflection on the floor is neither perfect specular reflection nor prefect isotropic diffuse reflection. Results of numerical calculation show that theoretical calculations of solar absorption of a water pond by dividing solar spectrum into six bands were pretty agreement with those by dividing solar spectrum into 20 bands.

  5. An overview of the development of solar water heater industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runqing, Hu; Peijun, Sun; Zhongying, Wang

    2012-01-01

    This article introduce the development of China solar water heater industry .Gives an overview of stages, market, manufacturing, application and testing about China solar water heater industry. Show the market data from 1998 to 2009. Analyze the experiences and features about the industry. The article also introduces the policy for solar hot water industry in China. These policies have accelerated the development of industry in which the main two incentive policies have the greatest influence on solar water heater industry. First one is the policy of mandatory installation of solar water heater implemented since 2007 by some local governments at provincial and municipal levels. Second is the subsidy policy for solar water heaters in the household appliances going to the countryside scheme implemented since 2009. At last the article gives the reason why China solar water heater industry have so rapid growth. From technology research, industrialization, prices and policy environment gives analysis. - Highlights: ► We compared International and China market about solar thermal products. ► The reason for rapid development of China solar water heater is explained. ► The experience of China solar water heater industry would give reference to other develop country. ► “Meet the demands of customer” is the main driver for the solar water heater industry development. ► The policy framework about China solar thermal industry was introduced. The industry achieved commercial operation without subsidy.

  6. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  7. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  8. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jamil

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The performance study of the pasteurizer was performed during the month of May 2008. The designed pasteurizer maintained water temperature in the range of60 oC to 70 oC continuously for more than an hour which is enough for deactivation of coliform bacteria. The maximum water temperature on a clear sunny day was found to be 67 oC, corresponding to an ambient temperature of40 oC. With the pasteurizer facing south, a very little repositioning was required. The low cost and operational simplicity of the pasteurizer make it affordable and usable. It is more useful in rural areas where other sources of energy like electricity and gas are not easily available

  9. Solar or UVA-Visible Photocatalytic Ozonation of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Rey, Ana

    2017-07-14

    An incipient advanced oxidation process, solar photocatalytic ozonation (SPO), is reviewed in this paper with the aim of clarifying the importance of this process as a more sustainable water technology to remove priority or emerging contaminants from water. The synergism between ozonation and photocatalytic oxidation is well known to increase the oxidation rate of water contaminants, but this has mainly been studied in photocatalytic ozonation systems with lamps of different radiation wavelength, especially of ultraviolet nature (UVC, UVB, UVA). Nowadays, process sustainability is critical in environmental technologies including water treatment and reuse; the application of SPO systems falls into this category, and contributes to saving energy and water. In this review, we summarized works published on photocatalytic ozonation where the radiation source is the Sun or simulated solar light, specifically, lamps emitting radiation to cover the UVA and visible light spectra. The main aspects of the review include photoreactors used and radiation sources applied, synthesis and characterization of catalysts applied, influence of main process variables (ozone, catalyst, and pollutant concentrations, light intensity), type of water, biodegradability and ecotoxicity, mechanism and kinetics, and finally catalyst activity and stability.

  10. Carbon nanoparticles for solar disinfection of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddigpu, Pratap Reddy; Sawant, Bhairavi; Wanjari, Snehal; Goel, M D; Vione, Davide; Dhodapkar, Rita S; Rayalu, S

    2018-02-05

    The present manuscript deals with the application of carbon nano particles (CNP) and chitosan (CHIT) in the form of CHIT-CNP composite for the disinfection of water. The CHIT-CNP composite was prepared by the solution casting method and characterized by TEM, XRD and elemental analysis. In the present investigation we study the disinfection efficiency towards E. coli bacteria of both CNP and CHIT-CNP, under sunlight (SODIS) in identical experimental conditions. Both CNP and CHIT-CNP enhanced disinfection as compared to SODIS alone, and comparable performance was achieved when the same dose of CNP in the two materials was applied. However, the CHIT-CNP composite is in the form of a fabric and it is easier to use and handle as compared to the CNP powder, especially in rural and resource-constrained areas. Moreover the SODIS-CHIT-CNP setup, when used in a compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor showed high bactericidal efficiency compared to SODIS alone, which is promising for practical applications. The disinfection potential of the CNP powder was compared with that of the well-known material TiO 2 Degussa P25 (DP 25 ): DP 25 gave 6-log kill of bacteria in 180min, whereas CNP produced 6-log kill in 150min. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Astrobiology: Water and Life in the Solar System and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Quillfeldt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available After some methodological considerations and a brief historical background (SETI, we describe the three main impulses to the present discipline of exo / astrobiology - extremophyles, the discovery of exoplanets, and the data gathered by several unmanned probes in the solar system. An overview of recent findings concerning the presence of frozen or liquid water in our planetary system is presented, and the main trends for the following years, summarized.

  12. Why Do People Stop Treating Contaminated Drinking Water with Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) is a simple method designed to treat microbiologically contaminated drinking water at household level. This article characterizes relapse behavior in comparison with continued SODIS use after a 7-month nonpromotion period. In addition, different subtypes among relapsers and continuers were assumed to diverge mainly…

  13. Photoelectrochemical devices for solar water splitting - materials and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Junwang

    2017-07-31

    It is widely accepted within the community that to achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy we need an efficient strategy to convert and store sunlight into chemical fuels. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) device would therefore play a key role in offering the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The past five years have seen a surge in the development of promising semiconductor materials. In addition, low-cost earth-abundant co-catalysts are ubiquitous in their employment in water splitting cells due to the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This review commences with a fundamental understanding of semiconductor properties and charge transfer processes in a PEC device. We then describe various configurations of PEC devices, including single light-absorber cells and multi light-absorber devices (PEC, PV-PEC and PV/electrolyser tandem cell). Recent progress on both photoelectrode materials (light absorbers) and electrocatalysts is summarized, and important factors which dominate photoelectrode performance, including light absorption, charge separation and transport, surface chemical reaction rate and the stability of the photoanode, are discussed. Controlling semiconductor properties is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting. Accordingly, strategies to address the challenges for materials development in this area, such as the adoption of smart architectures, innovative device configuration design, co-catalyst loading, and surface protection layer deposition, are outlined throughout the text, to deliver a highly efficient and stable PEC device for water splitting.

  14. Solar Water Splitting and Nitrogen Fixation with Layered Bismuth Oxyhalides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Hao; Zhan, Guangming; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-01-17

    Hydrogen and ammonia are the chemical molecules that are vital to Earth's energy, environmental, and biological processes. Hydrogen with renewable, carbon-free, and high combustion-enthalpy hallmarks lays the foundation of next-generation energy source, while ammonia furnishes the building blocks of fertilizers and proteins to sustain the lives of plants and organisms. Such merits fascinate worldwide scientists in developing viable strategies to produce hydrogen and ammonia. Currently, at the forefronts of hydrogen and ammonia syntheses are solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, because they go beyond the high temperature and pressure requirements of methane stream reforming and Haber-Bosch reaction, respectively, as the commercialized hydrogen and ammonia production routes, and inherit the natural photosynthesis virtues that are green and sustainable and operate at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The key to propelling such photochemical reactions lies in searching photocatalysts that enable water splitting into hydrogen and nitrogen fixation to make ammonia efficiently. Although the past 40 years have witnessed significant breakthroughs using the most widely studied TiO 2 , SrTiO 3 , (Ga 1-x Zn x )(N 1-x O x ), CdS, and g-C 3 N 4 for solar chemical synthesis, two crucial yet still unsolved issues challenge their further progress toward robust solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, including the inefficient steering of electron transportation from the bulk to the surface and the difficulty of activating the N≡N triple bond of N 2 . This Account details our endeavors that leverage layered bismuth oxyhalides as photocatalysts for efficient solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, with a focus on addressing the above two problems. We first demonstrate that the layered structures of bismuth oxyhalides can stimulate an internal electric field (IEF) that is capable of efficiently separating electrons and holes after their formation and of

  15. A solar assisted heat-pump dryer and water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Chou, S.K.; Jahangeer, K.A.; Rahman, S.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern about the depletion of conventional energy resources has provided impetus for considerable research and development in the area of alternative energy sources. A solar assisted heat pump dryer and water heater found to be one of the solutions while exploring for alternative energy sources. The heat pump system is used for drying and water heating applications with the major share of the energy derived from the sun and the ambient. The solar assisted heat pump dryer and water heater has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been investigated under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. The system consists of a variable speed reciprocating compressor, evaporator-collector, storage tank, air cooled condenser, auxiliary heater, blower, dryer, dehumidifier, and air collector. The drying medium used is air and the drying chamber is configured to carry out batch drying of good grains. A water tank connected in series with the air cooled condenser delivers hot water for domestic applications. The water tank also ensures complete condensation of the refrigerant vapour. A simulation program is developed using Fortran language to evaluate the performance of the system and the influence of different variables. The performance indices considered to evaluate the performance of the system are: Solar Fraction (SF), Coefficient of Performance (COP) and Specific Moisture Extraction Rate (SMER). A COP value of 7.5 for a compressor speed of 1800 rpm was observed. Maximum collector efficiencies of 0.86 and 0.81 have been found for evaporator-collector and air collector, respectively. A value of the SMER of 0.79 has been obtained for a load of 20 kg and a compressor speed of 1200 rpm

  16. Investigating the real situation of Greek solar water heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kavadias, K.A.; Spyropoulos, G.

    2005-01-01

    Solar thermal applications have been acknowledged among the leading alternative solutions endeavouring to face the uncontrollable oil price variations, the gradual depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the chain environmental consequences caused by its excessive usage. Almost 30 years after the initial emergence of the commercial domestic solar water heating system (DSWHS) in the European market, the corresponding technology is qualified as quite mature. On top of this, the European Commission expects that 100,000,000 m 2 of solar collectors are to be installed in Europe by the year 2010 to facilitate durable and environment-friendly heat. In this context, the Greek DSWHSs market is highly developed worldwide, having a great experience in this major energy market segment. The present study is devoted to an extensive evaluation of the local DSWHSs market, including a discerning analysis of its time variation, taking seriously into account the corresponding annual replacement rate. Accordingly, the crucial techno-economic reasons, limiting the DSWHSs penetration in the local heat production market, are summarized and elaborated. Subsequently, the national policy measures - aiming to support the DSWHSs in the course of time - are cited, in comparison with those applied in other European countries. Next, the financial attractiveness of a DSWHS for Greek citizens is examined in the local socio-economic environment. The present work is integrated by reciting the prospects and mustering certain proposals that, if applied, could stimulate the local market. As a general comment, the outlook for penetration of new DSWHSs in the local market is rather grim, as the current techno-economic situation of solar heat cannot compete with oil and natural gas heat production, unless the remarkable social and environmental benefits of solar energy are seriously considered. Hence, the Greek State lacks stimulus to further DSWHSs installations, being strongly in support of the imported

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  18. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  19. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  20. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  1. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkanshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Mizuno, T. [Yazaki Resources Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the purpose of satisfying demands for qualitative improvement on tapwater temperature and pressure, an indirect-type solar water heater using solar cells, in which a closed type hot water storage tank connected directly to the water supply is integrated with a solar collector, was examined for its characteristics and performance. The heat collecting medium is a water solution of polypropylene glycol, which circulates through the solar collector pump, cistern, solar collector, and heat exchanger (hot water storage tank). The results of the test are summarized below. When comparison is made between the two solar collector pump control methods, the solar cells direct connection method and the differential thermo method utilizing temperature difference between the solar collector and the hot water storage tank, they are alike in collecting heat on clear days, but on cloudy days the latter collects 5% more than the former. In winter, when the heat exchanger heat transfer area is 0.4m{sup 2} large, a further increase in the area improves but a little the heat collecting efficiency. An increase in the medium flow rate and temperature, or in the Reynolds number, enhances the heat collecting efficiency. 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: 1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads; 2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes; 3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating; and 4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  3. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Aldrich and J. Williamson

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2.) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support form the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  4. Equatorial Magnetohydrodynamic Shallow Water Waves in the Solar Tachocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz

    2018-03-01

    The influence of a toroidal magnetic field on the dynamics of shallow water waves in the solar tachocline is studied. A sub-adiabatic temperature gradient in the upper overshoot layer of the tachocline causes significant reduction of surface gravity speed, which leads to trapping of the waves near the equator and to an increase of the Rossby wave period up to the timescale of solar cycles. Dispersion relations of all equatorial magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shallow water waves are obtained in the upper tachocline conditions and solved analytically and numerically. It is found that the toroidal magnetic field splits equatorial Rossby and Rossby-gravity waves into fast and slow modes. For a reasonable value of reduced gravity, global equatorial fast magneto-Rossby waves (with the spatial scale of equatorial extent) have a periodicity of 11 years, matching the timescale of activity cycles. The solutions are confined around the equator between latitudes ±20°–40°, coinciding with sunspot activity belts. Equatorial slow magneto-Rossby waves have a periodicity of 90–100 yr, resembling the observed long-term modulation of cycle strength, i.e., the Gleissberg cycle. Equatorial magneto-Kelvin and slow magneto-Rossby-gravity waves have the periodicity of 1–2 years and may correspond to observed annual and quasi-biennial oscillations. Equatorial fast magneto-Rossby-gravity and magneto-inertia-gravity waves have periods of hundreds of days and might be responsible for observed Rieger-type periodicity. Consequently, the equatorial MHD shallow water waves in the upper overshoot tachocline may capture all timescales of observed variations in solar activity, but detailed analytical and numerical studies are necessary to make a firm conclusion toward the connection of the waves to the solar dynamo.

  5. Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, J.

    1998-10-01

    This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

  6. High-Performance CuInS 2 Quantum Dot Laminated Glass Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Matthew R. [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States; Makarov, Nikolay S. [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States; Ramasamy, Karthik [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States; Jackson, Aaron [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States; Guglielmetti, Rob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; McDaniel, Hunter [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States

    2018-01-30

    Building-integrated sunlight harvesting utilizing laminated glass luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) is proposed. By incorporating high quantum yield (>90%), NIR-emitting CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots into the polymer interlayer between two sheets of low-iron float glass, a record optical efficiency of 8.1% is demonstrated for a 10 cm x 10 cm device that transmits ~44% visible light. After completing prototypes by attaching silicon solar cells along the perimeter of the device, the electrical power conversion efficiency was certified at 2.2% with a black background and at 2.9% using a reflective substrate. This 'drop-in' LSC solution is particularly attractive because it fits within the existing glazing industry value chain with only modest changes to typical glazing products. Performance modeling predicts >1 GWh annual electricity production for a typical urban skyscraper in most major U.S. cities, enabling significant energy cost savings and potentially 'net-zero' buildings.

  7. Dynamic simulation of an office with windows with solar control filter: cases in Mexico and Canada; Simulacion dinamica de una oficina con una ventana con filtro de control solar: casos en Mexico y Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gijon Rivera, M. A.; Alvarez Garcia, G.; Xaman Villasenor, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CENIDET-DGEST-SEP, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gaby@cenidet.edu.mx; I. Beausoleil-Morrison [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)]. E-mail: ibeausol@mae.carleton.ca

    2010-11-15

    The use of solar passive strategies in buildings with large glazed areas such as new solar control coatings in windows are becoming more important and helpful recently, mainly because those developments can help to reduce heat gains and/or losses through transparent materials, reduce energy consumption, and improving the environment inside buildings. This paper presents an assessment of thermal performance in an office building with a SnS-Cu{sub x}S solar control coating and its influence on indoor conditions. The simulations consider climates of Mexico city and Ottawa as a good representation of two extremely conditions to asses the thermal behaviour inside offices, energy consumption, costs for air conditioning, and the influence of interior heat transfer coefficient correlations on energy consumption. The results are shown with and without the solar control coating adhered in a clear glass and in a double window configuration. The case of the system glass-film is the worst configuration as result of the high temperatures in the internal surface impacting the air point temperature and increasing the energy consumption. In general, the double glass configuration presents the best conditions, showing higher benefits for the case in Mexico City than the case of Ottawa. [Spanish] Resulta importante implementar estrategias pasivas en estudios de edificaciones con grandes areas de ventanas, como es la implementacion de nuevos materiales de control solar en vidrios que ayudan a reducir las ganancias y/o perdidas de calor a traves de los materiales transparentes, y asi reducir el consumo de energia y mejorar las condiciones del confort interior de los edificios. Este estudio realiza una evaluacion del funcionamiento termico de una pelicula selectiva de SnS-Cu{sub x}S que permite algunas ventajas termicas y opticas en el ambiente interno. Las simulaciones dinamicas consideran climas de la Ciudad de Mexico y Ottawa , con resultados que muestran las condiciones de confort

  8. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  11. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Residents with Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Residents with Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Residents with Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Residents with Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  2. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  5. 53 W average power few-cycle fiber laser system generating soft x rays up to the water window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Klenke, Arno; Demmler, Stefan; Hoffmann, Armin; Gotschall, Thomas; Eidam, Tino; Krebs, Manuel; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    We report on a few-cycle laser system delivering sub-8-fs pulses with 353 μJ pulse energy and 25 GW of peak power at up to 150 kHz repetition rate. The corresponding average output power is as high as 53 W, which represents the highest average power obtained from any few-cycle laser architecture so far. The combination of both high average and high peak power provides unique opportunities for applications. We demonstrate high harmonic generation up to the water window and record-high photon flux in the soft x-ray spectral region. This tabletop source of high-photon flux soft x rays will, for example, enable coherent diffractive imaging with sub-10-nm resolution in the near future.

  6. High-reflectance magnetron-sputtered scandium-based x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcklen, C; de Rossi, S; Meltchakov, E; Dennetière, D; Capitanio, B; Polack, F; Delmotte, F

    2017-05-15

    We present an experimental comparison of several Sc-based short period multilayer mirrors including Cr/Sc with B4C barrier layers and CrNx/Sc, and we propose a new material combination that provides high reflectance in the water window domain. Multilayer samples with period thickness in the range 1.5-1.7 nm have been deposited by magnetron sputtering and characterized by x-ray reflectometry with a Cu-Kα source and with synchrotron radiation near the Sc-L2,3 edge. Best results are achieved by combining the nitridation of Cr layers and the addition of B4C barrier layers. Near normal incidence reflectance as high as 23% has been measured at photon energy of 397 eV. A simulation model of the multilayer structure is proposed and it predicts that reflectance higher than 32% is achievable with CrNx/B4C/Sc mirrors.

  7. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  8. Effect of pumping head on solar water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K.O.; Alamri, S.N.; Joraid, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pumping head affect the performances of PV water pumping systems. • The best system efficiency has been obtained for a deep head. • System efficiency increases with decreasing pumping head during low solar radiation. • System efficiency increases with increasing solar radiation. • Increasing PV array size increases flow rate and system efficiency. - Abstract: The photovoltaic water pumping systems (PVWPS) is considered as one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of pumping head on PVWPS using the optimum PV array configuration, adequate to supply a DC Helical pump with an optimum energy amount, under the outdoor conditions of Madinah site. Four different pumping head have been tested (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m). The tests have been carried for a different heads, under sunny daylight hours, in a real well at a farm in Madinah site. The best system efficiency has been obtained for the head of 80 m which is recommended for SQF submersible pump for a deep head. Also, the flow rate Q depends basically on two factors: the pumping head H and the global solar irradiation Hg. The model developed should be able to predict the flow rate Q for any head chosen with a best accuracy

  9. Solar water heating in Lebanon: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The use of solar thermal collectors is an economic alternative for water heating in Lebanon. More than 100,000m 2 of collector area has been installed while the market can accommodate more than 1.5 million m 2 . The domestic sector, which is a main energy-consuming sector, stands to benefit the most from the implementation of such systems. Despite the lack of encouraging legislation, the solar thermal market has been continuously growing over the past decade. Both local manufacturers and importers have been active in the field. In addition, advanced forced circulation and collective systems are being used in large establishments, individual house and apartment buildings. Internationally funded demonstration projects using collective systems have been implemented in recent years with promising results. Simplified initial estimates indicate a payback period of 4-5 years while advanced mathematical models (RETScreen) indicate that the most advanced evacuated tube technology has a payback period of less than 9 years at current market prices. With decreasing cost per square meter of installed collectors, payback periods are expected to rapidly decrease. Regulatory support and tax breaks, if implemented, will have a positive effect on the market. The current increases in diesel prices are increasing demand on solar thermal water heaters. [Author

  10. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...... of ethnographic tools that required their involvement, such as making a diary of their heating experiences during a random week in the summer of 2014, taking photos of windows and sending postcards with specific tasks....

  11. Passive Solar Driven Water Treatment of Contaminated Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mubasher

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology Freshwater, being vital for mankind survival, has become a very serious concern for the public especially living in countries with limited water, energy and economic resources. Freshwater generation is an energy-intensive task particularly when fossil based fuels are required as energy source. However, environmental concerns and high energy costs have called for the alternative and renewable sources of energy like wind, hy...

  12. Evaluation of Solar Photosensitised River Water Treatment in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tota-Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An economical supply of hygienic potable water is one of the most pressing public health issues facing developing countries in the Caribbean region today. This project investigates the performance of a novel solar photochemical reactor for disinfecting river water. The prototype photochemical reactor was designed, constructed, and tested for the microbiological degradation of faecal coliform present in River Water. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of two photosensitive dyes (malachite green and methylene blue as agents for detoxification with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The photochemical reactor operated in a single-pass mode and compared the disinfection rates with direct photolysis. The photosensitizers showed a high efficacy rate using natural sunlight with microbial reduction ranging from 97 to 99% for concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/L of dye. The sensitizers were found to be photobleaching and were very effective at lower concentrations (0.01. Post-solar disinfection included the use of a coconut fiber filter which polished the water removing residual dye concentrations and bacterial contaminants.

  13. Solar-Based Fuzzy Intelligent Water Sprinkle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-based intelligent water sprinkler system project that has been developed to ensure the effectiveness in watering the plant is improved by making the system automated. The control system consists of an electrical capacitance soil moisture sensor installed into the ground which is interfaced to a controller unit of Motorola 68HC11 Handy board microcontroller. The microcontroller was programmed based on the decision rules made using fuzzy logic approach on when to water the lawn. The whole system is powered up by the solar energy which is then interfaced to a particular type of irrigation timer for plant fertilizing schedule and rain detector through a simple design of rain dual-collector tipping bucket. The controller unit automatically disrupted voltage signals sent to the control valves whenever irrigation was not needed. Using this system we combined the logic implementation in the area of irrigation and weather sensing equipment, and more efficient water delivery can be made possible. 

  14. Solar Cogeneration of Electricity and Hot Water at DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    be designed to provide a minimum of 30% of the facility’s hot water demand by solar water heating. Waste heat harvesting , integrated co-generation...water demand by solar water heating. Waste heat harvesting , integrated co-generation systems, or a combination thereof may be used in lieu of solar...field operations team are summarized below for the demonstration installations. Port Hueneme • Early morning fog and cloud cover at Port Hueneme

  15. Optimum systems design with random input and output applied to solar water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malek, L. L.

    1980-03-01

    Solar water heating systems are evaluated. Models were developed to estimate the percentage of energy supplied from the Sun to a household. Since solar water heating systems have random input and output queueing theory, birth and death processes were the major tools in developing the models of evaluation. Microeconomics methods help in determining the optimum size of the solar water heating system design parameters, i.e., the water tank volume and the collector area.

  16. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  17. Analysis of a solar water thermosyphon system; Analise do aquecimento solar de agua por sistema a termosifao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Abner Barzola

    1992-07-01

    A design methodology and to perform the simulation of flat plate solar collectors coupled with a water storage tank and operating by natural convection circulation is presented. For a given site the incident solar radiation on a tilted and previously oriented surface is determined from solar astronomy and the dally average of the monthly data of the horizontal total solar radiation. Huancayo situated in Peru (at 12.05 deg S, long. 76.18 deg W, altitude 3,312 m), is chosen as the site to be installed the solar water system, as a mean to improve the peasant's standard of life. An optimum tilt angle for a north oriented collector surface is obtained in order to have a maximum solar capture during the water. The theoretical methodology use here is based upon the ONG's paper (1976), and in attrition is considered the hot water drainage due to the dally consumption. For the sake of comparison, the calculated flowrate values are confronted with the experimental data obtained by FERNANDEZ, for a same site location (Rio de Janeiro) and are used identical dimensions for the water thermosyphon heater. Finally, the economic feasibility of the solar water system is demonstrated when it is compared with the usual immersion electric resistance boiler. For the Peruvian conditions the more adequate solar water system for a rural or domestic usage is a 1.4 m{sup 2} area solar collector (6 parallel, 15,875 mm copper tubes), 100 l capacity for the water storage tank, 33.5 mm for the connecting tubes, being of 300 mm. The height between the collector top and the bottom of the tank. (author)

  18. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  19. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robin [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE

    2014-04-25

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are

  20. Water disinfection with solar radiation; Desinfeccion del agua con radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Alejandra; Cortes, Juana E; Rodriguez, Miriam; Mundo, Alfredo; Vazquez, Sandra [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Estrada, Claudio A [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Water disinfection by exposure to solar radiation is a low cost and easy application option to rural communities. The treatment of water can be done using plastic bags or plastic bottles of two litters setting on a reflective material. The efficient of the plastic bottles is lower than the one plastic bags, but the plastic bottles have a much better control of the treated water avoiding its recontamination. In order to increase the efficiency of disinfection using plastic bottles, two solar concentrators, using flat mirrors, were designed and built. Effluent water from a treatment plant of residual waters was used for the testing. Several comparison were carried out taking into account the position of the concentrators, the transparency of the bottles and the bags. The results show that using the concentrator that adjust its position to the sun every hour, a 100% disinfection is obtained in 4 hours of direct exposure to the sun rays in a sunny day. The period of time can be reduced up to 2 hours, if instead using transparent bottles, the bottles are black painted at their bottom half. With these results, the basis to design a cheap concentrator of easy construction to be used in rural communities have been settle. [Spanish] La desinfeccion del agua por exposicion a la luz solar fotodesinfeccion es una opcion de bajo costo y facil aplicacion para las comunidades rurales. El tratamiento puede llevarse a cabo utilizando bolsas o botellas de plastico transparente de dos litros de capacidad colocadas sobre un material reflejante. Las botellas son menos eficientes que las bolsas, pero permiten un mejor control del agua tratada evitando su recontaminacion. Para aumentar la eficiencia de la desinfeccion utilizando las botellas, se disenaron y construyeron dos concentradores solares de espejos planos que permitieron disminuir el tiempo de exposicion requerido cuando se utilizan estas. Para las pruebas de desinfeccion se utilizo agua del efluente de una planta de tratamiento

  1. Photoanodic Hybrid Semiconductor–Molecular Heterojunction for Solar Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2015-06-29

    Inorganic photo-responsive semiconducting materials have been employed in photoelectrochemical(PEC) water oxidation devicesin pursuit of solar to fuel conversion.[1]The reaction kinetics in semiconductors is limited by poor contact at the interfaces, and charge transfer is impeded by surface defects and the grain boundaries.[2]It has shown that successful surface functionalization of the photo-responsive semiconducting materials with co-catalysts can maximize the charge separation, hole delivery and its effective consumption, and enhances the efficiency and performane of the PEC based water oxidation assembly.[3]We present here unique modification of photoanodic hematite (α-Fe2O3) and bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) with molecular co-catalysts for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation (Figure 1). These hybrid inorganic–organometallic heterojunctions manifest impressive cathodic shifts in the onset potentials, and the photocurrent densities have been enhanced by > 90% at all potentials relative to uncatalyzed α-Fe2O3 or BiVO4, and other catalyst-semiconductor based heterojunctions.This is a novel development in the solar to fuel conversion field, and is crucially important for designing a tandem device where light interfere very little with the catalyst layer on top of semiconducting light absorber.

  2. Combined Active and Passive Solar Space Heating and Solar Hot Water Systems for an Elementary School in Boise, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, Neil A.; Armstrong, Gerald L.

    1979-01-01

    Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, features a solar space heating and domestic hot water system along with an earth covering to accommodate the passive aspects of energy conservation. (Author/MLF)

  3. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    . Heat loss through windows represents a considerably part of the total heat loss from houses. However windows provide a unique potential of solar energy gain to the building besides from providing daylight access and view. This results in a need for development of windows with improved energy...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  4. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  5. Ground water lifting in the remote and arid areas of Egypt using solar photovoltaic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out at Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute, Qenater (300 N, 310 E), Egypt on a 2000 WP solar photovoltaic (PV) water pump. The main objective is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solar energy in ground water lifting. A solar PV pumping system has been constructed as a prototype for a large-scale photovoltaic project in south of Egypt. Solar potential at the remote and arid areas of Egypt is discussed. Installation and operation factors as a function of environmental conditions are presented. Performance of the water pump has been evaluated. The water discharge and system efficiency has been estimated and presented. The changes in water discharge and system efficiency with change in solar radiation has been measured and presented. Preliminary results show that there is a huge potential and real-ability for solar PV submersible water pumping in the remote and arid areas of Egypt

  6. Some physical properties of Cd{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}S films used as window layer in heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, Tuelay [Anadolu University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Koese, Salih [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    CdS has been proved to be an ideal material for use as the window layer for heterojunction solar cells especially with n-CdS/p-CdTe. CdS, Cd{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}S and Cd{sub 0.8}Sn{sub 0.2}S films were deposited onto glass substrates at 300 C substrate temperature by using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique (USP). The effect of Sn concentration on some structural, optical and electrical properties of the films was presented. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. XRD patterns showed that films have polycrystalline nature with a hexagonal structure. The grain size of the films decreased with increasing x values. The optical band gap values were obtained from optical absorption spectra of the films. The optical band gap values of the films were found to be between 2.44 and 2.45 eV. The variations of conductivity of Cd{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}S (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.2) films have been investigated depending on applied voltage in dark and under illumination. The resistivity significantly decreased with increasing tin concentration and under illumination. (author)

  7. Solar Water Splitting: Photocatalyst Materials Discovery and Systems Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNulty, Thomas F.

    2008-05-02

    Hydrogen promises to be an attractive transportation fuel in the post-fossil fuel era. Relatively abundant and clean burning (water being the principal byproduct), hydrogen offers the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are significant technical barriers that require solutions before hydrogen can be implemented in large scale. These are: · Sources (e.g. hydrocarbon, water) · Transportation · Storage Each of the aforementioned barriers carries with it important considerations. First, would a hydrocarbon-based hydrogen source be of any benefit compared to conventional fossil fuels? Second, will a system based on centralized generation and distribution be viable? Finally, methods of on-board storage, whether they are liquefaction, adsorption, or intercalation, are far from optimized. The scope of this program is limited to hydrogen generation, specifically generation using solarinitiated water electrolysis. Though concept of making hydrogen using water and sunlight may sound somewhat far-fetched, in reality the concept is very real. Since the discovery of solar-generated hydrogen, termed photoelectrochemical hydrogen, nearly 30 years ago by Fujishima and Honda, significant advances in both fundamental understanding and technological capability have been made. Using solar radiation to generate hydrogen in a fashion akin to using solar to generate electricity offers many advantages. First, hydrogen can be generated at the point of use, reducing the importance of transportation. Second, using water as the hydrogen source eliminates greenhouse gas evolution and the consequences that come with it. Finally, because the process uses very little electricity (pumps and compressors predominantly), the quantity of chemical fuel produced far exceeds the amount of electricity consumed. Consequently, there is some level of truth to the notion that photoelectrochemically-derived hydrogen offers the potential to nearly eliminate greenhouse

  8. Subsidy programs on diffusion of solar water heaters: Taiwan's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Financial incentives are essentially one of the key factors influencing diffusion of solar water heaters in many countries. Two subsidy programs were initiated by the government of Taiwan in 1986 (1986-1991) and 2000 (2000-present), respectively. Those long-term national programs are considered to be the driving force on local market expansion. In 2008, the regional subsidy programs for solar water heaters were announced by Kaohsiung city and Kiemen county, which resulted in the growth in sales. A revised subsidy was also initiated by the government of Taiwan in 2009. The subsidy is 50% more. However, the tremendous enlargement of market size with a high-level ratio of subsidy over total installation cost might result in a negative impact on a sustainable SWH industry and long-term development of the local market, which is associated with system design and post-installation service. This paper aims to address the relative efficiency and pitfalls of those national and regional programs. - Research Highlights: → The direct subsidy has been the driving force on market expansion in Taiwan. → Higher subsidy would certainly increase the total number of systems installed. → A high-level subsidy results in a negative impact on users or a sustainable industry.

  9. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water While Capturing Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, W.

    2009-01-01

    Algal Turfs and Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. ATS was invented at the Smithsonian Institution, by scientist, Walter Adey in the 1980s as a tool for controlling water quality in highly diverse model ecosystems. The technology received extensive R and D for aqua cultural, municipal, and industrial water cleaning by Dr. Adey, using venture capital, through the 1990s. Later, Hydro Mentia, Inc., of Ocala, Florida, engineered ATS to landscape scale of 20-50 Mgpd (it is important to note that this is a modular system, capable of expanding to any size.) A 2005 independent study of ATS, by the South Florida Water Management District and the IFAS Institute of the University of Florida, certified ATS as 5-100 times more cost efficient at removing nutrients from Everglades canal waters than the next competitor, the STA, a managed marsh system. ATS and STA were the final contestants in a 15-year study of nine technologies, and ATS was the only technology that created a use able byproduct.

  10. Water vapor self-continuum absorption measurements in the 4.0 and 2.1 μm transparency windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, L.; Vasilchenko, S.; Mondelain, D.; Ventrillard, I.; Romanini, D.; Campargue, A.

    2017-11-01

    In a recent contribution [A. Campargue, S. Kassi, D. Mondelain, S. Vasilchenko, D. Romanini, Accurate laboratory determination of the near infrared water vapor self-continuum: A test of the MT_CKD model. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121,13,180-13,203, doi:10.1002/2016JD025531], we reported accurate water vapor absorption continuum measurements by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) at selected spectral points of 4 near infrared transparency windows. In the present work, the self-continuum cross-sections, CS, are determined for two new spectral points. The 2491 cm-1 spectral point in the region of maximum transparency of the 4.0 μm window was measured by OF-CEAS in the 23-52 °C temperature range. The 4435 cm-1 spectral point of the 2.1 μm window was measured by CRDS at room temperature. The self-continuum cross-sections were determined from the pressure squared dependence of the continuum absorption. Comparison to the literature shows a reasonable agreement with 1970 s and 1980 s measurements using a grating spectrograph in the 4.0 μm window and a very good consistency with our previous laser measurements in the 2.1 μm window. For both studied spectral points, our values are much smaller than previous room temperature measurements by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. Significant deviations (up to about a factor 4) are noted compared to the widely used semi empirical MT_CKD model of the absorption continuum. The measured temperature dependence at 2491 cm-1 is consistent with previous high temperature measurements in the 4.0 μm window and follows an exp(D0/kT) law, D0 being the dissociation energy of the water dimer.

  11. design and experimental study of a solar system for heating water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Ghodbane, B. Boumeddane, N. Said

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... This work presents a design and an experimental study of a linear Fresnel reflector solar with trapezoidal cavity. ... concentrator in the solar fields allocated to the domestics and industrial water-heaters. Keywords: ...... integrated photovoltaic panels, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ...

  12. Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Guillot, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tosi, F.

    2017-10-01

    Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems. This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects

  13. Simple solar systems for heating, hot water and cooking in high altitude regions with high solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Schwarzer, K. [Solar-Inst., Juelich (Germany); Kleine-Hering, H. [Ecoandina, Salta (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    In connection with a BMBF research project (FKZ 17104.01), a new system has been developed to provide solar heating and hot water. The system is designed to be used in areas with high solar radiation and low ambient temperatures, conditions which occur typically in high altitude regions. The main considerations in developing this system were robust technology, low cost and easy maintenance. To ensure robustness, air is used as the heat transfer medium. Air has the advantage of a low thermal capacity and enables the system to be immediately ready for use, and does not have the disadvantages of water at temperatures below the freezing point. The units were installed in two public buildings in the Argentinean Altiplano at an altitude of 3600 m, as part of a BMZ (Ministry for Cooperation) project. The local partner in the project was Ecoandina. Because of the high level of direct solar insolation in this area, concentrating solar cookers for families and institutions have a very high acceptance. As part of the BMZ project, four community cookers with Fixed-Focus reflectors (Scheffler reflectors) each with 3 kW power were installed. Further installations included solar hot water systems, drip irrigation systems with solar pumps and parabolic cookers for families. One of the villages equipped with these units is now to receive an award for being the first Solar Village in Argentina. (orig.)

  14. Unresolved transition array based water window soft x-ray source by laser-produced high-Z plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2 to 4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics. At power densities available from 'table-top' solid-state lasers, comparison of emission from a number of targets has shown that 3d-4f UTA in zirconium plasmas have highest overall brightness and in an imaging system based on reflective multilayer mirrors, may, depending on bandwidth, have superior performance than either line or broader-band sources. (author)

  15. Feasibility of active solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collector at different operational water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarrón, Fernando R.; Porras-Prieto, Carlos Javier; García, José Luis; Benavente, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the feasibility of an active solar water-heating system. • Profitability decreases as the required water temperature increases. • The number of collectors that maximizes profitability depends on the required temperature. • Investment in a properly sized system generates savings between 23% and 15%. • Fuel consumption can be reduced by 70%. - Abstract: With rapid advancements in society, higher water temperatures are needed in a number of applications. The demand for hot water presents a great variability with water required at different temperatures. In this study, the design, installation, and evaluation of a solar water heating system with evacuated tube collector and active circulation has been carried out. The main objective is to analyze how the required tank water temperature affects the useful energy that the system is capable of delivering, and consequently its profitability. The results show how the energy that is collected and delivered to the tank decreases with increasing the required temperature due to a lower performance of the collector and losses in the pipes. The annual system efficiency reaches average values of 66%, 64%, 61%, 56%, and 55% for required temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C. As a result, profitability decreases as temperature increases. The useful energy, and therefore the profitability, will decrease if the demand is not distributed throughout the day or focused on the end of the day. The system’s profitability was determined in two cases: considering maximum profitability of the system, assuming 100% utilization of useful energy (scenario 1); assuming a particular demand, considering that on many days all the useful energy the system can supply is not used (scenario 2). The analysis shows that through proper sizing of the system, optimizing the number of solar collectors, the investment in the solar system can be profitable with similar profitability values in the two

  16. Numerical and experimental investigation of thermosyphon solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelzouli, Khaled; Guizani, Amenallah; Kerkeni, Chakib

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied a thermosyphon solar water heater composed of high-performance components. • A differential equations solution technique is investigated. • The influences of the collector and storage losses on the system performance were examined. • The storage losses have more influence on the long-term performance. - Abstract: A glassed flat plate collector with selective black chrome coated absorber and a low wall conductance horizontal storage are combined in order to set up a high performance thermosyphon system. Each component is tested separately before testing the complete system in spring days. During the test period, effect of different inlet water temperatures on the collector performance is studied and results have shown that the collector can reach a high efficiency and high outlet water temperature even for elevated inlet water temperatures. Subsequently, long term system performance is estimated by using a developed numerical model. The proposed model, accurate and gave a good agreement with experimental results, allowed to describe the heat transfer in the storage. It has shown also that the long-term performances are strongly influenced by losses from the storage than losses from the collector

  17. Utilization of solar thermal energy in the mining industry: applied case solar thermal systems for hot water heating - Mining camps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez Mena, Horacio [Portal Sustentable and Enerficaz (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    The paper gives an overview of how solar thermal energy can be used in the mining industry. This is done through a case study of solar thermal systems (STS) for hot water heating in mining camps in Chile. Solar thermal energy has various applications, such as heating and air conditioning. Solar radiation between 600 to 800w/m2 only can be used for solar thermal systems. Solar collectors can be of two types, flat plate or vacuum tube. Various techniques can be used to model solar thermal systems: Transol, RET screen, T-sol, Static model and F-chart. Chile has the great advantage of being one of the countries with the highest levels of solar radiation. Technical data for the solar collector and the heat pump used for the study are given. The collector performance was evaluated throughout the year and the actual results achieved were compared with those projected. The paper concludes that STS are a good source of renewable energy. They are efficient, cheap, and they have a small carbon footprint.

  18. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  19. Effects of solar collecting area and water flow rate on the performance of a sand bed solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maganhar, A.L.; Memon, A.H.; Panhwar, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    The often discussed renewable sources of energy have been great interest to energy researchers and planners for quite some time. The primary of renewing all sources of energy is the sun. There have been two main problems not yet fully resolved. One is the large scale production of energy and other is the cost factor. In the present study, the cost factor is under consideration. In this regard a non-conventional solar collector using indigenous material (pit sand) as solar absorber is designed and manufactured. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of solar collecting area and water flow rate on the performance of a pit sand bed solar collector especially in terms of rise in water temperature. Three pit sand solar collectors of area 1m/sup 2/ each were connected in series to enhance the collecting area and the system was tested for different flow rates. Experimental results proved that there was increase in water temperature with increase in solar collecting area an decreases in water temperature with increase in flow rate. (author)

  20. Accurate Laser Measurements of the Water Vapor Self-Continuum Absorption in Four Near Infrared Atmospheric Windows. a Test of the MT_CKD Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Mondelain, Didier; Romanini, Daniele; Lechevallier, Loïc; Vasilchenko, Semyon

    2017-06-01

    The semi empirical MT_CKD model of the absorption continuum of water vapor is widely used in atmospheric radiative transfer codes of the atmosphere of Earth and exoplanets but lacks of experimental validation in the atmospheric windows. Recent laboratory measurements by Fourier transform Spectroscopy have led to self-continuum cross-sections much larger than the MT_CKD values in the near infrared transparency windows. In the present work, we report on accurate water vapor absorption continuum measurements by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Laser Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) at selected spectral points of the transparency windows centered around 4.0, 2.1 and 1.25 μm. The temperature dependence of the absorption continuum at 4.38 μm and 3.32 μm is measured in the 23-39 °C range. The self-continuum water vapor absorption is derived either from the baseline variation of spectra recorded for a series of pressure values over a small spectral interval or from baseline monitoring at fixed laser frequency, during pressure ramps. In order to avoid possible bias approaching the water saturation pressure, the maximum pressure value was limited to about 16 Torr, corresponding to a 75% humidity rate. After subtraction of the local water monomer lines contribution, self-continuum cross-sections, C_{S}, were determined with a few % accuracy from the pressure squared dependence of the spectra base line level. Together with our previous CRDS and OF-CEAS measurements in the 2.1 and 1.6 μm windows, the derived water vapor self-continuum provides a unique set of water vapor self-continuum cross-sections for a test of the MT_CKD model in four transparency windows. Although showing some important deviations of the absolute values (up to a factor of 4 at the center of the 2.1 μm window), our accurate measurements validate the overall frequency dependence of the MT_CKD2.8 model.

  1. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  2. Solar disinfection of water for low income communities; Desinfeccao solar de agua para comunidades de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Lorna Falcao

    2010-03-15

    The use of solar energy for water disinfection, and is accessible to disadvantaged communities because of its low cost, has the advantage of using disposable materials such as bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We present a study that used two methods of disinfection: the methodology proposed by the project Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS), which consisted of water disinfection by solar radiation and temperature and the methodology which the temperature of the water for disinfection. In both, we seek to eliminate microorganisms that cause serious diseases such as dysentery, typhoid, cholera, etc. Water samples were collected in the community of Bass, where the population has low income and the incidence of waterborne diseases is high. The experiments were divided into two stages. In step 1 we studied the feasibility of disinfection and in step 2 the feasibility of the pilot plant to obtain adequate levels of disinfection temperatures desired. The results showed the efficiency of the disinfection process, reaching an average of 80 to 100% death of microorganisms, but regrowth was observed in some samples. Finally on the good results of stage 1, is designed and built and tested in an experimental pilot plant, which has shown to be feasible to promote water disinfection through the use of solar energy. The water after treatment is in accordance with the limits established by Brazilian legislation for clean water, maintaining a positive performance for the disinfection and acceptable levels of bacterial regrowth. (author)

  3. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  4. Factors influencing the performance and efficiency of solar water pumping systems:  a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Rupert; Lukhwareni, Thendo

    2012-01-01

    The world is having an energy crisis and currently there is a strong drive towards renewable energy. A renewable energy option is solar energy, where by means of photovoltaic (PV) modules electrical energy can be produced. A residential as well as industrial application for these PV modules is solar water pumping systems. Disadvantages of solar water pumping systems are low performance and low energy efficiency. This paper provides a review on the factors that influence the performance and ef...

  5. Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Lotfizadeh; André McDonald; Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (n...

  6. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  7. Optimizing the solar water disinfection (SODIS) method by decreasing turbidity with NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Dawney, Brittney; Pearce, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has proven to be effective at reducing diarrheal incidence in epidemiological intervention studies. However, the SODIS method is limited to waters of low turbidity (

  8. Business Opportunity Prospectus for Utilities in Solar Water Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Alliance Group

    1999-06-30

    Faced with deregulation and increasingly aggressive competition, utilities are looking for new products and services to increase revenues, improve customer loyalty and retention, and establish barriers to market erosion. With open access now a reality, and retail wheeling just around the corner, business expansion via new products and services is now the central goal for most utilities in the United States. It may seem surprising that solar thermal energy as applied to heating domestic hot water - an idea that has been around for a long time - offers what utilities and their residential customers want most in a new product/service. This document not only explains how and why, it shows how to get into the business and succeed on a commercial scale.

  9. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaaliche Nessreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical

  10. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaliche, Nessreen; Ayhan, Teoman; Fathallah, Raouf

    2017-11-01

    Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH) is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical simulation approach

  11. Beam line windows at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The A-6 main beam-line window at LAMPF separates the vacuum of the main beam line from the isotope production station, proton irradiation ports, and the beam stop, which operate in air. This window must withstand the design beam current of 1 mA at 800 MeV for periods of at least 3000 hours without failure. The window is water cooled and must be strong enough to withstand the 2.1 MPa (300 psig) cooling water pressure, as well as beam-induced thermal stresses. Two designs have been used to meet these goals, a stepped-plate window and a hemispherical window, both made from a precipitation-hardened nickel base alloy, Alloy 718. Calculations of the temperatures and stresses in each of these windows are presented

  12. Feasibility study of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (SPV water pumping system is one of the best technologies that utilize the solar energy to pump water from deep well underground water sources and to provide clean drinking water worldwide. The availability of abundant solar radiation and enough underground water sources in Ethiopia can be combined together to make clean drinking water available to rural communities. The software PVsyst 5.56 was used to study the feasibility of solar photovoltaic water pumping system in the selected sites. The designed system is capable of providing a daily average of 10.5, 7 and 6.5 m3/day for 700, 467 and 433 people in Siadberand Wayu, Wolmera and Enderta sites respectively, with average daily water consumption of 15 liters per day per person and the costs of water without any subsidy, are approximately 0.1, 0.14 and 0.16 $/m3for each site respectively. If diesel generator is used instead of solar photovoltaic water pumping system, to provide the same average daily water for the selected community, the costs of water without any subsidy are approximately 0.2, 0.23 and 0.27 $/m3 for each site respectively. A life cycle cost analysis method was also carried out for economic comparison between solar PV and the diesel pumping system. The results of this study are encouraging the use of the PV system for drinking water supply in the remote areas of the country.

  13. Application of the genetic algorithm for optimisation of large solar hot water systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Visser, H.

    2002-01-01

    An implementation of the genetic algorithm in a design support tool for (large) solar hot water systems is described. The tool calculates the yield and the costs of solar hot water systems based on technical and financial data of the system components. The genetic algorithm allows for optimisation

  14. Design and experimental study of a solar system for heating water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature reached a maximum of 74 °C with eleven reflective mirrors. The maximum value of the thermal efficiency is 29.21%. The results obtained are very encouraging for using linear Fresnel concentrator in the solar fields allocated to the domestics and industrial water-heaters. Keywords: Solar energy; design, ...

  15. Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The performance of a Solar Hot Water System at a laundry in Fresno, California is described. The system features an integrated wastewater heat recovery subsystem and a solar preheating system designed to supply a part of the hot water requirements. Performance data for a six month period are projected to an annual savings of $18,703.

  16. Experimental investigation of a Hybrid Solar Drier and Water Heater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, Alireza; Nematollahi, Omid; Joybari, Mahmood Mastani; Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad; Assari, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A Hybrid Solar Drier and Water Heater System experimentally investigated. • Using collected data, GIS maps were plotted for solar energy of Khuzestan Province. • System is presented which facilitates a dual-purpose solar collector. • The system includes a 100 l water storage tank, a solar dryer with 5 trays. • Experiments were carried out to dry vegetables (parsley, dill and coriander). - Abstract: Drying process is of great importance in food industries. One of the best methods of food drying is using solar dryers. For initial estimation of solar energy, calculations were made for statistical information measured by Renewable Energy Organization of Iran. Using collected data, GIS maps were plotted for solar energy of Khuzestan Province, Iran. In this study, a new hybrid system is presented which facilitates a dual-purpose solar collector to simultaneously support a dryer system and provide consumptive hot water. The system includes a 100 l water storage tank, a solar dryer with 5 trays, and a dual-purpose collector. Experiments were carried out to dry a mixture of vegetables (parsley, dill and coriander) at constant air and water flow rates. Besides, an electrical heater has been used as an auxiliary source for heating. The results indicated that the system optimally dried the vegetables and simultaneously provided the consumptive hot water

  17. Development of domestic hot water systems in Costa Rica from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana-Moreno, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A software tool is developed to implement the solar domestic hot water systems (DHW) in Costa Rica and to replace the electric water heating equipment. A database with information from the solar radiation is elaborated for different locations in Costa Rica. A manual of design DHW solar systems is realized for the country. An DHW solar system is designed for the type of average building the of country. A software is implemented to calculate the parameters and dimensions necessary for the solar installation of DHW, using the F-Chart method; in addition, the information of the mentioned database is included. A financial analysis is elaborated of the DHW solar systems in Costa Rica. The strategies are proposed for the implementation of DHW solar systems in Costa Rica [es

  18. A case study of electric utility demand reduction with commerical solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewert, M.; Hoffner, J.E.; Panico, D. (City of Austin Electric Utility Dept., Austin, TX (US))

    1991-05-01

    The City of Austin, is studying the impact of solar water heaters on summer peak electric demand. One passive and two active solar water heating systems were installed on city owned commercial buildings which had electric water heaters in 1985 and have been monitored for two years. This paper reports on a method that has been developed to determine the peak demand reduction attributable to the solar systems. Results show that solar water heating systems are capable of large demand reductions as long as there is a large hot water demand to displace. The average noncoincident demand reduction (during the water heater's peak output) ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 kilowatts per system, however, the coincident demand reduction during the utility peak demand period was 0.3 to 0.8 kilowatts per system. Thus, a critical factor when assessing the benefit to the electric utility is the time of hot water demand.

  19. Understanding the Ecological Adoption of Solar Water Heaters Among Customers of Island Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudaruth Sharmila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the major factors impacting upon the ecological adoption of solar water heaters in Mauritius. The paper applies data reduction technique by using exploratory factor analysis on a sample of 228 respondents and condenses a set of 32 attributes into a list of 8 comprehensible factors impacting upon the sustained adoption of solar water heater in Mauritius. Multiple regression analysis was also conducted to investigate upon the most predictive factor influencing the adoption of solar water heaters in Mauritius. The empirical estimates of the regression analysis have also depicted that the most determining factor pertaining to the ‘government incentives for solar water heaters’ impacts upon the adoption of solar water heaters. These results can be related to sustainable adoption of green energy whereby targeted incentive mechanisms can be formulated with the aim to accelerate and cascade solar energy adoption in emerging economies. A novel conceptual model was also proposed in this paper, whereby, ecological stakeholders in the sustainable arena could use the model as a reference to pave the way to encourage adoption of solar water heating energy. This research represents a different way of understanding ecological customers by developing an expanding on an original scale development for the survey on the ecological adoption of solar water heaters.

  20. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  1. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  2. Carbon-Electrode-Tailored All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells Too Harvest Solar and Water-Vapor Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Hu, Tianyu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-03-30

    Moisture is the worst enemy for state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the flowing water vapor within nanoporous carbonaceous materials can create potentials. Therefore, it is a challenge to integrate water vapor and solar energies into a single PSC device. We demonstrate herein all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) solar cells tailored with carbon electrodes to simultaneously harvest solar and water-vapor energy. Upon interfacial modification and plasma treatment, the bifunctional PSCs yield a maximum power conversion efficiency up to 9.43 % under one sun irradiation according to photoelectric conversion principle and a power output of 0.158 μW with voltage of 0.35 V and current of 0.45 μA in 80 % relative humidity through the flowing potentials at the carbon/water interface. The initial efficiency is only reduced by 2 % on exposing the inorganic PSC with 80 % humidity over 40 days. The successful realization of physical proof-of-concept multi-energy integrated solar cells provides new opportunities of maximizing overall power output. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. X-ray holographic microscopy with zone plates applied to biological samples in the water window using 3rd harmonic radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, T; Heine, R; Mancuso, A P; Staier, F; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Sakdinawat, A; Treusch, R; Guerassimova, N; Feldhaus, J; Gutt, C; Grübel, G; Eisebitt, S; Beyer, A; Gölzhäuser, A; Weckert, E; Grunze, M; Vartanyants, I A; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-06-06

    The imaging of hydrated biological samples - especially in the energy window of 284-540 eV, where water does not obscure the signal of soft organic matter and biologically relevant elements - is of tremendous interest for life sciences. Free-electron lasers can provide highly intense and coherent pulses, which allow single pulse imaging to overcome resolution limits set by radiation damage. One current challenge is to match both the desired energy and the intensity of the light source. We present the first images of dehydrated biological material acquired with 3rd harmonic radiation from FLASH by digital in-line zone plate holography as one step towards the vision of imaging hydrated biological material with photons in the water window. We also demonstrate the first application of ultrathin molecular sheets as suitable substrates for future free-electron laser experiments with biological samples in the form of a rat fibroblast cell and marine biofouling bacteria Cobetia marina.

  4. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m 2 , the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m 2 , the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  5. Uniform line focus and multi-target coupling for the creation of near water window Nickel like x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, H.; Daido, H.; Sebban, S. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering] (and others)

    2000-03-01

    To demonstrate high gain saturated amplification in soft x-ray lasing, uniform and long amplification medium must be created by novel focusing and target set-up technique. We report on the cylindrical lens array and multi target coupling system for creating uniform line focus. Through these methods, series of x-ray lasing with the wavelength towards the water window are obtained at the GekkoXII Nd glass laser facility in ILE, Osaka University. (author)

  6. Low-flow-storage solar system for domestic hot water; Low-flow Speicherkonzept fuer die solare Trinkwassererwaermung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfried, U. [CONSOLAR Energiespeicher- und Regelungssysteme GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Solar domestic hot water treatment relies on effective and insulated reservoirs to maximize solar efficiency. The article describes a newly developed low flow stratification tank. Key feature of this system is the spiral flow of the coolant in countermovement to the drinking water being heated. (orig.) [German] Bei der Solaren Trinkwassererwaermung ist der Einsatz effektiver Speichersysteme notwendig, um den solaren Ertrag zu maximieren. Im Bericht wird ein low-flow Speicherkonzept vorgestellt. Bei diesem System stroemt der vom Solarkollektor kommende Waermetraeger spiralfoermig von oben nach unten im Gegenstrom zu sich erwaermenden Trinkwasser. (orig.)

  7. Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, L. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Clark, J.; Ryan, S.

    2017-12-01

    "Water in the Solar System" is an out-of-school time (OST) science education activity for middle school students that was developed as part of the Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) project. The PLANETS project was selected in support of the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice, with the goal of developing and disseminating OST curriculum and related professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. "Water in the Solar System" is a science activity that addresses the abundance and availability of water in the solar system. The activity consists of three exercises based on the following guiding questions: 1) How much water is there on the Earth? 2) Where can you find water in the solar system? and 3) What properties affect whether or not water can be used by astronauts? The three exercises involve a scaling relationship demonstration about the abundance of useable water on Earth, a card game to explore where water is found in the solar system, and a hands-on exercise to investigate pH and salinity. Through these activities students learn that although there is a lot of water on Earth, most of it is not in a form that is accessible for humans to use. They also learn that most water in the solar system is actually farther from the sun, and that properties such as salinity and pH affect whether water can be used by humans. In addition to content for students, the activity includes background information for educators, and links to in-depth descriptions of the science content. "Water in the Solar System" was developed through collaboration between subject matter experts at the USGS Astrogeology Science Center, and curriculum and professional development experts in the Center for Science Teaching and Learning at Northern Arizona University. Here we describe our process of curriculum development, education objectives of

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  9. Improving the yield of fresh water in conventional solar still using low cost energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris Samuel, D.G.; Nagarajan, P.K.; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; El-Agouz, S.A.; Kannan, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Yield of fresh water from conventional solar still is improved by salt heat energy storage. • Experiments are conducted to analyze the performance. • Payback period of present model with salt heat energy storage is 4 months. - Abstract: As there is a larger need for drinking water, expensive methodologies are employed in order to get portable drinking water. This work aims at improving the yield of freshwater from a conventional solar still using the different low-cost energy storage material. Theoretical and experimental studies are carried out to analyze the performance of a single slope solar still. From this study, it is observed that the yield of freshwater from the solar still with spherical ball salt storage achieves the maximum yield of 3.7 kg/m 2 as compared to a conventional single slope solar still with sponge and without any storage material as 2.7 and 2.2 kg/m 2 respectively. The deviations between theoretical and experimental values for with spherical ball salt storage, with sponge and conventional solar still are found as 16.1%, 9.7% and 4.0% respectively. Payback period of the present solar still is found as 4.3 months as it is quicker than other conventional single slope solar still. Finally, single slope solar still with spherical ball heat storage gives low cost of water.

  10. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  11. Solar energy uses in home water heating systems; Utilizacao da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de agua residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Luiz Henrique

    2008-07-01

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new energy sources renewed and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of residential water heating, instead of the electric shower, can compliment the economy of electric energy, based on the Brazilian energy matrix. To know all the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy it is important the determination of its economic and technical viabilities and, distribution targeting in urban and agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy in the region west of the Parana, Brazil, an archetype with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants was built, to function with natural circulation or thermosyphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The room temperature and the speed of the wind were also evaluated, verifying its influence in the heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature of 35 deg C for shower, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3500 W.m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. The system operated without interruptions and it did not need maintenance, except for the monthly glass cleaning. Economic viability was clearly demonstrated since the useful life of the equipment exceeded the period of use to gain its investment. (author)

  12. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised......-value of 0.7 W/m²K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m²K. No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. At a Danish location and North facing, the energy balance...

  13. Experimental Study on Performance of a Box Solar Cooker with Flat Plate Collector to Boil Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, T.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, D. M.; Ambarita, H.; Siregar, R. E. T.; Ronowikarto, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a flat plate type solar cooker is tested by exposing in solar irradiation. The objective is to examine the performance of solar cooker in boiling water. The solar cooker is a box type with collector area and height are 100 × 100 cm and 40 cm, respectively. Vessel for water is made of aluminum plate with diameter and height of 22 cm and 15 cm. The experiments are performed by varying mass of the water. It is 2 kg and 4 kg, respectively. Every experiment starts from 10:00 AM until the boiling temperature is reached. The parameters measured are radiance intensity, ambient and solar box cooker temperatures, and wind speed. The results show that the duration of water heating up to 100°C with water mass 2 kg within 2 hours 45 minutes and water mass 4 kg within 3 hours 17 minutes. The maximum temperatur of solar box cooker is 117°C at 12:56 PM and maximum efficiency is 46.30%. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a simple solar box cooker can be used to boil water.

  14. Economical judge possibility uses solar collectors to warm service water and heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The sun-heated water has been used from before fossil fuels started to determine the direction of our power consumption. This article is focused on the assessing of the use of solar energy as one of inexhaustible resources that has multiple uses, including hot water service systems. Heating is rendered through solar collectors that permit to transform solar energy to warm water. We divide solar collectors into various groups but in principle they are medium temperature collectors and low temperature collectors. The work is directed also on the solar collector market. In our case the market is just at its initial stage as this technology is little known and costs of collectors are rather high, compared to our conditions, on average, they may grow up to 100,000 Slovac crowns per a family house. Because it is the only investment and the costs of operation are minimum throughout the entire collectors lifetime, from the economic point of view, it is a rather advantageous investment. Solar collectors are used in heating and also in hot service water systems in family houses, where they permit to lower costs for the consumption of many kinds of energies. In the hot service water system, solar collectors permit to lower the consumption by almost 70 %. This way of using the solar energy is very prospective and in future it will be used in various sectors

  15. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  16. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  17. Early solar system. Early accretion of water in the inner solar system from a carbonaceous chondrite-like source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; McCubbin, Francis M; Monteleone, Brian D

    2014-10-31

    Determining the origin of water and the timing of its accretion within the inner solar system is important for understanding the dynamics of planet formation. The timing of water accretion to the inner solar system also has implications for how and when life emerged on Earth. We report in situ measurements of the hydrogen isotopic composition of the mineral apatite in eucrite meteorites, whose parent body is the main-belt asteroid 4 Vesta. These measurements sample one of the oldest hydrogen reservoirs in the solar system and show that Vesta contains the same hydrogen isotopic composition as that of carbonaceous chondrites. Taking into account the old ages of eucrite meteorites and their similarity to Earth's isotopic ratios of hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, we demonstrate that these volatiles could have been added early to Earth, rather than gained during a late accretion event. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  19. Procedures of water desalination with solar energy and f-chart method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Andrija A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid population growth, and climate change caused by environmental pollution needs for drinking water are increasing while amount of freshwater are decreasing. However possible solution for freshwater scarcity can be found in water desalination procedures. In this article three representative water desalination solar powered plants are described. Except explanation of processes it is also mentioned basic advantages and disadvantages of humidification, reverse osmosis and desalination evaporation by using solar energy. Simulation of the solar desalination system is analyzed with f-chart method monthly, located on located 42 degrees north latitude.

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lasode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.

  1. Bactericidal effect of solar water disinfection under real sunlight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Arias-Quiroz, G B; Iriarte-Puña, M; Mercado, A; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; McGuigan, K G

    2008-05-01

    Batch solar disinfection (SODIS) inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions in water of Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and endospores of Bacillus subtilis, exposed to strong natural sunlight in Spain and Bolivia. The exposure time required for complete inactivation (at least 4-log-unit reduction and below the limit of detection, 17 CFU/ml) under conditions of strong natural sunlight (maximum global irradiance, approximately 1,050 W m(-2) +/- 10 W m(-2)) was as follows: C. jejuni, 20 min; S. epidermidis, 45 min; enteropathogenic E. coli, 90 min; Y. enterocolitica, 150 min. Following incomplete inactivation of B. subtilis endospores after the first day, reexposure of these samples on the following day found that 4% (standard error, 3%) of the endospores remained viable after a cumulative exposure time of 16 h of strong natural sunlight. SODIS is shown to be effective against the vegetative cells of a number of emerging waterborne pathogens; however, bacterial species which are spore forming may survive this intervention process.

  2. The Development of a Roof Integrated Solar Hot Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Infrastructure and DER Dept.; Moss, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solar Technologies Dept.; Palomino, G. Ernest [Salt River Project (SRP), Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The Salt River Project (SRP), in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Energy Laboratories, Inc. (ELI), collaborated to develop, test, and evaluate an advanced solar water-heating product for new homes. SRP and SNL collaborated under a Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), with ELI as SRP's industry partner. The project has resulted in the design and development of the Roof Integrated Thermal Siphon (RITH) system, an innovative product that features complete roof integration, a storage tank in the back of the collector and below the roofline, easy installation by homebuilders, and a low installed cost. SRP's market research guided the design, and the laboratory tests conducted at SNL provided information used to refine the design of field test units and indicated that the RITH concept is viable. ELI provided design and construction expertise and is currently configured to manufacture the units. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent and available materials connected to the project including market research studies, the design features and development of the system, and the testing and evaluation conducted at SNL and at a model home test site in Phoenix, Arizona.

  3. Bactericidal Effect of Solar Water Disinfection under Real Sunlight Conditions▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M.; Sichel, C.; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.; Arias-Quiroz, G. B.; Iriarte-Puña, M.; Mercado, A.; Ubomba-Jaswa, E.; McGuigan, K. G.

    2008-01-01

    Batch solar disinfection (SODIS) inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions in water of Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and endospores of Bacillus subtilis, exposed to strong natural sunlight in Spain and Bolivia. The exposure time required for complete inactivation (at least 4-log-unit reduction and below the limit of detection, 17 CFU/ml) under conditions of strong natural sunlight (maximum global irradiance, ∼1,050 W m−2 ± 10 W m−2) was as follows: C. jejuni, 20 min; S. epidermidis, 45 min; enteropathogenic E. coli, 90 min; Y. enterocolitica, 150 min. Following incomplete inactivation of B. subtilis endospores after the first day, reexposure of these samples on the following day found that 4% (standard error, 3%) of the endospores remained viable after a cumulative exposure time of 16 h of strong natural sunlight. SODIS is shown to be effective against the vegetative cells of a number of emerging waterborne pathogens; however, bacterial species which are spore forming may survive this intervention process. PMID:18359829

  4. Direct solar water splitting cell using water, WO3, Pt, and polymer electrolyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoming; Boehm, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    A solar water splitting cell composed of WO 3 , Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) and Pt was constructed for producing hydrogen from deionized water in sunlight. Spectral responsivity measurements under various temperatures and bias voltages were conducted for the cell using the Incident Photon to Current Efficiency (IPCE) method. For comparison, a known WO 3 Photo Electro Chemical (PEC) cell containing H 3 PO 4 electrolyte, WO 3 /H 3 PO 4 /Pt, was tested using the same test method. The WO 3 /PEM-H 2 O/Pt cell showed better Quantum Efficiency (QE) performance compared to that obtained from the cell with the chemical electrolyte. For the first time, spectral responsivity of photo water splitting process without bias power was unveiled in the new WO 3 cell, demonstrating the self-sustained photo electrolysis capability. Bias voltage effect on Solar to Hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency was dramatic in the range from 0.2 V to 1.2 V and suppressions of STH were observed when high bias voltages were applied. In addition, a strong temperature effect on the energy conversion efficiency at high bias voltage was observed in the cell containing PEM-H 2 O, revealing that the STH at 54 °C is nearly five times that at 14 °C.

  5. Design and Development of Prototype Cylindrical Parabolic Solar Collector for Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Bhujangrao Kulkarni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating collectors absorbs solar energy and convert it into heat for generating hot water, steam at required temperature, which can be further used for solar thermal applications. The developing countries like India where solar energy is abundantly available; there is need to develop technology for harnessing solar energy for power production, but the main problem associated with concentrating solar power technology is the high cost of installation and low output efficiency. To solve this problem, a prototype cylindrical parabolic solar collector having aperture area of 1.89 m2 is designed and developed using low cost highly reflecting and absorbing material to reduce initial cost of project and improve thermal efficiency. ASHRAE Standard 93, 1986 was used to evaluate the thermal performance and it was observed that this system can generate hot water at an average temperature of 500C per day with an average efficiency of 49% which is considerable higher than flat plate solar collectors. Hot water produced by this system can be useful for domestic, agricultural, industrial process heat applications.Article History: Received Sept 19, 2015; Received in revised form Dec 23, 2015; Accepted February 2, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Bhujangrao, K.H. (2016. Design and Development of Prototype Cylindrical Parabolic Solar Collector for Water Heating Application. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1, 49-55 http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.49-55 

  6. Technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Torres Ten, Alonso; Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Fuetes lombá, Osmanys; Massipe Hernández, J. Raúl; Gonzalez, Wagner Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It is presented the technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 20 Cabannas type tourism and a one of 2 square meter flat solar collector will be used, with a storage tank of 200 liters capacity, that is to say one system per cabin. (author)

  7. Design of a Solar Water Heating System for Kuti Hall, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly average daily irradiance in plane of solar collector and Cold water temperature calculated from weather data collated to determine heating load. Mathematical model was developed based on heat transfer, thermal and optical and energy performance of collector. The absorber plate area, dimensions of solar ...

  8. Optimal design of solar water heating systems | Alemu | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pe1formance of the preliminary design is predicted by using either/chart method or by translate it simulation of solar heating system. Often, optimization is done off-line after correlating the annual contribution of solar energy to the heating load and collector area using simulation resu!ts by analytical methods. In this work ...

  9. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  10. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    artificial from natural stimuli and detects common and individual needs by measuring heart pulse and body temperature. The focal point here is light and how light affects human perception while at the same time the perception of sound and how gesture can provide the best possible cognition of actual needs...... light is a form that adapts natures’ properties and modifies the artificial environment as a stage direction, implying at the same time mood and modifying it in collaboration with sound. Having evaluated how this affects the body and human perception in this particular time that we experience nowadays......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  11. Accurate measurements and temperature dependence of the water vapor self-continuum absorption in the 2.1 μm atmospheric window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrillard, I.; Romanini, D.; Mondelain, D.; Campargue, A.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its importance for the evaluation of the Earth radiative budget, thus for climate change, very few measurements of the water vapor continuum are available in the near infrared atmospheric windows especially at temperature conditions relevant for our atmosphere. In addition, as a result of the difficulty to measure weak broadband absorption signals, the few available measurements show large disagreements. We report here accurate measurements of the water vapor self-continuum absorption in the 2.1 μm window by Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) for two spectral points located at the low energy edge and at the center of the 2.1 μm transparency window, at 4302 and 4723 cm −1 , respectively. Self-continuum cross sections, C S , were retrieved with a few % relative uncertainty, from the quadratic dependence of the spectrum base line level measured as a function of water vapor pressure, between 0 and 16 Torr. At 296 K, the C S value at 4302 cm −1 is found 40% higher than predicted by the MT-CKD V2.5 model, while at 4723 cm −1 , our value is 5 times larger than the MT-CKD value. On the other hand, these OF-CEAS C S values are significantly smaller than recent measurements by Fourier transform spectroscopy at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the self-continuum cross sections was also investigated for temperatures between 296 K and 323 K (23-50 °C). The derived temperature variation is found to be similar to that derived from previous Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements performed at higher temperatures, between 350 K and 472 K. The whole set of measurements spanning the 296-472 K temperature range follows a simple exponential law in 1/T with a slope close to the dissociation energy of the water dimer, D 0 ≈ 1100 cm −1

  12. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  13. Attitudinal and Relational Factors Predicting the Use of Solar Water Disinfection: A Field Study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altherr, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Tobias, Robert; Butera, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several…

  14. Solar Energy Water Desalination in the United States and Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.

    1981-04-01

    Five solar energy water desalination systems are described. The systems will each deliver 6000 m3/day of desalted water from either seawater or brackish water. After the system definition study is completed in August 1981, two systems will be selected for pilot plant construction. The pilot plants will have capacities in the range of 1 00 to 400 m3/day.

  15. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The Solar Energy System located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas was designed to supply 63% of the total hot water load. The Solar Energy System consists of a 2100 square foot Raypack Liquid Flat Plate Collector Subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10/sup 8/ Btu/y. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  17. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion XI: Chromogenics for smart windows; Proceedings of the Meeting, Toulouse, France, May 19, 21, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugot-le Goff, A.; Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films, electrochromic smart window devices, and thermochromic and variable light-scattering materials. Attention is given to the structural and physical properties of WO3 films prepared by CVD, the degradation of electrochromic amorphous WO3 films after coloration, the electrochromic mechanism of RF diode-sputtered nickel oxide films, and the optical and electrochemical properties of CeO2 and CeO2-TiO2 coatings. Also discussed are new solid electrolytes for electrochromic smart windows, electrochromic glazing, a smart window using a proton-conducting polymer as an electrolyte, and the electrochromism of colloidal WO3 and IrO2

  18. Theoretical comparison of solar water/space-heating combi systems and stratification design options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of differently designed solar combi systems is performed with weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year (55ºN). Three solar combi system designs found on the market are investigated. The investigation focuses on the influence of stratification on the thermal...... performance under different operation conditions with different domestic hot water and space heating demands. The solar combi systems are initially equipped with heat exchanger spirals and direct inlets to the tank. A step-by-step investigation is performed demonstrating the influence on the thermal...... performance of using inlet stratification pipes at the different inlets. Also, it is investigated how the design of the space heating system, the control system of the solar collectors, and the system size influence the thermal performance of solar combi systems. The work is carried out within the Solar...

  19. System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

  20. Bioinspired solar water splitting, sensitized solar cells, and ultraviolet sensor based on semiconductor nanocrystal antenna/graphene nanoassemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haixin; Lv, Xiaojun; Zheng, Zijian; Wu, Hongkai

    2012-02-01

    Graphene, two-dimensional carbon crystal with only one atom thickness, provides a general platform for nanoscale even atomic scale optoelectronics and photonics. Graphene has many advantages for optoelectronics such as high conductivity, high electronic mobility, flexibility and transparency. However, graphene also has disadvantages such as low light absorption which are unfavorable for optoelectronic devices. On the other hand, many natural photonic systems provide wonderful solution to enhance light absorption for solar energy harvesting and conversion, such as chlorophyll in green plants. Herein, learning from nature, we described bioinspired photocatalytic solar-driven water splitting, sensitized solar cells and ultraviolet optoelectronic sensors enabled by introducing photosensitive semiconductor nanocrystal antenna to graphene for constructing a series of graphene/nanocrystal nanoassemblies. We have demonstrated that high performance optoelectronic devices can come true with the introducing of photosensitive nanocrystal antenna elements.

  1. Solar Energy for Domestic Hot Water: Case Studies in Sisimiut 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two pioneer solar domestic hot water systems were installed at Bygge- og Anlægsskolen in Sisimiut in 1999 and 2000. Detailed measurements of energy flows and solar radiation incl. snow reflectance has been undertaken for both plants. Since August 2004 data logging of the measurements was made...... available online on the website www.arcticsolar.com. Measurements show that solar plant 1 and 2 cover 22% and 23%, respectively, of the energy spent for domestic hot water heating. This paper summarises the findings from the past 5 years....

  2. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  3. Study of an improved integrated collector-storage solar water heater combined with the photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Palideh, Vahid; Mohammadnia, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with PV panel was conducted. • The present model dose not uses any photovoltaic driven water pump. • High packing factor and tank water mass are caused to high PVT system efficiency. • Larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency. - Abstract: A photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) module is a combination of a photovoltaic (PV) panel and a thermal collector for co-generation of heat and electricity. An integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) system, due to its simple and compact structure, offers a promising approach for the solar water heating in the varied climates. The combination of the ICSSWH system with a PV solar system has not been reported. In this paper, simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with the PV panel has been conducted. The proposed design acts passive. Therefore, it does not use any photovoltaic driven water pump to maintain a flow of water inside the collector. The effects of the solar cell packing factor, the tank water mass and the collector area on the performance of the present PVT system have been investigated. The simulation results showed that the high solar cell packing factor and the tank water mass are caused to the high total PVT system efficiency. Also, larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency

  4. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  5. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uday Kumar, N.T.; Mohan, Gowtham; Martin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar driven cogeneration system integrating membrane distillation technology is developed. • System utilizes solar thermal energy for the operations without auxiliary heaters. • Three different system integrations are experimentally investigated in UAE. • Economical benefits of solar cogeneration system is also reported. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month’s operation at AURAK’s facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m 2 . System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage; and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m 2 . In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

  6. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  7. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  8. Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, Sabina; Batlles Garrido, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ► This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ► It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ► It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ► It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

  9. Solar Load Voltage Tracking for Water Pumping: An Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappali, M.; Udayakumar, R. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Maximum power is to be harnessed from solar photovoltaic (PV) panel to minimize the effective cost of solar energy. This is accomplished by maximum power point tracking (MPPT). There are different methods to realise MPPT. This paper proposes a simple algorithm to implement MPPT lv method in a closed loop environment for centrifugal pump driven by brushed PMDC motor. Simulation testing of the algorithm is done and the results are found to be encouraging and supportive of the proposed method MPPT lv .

  10. Solar photolysis versus TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis: a kinetic study of the degradation of naproxen and diclofenac in various water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraju, Devagi; Motti, Cherie A; Glass, Beverley D; Oelgemöller, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Given that drugs and their degradation products are likely to occur as concoctions in wastewater, the degradation of a mixture of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac (DCF) and naproxen (NPX), was investigated by solar photolysis and titanium dioxide (TiO2)-mediated solar photocatalysis using an immersion-well photoreactor. An equimolar ratio (1:1) of both NSAIDs in distilled water, drinking water, and river water was subjected to solar degradation. Solar photolysis of the DCF and NPX mixture was competitive particularly in drinking water and river water, as both drugs have the ability to undergo photolysis. However, the addition of TiO2 in the mixture significantly enhanced the degradation rate of both APIs compared to solar photolysis alone. Mineralization, as measured by chemical oxygen demand (COD), was incomplete under all conditions investigated. TiO2-mediated solar photocatalytic degradation of DCF and NPX mixtures produced 15 identifiable degradants corresponding to degradation of the individual NSAIDs, while two degradation products with much higher molecular weight than the parent NSAIDs were identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This study showed that the solar light intensity and the water matrix appear to be the main factors influencing the overall performance of the solar photolysis and TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis for degradation of DCF and NPX mixtures.

  11. How mixing during hot water draw-offs influence the thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    with high height/diameter ratios and small auxiliary volumes. Based on the investigations, it is recommended to design hot water tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems as mantle tanks with as high height/diameter ratio as possible and with as small an auxiliary volume as possible, of course under...

  12. Removal of fluorescence and ultraviolet absorbance of dissolved organic matter in reclaimed water by solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianyuan; Li, Chao; Wang, Wenlong; He, Tao; Hu, Hongying; Du, Ye; Wang, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Storing reclaimed water in lakes is a widely used method of accommodating changes in the consumption of reclaimed water during wastewater reclamation and reuse. Solar light serves as an important function in degrading pollutants during storage, and its effect on dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated in this study. Solar light significantly decreased the UV254 absorbance and fluorescence (FLU) intensity of reclaimed water. However, its effect on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) value of reclaimed water was very limited. The decrease in the UV254 absorbance intensity and FLU excitation-emission matrix regional integration volume (FLU volume) of reclaimed water during solar light irradiation was fit with pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The decrease of UV254 absorbance was much slower than that of the FLU volume. Ultraviolet light in solar light had a key role in decreasing the UV254 absorbance and FLU intensity during solar light irradiation. The light fluence-based removal kinetic constants of the UV254 and FLU intensity were independent of light intensity. The peaks of the UV254 absorbance and FLU intensity with an apparent molecular weight (AMW) of 100Da to 2000Da decreased after solar irradiation, whereas the DOC value of the major peaks did not significantly change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  14. Solar water disinfection (SODIS); Traitement de l'eau par l'energie solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegelin, M. [Water Treatment, EAWAG/SANDEC, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    1998-07-01

    Solar water disinfection uses solar energy to inactivate and destroy pathogenic microorganisms present in the water. The use of solar energy, which is universally available and free of charge. is the basis of this low-cost technology to be applied on household level for the treatment of small quantifies of drinking water. The treatment basically consists in filling transparent containers with water and expose them to full sunlight for several hours. Extensive laboratory and field tests carried out by EAWAG and its partners revealed that synergies induced by the combined application of radiation and thermal treatment have a significant effect on the die-off rate of the microorganisms. For example, field tests demonstrated that the concentration of Vibrio cholerae is reduced by a factor of 1000 during an exposure time of 30 minutes and a water temperature of 50 deg.C. The use of half-side blackened bottles or of plastic bags is a simple application of the batch process which. however, limits the daily capacity to the volume of water stored in the containers. Continuous-flow systems consist of solar collectors and heat exchangers which significantly increase the use of the available solar energy and, thereby, also the output of treated water. (author)

  15. Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

  16. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): A review from bench-top to roof-top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuigan, Kevin G., E-mail: kmcguigan@rcsi.ie [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Conroy, Ronan M. [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Mosler, Hans-Joachim [EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133: CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preez, Martella du; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice [CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, Gauteng (South Africa); Fernandez-Ibanez, Pilar [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 07200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Graphical abstract: . Water being treated by solar disinfection outside a primary school classroom in Southern Uganda. Students fill their bottles at home and expose them to the sun while they are at school. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thorough review of current state of play of solar water disinfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An examination of both laboratory and field studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of the economic and behaviour change aspects of this technology. - Abstract: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2 L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to 48 h depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation. It has been repeatedly shown to be effective for eliminating microbial pathogens and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity including cholera. Since 1980 much research has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of solar radiation induced cell death in water and possible enhancement technologies to make it faster and safer. Since SODIS is simple to use and inexpensive, the method has spread throughout the developing world and is in daily use in more than 50 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. More than 5 million people disinfect their drinking water with the solar disinfection (SODIS) technique. This review attempts to revise all relevant knowledge about solar disinfection from microbiological issues, laboratory research, solar testing, up to and including real application studies, limitations, factors influencing adoption of the technique and health impact.

  17. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...

  18. Integrating a Semitransparent, Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cell in Tandem with a BiVO4 Photoanode for Unassisted Solar Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuelin; Govindaraju, Gokul V; Lee, Dong Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Andrew, Trisha L

    2017-07-12

    We report an unassisted solar water splitting system powered by a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-containing semitransparent organic solar cell. Two major merits of this fullerene-free solar cell enable its integration with a BiVO 4 photoanode. First is the high open circuit voltage and high fill factor displayed by this single junction solar cell, which yields sufficient power to effect water splitting when serially connected to an appropriate electrode/catalyst. Second, the wavelength-resolved photoaction spectrum of the DPP-based solar cell has minimal overlap with that of the BiVO 4 photoanode, thus ensuring that light collection across these two components can be optimized. The latter feature enables a new water splitting device configuration wherein the solar cell is placed first in the path of incident light, before the BiVO 4 photoanode, although BiVO 4 has a wider bandgap. This configuration is accessed by replacing the reflective top electrode of the standard DPP-based solar cell with a thin metal film and an antireflection layer, thus rendering the solar cell semitransparent. In this configuration, incident light does not travel through the aqueous electrolyte to reach the solar cell or photoanode, and therefore, photon losses due to the scattering of water are reduced. Moreover, this new configuration allows the BiVO 4 photoanode to be back-illuminated, i.e., through the BiVO 4 /back contact interface, which leads to higher photocurrents compared to front illumination. The combination of a semitransparent single-junction solar cell and a BiVO 4 photoanode coated with oxygen evolution catalysts in a new device configuration yielded an unassisted solar water splitting system with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 2.2% in water.

  19. Efficiency in the disinfection of water for human consumption in rural communities using solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Dominguez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Mor (Mexico); Alarcon-Herrera, M.T.; Martin-Dominguez, I.R. [Centtro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chih (Mexico); Gonzalez-Herrera, A. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Mor (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of solar disinfection for the inactivation of Total Coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) in drinking water was tested in rural communities of the Guachochi Municipality, in the Tarahumara Sierra, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. The study zone was selected mostly because it lacks formal water supply systems and the population is forced to consume untreated water directly from rivers and shallow or artesian wells without treatment. To determine the bacteriological quality of the water consumed by the population, the amount of TC and EC in the water supplies of 23 communities in the studied municipality was determined. The efficiency of the solar energy based water disinfection process was determined for several months of the humid and dry seasons with water from the most contaminated sources of the study zone. The performed tests consisted in studying the effect of disinfecting water by direct exposure to sunlight during the whole day, with and without solar concentrators, in plastic bottles of commercial beverages. The three types of bottles used were transparent, partially painted black (one half of the bottle, along the longitudinal axis), and totally black. The study shows that, in this geographic zone, the available water must be disinfected before consumption and disinfection efficiency can reach 100% through the use of solar radiation. It was found that, since more than 6 h of daily solar radiation are available during most of the year in this zone, no solar concentrators are really necessary to ensure the complete elimination of bacteria. A complete disinfection takes place by simply placing water bottles in the sunlight during the whole day. Nevertheless, the use of solar concentrators and bottles partially painted black increases the TC and EC inactivation efficiency, reducing the solar exposure time required for a total disinfection to just 2 h. With the use of solar concentrators and partially blackened bottles, the water temperature

  20. A miniature solar device for overall water splitting consisting of series-connected spherical silicon solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kageshima, Yosuke

    2016-04-18

    A novel “photovoltaics (PV) + electrolyzer” concept is presented using a simple, small, and completely stand-alone non-biased device for solar-driven overall water splitting. Three or four spherical-shaped p-n junction silicon balls were successfully connected in series, named “SPHELAR.” SPHELAR possessed small projected areas of 0.20 (3PVs) and 0.26 cm2 (4PVs) and exhibited working voltages sufficient for water electrolysis. Impacts of the configuration on the PV module performance were carefully analyzed, revealing that a drastic increase in the photocurrent (≈20%) was attained by the effective utilization of a reflective sheet. Separate investigations on the electrocatalyst performance showed that non-noble metal based materials with reasonably small sizes (<0.80 cm2) exhibited substantial currents at the PV working voltage. By combining the observations of the PV characteristics, light management and electrocatalyst performance, solar-driven overall water splitting was readily achieved, reaching solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies of 7.4% (3PVs) and 6.4% (4PVs).

  1. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

  3. Graphene-Based Standalone Solar Energy Converter for Water Desalination and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Ruiqi; Zhang, Tengfei; Zhao, Kai; Xiao, Peishuang; Ma, Yanfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Shi, Gaoquan; Chen, Yongsheng

    2018-01-23

    Harvesting solar energy for desalination and sewage treatment has been considered as a promising solution to produce clean water. However, state-of-the-art technologies often require optical concentrators and complicated systems with multiple components, leading to poor efficiency and high cost. Here, we demonstrate an extremely simple and standalone solar energy converter consisting of only an as-prepared 3D cross-linked honeycomb graphene foam material without any other supporting components. This simple all-in-one material can act as an ideal solar thermal converter capable of capturing and converting sunlight into heat, which in turn can distill water from various water sources into steam and produce purified water under ambient conditions and low solar flux with very high efficiency. High specific water production rate of 2.6 kg h -1 m -2 g -1 was achieved with near ∼87% under 1 sun intensity and >80% efficiency even under ambient sunlight (solar thermal water purification system for a variety of environmental conditions.

  4. Solar light irradiation significantly reduced cytotoxicity and disinfection byproducts in chlorinated reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Xue; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2017-11-15

    Chlorinated reclaimed water is widely used for landscaping and recreational purposes, resulting in human exposure to toxic disinfection byproducts. Although the quality of chlorinated reclaimed water might be affected by sunlight during storage, the effects of solar light irradiation on the toxicity remain unknown. This study investigated the changes in cytotoxicity and total organic halogen (TOX) of chlorinated reclaimed water exposed to solar light. Irradiation with solar light for 12 h was found to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of chlorinated reclaimed water by about 75%, with ultraviolet light being responsible for the majority of this reduction. Chlorine residual in reclaimed water tended to increase the cytotoxicity, and the synergy between solar light and free chlorine could not enhance the reduction of cytotoxicity. Adding hydroxyl radical scavengers revealed that the contribution of hydroxyl radical to cytotoxicity reduction was limited. Solar light irradiation concurrently reduced TOX. The low molecular weight (cytotoxicity and TOX in chlorinated reclaimed water. Detoxification of the low molecular weight fraction by light irradiation was mainly a result of TOX dehalogenation, while detoxification of the high molecular weight (>1 kDa) fraction was probably caused by photoconversion from high toxic TOX to low toxic TOX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): a review from bench-top to roof-top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Kevin G; Conroy, Ronán M; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; du Preez, Martella; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Fernandez-Ibañez, Pilar

    2012-10-15

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation. It has been repeatedly shown to be effective for eliminating microbial pathogens and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity including cholera. Since 1980 much research has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of solar radiation induced cell death in water and possible enhancement technologies to make it faster and safer. Since SODIS is simple to use and inexpensive, the method has spread throughout the developing world and is in daily use in more than 50 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. More than 5 million people disinfect their drinking water with the solar disinfection (SODIS) technique. This review attempts to revise all relevant knowledge about solar disinfection from microbiological issues, laboratory research, solar testing, up to and including real application studies, limitations, factors influencing adoption of the technique and health impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The Final Report of the Solar Hot Water System located at the Red Star Industrial Laundry, 3333 Sabre Avenue, Fresno, California, is presented. The system was designed as an integrated wastewater heat recovery and solar preheating system to supply a part of the hot water requirements. It was estimated that the natural gas demand for hot water heating could be reduced by 56 percent (44 percent heat reclamation and 12 percent solar). The system consists of a 16,500 gallon tube-and-shell wastewater heat recovery subsystem combined with a pass-through 6,528 square foot flat plate Ying Manufacturing Company Model SP4120 solar collector subsystem, a 12,500 gallon fiber glass water storage tank subsystem, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. The design output of the solar subsystem is approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year. Auxiliary energy is provided by a gas fired low pressure boiler servicing a 4,000 gallon service tank. This project is part of the US Department of Energy's Solar Demonstration Program with DOE sharing $184,841 of the $260,693 construction cost. The system was turned on in July 1977, and acceptance tests completed in September 1977. The demonstration period for this project ends September 2, 1982.

  7. Comparative environmental and economic analysis of conventional and nanofluid solar hot water technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanicar, Todd P; Golden, Jay S

    2009-08-01

    This study compares environmental and economic impacts of using nanofluids to enhance solar collector efficiency as compared to conventional solar collectors for domestic hotwater systems. Results show that for the current cost of nanoparticles the nanofluid based solar collector has a slightly longer payback period but at the end of its useful life has the same economic savings as a conventional solar collector. The nanofluid based collector has a lower embodied energy (approximately 9%) and approximately 3% higher levels of pollution offsets than a conventional collector. In addition if 50% penetration of residential nanofluid based solar collector systems for hot water heating could be achieved in Phoenix, Arizona over 1 million metric tons of CO2 would be offset per year.

  8. Solar pre-heating of water for steam generation in the friendship textile mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sid -Ahmed, M.O.; Hussien, T.

    1994-01-01

    The technology of solar water heating is simple and can be used for pre-heating of water entering a boiler. In this paper the economics of solar pre-heating of water was calculated. The calculations were based on the performance and cost of a locally-made flat plate collector, and the performance and fuel consumption of a boiler in a textile mill. The results showed that a collector area of about 800 meter square with initial cost of about LS 5,000,000, could save annually about 130 tons of furnace oil. ( Author )

  9. Relative spectral absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and cloud droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.; Ridgway, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    A moderate (20/cm) spectral resolution model which accounts for both the highly variable spectral transmission of solar radiation through water vapor within and above cloud, as well as the more slowly varying features of absorption and anisotropic multiple scattering by the cloud droplets, is presented. Results from this model as applied to the case of a typical 1 km thick stratus cloud in a standard atmosphere, with cloud top altitude of 2 km and overhead sun, are discussed, showing the relative importance of water vapor above the cloud, water vapor within the cloud, and cloud droplets on the spectral absorption of solar radiation.

  10. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): A review from bench-top to roof-top

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGuigan, KG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2 L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary...

  11. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  12. Windows of opportunity for germination of riparian species after restoring water level fluctuations: a field experiment with controlled seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J.M.; Janssen, R.H.; Rip, W.J.; Bender, I.; Bakker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration activities aiming at increasing vegetation diversity often try to stimulate both dispersal and germination. In wetlands, dispersal and germination are coupled as water and water level fluctuations (WLF) simultaneously influence seed transport and germination conditions (soil moisture).

  13. Data analysis for solar neutrinos observed by water Cherenkov detectors{sup *}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshio, Yusuke [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    A method of analyzing solar neutrino measurements using water-based Cherenkov detectors is presented. The basic detection principle is that the Cherenkov photons produced by charged particles via neutrino interaction are observed by photomultiplier tubes. A large amount of light or heavy water is used as a medium. The first detector to successfully measure solar neutrinos was Kamiokande in the 1980's. The next-generation detectors, i.e., Super-Kamiokande and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), commenced operation from the mid-1990's. These detectors have been playing the critical role of solving the solar neutrino problem and determining the neutrino oscillation parameters over the last decades. The future prospects of solar neutrino analysis using this technique are also described. (orig.)

  14. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  15. Theoretical simulation of small scale psychometric solar water desalination system in semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatat, Mahmoud; Omer, Siddig; Gillott, Mark; Riffat, Saffa

    2013-01-01

    Many countries around the world suffer from water scarcity. This is especially true in remote and semi-arid regions in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where per capita water supplies decline as populations increase. This paper presents the results of a theoretical simulation of an affordable small scale solar water desalination plant using the psychometric humidification and dehumidification process coupled with an evacuated tube solar collector with an area of about 2 m 2 . A mathematical model was developed to describe the system's operation. Then a computer program using Simulink Matlab software was developed to provide the governing equations for the theoretical calculations of the humidification and dehumidification processes. The experimental and theoretical values for the total daily distillate output were found to be closely correlated. After the experimental calibration of the mathematical model, a model simulating solar radiation under the climatic conditions in the Middle East region proved that the performance of the system could be improved to produce a considerably higher amount of fresh water, namely up to 17.5 kg/m 2 day. This work suggests that utilizing the concept of humidification and dehumidification, a compact water desalination unit coupled with solar collectors would significantly increase the potable water supply in remote area. It could be a unique solution of water shortages in such areas. -- Highlights: • An affordable small scale desalination system is proposed. • A mathematical model of the desalination system is developed and programmed using Matlab Simulink. • The model describes the psychometric process based on humidification and dehumidification. • The model is used in optimal selection of elements and operating conditions for solar desalination system. • The use of solar water desalination contributes significantly to reducing global warming

  16. Utilization of solar energy in the photodegradation of gasoline in water and of oil-field-produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, José Ermírio F; Silva, Douglas N; Quina, Frank H; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto O

    2004-07-01

    The photo-Fenton process utilizes ferrous ions (Fe2+), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as a source of hydroxyl radicals for the oxidation of organic matter present in aqueous effluents. The cost associated with the use of artificial irradiation sources has hindered industrial application of this process. In this work, the applicability of solar radiation for the photodegradation of raw gasoline in water has been studied. The photo-Fenton process was also applied to a real effluent, i.e., oil-field-produced water, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of employing solar irradiation to degrade this complex saturated-hydrocarbon-containing system.

  17. Solar service water heating systems. Information about thermal solar energy systems for hot water preparation and heating support; Brauchwasserbereitung mit Sonnenenergie. Wissenswertes ueber thermische Solaranlagen fuer die Warmwasserbereitung und Heizungsunterstuetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Born, Rolf

    2012-04-15

    The increased environmental awareness has led to more interest in solar energy. Under this aspect, the leaflet under considerations presents useful information on thermal solar energy systems for the hot water preparation and support for space heating. The construction of solar collectors and their arrangement at the roof are described as well as their economic efficiency and environmental relief.

  18. Influence of solar water disinfection on immunity against cholera - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssemakalu, Cornelius Cano; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Motaung, Keolebogile Shirley; Pillay, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Cholera remains a problem in developing countries. This is attributed to the unavailability of proper water treatment, sanitary infrastructure and poor hygiene. As a consequence, countries facing cholera outbreaks rely on interventions such as the use of oral rehydration therapy and antibiotics to save lives. In addition to vaccination, the provision of chlorine tablets and hygiene sensitization drives have been used to prevent new cholera infections. The implementation of these interventions remains a challenge due to constraints associated with the cost, ease of use and technical knowhow. These challenges have been reduced through the use of solar water disinfection (SODIS). The success of SODIS in mitigating the risk associated with the consumption of waterborne pathogens has been associated with solar irradiation. This has prompted a lot of focus on the solar component for enhanced disinfection. However, the role played by the host immune system following the consumption of solar-irradiated water pathogens has not received any significant attention. The mode of inactivation resulting from the exposure of microbiologically contaminated water results in immunologically important microbial states as well as components. In this review, the possible influence that solar water disinfection may have on the immunity against cholera is discussed.

  19. Optimization of Solar Water Heating System under Time and Spatial Partition Heating in Rural Dwellings

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfeng Liu; Tao Li; Yaowen Chen; Dengjia Wang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of time and spatial partition heating to a solar water heating system. The heating effect and system performance were analyzed under the continuous and whole space heating and time and spatial partition heating using TRNSYS. The results were validated by comparing with the test results of the demonstration building. Compared to continuous and whole space heating, the use of time and spatial partition heating increases the solar fraction by 16.5%, reduces th...

  20. Experimental investigation on a semi-circular trough-absorber solar still with baffles for fresh water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Nagarajan, P.K.; El-Agouz, S.A.; Jaiganesh, V.; Sathish Khanna, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments are carried out to analyze the performance. • Baffles are placed in the absorber to increase the residence time of water with solar intensity. • Yield of fresh water from present solar still is 16.66% more than a conventional solar still. • Payback period of the present model is quicker. - Abstract: The main objective of this research is to increase the contact time of water in the basin to enhance yield of fresh water by using a semicircular absorber solar still with baffles. An experimental as well as theoretical investigation is carried out. The productivity and efficiency of present still are analyzed with the influence of the number baffles and the water flow rate. A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is observed. The results indicate that, the daily yield of present solar still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 16.66%. The outlet water temperature present solar still is high subsequently, it can be coupled with multi-state of solar stills to increase productivity. Therefore, the present solar still can be sufficiently extended for other continuous solar desalination systems. Economic analysis concluded that, the payback period of the present model solar still is quicker while comparing it with other solar still

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  2. Numerical study on the effect of configuration of a simple box solar cooker for boiling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a numerical study is carried out to investigate the effect of configuration of a simple box solar cooker. In order to validate the numerical results, a simple a simple solar box cooker with absorber area of 0.835 m × 0.835 m is designed and fabricated. The solar box cooker is employed to boil water by exposing to the solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia. In the numerical method, a set of transient governing equations are developed. The governing equations are solved using forward time step marching technique. The main objective is to explore the effect of double glasses cover, dimensions of the cooking vessel, and depth of the box cooker to the performance of the solar box cooker. The results show that the experimental and numerical results show good agreement. The performance of the solar box cooker strongly affected by the distance of the double glass cover, the solar cooker depth, and the solar collector length.

  3. Productivity Amelioration of Solar Water Distillator Linked with Salt Gradient Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for fresh water in many developing countries. Water sources from, e.g., lakes; rivers and groundwater are often brackish or contain harmful bacteria and should therefore not be used for drinking or irrigation.In this work a simple solar double sloped basin type still was connected to a solar salt gradient pond. The salinity-gradient solar pond is constructed in such a manner that the convective circulation in the pond is prohibited by making the bottom water much denser than the surface water. In doing so, the solar radiation absorbed in the deep water can be stored; the hot water from the salt pond was used to heat salt water in the stiller, at daylight and night.The tests were conducted in September and October in autumn season in Baghdad city-Iraq in 2009. The results show development in stiller productivity at daylight and larger productivity increase at night. The stiller productivity increased also with cooling the glass cover from the still outside. 

  4. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Lodge, Atlanta, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Day's Lodge I-85 and Shallowford Road, NE Atlanta, Georgia is described. This system is one of eleven systems planned under this grant and was designed to provide for 81% of the total hot water demand. There are two separate systems, each serving one building of the lodge (total of 65 suites). The entire system contains only potable city water. The 1024 square feet of Grumman Sunstream Model 332 liquid flat plate collectors and the outside piping drains whenever the collector plates approach freezing or when power is interrupted. Solar heated water from the two above ground cement lined steel tanks (1000 gallon tank) is drawn into the electric domestic hot water (DHW) tanks as hot water is drawn. Electric resistance units in the DHW tanks top off the solar heated water, if needed, to reach thermostat setting. Operation of this system was begun in August, 1979. The solar components were partly funded ($18,042 of $36,084 cost) by the Department of Energy.

  5. Estimation of solar collector area for water heating in buildings of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj Kumar, Nallapaneni; Sudhakar, K.; Samykano, M.

    2018-04-01

    Solar thermal energy (STE) utilization for water heating at various sectorial levels became popular and still growing especially for buildings in the residential area. This paper aims to study and identify the solar collector area needed based on the user requirements in an efficient manner. A step by step mathematical approach is followed to estimate the area in Sq. m. Four different cases each having different hot water temperatures (45°, 50°C, 55°C, and 60°C) delivered by the solar water heating system (SWHS) for typical residential application at Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia is analysed for the share of hot and cold water mix. As the hot water temperature levels increased the share of cold water mix is increased to satisfy the user requirement temperature, i.e. 40°C. It is also observed that as the share of hot water mix is reduced, the collector area can also be reduced. Following this methodology at the installation stage would help both the user and installers in the effective use of the solar resource.

  6. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): Impact on hepatitis A virus and on a human Norovirus surrogate under natural solar conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, David; García-Fernández, Irene; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of solar water disinfection (SODIS) in the reduction and inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and of the human Norovirus surrogate, murine Norovirus (MNV-1), under natural solar conditions. Experiments were performed in 330 ml polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles containing HAV or MNV-1 contaminated waters (10(3) PFU/ml) that were exposed to natural sunlight for 2 to 8 h. Parallel experiments under controlled temperature and/or in darkness conditions were also included. Samples were concentrated by electropositive charged filters and analysed by RT-real time PCR (RT-qPCR) and infectivity assays. Temperature reached in bottles throughout the exposure period ranged from 22 to 40ºC. After 8 h of solar exposure (cumulative UV dose of ~828 kJ/m2 and UV irradiance of ~20 kJ/l), the results showed significant (PSODIS conditions induced a loss of infectivity between 33.4% and 83.4% after 4 to 8 h in HAV trials, and between 33.4% and 66.7% after 6 h to 8 h in MNV-1 trials. The results obtained indicated a greater importance of sunlight radiation over the temperature as the main factor for viral reduction. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  7. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkahshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Mizuno, T. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Optimal operation control was discussed on a forced-circulation solar water heater using solar cells not only as the power supply of a heat collecting pump, but also for controlling operation of the heat collecting pump. With this system, when the amount of power generated by solar cells reaches a sufficient level for operating the heat collecting pump, the heat collecting pump starts operation, wherein the heat collecting medium circulates in the system. The discussion was given by using simulation based on experimental expressions such as the relation expression between insolation and heat collecting medium flow rate as derived from the result of the system`s heat collecting performance test. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: optimal insolation for activating the discussed system is from 50 to 100 W/m {sup 2}, and the heat collected within this range is within -1.5% of the collected heat amount at an optimum value; optimal activating insolation for the case of 1000 to 2000 W/m {sup 2} with low daily cumulative insolation is from 0 to 50 W/m {sup 2}, whereas the optimal activating insolation amount increases as the daily cumulative insolation amount increases; and the optimal activating insolation amount increases as water to be supplied requires higher temperature. 1 ref., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  9. Water Footprint and Land Requirement of Solar Thermochemical Jet-Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-11-07

    The production of alternative fuels via the solar thermochemical pathway has the potential to provide supply security and to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. H 2 O and CO 2 are converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy mediated by redox reactions of a metal oxide. Because attractive production locations are in arid regions, the water footprint and the land requirement of this fuel production pathway are analyzed. The water footprint consists of 7.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of direct demand on-site and 42.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of indirect demand, where the dominant contributions are the mining of the rare earth oxide ceria, the manufacturing of the solar concentration infrastructure, and the cleaning of the mirrors. The area-specific productivity is found to be 33 362 liters per hectare per year of jet fuel equivalents, where the land coverage is mainly due to the concentration of solar energy for heat and electricity. The water footprint and the land requirement of the solar thermochemical fuel pathway are larger than the best power-to-liquid pathways but an order of magnitude lower than the best biomass-to-liquid pathways. For the production of solar thermochemical fuels arid regions are best-suited, and for biofuels regions of a moderate and humid climate.

  10. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by solar water heating systems and passive technologies in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Vanessa M.T.; Prado, Racine T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Growing global concern regarding climate change motivates technological studies to minimize environmental impacts. In this context, solar water heating (SWH) systems are notably prominent in Brazil, primarily because of the abundance of solar energy in the country. However, SWH designs have not always been perfectly developed. In most projects, the installation option of the solar system only considers the electric power economy aspects and not the particular characteristics of each climatic zone. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to assess the potential of carbon dioxide reduction with the use of SWH in comparison with electric showers in social housing in several Brazilian climatic zones. The Brazilian government authorities have created public policies to encourage the use of these technologies primarily among the low-income population. The results of this paper indicate that hot climactic regions demonstrate a low reduction of CO 2 emissions with SWH installations. Thus, solar radiation is not useful for water heating in those regions, but it does lead to a large fraction of household cooling loads, implying a demand for electrical energy for air conditioning or requiring the adoption of passive techniques to maintain indoor temperatures below threshold values. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Brazil has created public policies to increase the use of solar water heating in social housing. •We have evaluated the potential for reduction of CO 2 emissions installing solar water heating. •We have found that the coldest regions have the greatest potential for reducing emissions. •Passive technologies for thermal comfort in hot climate households are more useful than solar water heating systems

  11. One-Dimensional Metal-Oxide Nanostructures for Solar Photocatalytic Water-Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyun; Song, Longfei; Zhang, Hongchao; Luo, Linqu; Wang, Dong; Tang, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Because of their unique physical and chemical properties, one-dimensional (1-D) metal-oxide nanostructures have been extensively applied in the areas of gas sensors, electrochromic devices, nanogenerators, and so on. Solar water-splitting has attracted extensive research interest because hydrogen generated from solar-driven water splitting is a clean, sustainable, and abundant energy source that not only solves the energy crisis, but also protects the environment. In this comprehensive review, the main synthesis methods, properties, and especially prominent applications in solar water splitting of 1-D metal-oxides, including titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten trioxide (WO3), iron oxide (Fe2O3), and copper oxide (CuO) are fully discussed.

  12. Analysis of systems for hot water supply with solar energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, M.

    2001-01-01

    The results from the analysis of the hot water consumption of a group of hotels in the Black See resort Albena are presented. Structural schemes of hot water solar systems with flat plate collectors have been synthesized. By the synthesis have been analyzed the type of the consumers, the operating period, the existing heating plants, the auxiliary energy source - electricity. The change of the solar fraction by different performance of the system have been investigated. A comparative analysis of the alternative solutions has been fulfilled. The most advantageous solution has been chosen on the basis of the evaluation of the pay-back period, the life cycle savings and the benefit-cost ratio. The effect of the changing economic characteristics on the economic efficiency have been investigated. The risk for the investments has been examined. It had been proved that for the conditions in Bulgarian Black See region the use of solar energy for hot water producing is economic reasonable. (author)

  13. Impact of solar energy cost on water production cost of seawater desalination plants in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamei, A.; Van der Zaag, P.; Von Muench, E. [UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, 2601 DA Delft (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    Many countries in North Africa and the Middle East are experiencing localized water shortages and are now using desalination technologies with either reverse osmosis (RO) or thermal desalination to overcome part of this shortage. Desalination is performed using electricity, mostly generated from fossil fuels with associated greenhouse gas emissions. Increased fuel prices and concern over climate change are causing a push to shift to alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy, since solar radiation is abundant in this region all year round. This paper presents unit production costs and energy costs for 21 RO desalination plants in the region. An equation is proposed to estimate the unit production costs of RO desalination plants as a function of plant capacity, price of energy and specific energy consumption. This equation is used to calculate unit production costs for desalinated water using photovoltaic (PV) solar energy based on current and future PV module prices. Multiple PV cells are connected together to form a module or a panel. Unit production costs of desalination plants using solar energy are compared with conventionally generated electricity considering different prices for electricity. The paper presents prices for both PV and solar thermal energy. The paper discusses at which electricity price solar energy can be considered economical to be used for RO desalination; this is independent of RO plant capacity. For countries with electricity prices of 0.09 US$/kWh, solar-generated electricity (using PV) can be competitive starting from 2 US$/W{sub p} (W{sub p} is the number of Watts output under standard conditions of sunlight). For Egypt (price of 0.06 US$/kWh), solar-generated electricity starts to be competitive from 1 US$/W{sub p}. Solar energy is not cost competitive at the moment (at a current module price for PV systems including installation of 8 US$/W{sub p}), but advances in the technology will continue to drive the prices down, whilst

  14. Impact of solar energy cost on water production cost of seawater desalination plants in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamei, A.; Van der Zaag, P.; Von Muench, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries in North Africa and the Middle East are experiencing localized water shortages and are now using desalination technologies with either reverse osmosis (RO) or thermal desalination to overcome part of this shortage. Desalination is performed using electricity, mostly generated from fossil fuels with associated greenhouse gas emissions. Increased fuel prices and concern over climate change are causing a push to shift to alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy, since solar radiation is abundant in this region all year round. This paper presents unit production costs and energy costs for 21 RO desalination plants in the region. An equation is proposed to estimate the unit production costs of RO desalination plants as a function of plant capacity, price of energy and specific energy consumption. This equation is used to calculate unit production costs for desalinated water using photovoltaic (PV) solar energy based on current and future PV module prices. Multiple PV cells are connected together to form a module or a panel. Unit production costs of desalination plants using solar energy are compared with conventionally generated electricity considering different prices for electricity. The paper presents prices for both PV and solar thermal energy. The paper discusses at which electricity price solar energy can be considered economical to be used for RO desalination; this is independent of RO plant capacity. For countries with electricity prices of 0.09 US$/kWh, solar-generated electricity (using PV) can be competitive starting from 2 US$/W p (W p is the number of Watts output under standard conditions of sunlight). For Egypt (price of 0.06 US$/kWh), solar-generated electricity starts to be competitive from 1 US$/W p . Solar energy is not cost competitive at the moment (at a current module price for PV systems including installation of 8 US$/W p ), but advances in the technology will continue to drive the prices down, whilst penalties on usage

  15. INWARD RADIAL MIXING OF INTERSTELLAR WATER ICES IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacher, Lionel G.; Marrocchi, Yves; Villeneuve, Johan [CRPG, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, UMR 7358, Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy, F-54501 (France); Verdier-Paoletti, Maximilien J.; Gounelle, Matthieu, E-mail: lvacher@crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr [IMPMC, MNHN, UPMC, UMR CNRS 7590, 61 rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-08-10

    The very wide diversity of asteroid compositions in the main belt suggests significant material transport in the solar protoplanetary disk and hints at the presence of interstellar ices in hydrated bodies. However, only a few quantitative estimations of the contribution of interstellar ice in the inner solar system have been reported, leading to considerable uncertainty about the extent of radial inward mixing in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Ga ago. We show that the pristine CM chondrite Paris contains primary Ca-carbonates whose O-isotopic compositions require an 8%–35% contribution from interstellar water. The presence of interstellar water in Paris is confirmed by its bulk D/H isotopic composition that shows significant D enrichment (D/H = (167 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −6}) relative to the mean D/H of CM chondrites ((145 ± 3) × 10{sup −6}) and the putative D/H of local CM water ((82 ± 1.5) × 10{sup −6}). These results imply that (i) efficient radial mixing of interstellar ices occurred from the outer zone of the solar protoplanetary disk inward and that (ii) chondrites accreted water ice grains from increasing heliocentric distances in the solar protoplanetary disk.

  16. Estimation of daily flow rate of photovoltaic water pumping systems using solar radiation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K. O.; Almohammedi, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a simple model which allows us to contribute in the studies of photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems sizing. The nonlinear relation between water flow rate and solar power has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The model proposed enables us to simulate the water flow rate using solar radiation data for different heads (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m) and for 8S × 3P PV array configuration. The experimental data are obtained with our pumping test facility located at Madinah site (Saudi Arabia). The performances are calculated using the measured solar radiation data of different locations in Saudi Arabia. Knowing the solar radiation data, we have estimated with a good precision the water flow rate Q in five locations (Al-Jouf, Solar Village, AL-Ahsa, Madinah and Gizan) in Saudi Arabia. The flow rate Q increases with the increase of pump power for different heads following the nonlinear model proposed.

  17. Solar water heating for social housing projects in Brazil : the Sapucaias case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, E.M.D.; Neto, L.V.M.; Rocha, J.M.G.; Pereira, L.T.; Buonicontro, L.M.S.; Arreguy, E.; Cunha, D.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Energia; Mesquita, L.C.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-08-01

    Domestic water heating accounts for 6 per cent of total electricity consumed in Brazil where the most common type of water heater is the inexpensive, instant electric and tankless water heater. The need to conserve energy in Brazil has been emphasized by the significant rise in energy prices. In the past decade, the market for solar water heaters in Brazil has grown by more than 20 per cent per year, but only a small portion of the market growth is in low-income housing because solar water heaters are generally too expensive. For that reason, a pilot project was conducted in the year 2000 in which 100 houses in a low-cost housing project in Contagem received solar heaters. This paper describes the seven phases of the project, its technical challenges and the solutions. Two different installation designs were developed, and families received basic training regarding the technology. Electricity consumption was also monitored for a 19 month period. On average, the households achieved a 33 per cent reduction in electricity consumption and a 52 per cent reduction in electricity costs. These impressive results prompted the Brazilian government to help finance solar water heaters to 160,000 families. In 2001 about $40 million (US) was made available for financing the systems. The decision was based on environmental and social concerns. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Graphene oxide-based efficient and scalable solar desalination under one sun with a confined 2D water path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqiang; Xu, Weichao; Tang, Mingyao; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2016-12-06

    Because it is able to produce desalinated water directly using solar energy with minimum carbon footprint, solar steam generation and desalination is considered one of the most important technologies to address the increasingly pressing global water scarcity. Despite tremendous progress in the past few years, efficient solar steam generation and desalination can only be achieved for rather limited water quantity with the assistance of concentrators and thermal insulation, not feasible for large-scale applications. The fundamental paradox is that the conventional design of direct absorber-bulk water contact ensures efficient energy transfer and water supply but also has intrinsic thermal loss through bulk water. Here, enabled by a confined 2D water path, we report an efficient (80% under one-sun illumination) and effective (four orders salinity decrement) solar desalination device. More strikingly, because of minimized heat loss, high efficiency of solar desalination is independent of the water quantity and can be maintained without thermal insulation of the container. A foldable graphene oxide film, fabricated by a scalable process, serves as efficient solar absorbers (>94%), vapor channels, and thermal insulators. With unique structure designs fabricated by scalable processes and high and stable efficiency achieved under normal solar illumination independent of water quantity without any supporting systems, our device represents a concrete step for solar desalination to emerge as a complementary portable and personalized clean water solution.

  19. Enhanced solar evaporation of water from porous media, through capillary mediated forces and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canbazoglu, F. M.; Fan, B.; Kargar, A.; Vemuri, K.; Bandaru, P. R., E-mail: pbandaru@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The relative influence of the capillary, Marangoni, and hydrophobic forces in mediating the evaporation of water from carbon foam based porous media, in response to incident solar radiation, are investigated. It is indicated that inducing hydrophilic interactions on the surface, through nitric acid treatment of the foams, has a similar effect to reduced pore diameter and the ensuing capillary forces. The efficiency of water evaporation may be parameterized through the Capillary number (Ca), with a lower Ca being preferred. The proposed study is of much relevance to efficient solar energy utilization.

  20. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  1. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...

  2. Silicon nanostructures-induced photoelectrochemical solar water splitting for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadwal, U.; Ranjan, Neha; Singh, R.

    2016-05-01

    We study the photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting assisted with synthesized nanostructures. Si nanowires decorated with silver dendrite nanostructures have been synthesized using metal assisted wet chemical etching of (100) Si wafer. Etching has been carried out in an aqueous solution consisting of 5M HF and 0.02M AgNO3. Investigations showed that such type of semiconductor nanostructures act as efficient working electrodes for the splitting of normal water in PEC method. An enhancement in the photon-to-current conversion efficiency and solar-to-hydrogen evolution was observed for obtaining a practical source of clean and renewable fuel.

  3. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with an Oxygenated Amorphous CdS (a-CdS:O) Window Layer: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X.; Dhere, R. G.; Yan, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; DeHart, C.; Duda, A.; Perkins, C.; To, B.

    2002-05-01

    In the conventional CdS/CdTe device structure, the poly-CdS window layer has a bandgap of {approx}2.4 eV, which causes absorption in the short-wavelength region. Higher short-circuit current densities (Jsc) can be achieved by reducing the CdS thickness, but this can adversely impact device open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Also, poly-CdS film has about 10% lattice mismatch related to the CdTe film, which limits the improvement of device Voc and FF. In this paper, we report a novel window material: oxygenated amorphous CdS film (a-CdS:O) prepared at room temperature by rf sputtering. The a-CdS:O film has a higher optical bandgap (2.5-3.1 eV) than the poly-CdS film and an amorphous structure. The preliminary device results have demonstrated that Jsc of the CdTe device can be greatly improved while maintaining higher Voc and FF. We have fabricated a CdTe cell demonstrating an NREL-confirmed Jsc of 25.85 mA/cm2 and a total-area efficiency of 15.4%.

  4. PREFACE: INERA Workshop: Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films-functional Layers in "Smart windows" and Water Splitting Devices. Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Special issue presents the papers for the INERA Workshop entitled "Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices", which was held in Varna, St. Konstantin and Elena, Bulgaria, from the 4th-6th September 2014. The Workshop is organized within the context of the INERA "Research and Innovation Capacity Strengthening of ISSP-BAS in Multifunctional Nanostructures", FP7 Project REGPOT 316309 program, European project of the Institute of Solid State Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. There were 42 participants at the workshop, 16 from Sweden, Germany, Romania and Hungary, 11 invited lecturers, and 28 young participants. There were researchers present from prestigious European laboratories which are leaders in the field of transition metal oxide thin film technologies. The event contributed to training young researchers in innovative thin film technologies, as well as thin films characterization techniques. The topics of the Workshop cover the field of technology and investigation of thin oxide films as functional layers in "Smart windows" and "Water splitting" devices. The topics are related to the application of novel technologies for the preparation of transition metal oxide films and the modification of chromogenic properties towards the improvement of electrochromic and termochromic device parameters for possible industrial deployment. The Workshop addressed the following topics: Metal oxide films-functional layers in energy efficient devices; Photocatalysts and chemical sensing; Novel thin film technologies and applications; Methods of thin films characterizations; From the 37 abstracts sent, 21 manuscripts were written and later refereed. We appreciate the comments from all the referees, and we are grateful for their valuable contributions. Guest Editors: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Tatyana Ivanova Prof. DSc Kostadinka Gesheva Prof. DSc Hassan Chamatti Assoc. Prof. Dr. Georgi Popkirov Workshop Organizing Committee Prof

  5. Solar process water heat for the IRIS images custom color photo lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar facility located at a custom photo laboratory in Mill Valley, California is described. It was designed to provide 59 percent of the hot water requirements for developing photographic film and domestic hot water use. The design load is to provide 6 gallons of hot water per minute for 8 hours per working day at 100 F. It has 640 square feet of flat plate collectors and 360 gallons of hot water storage. The auxillary back up system is a conventional gas-fired water heater. Site and building description, subsystem description, as-built drawings, cost breakdown and analysis, performance analysis, lessons learned, and the operation and maintenance manual are presented.

  6. Solar collector/still for salt-water desalination. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonash, R L

    1983-01-01

    A combined in-line solar collector/still for the desalination of salt water was designed, built, and tested on site in the Florida Keys. During the course of the project the basic configuration was modified, as project funds permitted, to enhance performance. This collector/still utilizes sunlight for the direct heating of water and for the heating of air. The heating air is bubbled through the heated water producing desalinated water vapor which is subsequently collected. The result is non-salted water produced using sunlight.

  7. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-09-29

    The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector

  8. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  9. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Project Sunburst is a demonstration system for solar space heating and cooling and solar hot water heating for a 14,400 square foot office building in Richland, Washington. The project is part of the US Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid--liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building to reject surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program has been provided from the beginning of the program and has resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  10. Methods of accounting the hot water consumption modes at the solar installations design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav O. Dubkovsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of the high-powered solar systems for hot water heating are considered. The purpose of work consists in development of methods for accounting the 24-hourly hot water consumption mode, determining the solar systems dynamic descriptions. The basic solar system schemes are analyzed with their shortages from the user satisfaction view point due to sun energy. For the dynamic parameters improvement the use of operative expense tank is examined such receptacle bearing built-in worm-pipe, through which all heat carrier from solar collectors passes before entering the fast heat exchanger which heats a tank-accumulator. The scientific novelty refers to the proof that this tank principal parameter is a not the volume, but the built-in exchanger capacity, determined by the solar collectors field total thermal power. As an ecological constituent of operating costs it is suggested to take into account cost paid for the emission of combustion products. As this method practical application example considered is the solar collectors capacity optimization for a communal enterprise.

  11. Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System: evidence from angrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Hauri, Erik H; McCubbin, Francis M; Lapen, Thomas J; Berger, Eve L; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; Gaetani, Glenn A; Righter, Kevin; Sarafian, Emily

    2017-05-28

    Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the 207 Pb- 206 Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma. We use volatile saturation models to demonstrate that the angrite parent body must have been a major body in the early inner Solar System. We further show via mixing calculations that all inner Solar System bodies accreted volatile elements with carbonaceous chondrite H and N isotope signatures extremely early in Solar System history. Only a small portion (if any) of comets and gaseous nebular H species contributed to the volatile content of the inner Solar System bodies.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Observations of Warm Water in Young Solar-System Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm

    the water is seen in absorption, with a inverse P-Cygni spectral profile - an indication of infalling motions. The similar line characteristics of water and the other detected molecules in the frequency band, together with the absorption toward one source, shows that these water lines are not masing. Under......In star formation, water is an essential molecule. It affects the oxygen based chemistry, the physical conditions and energy balance in the protostellar envelope, and it is associated with the emergence of life as we know it. Ground based observations of water are hampered by the high amount...... of water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere. Many of the lines that are observable from the ground are masing in star forming regions, making it hard to deduce abundances. The few lines that are observable, and shown not be masing are isotopologues, like HDO and D2O, making the estimates of the main isotopologue...

  13. Generating high-brightness and coherent soft x-ray pulses in the water window with a seeded free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaishang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme to generate high-brightness and temporal coherent soft x-ray radiation in a seeded free-electron laser. The proposed scheme is based on the coherent harmonic generation (CHG and superradiant principles. A CHG scheme is first used to generate a coherent signal at ultrahigh harmonics of the seed. This coherent signal is then amplified by a series of chicane-undulator modules via the fresh bunch and superradiant processes in the following radiator. Using a representative of a realistic set of parameters, three-dimensional simulations have been carried out and the simulations results demonstrated that 10 GW-level ultrashort (∼20  fs coherent radiation pulses in the water window can be achieved by using a 1.6 GeV electron beam based on the proposed technique.

  14. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  15. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved

  16. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  17. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    This study focuses on the water quality assessment (feed, product and brine) of the pilot adsorption desalination (AD) plant. Seawater from the Red Sea is used as feed to the AD plant. Water quality tests are evaluated by complying the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards with major primary and secondary inorganic drinking water pollutants and other commonly tested water quality parameters. Chemical testing of desalinated water at the post desalination stage confirms the high quality of produced fresh water. Test results have shown that the adsorption desalination process is very effective in eliminating all forms of salts, as evidenced by the significant reduction of the TDS levels from approximately 40,000. ppm in feed seawater to less than 10. ppm. Test results exhibit extremely low levels of parameters which are generally abundant in feed seawater. The compositions of seawater and process related parameters such as chloride, sodium, bromide, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and silicate in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its value is less than 0.5. ppm. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Municipal Building complex, Abbeville, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information on the solar energy system installed at the new municipal building for the City of Abbeville, SC is presented, including a description of solar energy system and buildings, lessons learned, and recommendations. The solar space heating system is a direct air heating system. The flat roof collector panel was sized to provide 75% of the heating requirement based on an average day in January. The collectors used are job-built with two layers of filon corrugated fiberglass FRP panels cross lapped make up the cover. The storage consists of a pit filled with washed 3/4 in - 1 1/2 in diameter crushed granite stone. The air handler includes the air handling mechanism, motorized dampers, air circulating blower, sensors, control relays and mode control unit. Solar heating of water is provided only those times when the hot air in the collector is exhausted to the outside.

  19. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal efficiency of the system was found to be 8% with an operating temperature of 120 °C. The hot water produced by the unit has a temperature of 40 °C. Economic assessment was done for 1-kW and 5-kW solar ORC water pumping systems. These systems use different types of solar collectors: a parabolic trough collector (PTC and an evacuated tube collector (ETC. The economic analysis showed that the costs of water are $2.47/m3 (highest and $1.86/m3 (lowest for the 1-kW system and a 150-m pumping head. In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are 2190 m3 and 11,100 m3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1.6. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

  20. Calibrating an optimal condition model for solar water disinfection in peri-urban household water treatment in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurut, Kenan; Wozei, Eleanor; Kulabako, Robinah; Nabasirye, Lillian; Kinobe, Joel

    2013-03-01

    In low income settlements where the quality of drinking water is highly contaminated due to poor hygienic practices at community and household levels, there is need for appropriate, simple, affordable and environmentally sustainable household water treatment technology. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) that utilizes both the thermal and ultra-violet effect of solar radiation to disinfect water can be used to treat small quantities of water at household level to improve its bacteriological quality for drinking purposes. This study investigated the efficacy of the SODIS treatment method in Uganda and determined the optimal condition for effective disinfection. Results of raw water samples from the study area showed deterioration in bacteriological quality of water moved from source to the household; from 3 to 36 cfu/100 mL for tap water and 75 to 126 cfu/100 mL for spring water, using thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) as indicator microorganisms. SODIS experiments showed over 99.9% inactivation of TTCs in 6 h of exposure, with a threshold temperature of 39.5 ± 0.7°C at about 12:00 noon, in the sun during a clear sunny day. A mathematical optimal condition model for effective disinfection has been calibrated to predict the decline of the number of viable microorganisms over time.

  1. Inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of solar domestic hot water system (a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ghorab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Solar Domestic Hot Water systems have increased significantly their market share. In order to better understand the real-life performance of SDHW systems, a single detached house was selected for extensive monitoring. Two solar panels were installed on the house roof to provide thermal energy to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW system. The house was equipped with data logging system and remotely monitored with performance data collected and analyzed over one year. The paper presents the inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of SDHW system, including DHW recirculation loop, under Canadian weather conditions for average family occupancy (two adults and two kids with daily average DHW, draws of 246 L. Moreover, the study is carried out a significant recommendation to improve the SDHW performance, decrease the gas energy consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The SDHW performance depends mainly on DHW flow rate, draw time and duration, city water temperature, DHW recirculation loop control strategy and system layout. The performance analysis results show that 91.5% of the collected solar energy is transferred to the DHW heating load through the solar tank. The contribution to DHW heating load is about 69.4% from natural gas and 30.6% from solar. The recirculation loop is responsible for close to 34.9%, of DHW total energy.

  2. Solar Hydrogen Production via a Samarium Oxide-Based Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The computational thermodynamic analysis of a samarium oxide-based two-step solar thermochemical water splitting cycle is reported. The analysis is performed using HSC chemistry software and databases. The first (solar-based step drives the thermal reduction of Sm2O3 into Sm and O2. The second (non-solar step corresponds to the production of H2 via a water splitting reaction and the oxidation of Sm to Sm2O3. The equilibrium thermodynamic compositions related to the thermal reduction and water splitting steps are determined. The effect of oxygen partial pressure in the inert flushing gas on the thermal reduction temperature (TH is examined. An analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics is performed to determine the cycle efficiency (ηcycle and solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency (ηsolar−to−fuel attainable with and without heat recuperation. The results indicate that ηcycle and ηsolar−to−fuel both increase with decreasing TH, due to the reduction in oxygen partial pressure in the inert flushing gas. Furthermore, the recuperation of heat for the operation of the cycle significantly improves the solar reactor efficiency. For instance, in the case where TH = 2280 K, ηcycle = 24.4% and ηsolar−to−fuel = 29.5% (without heat recuperation, while ηcycle = 31.3% and ηsolar−to−fuel = 37.8% (with 40% heat recuperation.

  3. Self-propagating solar light reduction of graphite oxide in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Boukos, N.; Vermisoglou, E. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153 41 Attikis (Greece); Lekakou, C. [Division of Mechanical, Medical, and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Trapalis, C., E-mail: c.trapalis@inn.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153 41 Attikis (Greece)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite oxide was partially reduced by solar light irradiation in water media. • No addition of catalysts nor reductive agent were used for the reduction. • Specific capacitance increased stepwise with increase of irradiation time. • Self-propagating reduction of graphene oxide by solar light is suggested. - Abstract: Graphite Oxide (GtO) is commonly used as an intermediate material for preparation of graphene in the form of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Being a semiconductor with tunable band gap rGO is often coupled with various photocatalysts to enhance their visible light activity. The behavior of such rGO-based composites could be affected after prolonged exposure to solar light. In the present work, the alteration of the GtO properties under solar light irradiation is investigated. Water dispersions of GtO manufactured by oxidation of natural graphite via Hummers method were irradiated into solar light simulator for different periods of time without addition of catalysts or reductive agent. The FT-IR analysis of the treated dispersions revealed gradual reduction of the GtO with the increase of the irradiation time. The XRD, FT-IR and XPS analyses of the obtained solid materials confirmed the transition of GtO to rGO under solar light irradiation. The reduction of the GtO was also manifested by the CV measurements that revealed stepwise increase of the specific capacitance connected with the restoration of the sp{sup 2} domains. Photothermal self-propagating reduction of graphene oxide in aqueous media under solar light irradiation is suggested as a possible mechanism. The self-photoreduction of GtO utilizing solar light provides a green, sustainable route towards preparation of reduced graphene oxide. However, the instability of the GtO and partially reduced GO under irradiation should be considered when choosing the field of its application.

  4. Low cost thermoformed solar still water purifier for D&E countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flendrig, L. M.; Shah, B.; Subrahmaniam, N.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    IntroductionSolar distillation mimics nature’s hydrologic water cycle by purifying water through evaporation (using solar energy) and condensation (rain). It is one of the most basic purification systems available today to obtain high quality drinking water and can remove non-volatile contamination from almost any water source. This low-tech technology should therefore be ideally suited for developing and emerging countries where sun shines in abundance. In the past century numerous designs have been realised with footprints ranging from 0.5 m 2 to thousands of square meters. Despite all efforts, this intriguing technology has not been applied widely yet. Among the challenges that remain are: (1) its low yield, (2) obtaining local commitment to operate/maintain large scale systems properly, and (3) relatively high initial investment costs. The objective of this study has been to address challenges 1 and 3 by using standard plastic thermoforming technology to realize a small scale single slope solar still for personal use (2-4 l per day) with adequate efficiency and at low production costs. Materials and methodsThe solar still consists of two parts: a basin that holds the dirty water and a transparent tilted cover onto which the clean water vapour can condense. The basin has a footprint of 1.34 m 2 and is made of a 3 mm thick sheet of black high-density polyethylene (HDPE) which is thermoformed using standard equipment for making fish-ponds. This allows for the incorporation of detailed features, like reinforcements and a clean-water collection gutter, at no extra cost. The transparent cover is made of UV stabilised low-density PE-foil which is under a slope of 10° to transport condensed water droplets to the lower located collection gutter. Throughput and purification performance were evaluated in duplicate at our Bangalore R&D facilities in India, over a short term (5 day) period. Solar radiation was measured using a Pyranometer. The system was loaded with 40 l

  5. Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  6. Solar UV Photooxidation as Pretreatment for Stripping Voltammetric Trace Metal Analysis in River Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaneh Woldemichael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar ultraviolet radiation as sample pretreatment or preparation step in stripping voltammetric analysis of trace metals in presence of low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC natural water samples (river water was studied. River water samples were collected from downstream of Warnow river (Germany and acidified to pH of 2±0.2 (by addition of 1 mL of ultrapure 65% HNO3 per liter sample. Furthermore, 100 μL/L of hydrogen peroxide solution (ultrapure, 30% H2O2 was added to the samples as photochemical reaction initiator. The samples were transferred to polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and irradiated with solar radiation of UV-A intensity of 3.6 mW/m2 for six hours, and the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV. The comparison of the values with the results obtained for the original untreated sample and artificial UV-treated one proved that solar UV radiation can be applied to the digestion of dissolved organic carbon in trace metal analysis in natural waters like river water, lake waters, well waters, and so forth.

  7. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  8. EVALUATION OF A SOLAR DESALINATION SYSTEM, TYPE CYLINDRICAL PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR FOR SEA WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mercado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the methodology for the design, construction and commissioning of a solar desalinator, based on a parabolic trough collector and a solar still occurs, is presented. The energy is supplied through the solar collector, which is connected to the distiller. The equipment was set up on the premises of the Universidad Católica del Norte. It is compact, modular, low cost, easy maintenance and long life, with an average production capacity of distilled water of 2.37 l / d, however, it has to be considered that this rate is directly related with weather conditions and sea water flow entering the system, generating an average percentage of 34.04% efficiency. The results obtained with the respective findings, conclusions and recommendations for future projects associated to renewable energy equipment designed analyzed.

  9. Entropy Analysis of Solar Two-Step Thermochemical Cycles for Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lange

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a thermodynamic analysis of solar thermochemical cycles for splitting of H2O or CO2. Such cycles, powered by concentrated solar energy, have the potential to produce fuels in a sustainable way. We extend a previous study on the thermodynamics of water splitting by also taking into account CO2 splitting and the influence of the solar absorption efficiency. Based on this purely thermodynamic approach, efficiency trends are discussed. The comprehensive and vivid representation in T-S diagrams provides researchers in this field with the required theoretical background to improve process development. Furthermore, results about the required entropy change in the used redox materials can be used as a guideline for material developers. The results show that CO2 splitting is advantageous at higher temperature levels, while water splitting is more feasible at lower temperature levels, as it benefits from a great entropy change during the splitting step.

  10. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    , which decreases efficiency of the heat exchange process. A baffle in the tube can prevent the flow instability and secure the flow circulation in the tube. The results of the investigation provide a helpful guidance for further investigation of the mechanism of heat transfer processes and a reference......Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus...... on the convective heat transfer in the tube. The buoyancy induced flow circulation in different parts of the tube was analyzed. It is shown that fluid flow becomes stochastic and turbulent if fluid temperature is high enough. The flow instability leads to mixing of the warm uprising flow and the cold downward flow...

  11. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  12. Highly Flexible, Multipixelated Thermosensitive Smart Windows Made of Tough Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Li, Xinda; Kumar, Amit; Fu, Yiyang; Yang, Shu; Chung, Hyun-Joong

    2017-09-27

    In a cold night, a clear window that will become opaque while retaining the indoor heat is highly desirable for both privacy and energy efficiency. A thermally responsive material that controls both the transmittance of solar radiance (predominantly in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths) and blackbody radiation (mainly in the mid-infrared) can realize such windows with minimal energy consumption. Here, we report a smart coating made from polyampholyte hydrogel (PAH) that transforms from a transparency state to opacity to visible radiation and strengthens opacity to mid-infrared when lowering the temperature as a result of phase separation between the water-rich and polymer-rich phases. To match a typical temperature fluctuation during the day, we fine-tune the phase transition temperature between 25 and 55 °C by introducing a small amount of relatively hydrophobic monomers (0.1 to 0.5 wt % to PAH). To further demonstrate an actively controlled, highly flexible, and high-contrast smart window, we build in an array of electric heaters made of printed elastomeric composite. The multipixelated window offers rapid switching, ∼70 s per cycle, whereas the device can withstand high strain (up to 80%) during operations.

  13. ICLAS of water in the 770 nm transparency window (12 746-13 558 cm-1). Comparison with current experimental and calculated databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campargue, A.; Mikhailenko, S.; Liu, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of water vapor has been investigated by intracavity laser spectroscopy (ICLAS) in the 12 746-13 558 cm -1 spectral region corresponding to an interesting transparency window of the atmosphere, partly obscured by the A band of molecular oxygen. The achieved sensitivity-in the order of α min ∼10 -9 cm -1 -has allowed one to measure 1062 water lines with intensities ranging from 1.6x10 -28 to 2.35x10 -24 cm/molecule at 296 K. A total of 169 new and improved energy levels belonging to 21 vibrational states could be determined from 374 newly measured transitions. The retrieved experimental line list is compared with the spectra calculated by Schwenke and Partridge, and Barber and Tennyson. Comparison with the available experimental databases shows that the obtained results represent a significant improvement of the knowledge of the water absorption in the considered region, in particular in the region of the oxygen A band

  14. ICLAS of water in the 770 nm transparency window (12 746-13 558 cm{sup -1}). Comparison with current experimental and calculated databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campargue, A. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (associated with CNRS, UMR 5588), Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble, B.P. 87, 38402 Saint-Martin-d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Alain.Campargue@ujf-grenoble.fr; Mikhailenko, S. [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB, Russian Academy of Science, 1, Akademicheskii av., 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Liu, A.W. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, associated with CNRS, UMR 5588, Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble, B.P. 87, 38402 Saint-Martin-d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2008-11-15

    The absorption spectrum of water vapor has been investigated by intracavity laser spectroscopy (ICLAS) in the 12 746-13 558 cm{sup -1} spectral region corresponding to an interesting transparency window of the atmosphere, partly obscured by the A band of molecular oxygen. The achieved sensitivity-in the order of {alpha}{sub min}{approx}10{sup -9} cm{sup -1}-has allowed one to measure 1062 water lines with intensities ranging from 1.6x10{sup -28} to 2.35x10{sup -24} cm/molecule at 296 K. A total of 169 new and improved energy levels belonging to 21 vibrational states could be determined from 374 newly measured transitions. The retrieved experimental line list is compared with the spectra calculated by Schwenke and Partridge, and Barber and Tennyson. Comparison with the available experimental databases shows that the obtained results represent a significant improvement of the knowledge of the water absorption in the considered region, in particular in the region of the oxygen A band.

  15. Methodology for estimation of potential for solar water heating in a target area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Indu R.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2007-01-01

    Proper estimation of potential of any renewable energy technology is essential for planning and promotion of the technology. The methods reported in literature for estimation of potential of solar water heating in a target area are aggregate in nature. A methodology for potential estimation (technical, economic and market potential) of solar water heating in a target area is proposed in this paper. This methodology links the micro-level factors and macro-level market effects affecting the diffusion or adoption of solar water heating systems. Different sectors with end uses of low temperature hot water are considered for potential estimation. Potential is estimated at each end use point by simulation using TRNSYS taking micro-level factors. The methodology is illustrated for a synthetic area in India with an area of 2 sq. km and population of 10,000. The end use sectors considered are residential, hospitals, nursing homes and hotels. The estimated technical potential and market potential are 1700 m 2 and 350 m 2 of collector area, respectively. The annual energy savings for the technical potential in the area is estimated as 110 kW h/capita and 0.55 million-kW h/sq. km. area, with an annual average peak saving of 1 MW. The annual savings is 650-kW h per m 2 of collector area and accounts for approximately 3% of the total electricity consumption of the target area. Some of the salient features of the model are the factors considered for potential estimation; estimation of electrical usage pattern for typical day, amount of electricity savings and savings during the peak load. The framework is general and enables accurate estimation of potential of solar water heating for a city, block. Energy planners and policy makers can use this framework for tracking and promotion of diffusion of solar water heating systems. (author)

  16. Nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation for off-grid water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongare, Pratiksha D; Alabastri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Seth; Zodrow, Katherine R; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Neumann, Oara; Wu, Jinjian; Wang, Tianxiao; Deshmukh, Akshay; Elimelech, Menachem; Li, Qilin; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2017-07-03

    With more than a billion people lacking accessible drinking water, there is a critical need to convert nonpotable sources such as seawater to water suitable for human use. However, energy requirements of desalination plants account for half their operating costs, so alternative, lower energy approaches are equally critical. Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential due to its low operating temperature and pressure requirements, but the requirement of heating the input water makes it energy intensive. Here, we demonstrate nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation (NESMD), where highly localized photothermal heating induced by solar illumination alone drives the distillation process, entirely eliminating the requirement of heating the input water. Unlike MD, NESMD can be scaled to larger systems and shows increased efficiencies with decreased input flow velocities. Along with its increased efficiency at higher ambient temperatures, these properties all point to NESMD as a promising solution for household- or community-scale desalination.

  17. Water-splitting catalysis and solar fuel devices: artificial leaves on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Khurram Saleem; Joya, Yasir F; Ocakoglu, Kasim; van de Krol, Roel

    2013-09-27

    The development of new energy materials that can be utilized to make renewable and clean fuels from abundant and easily accessible resources is among the most challenging and demanding tasks in science today. Solar-powered catalytic water-splitting processes can be exploited as a source of electrons and protons to make clean renewable fuels, such as hydrogen, and in the sequestration of CO2 and its conversion into low-carbon energy carriers. Recently, there have been tremendous efforts to build up a stand-alone solar-to-fuel conversion device, the "artificial leaf", using light and water as raw materials. An overview of the recent progress in electrochemical and photo-electrocatalytic water splitting devices is presented, using both molecular water oxidation complexes (WOCs) and nano-structured assemblies to develop an artificial photosynthetic system. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation for off-grid water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongare, Pratiksha D.; Alabastri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Seth; Zodrow, Katherine R.; Hogan, Nathaniel J.; Neumann, Oara; Wu, Jinjian; Wang, Tianxiao; Deshmukh, Akshay; Elimelech, Menachem; Li, Qilin; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    With more than a billion people lacking accessible drinking water, there is a critical need to convert nonpotable sources such as seawater to water suitable for human use. However, energy requirements of desalination plants account for half their operating costs, so alternative, lower energy approaches are equally critical. Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential due to its low operating temperature and pressure requirements, but the requirement of heating the input water makes it energy intensive. Here, we demonstrate nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation (NESMD), where highly localized photothermal heating induced by solar illumination alone drives the distillation process, entirely eliminating the requirement of heating the input water. Unlike MD, NESMD can be scaled to larger systems and shows increased efficiencies with decreased input flow velocities. Along with its increased efficiency at higher ambient temperatures, these properties all point to NESMD as a promising solution for household- or community-scale desalination. PMID:28630307

  19. Utilization of solar energy through photosynthesis and artificial water photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    The plants build up organic matter with a carbon content of the order of 1011 t/year by means of photochemistry. Energy farming for the production of liquid or gaseous fuel is discussed. Yet the abiotic photolysis of water with production of hydrogen is preferable. By means of synthetic, asymmetric, photochemically active, membranes the primary products of water photolysis could be spatially separated so that their recombination is prevented.(author)

  20. Water and oxygen induced degradation of small molecule organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermenau, Martin; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule organic solar cells were studied with respect to water and oxygen induced degradation by mapping the spatial distribution of reaction products in order to elucidate the degradation patterns and failure mechanisms. The active layers consist of a 30 nm bulk heterojunction formed...

  1. Oxygen Versus Water induced Degradation of an inverted Polymer Solar Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager Madsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The relative effect of water and oxygen on the extent of degradation in an inverted polymer solar cell was studied. Carefully disassembling the devise revealed detailed information on where and to what extent degradation had occurred at different interfaces of the device. Chemical characterization...

  2. Mitigating Climate Change by the Development and Deployment of Solar Water Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Wara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is becoming an alternative for the limited fossil fuel resources. One of the simplest and most direct applications of this energy is the conversion of solar radiation into heat, which can be used in Water Heating Systems. Ogun State in Nigeria was used as a case study. The solar radiation for the state was explored with an annual average of 4.775 kWh/m2 recorded. The designed system comprised storage tanks and the collector unit which comprises wooden casing, copper tube, and aluminium foil. Test results for the unlagged and lagged storage tanks for water temperature at various angles of inclination (2.500°–20.000° were on the average 27.800°C and 28.300°C, respectively, for the inlet temperature and 60.100°C and 63.000°C for the outlet temperature, respectively. The efficiency of the Solar Water Heating System was 72.500% and the power saved 2.798 kW. The cost of the unit is put at 1121,400 ($145 as at August 2012. The unit developed can be applied for the purpose of reducing the cost of energy, dealing with environmental challenges, and improving the use of energy, hence serving as a climate mitigation process as this can be extended for water heating for domestic and other industrial purposes.

  3. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Polo-López, MI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment...

  4. Dynamic Modeling, Control, and Analysis of a Solar Water Pumping System for Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer M. Shebani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one of the suitable solar photovoltaic (PV applications is a water pumping system. The simplest solar PV pumping system consists of PV array, DC-DC converter, DC motor, and water pump. In this paper, water pumping system sizing for Libya is evaluated based on a daily demand using HOMER software, and dynamic modeling of a solar PV water pumping system using a Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC motor is presented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The system performance with maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on Fractional Open Circuit Voltage (FOCV is evaluated with and without a battery storage system. In some applications, a rated voltage is needed to connect a PMDC motor to a PV array through a DC-DC converter and in other applications the input voltage can vary. The evaluation of the system is based on the performance during a change in solar irradiation. Using Matlab/Simulink, simulation results are assessed to see the efficiency of the system when it is operating at a specific speed or at the MPPT. The results show that an improvement in the system efficiency can be achieved when the PMDC motor is running at a specific speed rather than at the peak PV power point.

  5. Photocharged BiVO4 photoanodes for improved solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trze?niewski, B.J.; Smith, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising semiconductor material for the production of solar fuels via photoelectrochemical water splitting, however, it suffers from substantial recombination losses that limit its performance to well below its theoretical maximum. Here we demonstrate for the first

  6. A figure of merit for selective absorbers in flat plate solar water heaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive from first principles an analytical expression for a figure of merit (FM) for a selective solar absorber in a single glazed flat plate water heater. We first show that the efficiency of a collector with an absorber with absorptance α...

  7. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  8. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an optimization method for a hybrid (wind-solar) autonomous system designed for pumping water. This method is based on mathematical models demonstrated for the analysis and control of the performance of the various components of the hybrid system. These models provide an estimate of ...

  9. The absorption spectrum of water vapor in the 2.2 μm transparency window: High sensitivity measurements and spectroscopic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campargue, A.; Mikhailenko, S.N.; Vasilchenko, S.; Reynaud, C.; Béguier, S.; Čermák, P.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Romanini, D.

    2017-01-01

    The weak absorption spectrum of water vapor in the important 2.2 μm transparency window is investigated with very high sensitivity. Overall, about 400 absorption lines were measured by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Laser Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) in five spectral intervals: 4248.2–4257.3, 4298.4–4302.6, 4336.8.5-4367.5, 4422.4-4441.2 and 4514.6-4533.7 cm −1 . The achieved sensitivity of the recordings (noise equivalent absorption, α min , on the order of 2×10 −10 cm −1 ) allowed detecting transitions with intensity values down to 1×10 −28 cm/molecule, more than one order of magnitude better than previous studies by Fourier Transform spectroscopy. The rovibrational assignment was performed on the basis of variational calculations and of previously determined empirical energy values. Most of the newly assigned lines correspond to transitions of the ν 1 , ν 3 and 3ν 2 bands of H 2 17 O in natural isotopic abundance. Fourteen energy levels of H 2 17 O, H 2 18 O and HD 18 O are newly determined. An accurate and complete spectroscopic database is constructed for natural water in the 4190–4550 cm −1 region (2.39–2.20 µm). The list includes about 4500 transitions with intensity greater than 1×10 −29 cm/molecule, for the six most abundant isotopologues in natural isotopic abundance. Line positions were obtained by difference of empirical energy values determined from literature data and complemented with the present CRDS results. The list is made mostly complete by including weak transitions not yet detected, with positions calculated from empirical levels and variational intensities. The variational intensities computed by a collaboration between the University College London and the Institute of Applied Physics in Nizhny Novgorod are found to improve significantly previous results by Schwenke and Partridge. Examples of comparison of the constructed line list to CRDS spectra and to simulations based on

  10. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  11. Factors associated with compliance among users of solar water disinfection in rural Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Christen, Andri; Duran Pacheco, Gonzalo; Hattendorf, Jan; Arnold, Benjamin F; Cevallos, Myriam; Indergand, Stefan; Colford, John M; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of childhood mortality, with an estimated 1.3 million deaths per year. Promotion of Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) has been suggested as a strategy for reducing the global burden of diarrhoea by improving the microbiological quality of drinking water. Despite increasing support for the large-scale dissemination of SODIS, there are few reports describing the effectiveness of its implementation. It is, therefore, important to identify ...

  12. Computer aided design of systems for solar powered water pumping by photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Ing. Low system efficiency is a critical problem in photovoltaic (PV) applications due to low efficiency of solar cells. Despite this shortcoming, stand-alone PV systems, have proven to be economical and reliable choices in some applications such as telecommunications, vaccine refrigeration and water pumping in remote locations. In this study, CAD algorithms for the design of PV water pumping systems have been developed with the objective of maximizing the conversion efficiency from the ...

  13. Calculation of water-bearing primary basalt and estimation of source mantle conditions beneath arcs: PRIMACALC2 model for WINDOWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Ariskin, Alexey A.

    2014-04-01

    We present a new method for estimating the composition of water-bearing primary arc basalt and its source mantle conditions. The PRIMACALC2 model uses a thermodynamic fractional crystallization model COMAGMAT3.72 and runs with an Excel macro to examine the mantle equilibrium and trace element calculations of a primary basalt. COMAGMAT3.72 calculates magma fractionation in 0-10 kb at various compositions, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and water content, but is only applicable for forward calculations. PRIMACALC2 first calculates the provisional composition of a primary basalt from an observed magma. The basalt composition is then calculated by COMAGMAT3.72 for crystallization. Differences in elemental concentrations between observed and the closest-match calculated magmas are then adjusted in the primary basalt. Further iteration continues until the calculated magma composition converges with the observed magma, resulting in the primary basalt composition. Once the fitting is satisfied, back calculations of trace elements are made using stepwise addition of fractionated minerals. Mantle equilibrium of the primary basalt is tested using the Fo-NiO relationship of olivine in equilibrium with the primary basalt, and thus with the source mantle. Source mantle pressure, temperature, and degree of melting are estimated using petrogenetic grids based on experimental data obtained in anhydrous systems. Mantle melting temperature in a hydrous system is computed by adjusting T with a parameterization for a water-bearing system. PRIMACALC2 can be used either in dry or water-bearing arc magmas and is also applicable to mid-ocean ridge basalts and nonalkalic ocean island basalts.

  14. Solar disinfection: an approach for low-cost household water treatment technology in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Awrajaw; Alemayehu, Esayas; Mekonen, Seblework; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Ambelu, Argaw

    2014-01-10

    Disinfection of contaminated water using solar radiation (SODIS) is known to inactivate bacteria. Its inactivation efficiency depends on local conditions where the disinfection is made. This study was aiming to test the efficiency of solar disinfection using different water parameters as low-cost household water treatment technology. Inactivation of microbes was tested using fecal coliform as test organism. The SODIS experiment was carried out at turbidity 2NTU, pH 7, and various water temperature (38.1°C, 41.8°C, 45.6°Cand 51.1°C) and solar intensities, using clear and black plastic bottles filled to different depths. The results show that the rate of microbial inactivation in relation to depth of water, turbidity, container type, intensity of light and color of container was statistically significant (p SODIS could play a significant role in the provision of safe water in rural communities of developing countries where there is ample sunshine, specifically in sub-Saharan African countries.

  15. Vertically Aligned Graphene Sheets Membrane for Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Generation of Clean Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panpan; Li, Jing; Lv, Lingxiao; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2017-05-23

    Efficient utilization of solar energy for clean water is an attractive, renewable, and environment friendly way to solve the long-standing water crisis. For this task, we prepared the long-range vertically aligned graphene sheets membrane (VA-GSM) as the highly efficient solar thermal converter for generation of clean water. The VA-GSM was prepared by the antifreeze-assisted freezing technique we developed, which possessed the run-through channels facilitating the water transport, high light absorption capacity for excellent photothermal transduction, and the extraordinary stability in rigorous conditions. As a result, VA-GSM has achieved average water evaporation rates of 1.62 and 6.25 kg m -2 h -1 under 1 and 4 sun illumination with a superb solar thermal conversion efficiency of up to 86.5% and 94.2%, respectively, better than that of most carbon materials reported previously, which can efficiently produce the clean water from seawater, common wastewater, and even concentrated acid and/or alkali solutions.

  16. Phase Change Material on Augmentation of Fresh Water Production Using Pyramid Solar Still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravishankara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The augmentation of fresh water and increase in the solar still efficiency of a triangular pyramid is added with phase change material (PCM on the basin. Experimental studies were conducted and the effects of production of fresh water with and without PCM were investigated. Using paraffin as the PCM material, performance of the solar still were conducted on a hot, humid climate of Chennai (13°5′ 2" North, 80°16′ 12"East, India. The use of paraffin wax increases the latent heat storage so that the energy is stored in the PCM and in the absence of solar radiation it rejects its stored heat into the basin for further evaporation of water from the basin. Temperatures of water, Tw, Temperature of phase change material, TPCM, Temperature of cover, Tc were measured using thermocouple. Results show that there is an increase of maximum 20%, in productivity of fresh water with PCM. Keywords: fresh water production; PCM; thermal energy storage; phase change material

  17. Use of solar energy in the treatment of water contaminated with phenol by photochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. B. Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar driven photo-Fenton process for treating water containing phenol as a contaminant has been evaluated by means of pilot-scale experiments with a parabolic trough solar reactor (PTR. The effects of Fe(II (0.04-1.0 mmol L-1, H2O2 (7-270 mmol L-1, initial phenol concentration (100 and 500 mg C L-1, solar radiation, and operation mode (batch and fed-batch on the process efficiency were investigated. More than 90% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC was removed within 3 hours of irradiation or less, a performance equivalent to that of artificially-irradiated reactors, indicating that solar light can be used either as an effective complementary or as an alternative source of photons for the photo-Fenton degradation process. A non-linear multivariable model based on a neural network was fit to the experimental results of batch-mode experiments in order to evaluate the relative importance of the process variables considered on the DOC removal over the reaction time. This included solar radiation, which is not a controlled variable. The observed behavior of the system in batch-mode was compared with fed-batch experiments carried out under similar conditions. The main contribution of the study consists of the results from experiments under different conditions and the discussion of the system behavior. Both constitute important information for the design and scale-up of solar radiation-based photodegradation processes.

  18. Optimization of Solar Water Heating System under Time and Spatial Partition Heating in Rural Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of time and spatial partition heating to a solar water heating system. The heating effect and system performance were analyzed under the continuous and whole space heating and time and spatial partition heating using TRNSYS. The results were validated by comparing with the test results of the demonstration building. Compared to continuous and whole space heating, the use of time and spatial partition heating increases the solar fraction by 16.5%, reduces the auxiliary heating by 7390 MJ, and reduces the annual operation cost by 2010 RMB. Under time and spatial partition heating, optimization analyses were conducted for the two system capacity parameters of the solar collector area and tank volume and the one operation parameter of auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature. The results showed that a reasonable choice of the solar collector area can reduce the dynamic annual cost, the increased tank volume is advantageous to heat storage, and the auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature have greater influence on the indoor heating effect. The advanced opening of solar water heating system and the normal opening of passive air vents are recommended. Based on the comparison of the two modes, the time and spatial partition heating technology is a better choice for rural dwellings.

  19. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  20. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  1. Comparison of conventional and solar-water-heating products and industries report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noreen, D; LeChevalier, R; Choi, M; Morehouse, J

    1980-07-11

    President Carter established a goal that would require installation of at least one million solar water heaters by 1985 and 20 million water-heating systems by the year 2000. The goals established require that the solar industry be sufficiently mature to provide cost-effective, reliable designs in the immediate future. The objective of this study was to provide the Department of Energy with quantified data that can be used to assess and redirect, if necessary, the program plans to assure compliance with the President's goals. Results deal with the product, the industry, the market, and the consumer. All issues are examined in the framework of the conventional-hot-water industry. Based on the results of this solar hot water assessment study, there is documented proof that the solar industry is blessed with over 20 good solar hot water systems. A total of eight generic types are currently being produced, but a majority of the systems being sold are included in only five generic types. The good systems are well-packaged for quality, performance and installation ease. These leading systems are sized and designed to fit the requirements of the consumer in every respect. This delivery end also suffers from a lack of understanding of the best methods for selling the product. At the supplier end, there are problems also, including: some design deficiencies, improper materials selection and, occasionally, the improper selection of components and subsystems. These, in total, are not serious problems in the better systems and will be resolved as this industry matures.

  2. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  3. Observations of Warm Water in Young Solar-System Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm

    form of water difficult. A solution to this has been to send up space based observatories, which observe outside of the atmosphere free from disturbances. These observations are, because of the small telescope sizes, of low resolution, making it hard to separate the different source components...... of water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere. Many of the lines that are observable from the ground are masing in star forming regions, making it hard to deduce abundances. The few lines that are observable, and shown not be masing are isotopologues, like HDO and D2O, making the estimates of the main isotopologue...

  4. Solar photo-ozonation: A novel treatment method for the degradation of water pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chávez, Ana M.; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J.; Álvarez, Pedro M., E-mail: pmalvare@unex.es

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Aqueous ozone decomposition is accelerated by solar radiation. • Hydrogen peroxide is identifies as a main intermediate of decomposition of aqueous ozone under solar irradiation. • Solar photo-ozonation leads to higher Rct ratios than single ozonation. • Solar photo-ozonation is a promising AOP for the degradation of water pollutants. - Abstract: The decomposition of aqueous ozone by UV–vis radiation has been investigated with focus on the impact of ozone photolysis on the degradation of water pollutants during solar ozonation processes. The apparent first-order rate constants of the decomposition of ozone (k{sub obs}) have been determined at various pHs in the 4–9 range using radiation of different wavelengths in the UV–vis range. It was found that UVA–visible radiation (λ > 320 nm) highly enhanced ozone decomposition, especially at pH 4, for which k{sub obs} was three-folded with respect to the process in the absence of radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was identified as a main intermediate of ozone photo-decomposition at pH 4. Experiments of degradation of oxalic acid by ozone showed that solar irradiation brings about an increase in the hydroxyl radical to ozone exposures ratio (R{sub ct}). Finally, photo-ozonation (λ > 300 nm) was shown advantageous over single ozonation in the mineralization of a selection of emerging contaminants (metoprolol, ibuprofen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide and clofibric acid) in both ultrapure water and a synthetic secondary effluent. Thus, TOC removal in 2-h treatments increased from 10 to 25% in the absence of radiation to about 50% in the presence of radiation.

  5. Solar photo-ozonation: A novel treatment method for the degradation of water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez, Ana M.; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J.; Álvarez, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ozone decomposition is accelerated by solar radiation. • Hydrogen peroxide is identifies as a main intermediate of decomposition of aqueous ozone under solar irradiation. • Solar photo-ozonation leads to higher Rct ratios than single ozonation. • Solar photo-ozonation is a promising AOP for the degradation of water pollutants. - Abstract: The decomposition of aqueous ozone by UV–vis radiation has been investigated with focus on the impact of ozone photolysis on the degradation of water pollutants during solar ozonation processes. The apparent first-order rate constants of the decomposition of ozone (k obs ) have been determined at various pHs in the 4–9 range using radiation of different wavelengths in the UV–vis range. It was found that UVA–visible radiation (λ > 320 nm) highly enhanced ozone decomposition, especially at pH 4, for which k obs was three-folded with respect to the process in the absence of radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was identified as a main intermediate of ozone photo-decomposition at pH 4. Experiments of degradation of oxalic acid by ozone showed that solar irradiation brings about an increase in the hydroxyl radical to ozone exposures ratio (R ct ). Finally, photo-ozonation (λ > 300 nm) was shown advantageous over single ozonation in the mineralization of a selection of emerging contaminants (metoprolol, ibuprofen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide and clofibric acid) in both ultrapure water and a synthetic secondary effluent. Thus, TOC removal in 2-h treatments increased from 10 to 25% in the absence of radiation to about 50% in the presence of radiation.

  6. Water vapor measurements at ALOMAR over a solar cycle compared with model calculations by LIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartogh, P.; Sonnemann, G. R.; Grygalashvyly, M.; Song, Li; Berger, U.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave water vapor measurements between 40 and 80 km altitude over a solar cycle (1996-2006) were carried out in high latitudes at Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) (69.29°N, 16.03°E), Norway. Some smaller gaps and three interruptions of monitoring in the winters 1996/1997 and 2005/2006 and from spring 2001 to spring 2002 occurred during this period. The observations show a distinct year-to-year variability not directly related to solar Lyman-α radiation. In winter the water vapor mixing ratios in the upper domain were anticorrelated to the solar activity, whereas in summer, minima occurred in the years after the solar maximum in 2000/2001. In winter, sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) modulated the water vapor mixing ratios. Within the stratopause region a middle atmospheric water vapor maximum was observed, which results from the methane oxidation and is a regular feature there. The altitude of the maximum increased by approximately 5 km as summer approached. The largest mixing ratios were monitored in autumn. During the summer season a secondary water vapor maximum also occurred above 65 km most pronounced in late summer. The solar Lyman-α radiation impacts the water vapor mixing ratio particularly in winter above 65 km. In summer the correlation is positive below 70 km. The correlation is also positive in the lower mesosphere/stratopause region in winter due to the action of sudden stratospheric warmings, which occur more frequently under the condition of high solar activity and the enhancing the humidity. A strong day-to-day variability connected with planetary wave activity was found throughout the entire year. Model calculations by means of Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model (LIMA) reflect the essential patterns of the water vapor variation, but the results also show differences from the observations, indicating that exchange processes between the troposphere and stratosphere not modeled by LIMA could have

  7. Energy efficiency façade design in high-rise apartment buildings using the calculation of solar heat transfer through windows with shading devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, P. T. H.

    2018-04-01

    The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.

  8. Solar-Driven Production of Hydrogen Peroxide from Water and Dioxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-03

    Hydrogen peroxide, which is a green oxidant and fuel, is produced by a two-electron/two-proton reduction of dioxygen, two-electron/two-proton oxidation of water, or a combination of four-electron/four-proton or/and two-electron/two-proton oxidation of water and two-electron/two-proton reduction of dioxygen. There are many reports on electrocatalysts for selective two-electron/two-proton reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide instead of four-electron/four-proton reduction of dioxygen to produce water. As compared with the two-electron/two-proton reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide, fewer catalysts are known for the selective two-electron/two-proton oxidation of water to produce hydrogen peroxide instead of four-electron/four-proton oxidation of water to evolve dioxygen. Thus, solar-driven production of hydrogen peroxide mainly consists of the catalytic four-electron/four-proton oxidation of water and the catalytic two-electron/two-proton reduction of dioxygen. The overall reaction is the solar-driven oxidation of water by dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Either or both the four-electron/four-proton or/and the two-electron/two-proton oxidation of water and the two-electron/two-proton reduction of dioxygen requires photocatalysts. The yield of hydrogen peroxide is improved when the compartment for the photocatalytic four-electron/four-proton or/and two-electron/two-proton oxidation of water is separated from that for the catalytic two-electron/two-proton reduction of dioxygen using a two-compartment cell separated by a membrane. The overall solar-driven oxidation of water by dioxygen, which is the greenest oxidant, to produce hydrogen peroxide can be combined with catalytic oxidation of various substrates by hydrogen peroxide. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in the spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring the performance of the water-heating systems since May 2014.

  10. The potential of solar water disinfection as a household water treatment method in peri-urban Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murinda, Sharon; Kraemer, Silvie

    The potential for reducing diarrhoea morbidity and improving the health status of children in developing countries using solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been demonstrated in past research. A baseline survey was conducted to explore the feasibility and necessity of introducing SODIS in peri-urban communities of Zimbabwe. The survey sought to establish drinking water quality in these areas and to determine the health and hygiene beliefs as well as practices related to water handling in the household. Microbiological water quality tests and personal interviews were carried out in Epworth township and Hopley farm, two peri-urban areas near the capital of Zimbabwe, Harare. These two areas are among the poorest settlements around Harare with 80% of inhabitants being informal settlers. Community meetings were held to introduce solar water disinfection prior to the survey. This was followed by administration of questionnaires, which aimed to investigate whether the community had ever heard about SODIS, whether they were practicing it, other means that were being used to treat drinking water as well as health and hygiene beliefs and practices. It was found out that most households cannot afford basic water treatment like boiling as firewood is expensive. People generally reported that the water was not palatable due to objectionable odour and taste. Microbiological water quality tests proved that drinking water was contaminated in both areas, which makes the water unsafe for drinking and shows the necessity of treatment. Although the majority of people interviewed had not heard of SODIS prior to the interview, attitudes towards its introduction were very positive and the intention to do SODIS in the future was high. Amongst the ones who had heard about SODIS before the study, usage was high. Plastic PET bottles, which were used for the SODIS experiments are currently unavailable and this has been identified as a potential hindrance to the successful implementation of

  11. Water vapor motion signal extraction from FY-2E longwave infrared window images for cloud-free regions: The temporal difference technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chu, Yanli; Zhao, Hang; Tang, Min

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the low-level atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) in clear areas with FY-2E IR2 window (11.59-12.79 μm) channel imagery, where the traditional cloud motion wind technique fails. A new tracer selection procedure, which we call the temporal difference technique, is demonstrated in this paper. This technique makes it possible to infer low-level wind by tracking features in the moisture pattern that appear as brightness temperature ( T B) differences between consecutive sequences of 30-min-interval FY-2E IR2 images over cloud-free regions. The T B difference corresponding to a 10% change in water vapor density is computed with the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN4) radiative transfer model. The total contribution from each of the 10 layers is analyzed under four typical atmospheric conditions: tropical, midlatitude summer, U.S. standard, and midlatitude winter. The peak level of the water vapor weighting function for the four typical atmospheres is assigned as a specific height to the T B "wind". This technique is valid over cloud-free ocean areas. The proposed algorithm exhibits encouraging statistical results in terms of vector difference (VD), speed bias (BIAS), mean vector difference (MVD), standard deviation (SD), and root-mean-square error (RMSE), when compared with the wind field of NCEP reanalysis data and rawinsonde observations.

  12. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  13. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahena Bias, Angelica; Villasenor, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.

  14. Development of sunlight-driven eutectic phase change material nanocomposite for applications in solar water heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shankara Narayanan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic phase change materials (PCMs have been utilized as latent heat energy storage medium for effective thermal management. In this work, a PCM nanocomposite, consisting of a mixture of two organic PCMs (referred to as eutectic gel PCM and minimal amount (0.5 wt% of nanographite (NG as a supporting material, was prepared. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to determine the melting temperature and latent heat of pristine PCM, paraffin (61.5 °C and 161.5 J/g, eutectic gel PCM (54 °C and 158 J/g and eutectic gel PCM nanocomposite (53.5 °C and 155 J/g. The prepared PCM nanocomposites exhibited enhanced thermal conductivity and ultrafast thermal charging characteristics. The nanocomposites were employed for two different applications: (i providing hot water using an indigenously fabricated solar water heating (SWH system and (ii solar rechargeable glove that can be rapidly warmed and used. Experimental results on SWH system show that the use of PCM nanocomposites helps to increase the charging rate of PCM while reducing the discharging rate of heat by PCM to water, thus enhancing the maximum utilization of solar energy and hence improving the efficiency of the SWH system. The experimental results on solar rechargeable glove revealed that the glove has the ability to retain the temperature up to 3 hours.

  15. Second-law analysis of a two-phase self-pumping solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.A.; Davidson, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper entropy generated by operation of a two-phase self-pumping solar water heater under Solar Rating and Certification Corporation rating conditions is computed numerically in a methodology based on an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that entropy generation is dominated by heat transfer across temperature differences. Conversion of radiant solar energy incident on the collector to thermal energy within the collector accounts for 87.1 percent of total entropy generation. Thermal losses are responsible for 9.9 percent of total entropy generation, and heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.4 percent of the total entropy generation. Mixing in the tempering valve is responsible for 0.7 percent of the total entropy generation. Approximately one half of the entropy generated by thermal losses is attributable to the self-pumping process. The procedure to determine total entropy generation can be used in a parametric study to evaluate the performance of two-phase hot water heating systems relative to other solar water heating options

  16. Heterogeneous Bimetallic Phosphide/Sulfide Nanocomposite for Efficient Solar-Energy-Driven Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yanmei; Kan, Xiang; Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2017-10-24

    Solar-driven overall water splitting is highly desirable for hydrogen generation with sustainable energy sources, which need efficient, earth-abundant, robust, and bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we propose a heterogeneous bimetallic phosphide/sulfide nanocomposite electrocatalyst of NiFeSP on nickel foam (NiFeSP/NF), which shows superior electrocatalytic activity of low overpotentials of 91 mV at -10 mA cm -2 for HER and of 240 mV at 50 mA cm -2 for OER in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, the NiFeSP/NF presents excellent overall water splitting performance with a cell voltage as low as 1.58 V at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 . Combining with a photovoltaic device of a Si solar cell or integrating into photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems, the bifunctional NiFeSP/NF electrocatalyst implements unassisted solar-driven water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ∼9.2% and significantly enhanced PEC performance, respectively.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND DEVELOPMENT OF A WATER BASIN USED AS SOLAR SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Laouini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy sources play an important role in the development of humanity, with the industrial and technological evolution of our century. Energy demand is increasing every year, for this reason we must seek an alternate source of energy more specifically new and renewable energy including solar energy. Note that solar energy is abundant, especially the south-eastern Algeria, where solar radiation is significant in any year. Given that it is the cheapest of all other energy, many researches and experiments have been conducted to recover the maximum amount of renewable energy and to address the problems of use and operation to reduce and save energy traditional.This work concerns the development of a new device is a basin filled with water used as a solar plane and a storage medium. The results obtained are very important in terms of heating water, the water temperature at outlet of basin reaches up to 74 ° C, also the inlet temperature is 29 ° C.

  18. Efficiencies and Physical Principles of Various Solar Energy Conversion Processes Leading to the Photolysis of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergene, T.

    1995-12-31

    In the application of solar energy, hydrogen is likely to be used as an energy carrier and a storage medium. Production of molecular hydrogen and oxygen from water requires energy input, which may come from solar energy in various ways. This thesis begins with a literature survey of the different conversion processes and the efficiencies, which is an introduction to a series of enclosed papers. These papers are: (1) Trapping of Minority Charge Carriers at Irradiated Semiconductor/Electrolyte Heterojunctions, (2) Model Calculations on Flat-Plate Solar Heat Collector With Integrated Solar Cells, and (3) Efficiencies and Physical Principles of Photolysis of Water By Microalgae. In the papers, The qualitative features of the ``illumination-current``-characteristic curve are deduced. The hypothesis is that trapping originates in some specific cases because of confinement, which leads to charge injections into energy states above that corresponding to the band edge. The quantitative features of certain hybrid photovoltaic/thermal configuration are deduced. An analysis of the theoretical and realizable efficiencies of the photolysis of water by micro algae is given. 151 refs., 18 figs., 1 table

  19. Application of an electrochemical chlorine-generation system combined with solar energy as appropriate technology for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jusol; Park, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-02-01

    Affordable water disinfection is key to reducing the waterborne disease experienced worldwide where resources are limited. A simple electrochemical system that can generate chlorine as a disinfectant from the electrolysis of sodium chloride is an appropriate technology to produce clean water, particularly if driven by solar energy. This study examined the affordability of an electrochemical chlorine generation system using solar energy and developed the necessary design information for its implementation. A two-electrode batch reactor, equipped with commercial IrO(2)-coated electrodes and a solar panel (approximate area 0.2 m(2)), was used to produce chlorine from a 35g/L solution of NaCl. Within 1 h, sufficient chlorine (0.8 g) was generated to produce clean drinking water for about 80 people for 1 day (target microorganism: Escherichia coli; daily drinking water requirement: 2 L per person; chlorine demand: 4 mg/L; solar power: 650 W/m(2) in Seoul, Korea. Small household batteries were demonstrated to be a suitable alternative power source when there is insufficient solar irradiation. Using a 1 m(2) solar panel, the reactor would take only 15 min in Seoul, Korea, or 7 min in the tropics (solar power 1300 W/m(2)), to generate 1 g of chlorine. The solar-powered electrochemical chlorine generation system for which design information is provided here is a simple and affordable way to produce chlorine with which to convert contaminated water into clean drinking water.

  20. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  1. NANOSTRUCTURED TiO2 SENSITIZED WITH PORPHYRINS FOR SOLAR WATER-SPLITTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA-CORINA ROŞU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured TiO2 sensitized with porphyrins for Solar water-splitting.The production of hydrogen from water using solar light is very promising for generations of an ecologically pure carrier contributing to a clean, sustainable and renewable energy system. The selection of specific photocatalyst material for hydrogen production in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs is based on some important characteristics of semiconductor, such as photo-corrosion and chemical corrosion stability, photocatalytic potential, high sensitivity for UV-visible light. In the present paper, different nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanodes have been prepared via wet-chemical techniques followed by annealing treatment and sensitized with porphyrins and supramolecular complexes of porphyrins. The so obtained photocatalysts were characterized with UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The purpose of these experiments is to show if the prepared materials possess the necessary photocatalytic characteristics and if they can be used with success in H2 production from water decomposition in PECs.

  2. An Accurate Method for Computing the Absorption of Solar Radiation by Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The method is based upon molecular line parameters and makes use of a far wing scaling approximation and k distribution approach previously applied to the computation of the infrared cooling rate due to water vapor. Taking into account the wave number dependence of the incident solar flux, the solar heating rate is computed for the entire water vapor spectrum and for individual absorption bands. The accuracy of the method is tested against line by line calculations. The method introduces a maximum error of 0.06 C/day. The method has the additional advantage over previous methods in that it can be applied to any portion of the spectral region containing the water vapor bands. The integrated absorptances and line intensities computed from the molecular line parameters were compared with laboratory measurements. The comparison reveals that, among the three different sources, absorptance is the largest for the laboratory measurements.

  3. Drinking water quality and solar disinfection: effectiveness in peri-urban households in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Rochelle C; Harding, Anna K

    2005-09-01

    The study examined pH, turbidity and fecal contamination of drinking water from household water storage containers, wells and taps, and the Godawari River, and tested the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in reducing levels of fecal contamination from household containers. The research was conducted in 40 households in a village 6 km outside the capital city of Kathmandu, Nepal. Three rounds of data were collected: a baseline in March 2002 followed by training in solar disinfection, and follow-ups in June and July 2002. Untreated drinking water was found to have levels of contamination ranging from 0 to too numerous to count fecal coliform CFU 100ml(-1). Source water was significantly more contaminated than water from the household storage containers. Wells were less contaminated than taps. SODIS reduced the level of contamination under household conditions. Turbidity from taps was above 30 NTU in the rainy season, above the maximum for effective solar disinfection. SODIS was routinely adopted by only 10% of the participating households during the study.

  4. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John P; Ishii, Hope A; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C

    2014-02-04

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H(+) ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H(+) may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (-OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If -OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system.

  5. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  6. Highly conducting and preferred <220> oriented boron doped nc–Si films for window layers in nc–Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata – 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Growth and optimization of the boron dopednanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films have been studied by varyingthe gaspressure applied to the hydrogendiluted silane plasma in RF (13.56 MHz) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system, using diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) as the dopant gas. High magnitudeof electrical conductivity (~10{sup 2} S cm{sup −1}) and<220>orientedcrystallographic lattice planes have been obtained with high crystalline volume fraction (~86 %) at an optimum pressure of 2.5 Torr. XRD and Raman studies reveal good crystallinity with preferred orientation, suitable for applications in stacked layer devices, particularly in nc–Si solar cells.

  7. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O.; Pilatowsky, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco, s/n, Colonia Centro, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Ruiz, V. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla, Espana (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design

  8. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Valladares, O.; Pilatowsky, I.; Ruiz, V.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design and

  9. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwan, Y M; Leow, W Z; Irwanto, M; M, Fareq; Hassan, S I S; Amelia, A R; Safwati, I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer. (paper)

  10. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  11. Factors from the transtheoretical model differentiating between solar water disinfection (SODIS) user groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Silvie M; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a sustainable household water treatment technique that could prevent millions of deaths caused by diarrhoea. The behaviour change process necessary to move from drinking raw water to drinking SODIS is analysed with the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM). User groups and psychological factors that differentiate between types of users are identified. Results of a 1.5 year longitudinal study in Zimbabwe reveal distinguishing factors between groups, from which it can be deduced that they drive the development of user groups. Implications are drawn for campaigns with the aim of bringing all user types to a regular use.

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  13. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  14. Recent Advances in Delivery Systems and Therapeutics of Cinnarizine: A Poorly Water Soluble Drug with Absorption Window in Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Raghuvanshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low solubility causing low dissolution in gastrointestinal tract is the major problem for drugs meant for systemic action after oral administration, like cinnarizine. Pharmaceutical products of cinnarizine are commercialized globally as immediate release preparations presenting low absorption with low and erratic bioavailability. Approaches to enhance bioavailability are widely cited in the literature. An attempt has been made to review the bioavailability complications and clinical therapeutics of poorly water soluble drug: cinnarizine. The interest of writing this paper is to summarize the pharmacokinetic limitations of drug with special focus on strategies to improvise bioavailability along with effectiveness of novel dosage forms to circumvent the obstacle. The paper provides insight to the approaches to overcome low and erratic bioavailability of cinnarizine by cyclodextrin complexes and novel dosage forms: self-nanoemulsifying systems and buoyant microparticulates. Nanoformulations need to systematically explored in future, for their new clinical role in prophylaxis of migraine attacks in children. Clinical reports have affirmed the role of cinnarizine in migraine prophylaxis. Research needs to be dedicated to develop dosage forms for efficacious bioavailability and drug directly to brain.

  15. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  17. Solar water heating systems feasibility for domestic requests in Tunisia: Thermal potential and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Naili, Nabiha; Attar, Issam; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using Domestic Solar Water Heating systems. • The payback period is between 8 and 7.5 years. • The annual savings in electrical energy is between 1316 and 1459 kW h/year. • The savings by using the solar systems is about 3969–4400.34 $. • The annual GHG emission per house is reduced by 27,800 tCO 2 . - Abstract: The main goal of the present work is to study the energetic and the economic potential of the deployment of Domestic Solar Water Heating systems (DSWHs) instead of using electric/gas/town gas water heaters. A case study related to Tunisian scenario was performed according to a typical Tunisian households composed of 4–5 persons. In this scenario we evaluated the performance and the life cycle perspective of the two most popular DSWHs over the recent years (i.e. DSWH with flat-plate solar collector, FPC, and DSWHs with evacuated-tube solar collector, ETC). The dynamic behavior of DSWHs according to Tunisian data weather was achieved by means of TRNSYS simulation. The Results showed that the FPC and ETC provide about 8118 and 12032 kW h/year of thermal energy. The economic potential of DSWHs in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions was also investigated. Results showed that the annual savings in electrical energy relatively to the FPC and ETC are about 1316 and 1459 kW h/year, with a payback period of around 8 and 10 years, respectively. Based on gas/town gas water heater, the FPC and ETC save about 306 m 3 and 410 m 3 of gas/town gas with a payback period about 6 and 7.5 years, respectively. We found that the life cycle savings by installing the solar system instead of buying electricity to satisfy hot water needs are about $3969 (FPC) and $4400 (ETC). We establish also that the use of the DSWHs instead of installing gas/town gas water heaters save about $1518 (FPC) and $2035 (ETC). From an environmental point of view the annual GHG emission per house is reduced by 27800

  18. Enhancing the Performance of Solar Water Disinfection with Potassium Persulfat: Laboratory Study with Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Ghanizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The safe drinking water providing is one of the most crucial objections in these centenaries. Bacterial water contamination and high rate of morbidity and mortality is crucial health threat. Efficiency of potassium persulfat (KPS associated solar disinfection as a novel water disinfection technology was evaluated in batch scale experiments, using Ent. faecalis (ATTCC 29212. Material and Methods: This research is a descriptive and experimental study which done on Tehran city, Iran. Ent. faecalis (ATTCC 29212 was provided in standard form from reference laboratory. Desired bacterial density in water was prepared by Mc Farland method. Water specimens were exhibited with solar radiations from 10 a.m to 16 p.m of Tehran local time. All experiments were conducted into 1.5 L volume of Damavand bottled water. Non-injured bacteria cells were detected by plating onto Bile Esculin azide agar media. Turbid water samples were provided by spiking of sterile slurry. Contact time (1-6 h, turbidity (30-200 NTU, KPS concentration (0.1, 0.7, 1.5 and 2 mMol/l, Ent. faecalis density(1000 and 1500 cell/ml and UV intensity  were independent and disinfection efficiency was a dependent variable, respectively. Results: Intensity of UVA solar irradiation varied from 3770 to 6263.3 µW/Cm2, with the highest value was measured on 13.30 p.m. In single SODIS and 1 hour contact time, increasing of bacterial closeness from 1000 to 1500 cell/ml implied disinfection performance decreasing in which, the vital bacteria was 10 and 20 cell/ml, respectively; but beyond of this contact time, a complete disinfection was occurred. Disinfection of Ent. faecalis was achieved within 2 h with single solar irradiation but KPS associated solar disinfection with applied dosage of KPS provide completely disinfection in 1 h in which the process efficiency was not influenced by increasing of bacterial density and turbidity up to 200 NTU. Conclusion: Association of

  19. Pengaruh Window Level Dan Window Width Pada Lung Window Dan Mediastinum Window Pada Kualitas Citra CT-Scan Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Syahnaro Lumban

    2015-01-01

    This Research of image CT-SCAN thorax with influence of window level and window width, to obtain, get value of window level and optimal window width lung window and mediastinum window, so that get image of CT-SCAN thorax which with image quality. Image of CT-SCAN thorax obtained for mediastinum window use window width 350, 400, 450, 500 HU. And Window level 50,100,150 HU. While for lung window use window width 1000,1100 HU. The window level - 500-,600,-700,-800,-900,-1000 HU, by three observe...

  20. A pilot study of solar water disinfection in the wilderness setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Christopher M; Barsi, Christopher; Peterson, Shane E; Carey, Kevin M

    2014-09-01

    Solar disinfection of water has been shown to be an effective treatment method in the developing world, but not specifically in a wilderness or survival setting. The current study sought to evaluate the technique using materials typically available in a wilderness or backcountry environment. Untreated surface water from a stream in rural Costa Rica was disinfected using the solar disinfection (SODIS) method, using both standard containers as well as containers and materials more readily available to a wilderness traveler. Posttreatment samples using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, as well as Nalgene and Platypus water containers, showed similarly decreased levels of Escherichia coli and total coliforms. The SODIS technique may be applicable in the wilderness setting using tools commonly available in the backcountry. In this limited trial, specific types of containers common in wilderness settings demonstrated similar performance to the standard containers. With further study, solar disinfection in appropriate conditions may be included as a viable treatment option for wilderness water disinfection. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.