Sample records for window photochemical photophysical

  1. Photophysical, Photochemical, and BQ Quenching Properties of Zinc Phthalocyanines with Fused or Interrupted Extended Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Gümrükçü


    Full Text Available The effects of substituents and solvents on the photophysical and photochemical parameters of zinc(II phthalocyanines containing four Schiff’s base substituents attached directly and through phenyleneoxy-bridges on peripheral positions are reported. The group effects on peripheral position and the continual and intermittent conjugation of the phthalocyanine molecules on the photophysical and photochemical properties are also investigated. General trends are described for photodegradation, singlet oxygen, and fluorescence quantum yields of these compounds in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, dimethylformamide (DMF, and tetrahydrofurane (THF. Among the different substituents, phthalocyanines with cinnamaldimine moieties (1c and 2c have the highest singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ and those with nitro groups (1a and 2a have the highest fluorescence quantum yields in all the solvents used. The fluorescence of the substituted zinc(II phthalocyanine complexes is effectively quenched by 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ in these solvents.

  2. Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Phthalocyanines Modified with Optically Active Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline A. Ramos


    Full Text Available Three phthalocyanine derivatives were synthesized and characterized: one modified with a racemic mixture of 1-(4-bromophenylethanol and two other macrocycles modified with each one of the enantioenriched isomers (R-1-(4-bromophenylethanol and (S-1-(4-bromophenylethanol. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV-Vis absorption, and excitation and emission spectra. Additionally, partition coefficient values and the quantum yield of the generation of oxygen reactive species were determined. Interestingly, the phthalocyanine containing a (R-1-(4-bromophenylethoxy moiety showed higher quantum yield of reactive oxygen species generation than other compounds under the same conditions. In addition, the obtained fluorescence microscopy and cell viability results have shown that these phthalocyanines have different interactions with mammary MCF-7 cells. Therefore, our results indicate that the photochemical and biological properties of phthalocyanines with chiral ligands should be evaluated separately for each enantiomeric species.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical, photophysical, and photochemical properties of ruthenium(II) 4,5-diazafluorenone complexes and their ketal derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Perez, W.; Zheng, G.Y.; Rillema, D.P. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    A series of ruthenium(II) complexes of the types [Ru(bpy){sub n}(dafo){sub 3{minus}n}]{sup 2+} and [Ru(bpy){sub n}(dafo-ketal){sub 3{minus}n}]{sup 2+}, where n varies between 0 and 3 and dafo is 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one, were synthesized, and their chemical, physical, and photophysical properties were examined. The coordinated dafo-ketal ligand readily forms by the direct reaction of [Ru(bpy){sub n}(dafo){sub 3{minus}n}]{sup 2+} complexes with ethylene glycol or by reaction of the appropriate ruthenium precursors with the correct stoichiometric amount of he dafo ligand in ethylene glycol. In each series, the visible absorption band associated with the MLCT transition shifts to the blue and the electrochemical oxidation associated with the Ru(III)/Ru(II) couple becomes more positive as n decreases. Coordinated dafo undergoes a one-electron reduction at potentials < {minus}1 V and a second one-electron reduction at {approximately} {minus}1.2 V vs SSCE. The first reduction can be associated with reduction of the carbonyl group; the second, with reduction of the bipyridine portion. Coordinated dafo-ketal only reduces at potentials < {minus}1.2 V. The emission properties place the emitting state of the complexes on the bipyridine portion of the dafo ligand, not the carbonyl group. At 77 K in a 4:1 ethanol-methanol glass, the emission lifetimes fall in a range of 5--2 {micro}s as n decreases. In fluid solution, the emission lifetimes are temperature dependent with activation energies that vary from 1,400 to 500 cm{sup {minus}1} as n decreases. The thermally accessible state is assigned as a fourth metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT{double_prime}) state since the compounds are photochemically unreactive.

  4. Equilibrium, photophysical, photochemical, and quantum chemical examination of anionic mercury(II) mono- and bisporphyrins. (United States)

    Valicsek, Zsolt; Lendvay, György; Horváth, Ottó


    increased efficiency of the indirect photoinduced LMCT, not the redox potential, but the position of the metal center is responsible. The two orders of magnitude higher photoredux quantum yield for the 3:2 complex, compared to that of the 2:2 species, can be explained by the repulsive effect of the inner mercury(II) ion pushing the other two farther out of the ligand cavity. In bisporphyrins the second excited states are photochemically more reactive than the first ones, while most of the photochemical processes of HgP(4-) originate from the first excited state. According to our quantum chemical calculations, the mercury(II) ion causes the expansion of the porphyrin-cavity; therefore its out-of-plane position is smaller than the value expected based on its ionic radius. In the hitherto unknown 2:2 dimer two 1:1 saucer-shaped monomers are kept together by secondary forces, mostly by pi-pi interaction, but their relative arrangement was not unequivocally determined by the two DFT functionals used. The arrangements with a symmetry axis or plane perpendicular to both rings are not favored; instead, the two monomers are shifted along the porphyrin planes, either in a Hg-P-Hg-P or a Hg-P-P-Hg order. Our time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations indicate that the electronic spectra are not very sensitive to the structure of the dimer, even though the environment of the porphyrin rings is quite different if one of the metal ions is between or outside of both macrocycles. The calculated spectral shifts agree only partially with the experimental data. The TD-DFT calculations suggest that the chromophores are not fully independent in the bisporphyrins and that the observed spectral shift cannot be uniquely assigned to the geometrical distortion of the porphyrin macrocyle.

  5. Peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-benzothiazole substituted metal-free zinc (II) and lead (II) phthalocyanines: Synthesis, characterization, and investigation of photophysical and photochemical properties (United States)

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Göl, Cem; Barut, Burak; Bayrak, Rıza; Durmuş, Mahmut; Kantekin, Halit; Değirmencioğlu, İsmail


    In this study, novel phthalonitrile compounds bearing 2-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-5-yloxy groups (4 and 5) and their peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-substituted metal-free (6 and 7), zinc (II) (8 and 9), and lead (II) (10 and 11) phthalocyanine derivatives were synthesized and characterized for the first time. These novel compounds showed extremely good solubility in most common organic solvents. The novel phthalocyanine compounds presented excellent results from photophysical and photochemical examinations in DMF solution. Especially, the singlet oxygen quantum yield (ΦΔ) values of the substituted zinc (II) phthalocyanines indicate that these compounds have significant potential as photosensitizers in cancer treatment by the photodynamic therapy (PDT) technique. The fluorescence quenching behaviour of these novel phthalocyanine compounds by 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) was also examined in DMF solution.

  6. Photophysical and photochemical effects of UV and VUV photo-oxidation and photolysis on PET and PEN (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew

    Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is a widely used polymer in the bottling, packaging, and clothing industry. In recent years an increasing global demand for PET has taken place due to the Solar Disinfection (SODIS) process. SODIS is a method of sterilizing fresh water into drinkable water. The PET bottles are used in the process to contain the water during solar irradiation due to its highly transparent optical property. Alongside PET, polyethylene 2,6-napthalate (PEN) is used in bottling and flexible electronic applications. The surface of PEN would need to be modified to control the hydrophilicity and the interaction it exudes as a substrate. The UV light absorption properties of PET and PEN are of great importance for many applications, and thus needs to be studied along with its photochemical resistance. The optical and chemical nature of PET was studied as it was treated by UV photo-oxidation, photo-ozonation, and photolysis under atmospheric pressure. Another investigation was also used to study PEN and PET as they are treated by vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation, VUV photolysis, and remote oxygen reactions. The extent of the photoreactions' effect into the depth of the polymers is examined as treatment conditions are changed. The different experimental methods established the rate of several competing photoreactions on PET and PEN during irradiance, and their effect on the optical quality of the polymers.

  7. Two ruthenium complexes capable of storing multiple electrons on a single ligand - photophysical, photochemical and electrochemical properties of [Ru(phen)2(TAPHAT)]2+ and [Ru(phen)2(TAPHAT)Ru(phen)2]4. (United States)

    Troian-Gautier, L; Marcélis, L; De Winter, J; Gerbaux, P; Moucheron, C


    The photophysical, photochemical and electrochemical properties of two newly synthesized ruthenium complexes, [Ru(phen)2(TAPHAT)]2+ and [Ru(phen)2(TAPHAT)Ru(phen)2]4+, are reported. We have developed a novel synthetic methodology that involves the metal-free oxidative coupling of diamino compounds to form a desired "pyrazine-type" core. This methodology is employed both on the free diamino ligand as well as on the different ruthenium complexes, therefore illustrating the applicability of this reaction. The TAPHAT ligand, which possesses 7 aromatic rings and 10 nitrogen atoms for 20 carbon atoms, gives rise to ruthenium complexes that can undergo up to three consecutive reductions centered on said ligand, a critical parameter for electron storage applications. A temperature-dependent study has confirmed the presence of a 4th MLCT state. Excited-state quenching in the presence of guanine or hydroquinone allows to foresee biomedical applications.

  8. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  9. Novel iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(2,2’-bithien-5-yl)-quinoline. Synthesis, photophysical, photochemical and DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szafraniec-Gorol, Grażyna, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Słodek, Aneta; Filapek, Michał [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Boharewicz, Bartosz; Iwan, Agnieszka [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 55/61, 50-369 Wroclaw (Poland); Jaworska, Maria; Żur, Lidia; Sołtys, Marta; Pisarska, Joanna; Grudzka-Flak, Iwona [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Czajkowska, Sylwia [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Sojka, Maciej; Danikiewicz, Witold [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Science, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Krompiec, Stanisław [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)


    Four novel cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes: [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(phen)]PF{sub 6}, [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)], [Ir(q-bt-Me){sub 2}(bpy)]PF{sub 6} and [Ir(q-bt-Me){sub 2}(acac)] (where q-bt-Ph, q-bt-Me correspond to 2-(2,2’-bithien-5-yl)-4-phenylquinoline and 2-(2,2’-bithien-5-yl)-4-methylquinoline), are reported. The complexes were characterized by NMR, FTIR and HRMS. The optical, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of novel iridium(III) complexes were thoroughly investigated. The complexes emit a light in the narrow range of 693–707 nm. The optical study showed that replacement of fragment in the main quinoline ligand did not affect wavelength of the emitted light. On the other hand, the modification of the ancillary ligand and substituent in the quinoline ring caused the increase of the photoluminescence quantum yields. Electrochemical experiments demonstrate that the oxidation process for complexes [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(phen)]PF{sub 6} and [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)] was reversible (or quasi-reversible) and well detectable whereas for complexes with quinoline substituted by methyl group was irreversible, even at low temperature (−70 °C). The electrochemical and photophysical studies have been well confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on complexes [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(phen)]PF{sub 6} and [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)] were fabricated. Only the solar cell incorporating [Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)] exhibited a photovoltaic effect. The architecture of the cell was ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:[Ir(q-bt-Ph){sub 2}(acac)]/Al. A power conversion efficiency of 0.25% was measured under 1 sun illumination using an AM 1.5G filter to simulate the solar spectrum. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Iridium(III) complexes bearing 2-bithienylquinolines as main ligands were examined. • Optical and electrochemical measurements were compared with DFT calculations.

  10. Photochemistry and photophysics concepts, research, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balzani , Vincenzo; Juris, Alberto


    This textbook covers the spectrum from basic concepts of photochemistry and photophysics to selected examples of current applications and research.Clearly structured, the first part of the text discusses the formation, properties and reactivity of excited states of inorganic and organic molecules and supramolecular species, as well as experimental techniques. The second part focuses on the photochemical and photophysical processes in nature and artificial systems, using a wealth of examples taken from applications in nature, industry and current research fields, ranging from natural photosynth

  11. Photophysics of ionic biochromophores

    CERN Document Server

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen


    This concise guide to studying ionic biochromophores features the first integrated overview of the photophysics of differing classes of biomolecules, from single amino acids to DNA. It includes an appraisal of the latest theories and experimental techniques.

  12. Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions. (United States)

    Albini, A.


    Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

  13. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 9. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence studies of red emitting phosphorescent Ir(III) heteroleptic complexes. FARMAN ALI PABITRA K NAYAK N PERIASAMY NEERAJ AGARWAL. Regular Aricle Volume 129 Issue 9 September 2017 pp 1391-1398 ...

  14. Photophysical processes in models of reaction centers of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov`yov, K.N.; Losev, A.P.; Kuz`mitskii, V.A. [Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Russian Federation)] [and others


    Simulation modeling of photosynthesis remains an urgent problem for two reasons. First, the cognitive value of this approach has not been exhausted yet. Second, this should lead to practical use of solar energy with the yield of oxygen, organic products, and nitrogen compounds. At present it has been found that photochemical stages of photosynthesis occur in reaction centers. A greater part of chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll molecules function as a light-harvesting antenna. The energy of an absorbed quantum migrates over the antenna and reaches the reaction centers, where the charge is separated and a chemical potential is generated. These are followed by dark stages of photosynthesis. The authors have investigated the photophysical properties of chlorophyll-like molecules and have approached the problem of intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) in studies of nitroporphyrins.

  15. Photochemical Energy Conversion. (United States)

    Batschelet, William H.; George, Arnold


    Describes procedures for two demonstrations: (1) photochemical energy conversion using ferric oxalate actinometry and (2) liquification of gases using Freon 114. Safety precautions are given for both demonstrations, as are procedures and material specifications. (JM)

  16. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam


    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  17. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why...

  18. Photophysics and catalysis of porphyrinoids (United States)

    Aggarwal, Amit

    Organic nanoparticles (ONP) of metalloporphyrins can be versatile catalysts for the selective oxidation of alkenes and other hydrocarbons. Herein, we report the catalytic activity of ONP of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-[4-(1'H,1'H,2'H,2'H-heptadecafluorodecane-1-thiol)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl] porphyrinato iron(III), Fe(III)TPPF84, and 5,10,15,20-tetakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl) porphyrinato manganese(III), Mn(III)TPPF20, for cyclohexene oxidation using molecular oxygen as an oxidant in water under ambient conditions. Sequential dipping of indium-tin-oxide electrodes into solutions of tetra cationic porphyrins and tetra anionic polyoxometalates results in the controlled formation of nm thick films. The potential applications of these robust films on electrodes range from catalysts to sensors. This chapter focuses on the electrochemistry of the multilayered films where it is found that the oxidation and reduction potentials of each species remain largely the same as found in solution. Photophysical properties of Porphyrinoids bearing four rigid hydrogen bonding motifs on the meso positions, self-assembled into a cofacial cage with four complementary bis(decyl)melamine units in dry solvents are presented here. Self-assembly was investigated by NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The phototphysical properties of the cage formation involve the measurement of their absorption and emission spectra and the fluorescence life time in dry THF. The hydrocarbon chains on the bis(decyl)melamine mediate the formation of nanofilms on surfaces as the solvent slowly evaporates. A systematic study of the photophysical properties of a series of porphyrinoids is presented. The role of the location of a heavy atom in shunting the excited state from the singlet to the triplet manifolds is compared for three cases. It is well known that Pt(II) metalloporphyrins do not fluoresce. For meso pyridyl porphyrins, the fluorescence quantum yield decreases as

  19. Interaction of glutathione S-transferase with hypericin: A photophysical study. (United States)

    Halder, M; Chowdhury, P K; Das, R; Mukherjee, P; Atkins, W M; Petrich, J W


    The photophysics of hypericin have been studied in its complex with two different isoforms, A1-1 and P1-1, of the protein glutathione S-transferase (GST). One molecule of hypericin binds to each of the two GST subunits. Comparisons are made with our previous results for the hypericin/human serum albumin complex (Photochem. Photobiol. 1999, 69, 633-645). Hypericin binds with high affinity to the GSTs: 0.65 microM for the A1-1 isoform and 0.51 microM for the P1-1 isoform (Biochemistry 2004, 43, 12761-12769). The photophysics and activity of hypericin are strongly modulated by the binding protein. Intramolecular hydrogen-atom transfer is suppressed in both cases. Most importantly, while there is significant singlet oxygen generation from hypericin bound to GST A1-1, binding to GST P1-1 suppresses singlet oxygen generation to almost negligible levels. The data are rationalized in terms of a simple model in which the hypericin photophysics depends entirely upon the decay of the triplet state by two competing processes, quenching by oxygen to yield singlet oxygen and ionization, the latter of these two are proposed to be modulated by A1-1 and P1-1.

  20. CAVE WINDOW (United States)

    Levenson, M.


    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  1. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  2. Photochemical cutting of fabrics (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.


    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  3. Isotope Fractionation Associated with the Photochemical Dechlorination of Chloroanilines. (United States)

    Ratti, Marco; Canonica, Silvio; McNeill, Kristopher; Bolotin, Jakov; Hofstetter, Thomas B


    Isotope fractionation associated with the photochemical transformation of organic contaminants is not well understood and can arise not only from bond cleavage reactions but also from photophysical processes. In this work, we investigated the photolytic dechlorination of 2-Cl- and 3-Cl-aniline to aminophenols to obtain insights into the impact of the substituent position on the apparent (13)C and (15)N kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs). Laboratory experiments were performed in aerated aqueous solutions at an irradiation wavelength of 254 nm over the pH range 2.0 to 7.0 in the absence and presence of Cs(+) used as an excited singlet state quencher. Photolysis of 2-Cl-anilinium cations exhibits normal C and inverse N isotope fractionation, while neutral 2-Cl-aniline species shows inverse C and normal N isotope fractionation. In contrast, the photolysis of 3-Cl-aniline was almost insensitive to C isotope composition and the moderate N isotope fractionation points to rate-limiting photophysical processes. (13)C- and (15)N-AKIE-values of 2-Cl-aniline decreased in the presence of Cs(+), whereas those for 3-Cl-aniline were not systematically affected by Cs(+). Our current and previous work illustrates that photolytic dechlorinations of 2-Cl-, 3-Cl-, and 4-Cl-aniline isomers are each accompanied by distinctly different and highly variable C and N isotope fractionation due to spin selective isotope effects.

  4. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Photophysical and Photochemical Tools in Polymer Science : Conformation, Dynamics, Morphology

    CERN Document Server


    In 1980 the New York Academy of Sciences sponsored a three-day conference on luminescence in biological and synthetic macromolecules. After that meeting, Professor Frans DeSchryver and I began to discuss the possibility of organizing a different kind of meeting, with time for both informal and in-depth discussions, to examine certain aspects of the application of fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy to polymers. Our ideas developed through discussions with many others, particularly Professor Lucien Monnerie. By 1983, when we submitted our proposal to NATO for an Advanced Study Institute, the area had grown enormous ly. It is interesting in retrospect to look back on the points which emerged from these discussions as the basis around which the scientific program would be organized and the speakers chosen. We decided early on to focus on applications of these methods to provide information about polymer molecules and polymer systems: The topics would all relate to the conformation and dynamics of macro...

  5. Photophysical Properties of Anthracenic Metal Organic Frameworks


    Hay, Jennifer Marie


    Luminescent metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising new materials with applications as sensors, photocatalysts, and other luminescent devices. Although MOFs retain the chemical and physical properties of their constituents, the properties of the MOF are often altered from those of its building blocks, making rational design and synthesis difficult. Anthracene is a polyaromatic hydrocarbon whose photophysical properties have been found to be easily tuned through structural modificatio...

  6. Photochemistry and photophysics of coordination compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yersin, H.; Volger, A. (ed.)


    This softbound volume of typescript papers is the result of a symposium held in Bavaria in 1987. The many papers in it are grouped as follows: Metal-centered Excited States; Photophysics and Photochemistry of Cr(III) Complexes; Excited State Properties of Tris-2,2'-Bipyridine Ruthenium(II) and Related Complexes; Photoredox Processes; Organometallic Photochemistry; and Methods, Applications, and Other Aspects.

  7. Rationalizing substituent effects in 1-azathioxanthone photophysics (United States)

    Junker, Anne Kathrine R.; Just Sørensen, Thomas


    The influence of an electron donating substituent on the photophysical properties of 1-azathioxanthone dyes has been investigated using optical spectroscopy and theoretical models. The motivation behind the study is based on the fact that thioxanthones are efficient triplet sensitizers, and thus promising sensitizers for lanthanide centered emission. By adding an aza group to one of the phenyl ring systems, direct coordination to a lanthanide center becomes possible, which makes azathoixanthones great candidates as antenna chromophores in lanthanide(III) based dyes. Here, three 1-azathioxanthone derivatives have been synthesized targeting efficient triplet formation following absorption in the visible range of the spectrum. This is achieved by adding methoxy groups to the 1-azathioxanthone core. The derivatives were characterized using absorption, emission, and time-gated emission spectroscopy, where fluorescent quantum yields, singlet and triplet excited states lifetimes were determined. The experimentally determined photophysical properties of the three 1-azathioxanthone compounds are contrasted to those of the parent thioxanthone and is rationalized using the Strickler–Berg equation, Hückel MO theory, and Dewar’s rules in combination with computational chemistry. We find that the transition energies follow predictions, but that the overall photophysical properties are determined by the relative energies as well as the nature of the involved states in both the singlet and the triplet excited state manifolds.

  8. Photophysics of the porphyrins and hybrid materials obtained on their basis: A prospective chiral biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedziwiatr, M.; Wiglusz, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Graczyk, A. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military Technical University, Warsaw (Poland); Legendziewicz, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail:


    Porphyrins are known to play a significant role in several biological systems. The research conducted for many years proved the versatility of applications involving porphyrin, often including the different areas of life [M. Gouterman, in: D. Dolphin (Ed.), The Porphyrins, vol. III, Academic Press, 1978, p. 1]. They can be used as active elements of biosensors, molecular switching devices and in non-linear optical materials, and in photodynamic cancer therapy as well. High quality optical materials with extremely good thermal and chemical stabilities can be produced by using a technique of silica sol-gel derived matrices [M. Rui Pereira, J.A. Ferreira, G. Hungrford, J. Photochem. Photobiol. 172 (2005) 7-17; J. Sokolnicki, R. Wiglusz, S. Radzki, A. Graczyk, J. Legendziewicz, Opt. Mater. 26 (2004) 199-206; R. Reisfeld, New materials for nonlinear optics. Optical and electronic phenomena in sol-gel glasses and modern applications, in: R. Reisfeld, C.K. Jorgensen (Eds.), Struct. Bond. 85 (1996) 99-147; B.G. Gregg, M.A. Fox, A.J. Bard, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111 (1989) 3024; M. Ochsner, J. Photochem. Photobiol. 39 (1997) 1]. Recently, we have reported the photophysical behavior of the selected porphyrins contained within solution and entrapped in silica sol-gel derived matrices [J. Sokolnicki, R. Wiglusz, S. Radzki, A. Graczyk, J. Legendziewicz, Opt. Mater. 26 (2004) 199-206; R. Wiglusz, J. Legendziewicz, A. Graczyk, S. Radzki, P. Gawryszewska, J. Sokolnicki, J. Alloys Compd. 380 (2004) 396-404]. The present paper is devoted to photophysical characteristics of new - also chiral - porphyrins, and incorporated in silica sol-gel matrices; perspective chiral biosensors. In this paper, the synthesis and spectroscopic studies of porphyrin derivatives, at room and low temperatures in solutions and hybrid organic-inorganic materials obtained in different conditions by the sol-gel route are performed. An effect of different factors on emission efficiency is discussed.

  9. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  10. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.


    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of β ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002 J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 153 173; (b) Bell W,. Block M H, Cook C, Grant J A and Timms D 1997. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 2789; (c) Shakeri A,. Iranshahy M and Iranshahi M 2014 J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. 16 884; (d) Ruan B, Cheng H, Ren J, Li H, Guo L,. Zhang X and Lio C 2015 Eur. J. Med. Chem. 103 185. 19.

  12. Lanthanide luminescence. Photophysical, analytical and biological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, Pekka; Haermae, Harri (eds.) [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Cell Biology and Anatomy


    Lanthanides have fascinated scientists for more than two centuries now, and since efficient separation techniques were established roughly 50 years ago, they have increasingly found their way into industrial exploitation and our everyday lives. Numerous applications are based on their unique luminescent properties, which are highlighted in this volume. It presents established knowledge about the photophysical basics, relevant lanthanide probes or materials, and describes instrumentation-related aspects including chemical and physical sensors. The uses of lanthanides in bioanalysis and medicine are outlined, such as assays for in vitro diagnostics and research. All chapters were compiled by renowned scientists with a broad audience in mind, providing both beginners in the field and advanced researchers with comprehensive information on on the given subject. (orig.)

  13. Synthesis and photophysics of light-converting lanthanide complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, S.I.


    The work described in this thesis deals with the synthesis, characterization, and photophysical studies of luminescent lanthanide complexes that are based on m-terphenyl and calix[4]arene building blocks.

  14. Photophysical and electrochemical properties of a fullerene-stoppered rotaxane. (United States)

    Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Aminur Rahman, G M; Ehli, Christian; Guldi, Dirk M; Fioravanti, Giulia; Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio


    The photophysical and electrochemical properties of a fumaramide rotaxane stoppered with C(60) are reported. The results evidenced the strong binding interactions between the template and the macrocycle, which are also supported by molecular modelling.

  15. Azadioxatriangulenium and Diazaoxatriangulenium: Quantum Yields and Fundamental Photophysical Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, S. A.; Simmermacher, M.; Westberg, Michael


    Over the last decade, we have investigated and exploited the photophysical properties of triangulenium dyes. Azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) and diazaoxatriangulenium (DAOTA), in particular, have features that make them useful in various fluorescence-based technologies (e.g., bioimaging). Through o...

  16. Photophysical study of meso-phenothiazinyl-porphyrins metallocomplexes (United States)

    Starukhin, Aleksander; Gorski, Aleksander; Knyukshto, Valery; Panarin, Andrei; Pavich, Tatiana; Gaina, Luiza; Gal, Emese


    Photophysical parameters of a set of metallocomplexes of meso-phenylthiazinylporphyrins with Zn (II), Pd (II) and Cu (II) ions were studied in different organic solvents, solid solutions and polymeric matrices at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The dependence of the spectral and photophysical parameters on changing the molecular structure with increasing number of branched substituents attached to aryl groups in different positions of the porphyrin macrocycle has been established.

  17. Spectroscopic and photochemical properties of the lichen compound lobaric acid. (United States)

    Hidalgo, María Eliana; Bascuñan, Luis; Quilhot, Wanda; Fernández, Ernesto; Rubio, Cecilia


    Lichens synthesize and accumulate photoprotective compounds against possible damage induced by UV radiation in the photobiont. A biological model has been recently formulated that allows the use of lichens to evaluate changes at different UV radiation levels. The thermodynamics, photophysical and photochemical properties of lobaric acid were studied in acetonitrile, ethanol and Brij 35(3%) micelles at different pH values. Also the sun protector factor (SPF) was determined by in vitro methods. Lobaric acid was extracted from Stereoculon alpinum Laur. and characterized by means of standard procedures. Solutions were irradiated in oxygen and under nitrogen conditions with a UV medium pressure lamp. Lobaric acid absorbs at 287, 303 nm, and no fluorescence emission was observed. The maximum value of the molar extinction coefficient (5479.6 M(-1) cm(-1)) was obtained in Brij 35 at pH 12. Solubility is pH dependant and is highest in Brij 35 at pH 12 (4.45 x 10(-4) M). Photoconsumption quantum yields ranged between 10(-4) and 10(-5) in aerobic and anaerobic experimental conditions. Lobaric acid SPF was very low (0.5) compared with homosalate (4.0), (reference solar filter). Two pKa values, 5.05 (carboxylic acid group deprotonation) and 9.75 (phenolic OH deprotonation), were determined.

  18. Structural and photo-physical properties of spin-coated poly (3-hexylthiophene) thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE


    Full Text Available Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophenes) (P3HTs) and its blends were studied regarding their structural and photo-physical properties using fullerene as an electron acceptor material. Photo-physical and structural characteristics of the polymer blends...

  19. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul


    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  20. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy


    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  1. Window cleaner poisoning (United States)

    Older types of window cleaners may contain: Ammonia Ethanol Isopropyl alcohol Methanol New types of window cleaners ... D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, ...

  2. Photophysics of thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules (United States)

    Dias, Fernando B.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Monkman, Andrew P.


    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) has recently emerged as one of the most attractive methods for harvesting triplet states in metal-free organic materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). A large number of TADF molecules have been reported in the literature with the purpose of enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs by converting non-emissive triplet states into emissive singlet states. TADF emitters are able to harvest both singlets and triplet states through fluorescence (prompt and delayed), the latter due to the thermally activated reverse intersystem crossing mechanism that allows up-conversion of low energy triplet states to the emissive singlet level. This allows otherwise pure fluorescent OLEDs to overcome their intrinsic limit of 25% internal quantum efficiency (IQE), which is imposed by the 1:3 singlet-triplet ratio arising from the recombination of charges (electrons and holes). TADF based OLEDS with IQEs close to 100% are now routinely fabricated in the green spectral region. There is also significant progress for blue emitters. However, red emitters still show relatively low efficiencies. Despite the significant progress that has been made in recent years, still significant challenges persist to achieve full understanding of the TADF mechanism and improve the stability of these materials. These questions need to be solved in order to fully implement TADF in OLEDs and expand their application to other areas. To date, TADF has been exploited mainly in the field of OLEDs, but applications in other areas, such as sensing and fluorescence microscopies, are envisaged. In this review, the photophysics of TADF molecules is discussed, summarising current methods to characterise these materials and the current understanding of the TADF mechanism in various molecular systems.

  3. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex


    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  4. Windows 7 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy


    Get more done and have more fun with Windows 7 Windows 7 is loaded with features, tools, and shortcuts designedto make life easier for all users. This handy guide is sure to makeWindows as clear as can be. It helps you get started, use foldersand files, find handy gadgets, and search on your PC or online. Open the book and find: Ways to find photos, music, and video on your PCAdvice on jazzing up the Windows 7 interfaceReasons for making the switch to Windows 7Tools for staying organizedSteps for setting up your user accounts and passwords

  5. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd


    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  6. Synthesis and photophysics of conjugated azomethine polyrotaxanes (United States)

    Resmerita, A.-M.; Farcas, F.; Rotaru, A.; Farcas, A.


    The photophysical properties of two polyazomethine polyrotaxanes (4•αCD and 4•TMS-αCD) composed of pyrene and triazole encapsulated into native and permodified α-cyclodextrin (αCD and TMS-αCD) cavities have been investigated and compared with those of the non-rotaxane 4 counterparts. Rotaxane formation results in improvements of the solubility in organic solvents, as well as better film forming ability combined with a high transparency. The polyrotaxane 4•TMS-αCD was soluble in toluene/DMF1/1 v/v mixture and displayed useful levels of thermal stability. The fluorescence spectroscopy of 4•αCD and 4•TMS-αCD shows an obvious blue shift both in excitation and emission spectra with respect to those of non-rotaxane counterparts. 4•TMS-αCD displays a continuous absorption spectrum, whereas the reference 4 does not show any absorption maximum, neither for its emission maximum, presumably because of its very low solubility in DMF. The improved fluorescence efficiency (ΦPL) of both polyrotaxanes is attributed to the hydrophobic micro-environment within αCD and TMS-αCD cavities. The surfaces of non-rotaxane 4 counterparts showed globular formations with an agglomeration tendency, while the encapsulated 4•αCD and 4•TMS-αCD rotaxane compounds exhibited smoother surfaces, comprised by smaller grains uniformly distributed on the surface of the solid films. The presence of the αCD and TMS-αCD in 4·αCD and 4•TMS-αCD polyrotaxanes affects the LUMO energy levels to a greater extent than its HOMO energy with respect to reference 4. The wetting properties of spin-coated film of 4•TMS-αCD in water (polar) and diiodomethane (apolar), indicates that TMS-αCD makes its surface more hydrophobic. The dispersive and polar components are lower than that of the reference compounds. The doping of the rotaxane structures with iodine (I2) indicated smaller improvements of electrical conductivity (σ) values, which presents a tradeoff with their better

  7. Crystal growth, electrical and photophysical properties of Tl2S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    871–885. Crystal growth, electrical and photophysical properties of Tl2S layered single crystals ... resultant crystals, the electrical properties (electrical conductivity and Hall effect) and steady-state photoconductivity were .... Block of wood, which was shaped in a triangle form. excessive heat loss, the temperature variation ...

  8. Photophysical, photostability, photothermal and narrow-band laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trifluoroethanol solvent produced the highest fluorescence yield, followed by methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, n-propanol in the decreasing order. To improve flow characteristics of solvents such as PrOH and TFE, photophysical properties of. KRS dye were studied using the binary mixture of solvents with water. In our ear-.

  9. Synthesis, photophysical and preliminary investigation of the dye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 1. Synthesis, photophysical and preliminary investigation of the dye-sensitized solar cells properties of functionalized anthracenyl-based bipyridyl and phenanthrolyl Ru(II) complexes. Adewale O Adeloye Peter A Ajibade Frances R Cummings Lukas J Le ...

  10. Kiton red S dye: Photophysical, photostability, photothermal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... Many aspects of photophysical, photostability and laser properties of kiton red S dye remain unresolved, particularly for pumping with 578 nm radiation of CVL and 532 nm output of Nd:YAG lasers, and these are studied using different alcohol- and water-based binary solvents. Our results show that ...

  11. Photophysics of indole-2-carboxylic acid in an aqueous environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijser, Jannetje Maria; Rode, M.F.; Corani, A.; Sobolewski, A.L.; Sundström, V.


    The photo-physics and -chemistry of indoles are known to be highly complex and strongly dependent on their precise molecular structure and environment. Combination of spectroscopic analysis with quantum chemical calculations should be a powerful tool to unravel precise excited state deactivation

  12. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog (United States)

    Sillman, S.


    The question of air quality in polluted regions represents one of the issues of geochemistry with direct implications for human well-being. Human health and well-being, along with the well-being of plants, animals, and agricultural crops, are dependent on the quality of air we breathe. Since the start of the industrial era, air quality has become a matter of major importance, especially in large cities or urbanized regions with heavy automobile traffic and industrial activity.Concern over air quality existed as far back as the 1600s. Originally, polluted air in cities resulted from the burning of wood or coal, largely as a source of heat. The industrial revolution in England saw a great increase in the use of coal in rapidly growing cities, both for industrial use and domestic heating. London suffered from devastating pollution events during the late 1800s and early 1900s, with thousands of excess deaths attributed to air pollution (Brimblecombe, 1987). With increasing use of coal, other instances also occurred in continental Europe and the USA. These events were caused by directly emitted pollutants (primary pollutants), including sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulates. They were especially acute in cities with northerly locations during fall and winter when sunlight is at a minimum. These original pollution events gave rise to the term "smog" (a combination of smoke and fog). Events of this type have become much less severe since the 1950s in Western Europe and the US, as natural gas replaced coal as the primary source of home heating, industrial smokestacks were designed to emit at higher altitudes (where dispersion is more rapid), and industries were required to install pollution control equipment.Beginning in the 1950s, a new type of pollution, photochemical smog, became a major concern. Photochemical smog consists of ozone (O3) and other closely related species ("secondary pollutants") that are produced photochemically from directly

  13. Daylight Redirecting Window Films (United States)


    consisted of inwardly opening casement windows, and the bottom 2’ x 4’ section non-operable, both with clear, double pane glass. The portion of...occasionally closed to block direct sunlight. The casement windows were not actively used in the library. About two months after the DRF was installed...were active users of the casement windows, especially during the summer months. Installation of horizontal blinds would have prevented them from

  14. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram


    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  15. Windows Server 2008 -infrastruktuuri


    Sundgren, Patrik


    Tämä työ käsittelee Windows 2008 -verkkoinfrastrukstuuri-kurssin materiaalin suunnittelua ja testausta. Työ toteutettiin Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoululle keväällä 2010. Työn alussa esitellään työssä käytetty virtuaalisointiohjelmisto ja toiminta, sekä Windows Server 2008:n ominaisuuksia. Työssä käydään läpi virtuaaliympäristön luonti sekä Win-dows Server 2008 -palvelinten konfigurointia. Konfigurointi tapahtuu Windows Server 2008 infrastructure -materaalin harjoitustöiden pohjalta. Työssä...

  16. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike


    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  17. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth


    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  18. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul


    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  19. Windows 8 tweaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchak, Steve


    Acres of Windows 8 tweaks from a Microsoft MVP and creator of! From a Microsoft MVP, who is also the savvy creator of, comes this ultimate collection of Windows 8 workarounds. Steve Sinchak takes you way beyond default system settings, deep under the hood of Windows 8, down to the hidden gems that let you customize your Windows 8 system like you wouldn't believe. From helping you customize the appearance to setting up home networking, sharing media, and squeezing every ounce of performance out of the OS, this book delivers. Get ready to rock and roll with Wind

  20. A first archetype of boron dipyrromethene-phthalocyanine pentad dye: design, synthesis, and photophysical and photochemical properties. (United States)

    Göl, Cem; Malkoç, Mustafa; Yeşilot, Serkan; Durmuş, Mahmut


    A novel type of phthalocyanine pentad containing four boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) units at peripheral positions of the phthalocyanine framework has been designed and synthesized for the first time. The Sonogashira coupling reaction between 4,4'-difluoro-8-(4-ethynyl)-phenyl-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (Ethynyl-BODIPY) and 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis(iodo) zinc(ii) phthalocyanine (Iodo-Pc) has been used for the synthesis of the target compound. The BODIPY-phthalocyanine pentad dye (BODIPY-Pc) has been fully characterized by (1)H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis as well. The photoinduced energy transfer process for this dye system was explored in tetrahydrofuran solution. The singlet oxygen generation capability and photodegradation behaviours of this BODIPY-Pc pentad dye were also investigated in DMSO for the determination of the usability of this new type of dye system as a photosensitizer in PDT applications.

  1. Photochemical transformations. 46. Photophysics and photochemistry of some compounds undergoing light-induced solvolysis and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, S.J.; Aeling, E.O.; Strickler, S.J.; Ito, R.D.


    Absorption maxima, fluorescence maxima, and fluorescence quantum yields are reported for a variety of 7-substituted and 7,8-disubstituted dibenzobicyclo(2.2.2)octadienes and veratrolobenzobicyclo(2.2.2)octadienes in cyclohexane and/or acetonitrile. Singlet lifetimes have been computed from these data. Those compounds that are reactive toward photosolvolysis and/or Wagner-Meerwin photorearrangement have fluorescence yields (and lifetimes) 10/sup -2/-10/sup -4/ times those of the corresponding compounds containing only hydrogens on the saturated bridges. Compounds that are photoinert but have an electron-attracting group on the bridge have lifetimes about one-tenth those of unsubstituted compounds. These results and the variations in fluorescence maximum wavelengths are rationalized by assumptions that there is some degree of charge transfer from aromatic ring to C-X bond in the photoexcited state and that this favors decay to the ground state. When more or less complete intramolecular electron transfer to a zwitterionic biradical intermediate is exergonic, lifetimes in the 4-80-ps range are completed.

  2. Color Wheel Windows (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie


    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  3. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund


    ) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  4. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann


    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  5. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.


    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  6. Zero Energy Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc


    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  7. Protonated serotonin: Geometry, electronic structures and photophysical properties (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan


    The geometry and electronic structures of protonated serotonin have been investigated by the aim of MP2 and CC2 methods. The relative stabilities, transition energies and geometry of sixteen different protonated isomers of serotonin have been presented. It has been predicted that protonation does not exhibit essential alteration on the S1 ← S0 electronic transition energy of serotonin. Instead, more complicated photophysical nature in respect to its neutral analogue is suggested for protonated system owing to radiative and non-radiative deactivation pathways. In addition to hydrogen detachment (HD), hydrogen/proton transfer (H/PT) processes from ammonium to indole ring along the NH+⋯ π hydrogen bond have been predicted as the most important photophysical consequences of SERH+ at S1 excited state. The PT processes is suggested to be responsible for fluorescence of SERH+ while the HD driving coordinate is proposed for elucidation of its nonradiative deactivation mechanism.

  8. Carbonate linkage bearing naphthalenediimides: self-assembly and photophysical properties. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chidambar; George, Subi J


    Self-assembly of carbonate linkage bearing naphthalene diimides (NDI) showed unusually red-shifted excimer emission at approximately 560 nm. On the other hand, the ether linkers showed usual excimers at around 520 nm, highlighting the role of the carbonate group in tuning the molecular organization and the resultant photophysical properties of NDI. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Recent Advances of Plasmonic Organic Solar Cells: Photophysical Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng


    Full Text Available The surface plasmon resonance (SPR of metallic nanomaterials, such as gold (Au and silver (Ag, has been extensively exploited to improve the optical absorption, the charge carrier transport, and the ultimate device performances in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV. With the incorporation of diverse metallic nanostructures in active layers, buffer layers, electrodes, or between adjacent layers of OPVs, multiple plasmonic mechanisms may occur and need to be distinguished to better understand plasmonic enhancement. Steady-state photophysics is a powerful tool for unraveling the plasmonic nature and revealing plasmonic mechanisms such as the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR, the propagating plasmon-polariton (SPP, and the plasmon-gap mode. Furthermore, the charge transfer dynamics in the organic semiconductor materials can be elucidated from the transient photophysical investigations. In this review article, the basics of the plasmonic mechanisms and the related metallic nanostructures are briefly introduced. We then outline the recent advances of the plasmonic applications in OPVs emphasizing the linkage between the photophysical properties, the nanometallic geometries, and the photovoltaic performance of the OPV devices.

  10. Photophysical properties and theoretical calculations of Cu(I) dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Zhenjun [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); An, Chun-Ai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Song, Shuyan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)


    The experimental and theoretical analyses on Cu(I) dendrimers are essential for studying their photophysical properties and facilitating the applications of Cu(I) complexes even though there are relatively few studies in it. Therefore, we synthesize four Cu(I) dendrimers Cu-L1–Cu-L4, the antenna effect is confirmed by the fact that the order of their luminescence quantum yield is Cu-L1photophysical properties, their ground state geometry and absorption spectra are also theoretically simulated. -- Highlights: • Synthesis of four phosphorescent light-emitting dendritic Cu(I) complexes. • Analyses of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the dendritic Cu(I) complexes. • Theoretical simulation on the ground states geometry and the UV–vis absorption of the dendritic Cu(I) complexes.

  11. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils


    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  12. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto


    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  13. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed


    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  14. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt


    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  15. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul


    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  16. Window prototype investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe


    In case of highly insulating glazings the frame construction becomes the thermally weak part of the construction. The heat flow in window frames are analysed and based on the results a thermally improved frame construction is described....

  17. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme


    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  18. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a bichromophoric system hosting a disaccharide spacer. (United States)

    Papalia, T; Barattucci, A; Campagna, S; Puntoriero, F; Salerno, T; Bonaccorsi, P


    The synthesis of an efficient energy donor-acceptor system is reported, together with its photophysical properties. The bichromophoric species has been conceived to show potentialities for biological applications since a biocompatible disaccharide spacer, constituted of d-galactose and d-glucose derivatives, was used in compound 12 to connect two BODIPY units with different absorption/emission properties. The luminescence spectrum in acetonitrile of 12 shows an intense fluorescence band with a maximum at about 770 nm that is almost identical to that of the lowest-energy BODIPY, regardless of the excitation wavelength used. The quantum yield is 0.2 with an excited state lifetime of 2.5 ns. Excitation and ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that a very efficient energy transfer takes place in 12 from the highest-energy lying BODIPY subunit to the lowest-energy emissive BODIPY moiety, with a time constant of about 31 ps. Noteworthily, the emission of 12 falls in the near infrared window, suitable for potential biological applications.

  19. Stratospheric Ozone: Transport, Photochemical Production and Loss (United States)

    Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Jackman, C. H.


    Observations from various satellite instruments (e.g., Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)) specify the latitude and seasonal variations of total ozone and ozone as a function of altitude. These seasonal variations change with latitude and altitude partly due to seasonal variation in transport and temperature, partly due to differences in the balance between photochemical production and loss processes, and partly due to differences in the relative importance of the various ozone loss processes. Comparisons of modeled seasonal ozone behavior with observations test the following: the seasonal dependence of dynamical processes where these dominate the ozone tendency; the seasonal dependence of photochemical processes in the upper stratosphere; and the seasonal change in the balance between photochemical and dynamical processes.

  20. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia


    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at:

  1. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia


    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at:

  2. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia


    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at:

  3. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael


    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  4. Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure and the role of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles on the photophysical and photocatalytic properties of the metal-semiconductor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Bikash; Sarma, Bimal K., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure by facile chemical processes. • Decoration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on ZnO microrods through direct attachment. • Quenching of photoluminescence is observed in Ag/ZnO heterostructure. • Extent of surface coverage governs photophysical and photochemical properties. - Abstract: This report presents findings on microstructural, photophysical, and photocatalytic properties of Ag/ZnO heterostructure grown on flexible and silicon substrates. ZnO microrods are prepared by thermal decomposition method for different solute concentrations and Ag/ZnO heterostructure are fabricated by photo-deposition of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO microrods. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies confirm that ZnO microrods belong to the hexagonal wurtzite structure and grown along [001] direction with random alignment showing that majority microrods are aligned with (100) face parallel to the sample surface. Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles are attached to different faces of ZnO. In the optical reflection spectra of Ag/ZnO heterostructure, the surface plasmon resonance peak due to Ag nanoparticles appears at 445 nm. Due to the oxygen vacancies the band gaps of ZnO microrods turn out to be narrower compared to that of bulk ZnO. The presence of Ag nanoparticles decreases the photoluminescence intensity which might be attributed to the non-radiative energy and direct electron transfer in the plasmon–exciton system. The quenching of photoluminescence in Ag/ZnO heterostructure at different growth conditions depend on the extent of surface coverage of ZnO by plasmonic Ag nanoparticles. Photocatalytic degradation efficiency of Ag/ZnO heterostructure is higher than that of ZnO microrods. The extent of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles is crucial for the observed changes in photophysical and photochemical properties.

  5. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (United States)


    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati interstate...

  7. Photophysics and photochemistry of thymine deoxy-dinucleotide in water: a PCM/TD-DFT quantum mechanical study. (United States)

    Improta, Roberto


    We here report a fully quantum mechanical study of the main photochemical and photophysical decay routes in aqueous solution of thymine deoxy-dinucleotide (TpT(-) and TpTNa) and of its analogue locked in C3-endo puckering, characterizing five different representative backbone conformers and discussing the chemical physical effects modulating the yield of the different photoproducts. Our approach is based on time-dependent DFT calculations, using the last generation M052X functional, whereas solvent effects are included by means of the polarizable continuum model. Especially when at least one of the sugars adopts C3-endo puckering, a barrierless path on the bright ππ* excitons leads to the S(1)/S(0) crossing region corresponding to the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Charge transfer excited states involving the transfer of an electron from the 5' Thy toward the 3' Thy are involved in the formation of the oxetane intermediate in the path leading to 6-4 pyrimidine pyrimidinone adducts. A non-negligible energy barrier is associated with this latter pathway, which is possible only when one of the two nucleotides adopts C2-endo puckering. Monomer-like decay pathways, involving ππ* or nπ* excited states localized on a single base, are shown to be operative also for loosely stacked bases.

  8. Photochemical Transformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight (United States)

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a graphene derivative that is more easily manufactured in large scale and used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with properties analogous to graphene. In this study, we investigate the photochemical fate of GO under sunlight conditions. The resu...

  9. Southern Africa - a giant natural photochemical reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Diab, RD


    Full Text Available The analogy of a ‘giant natural photochemical reactor’ is extended in this paper to the central and southern African tropics, where tropospheric ozone enhancement occurs over a vast geographical area from the Congo to South Africa, and over a long...

  10. Seasonal fluctuations in photochemical efficiency of Symbiodinium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. formosa and P. verucosa responded significantly to seasonal fluctuation in both solar radiation and sea surface temperature by regulating their Symbiodinium cells densities and photochemical efficiencies except P. cylindrica. However, such seasonal fluctuations in these environmental parameters are not accompanied ...

  11. Additive and Photochemical Manufacturing of Copper (United States)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Meng, Zhengong; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung


    In recent years, 3D printing technologies have been extensively developed, enabling rapid prototyping from a conceptual design to an actual product. However, additive manufacturing of metals in the existing technologies is still cost-intensive and time-consuming. Herein a novel platform for low-cost additive manufacturing is introduced by simultaneously combining the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) method with photochemical reaction. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as the sacrificial layer, sufficient ejection momentum can be generated in the LIFT method. A low-cost continuous wave (CW) laser diode at 405 nm was utilized and proved to be able to transfer the photochemically synthesized copper onto the target substrate. The wavelength-dependent photochemical behaviour in the LIFT method was verified and characterized by both theoretical and experimental studies compared to 1064 nm fiber laser. The conductivity of the synthesized copper patterns could be enhanced using post electroless plating while retaining the designed pattern shapes. Prototypes of electronic circuits were accordingly built and demonstrated for powering up LEDs. Apart from pristine PDMS materials with low surface energies, the proposed method can simultaneously perform laser-induced forward transfer and photochemical synthesis of metals, starting from their metal oxide forms, onto various target substrates such as polyimide, glass and thermoplastics.

  12. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr


    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  13. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine


    they are seldom considered in a holistic lighting design. Natural daylight is not always sufficient - for instance on an overcast day, or on winter days. This paper explores a new universal design approach for supplementing the qualities of natural dynamic light by boosting the daylight with dynamic LED light...... integrated into the window. A qualitative experiment is carried out by integrating controllable LED in the frame of a façade window in a full-scale mock-up. It is examined how this set-up can support the colour spectrum and intensity of the daylight intake during the transmission time from daylight...... to darkness. The findings illustrate that a “luminaire window” has potentials of supporting circadian rhythm, stimulate peoples natural need for contact with nature and at the same time enhance the architectural potentials by using the window as the main (daylight and electrical) light source to create...

  14. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob


    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  15. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi


    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  16. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril


    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  17. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril


    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  18. Window Performance in Extreme Cold, (United States)


    Casement windows-windows with sashes hinged on ATID difference between the indoor ambient and the side. indoor dewpoint temperatures ATIo difference...did. Installed casement windows (at 0.23 ft 3/ PREVIOUS WORK IN COLD min ft) were the only type of window with airtight- WEATHER WINDOW calculate air leakage hung sash unit to a casement or possibly adding another with no wind and with double the mean wind as latch to the casement

  19. Windows and lighting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Opening the Literature Window (United States)

    Jago, Carol


    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  1. Windows to Art Excitement. (United States)

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl


    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  2. Photophysics of covalently functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes with verteporfin (United States)

    Staicu, Angela; Smarandache, Adriana; Pascu, Alexandru; Pascu, Mihail Lucian


    Covalently functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with the photosensitizer verteporfin (VP) were synthesized and studied. Photophysical properties of the obtained compounds like optical absorption, laser-induced fluorescence and generated singlet oxygen were investigated. In order to highlight the features of the conjugated compound, its photophysical characteristics were compared with those of the mixtures of the initial components. The optical absorption data evidenced a compound that combines features of the primary SWCNTs and VP. This is the also the case of the laser induced fluorescence of the synthesized product. Moreover, fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) of the compound (Φf = 2.4%) is smaller than for the mixture of SWCNT and VP in (Φf = 3.2%). The behavior is expected, because linked VP (carrying the fluorescent moiety) transfers easier a part of its excitation energy to the SWCNT in the covalent structure. Relative to the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation (ΦΔ) by Methylene Blue, it was found that the ΦΔ for the conjugated VP-SWCNT is 51% while for the mixture ΦΔ is 23%. The results indicate covalently functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes with verteporfin as potential compounds of interest in targeted drug delivery and photodynamic therapy.

  3. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Levitsky, Igor A; Karachevtsev, Victor A


    Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials describes physical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the emerging class of nanocomposites formed from carbon nanotubes (CNTs)  interfacing with organic and inorganic materials. The three main chapters detail novel trends in  photophysics related to the interaction of  light with various carbon nanotube composites from relatively simple CNT/small molecule assemblies to complex hybrids such as CNT/Si and CNT/DNA nanostructures.   The latest experimental results are followed up with detailed discussions and scientific and technological perspectives to provide a through coverage of major topics including: ·   Light harvesting, energy conversion, photoinduced charge separation  and transport  in CNT based nanohybrids · CNT/polymer composites exhibiting photoactuation; and ·         Optical  spectroscopy  and structure of CNT/DNA complexes. Including original data and a short review of recent research, Phot...

  4. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen


    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  5. Photochemical stability of electrochromic polymers and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C


    , AM 1.5G) under ambient conditions the majority of the polymers degraded within 4-5 hours. Three polymers showed increased stability with degradation rates from 0.44 to 1.58% per hour measured as loss of absorption. Application of oxygen and UV barrier foils was found to drastically slow......The stability of fully printed flexible organic electrochromics based on 11 different conjugated polymers is explored from the fundamental chemical degradation level to the operational device level. The photochemical stability of the electrochromic polymers (ECPs) is studied enabling an analysis...... of the influence that the chemical constitution of the conjugated polymer backbone has on the photochemical stability. Based on changes in the UV-visible absorption and IR spectra, the polymers were categorized into two distinct groups, each with a separate degradation mechanism. During irradiation (1000 W m -2...

  6. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium (United States)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott


    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  7. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano


    and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results......Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls...

  8. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  9. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend


    performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements......Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...

  10. Sparse window local stereo matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan


    We propose a new local algorithm for dense stereo matching of gray images. This algorithm is a hybrid of the pixel based and the window based matching approach; it uses a subset of pixels from the large window for matching. Our algorithm does not suffer from the common pitfalls of the window based

  11. Spectroscopic Investigations of the Photophysics of Cryptophyte Light-Harvesting (United States)

    Dinshaw, Rayomond

    The biological significance of photosynthesis is indisputable as it is necessary for nearly all life on earth. Photosynthesis provides chemical energy for plants, algae, and bacteria, while heterotrophic organisms rely on these species as their ultimate food source. The initial step in photosynthesis requires the absorption of sunlight to create electronic excitations. Light-harvesting proteins play the functional role of capturing solar radiation and transferring the resulting excitation to the reaction centers where it is used to carry out the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Despite the wide variety of light-harvesting protein structures and arrangements, most light-harvesting proteins are able to utilize the captured solar energy for charge separation with near perfect quantum efficiency.1 This thesis will focus on understanding the energy transfer dynamics and photophysics of a specific subset of light-harvesting antennae known as phycobiliproteins. These proteins are extracted from cryptophyte algae and are investigated using steady-state and ultrafast spectroscopic techniques.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Photophysical Studies of Tricoumarin-Pyridines. (United States)

    Naik, Nirmala S; Shastri, Lokesh A; Bathula, Chinna; Chougala, Bahubali; Shastri, Samundeeswari; Holiyachi, Megharaja; Sunagar, Vinay


    A series of novel tricoumarin-pyridines have been synthesized by the reaction of 4-formyl coumarins and substituted 3-acetylcoumarin with ammonium acetate for the application in organic electronics as well as fluorescent dyes. The structures of all new compounds were confirmed and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and ESI-Mass analysis. All the important photo physical prerequisites for organic electronic application such as strong and broad optical absorption, thermal stability were determined for the synthesized molecules. Optical properties were studied by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Optical band gaps of the tricoumarin-pyridines were found to be 2.72-3.10 eV as calculated from their onset absorption edge. The tricoumarin-pyridines were thermally stable up to 290-370 °C as determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Photophysical studies indicate the synthesized materials are promising candidates for organic electronic applications.

  13. Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Honghua; Raissa, Raissa; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Adjokatse, Sampson; Blake, Graeme R.; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta


    Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the

  14. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer with carbazolyl side groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatiana D. Martins; Richard G. Weiss; Teresa D. Z. Atvars


    The photophysical properties of solutions and films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing 1.6 mol % of randomly distributed pendant ethyl carbazolyl groups have been studied under steady-state and time-resolved conditions...

  15. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul


    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  16. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew


    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  17. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker


    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...

  18. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V


    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  19. Windows on animal minds. (United States)

    Griffin, D R


    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  20. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James


    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  1. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim


    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  2. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi


    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  3. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J


    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  4. Thermo-cleavable polymers: Materials with enhanced photochemical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manceau, Matthieu; Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Krebs, Frederik C


    Photochemical stability of three thermo-cleavable polymers was investigated as thin films under atmospheric conditions. A significant increase in lifetime was observed once the side-chain was cleaved emphasizing the detrimental effect of solubilizing groups on the photochemical stability of conju......Photochemical stability of three thermo-cleavable polymers was investigated as thin films under atmospheric conditions. A significant increase in lifetime was observed once the side-chain was cleaved emphasizing the detrimental effect of solubilizing groups on the photochemical stability...... of conjugated polymers. In addition to their ease of processing, thermo-cleavable polymers thus also offer a greater intrinsic stability under illumination....

  5. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.


    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.


    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM


    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  7. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  8. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim


    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  9. 40 CFR 52.777 - Control strategy: photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (United States)


    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.777 Section 52.777 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy: photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter... for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region by May 31...

  10. Evaluation of the photochemical production of hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppert, J. A.


    The potential for utilizing solar energy through photochemical storage were investigated. Both water and nitrosyl chloride systems are examined. A comprehensive review of the literature led to the conclusion that many major questions must be answered before photochemical energy storage becomes a viable alternate means of exploiting solar energy.

  11. Solar Irradiation of Bilirubin: An Experiment in Photochemical Oxidation (United States)

    Pillay A. E.; Salih, F. M.


    An experiment in photochemical oxidation, which deals with bilirubin, a well-known light-sensitive biological compound that is pedagogically ideal for photochemical experiments at tertiary institutes, is presented. The experiment would benefit students in chemistry who eventually branch out into the health sciences or biochemistry.

  12. Trends in photochemical smog in the Cape Peninsula and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of deficiencies in the monitoring equipment, information on trends in photochemical smog levels over the past decade is limited. Trends in oxides of nitrogen, one of the main precursors of photochemical smog, and therefore an indicator of the potential for its formation, were examined for the period 1984 - 1993.

  13. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) (United States)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette


    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  14. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David


    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  15. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike


    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  16. Beginning Windows Phone 7 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Henry


    Microsoft is injecting new energy into the smart phone marketplace with the sophisticated Windows Phone 7. This new energy equates to new opportunities for you, the mobile developer. Beginning Windows Phone 7 Development has been written specifically to help you seize these opportunities and begin creating applications for this exciting new mobile device platform. Beginning Windows Phone 7 Development starts with the basics, walking you through the process of downloading and setting up the right development tools, including Visual Studio, Expression Blend, Silverlight SDK, and Windows Phone SD

  17. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R


    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  18. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom


    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  19. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor


    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  20. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan


    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  1. Synthesis and photophysical studies of phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugates. (United States)

    Nombona, Nolwazi; Antunes, Edith; Litwinski, Christian; Nyokong, Tebello


    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugates. The phthalocyanine complexes are: tris-(5-trifluoromethyl-2-mercaptopyridine)-2-(carboxy)phthalocyanine (3), 2,9,17,23-tetrakis-[(1, 6-hexanedithiol) phthalocyaninato]zinc(II) (8) and [8,15,22-tris-(naptho)-2(amidoethanethiol) phthalocyanato] zinc(II)(10). The gold nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy where the size was confirmed to be ∼5 nm. The phthalocyanine Au nanoparticle conjugates showed lower fluorescence quantum yield values with similar fluorescence lifetimes compared to the free phthalocyanines. The Au nanoparticle conjugates of 3 and 10 also showed higher triplet quantum yields of 0.69 to 0.71, respectively. A lower triplet quantum yield was obtained for the conjugate compared to free phthalocyanine for complex 8. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 70 to 92 μs for the conjugates and from 110 to 304 μs for unbound Pc complexes.

  2. Dynamic photophysical processes in laser irradiated human cortical skull bone (United States)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna


    Modulated luminescence (LUM) technique was applied to analyze photophysical processes in the cortical layer of human skull bones. The theoretical interpretation of the results was based on the optical excitation and decay rate equations of the fluorophore and on the molecular interaction parameter with the photon field density in the matrix of the bone. Using comparisons of the theory with the frequency response of dental LUM it was concluded that the optically active molecular species (fluorophore) in the bones is hydroxyapatite. An effective relaxation lifetime of skull cortical bone was derived theoretically and was found to depend on the intrinsic fluorophore decay lifetime, on the photon field density, and on the thickness of the bone. The experimentally measured dependencies were in excellent agreement with the theoretical model. The theory was able to yield measurements of the optical scattering coefficient, optical absorption coefficient, and mean coupling coefficient. These results show that the quantitative LUM can be used as a sensitive method to measure optical properties of the active fluorophore in cortical skull bones and the optical-field-induced molecular interaction parameter. When calibrated vs. laser intensity, the modulated luminescence can also be used to measure human skull thickness. These traits can be applied to monitor the bone mineral density (BMD) and, ultimately can be used as potential markers of bone health or disease, such as osteoporosis or bone cancer.

  3. Triangular platinum(II) metallacycles: syntheses, photophysics, and nonlinear optics. (United States)

    Fan, Yuanpeng; Zhao, Dahui


    Three triangular platinum(II) diimine metallacycles incorporating large cyclic oligo(phenylene-ethynylene) (OPE) bisacetylide ligands are synthesized, and their photophysical properties are studied. Two types of triplet excited states with ligand/metal-to-ligand charge-transfer and acetylide-ligand-centered characteristics respectively, are exhibited by these complexes depending on the size (conjugation length) and electronic features of the cyclic OPE ligands. When the energy levels of the two excited states are close to each other, the lowest triplet state is found to switch between the two in varied solvents, resulting from their relative energy inversion induced by solvent polarity change. Density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory calculations provide corroborative evidence for such experimental conclusions. More importantly, the designed metallacycles show impressive two-photon absorption (2PA) and two-photon excitation phosphorescing abilities, and the 2PA cross section reaches 1020 GM at 680 nm and 670 GM at 1040 nm by two different metallacycles. Additionally, pronounced reverse saturable absorptions are observed with these metallacycles by virtue of their strong transient triplet-state absorptions.

  4. Judicious Design of Cationic, Cyclometalated Ir(III) Complexes for Photochemical Energy Conversion and Optoelectronics. (United States)

    Mills, Isaac N; Porras, Jonathan A; Bernhard, Stefan


    (III) photosensitizers in high-throughput photoreactors. This parallelized approach allowed exploration of the interplay between the diverse photophysical properties of the Ir compounds and the electron-accepting catalysts. Further work enhanced and simplified the critical electron transfer processes between these two species through the use of bridging functional groups installed on the photosensitizer. Later, a novel approach summarized in this Account explores the possibility of using Zn metal as a solar fuel. Structure-activity relationships of the light-driven reduction of Zn 2+ to Zn metal are described. DFT calculations along with cyclic voltammetry were utilized to gain clear insights into the complexes' electronic structures responsible for the effective photochemical properties observed in these dyes. While [Ir(ppy) 2 bpy] + and its derivatives were found to be much more photostable than the Ru(II)-tris-diimine complex family, mass spectrometry indicated that the bpy ligand still photodissociated under extensive illumination. An interesting new approach involved the substitution of the bidentate 2,2'-bipyridine with a stronger chelating terpyridine ligand. This approach leaves room for one 2-phenylpyridine ligand and a third, anionic ligand, either Cl - or CN - . This Account reviews the effect of structural modifications on the photophysical properties of these [Ir(tpy)(ppy)X] + complexes and corroborates the findings with the results obtained through DFT modeling. These complexes found application in photocatalytic CO 2 reductions as well as a solvent tolerant light-absorber for the photogeneration of hydrogen. It was also documented that the robustness of these dyes in photoredox processes supersedes those of the commercially available [Ir(ppy) 2 (dtbbpy)]PF 6 and [Ir(dF(CF 3 )ppy) 2 (dtbbpy)]PF 6 complexes pioneered in the Bernhard laboratory.

  5. Photochemically induced oscillations of aromatic pentazadienes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, T.; Hahn, C.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Aromatic pentazadienes are used to enhance the laser induced ablation of standard polymers with low absorption in the UV. Therefore the photochemistry of substituted 1,5-diaryl-3-alkyl-1,4-pentazadiene monomers was studied with a pulsed excimer laser as irradiation source. The net photochemical reaction proceeds in an overall one-step pathway A{yields}B. Quantum yields for the laser decomposition were determined to be up to 10%. An oscillating behaviour of the absorption was found during the dark period following the irradiation. The temperature dependence of this dark reaction has been studied. An attempt to model this behaviour in terms of a non-linear coupling between heat released, heat transfer, and reaction kinetics will be described. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff


    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  7. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao


    Full Text Available Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  8. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend


    important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  9. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe


    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  10. Acetone photophysics at 282 nm excitation at elevated pressure and temperature. II: Fluorescence modeling (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason; Raju, Mandhapati; Sung, Chih-Jen


    This is the second in a series of two papers that presents an updated fluorescence model and compares with the new experimental data reported in the first paper, as well as the available literature data, to extend the range of acetone photophysics to elevated pressure and temperature conditions. This work elucidates the complete acetone photophysical model in terms of each and every competing radiative and non-radiative rate. The acetone fluorescence model is then thoroughly examined and optimized based on disparity with recently conducted elevated pressure and temperature photophysical calibration experiments. The current work offers insight into the competition between non-radiative and vibrational energy decay rates at elevated temperature and pressure and proposes a global optimization of model parameters from the photophysical model developed by Thurber (Acetone Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Temperature and Multiparameter Imaging in Gaseous Flows. PhD thesis, Stanford University Mechanical Engineering Department, 1999). The collisional constants of proportionality, which govern vibrational relaxation, are shown to be temperature dependent at elevated pressures. A new oxygen quenching rate is proposed which takes into account collisions with oxygen as well as the oxygen-assisted intersystem crossing component. Additionally, global trends in ketone photophysics are presented and discussed.

  11. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy


    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  12. False Windows - Yesterday and Today (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan


    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  13. A photochemical source of methyl chloride in saline waters. (United States)

    Moore, Robert M


    It is shown experimentallythatthe methoxy group in simple lignin-like molecules can be the source of the methyl group in CH3Cl produced by a photochemical reaction in an aqueous solution of chloride. Terrestrially derived colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in river water also yields CH3Cl through a photochemical process in a chloride solution. CDOM extracted from subsurface ocean waters showed some ability to enhance photochemical production of CH3Cl while CDOM from surface water showed no effect. Reactions of the kind described in this paper may be contributors to the marine source of methyl chloride and possibly other alkyl halides.

  14. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston


    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  15. Optimal Time Windows of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Colonius


    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal window of integration has become a widely accepted concept in multisensory research: crossmodal information falling within this window is highly likely to be integrated, whereas information falling outside is not. Making explicit assumptions about the arrival time difference between peripheral sensory processing times triggered by a crossmodal stimulus set, we derive a decision rule that determines an optimal window width as a function of (i the prior odds in favor of a common multisensory source, (ii the likelihood of arrival time differences, and (iii the payoff for making correct or wrong decisions. Empirical support for this approach will be presented.

  16. Multicriteria evaluation and window selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražić Jasmina


    Full Text Available The selection of windows that joins and fulfils demands by the building's users, designers and contractors implies the multicriteria analysis. The paper presents the multicriteria decision making methodology for achieving the most optimal variation (type of window. The optimization model is defined with seven criterion functions and the adequate optimization method is selected. The methodology is confirmed on an example of a selection of one out of eight window variations. The adopted method, by selecting the weight coefficients, proposes to the decision maker several different output results and offers the possibility to adopt the final (optimal solution that is in accordance with the optimization goal.

  17. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin


    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  18. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul


    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  19. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  20. Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of ZnS Colloidal Particles Doped with Silver. (United States)

    Hao; Sun; Yang; Zhang; Liu; Shen


    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of ZnS:Ag colloid are reported. The presence of mercaptoacetic acid has an important effect not only on the formation of doped and undoped ZnS but also on the photophysical properties. ZnS colloid doped with silver shows a strong green emission upon ultraviolet excitation, the intensity of which was enhanced significantly compared with that of the undoped colloid. The green emission was ascribed to a transition from a donor level such as anion vacancy to the levels of the Ag impurities. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  1. Photochemical oxidation: A solution for the mixed waste dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prellberg, J.W.; Thornton, L.M.; Cheuvront, D.A. [Vulcan Peroxidation Systems, Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others


    Numerous technologies are available to remove organic contamination from water or wastewater. A variety of techniques also exist that are used to neutralize radioactive waste. However, few technologies can satisfactorily address the treatment of mixed organic/radioactive waste without creating unacceptable secondary waste products or resulting in extremely high treatment costs. An innovative solution to the mixed waste problem is on-site photochemical oxidation. Liquid-phase photochemical oxidation has a long- standing history of successful application to the destruction of organic compounds. By using photochemical oxidation, the organic contaminants are destroyed on-site leaving the water, with radionuclides, that can be reused or disposed of as appropriate. This technology offers advantages that include zero air emissions, no solid or liquid waste formation, and relatively low treatment cost. Discussion of the photochemical process will be described, and several case histories from recent design testing, including cost analyses for the resulting full-scale installations, will be presented as examples.

  2. A comprehensive approach to the photochemical synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    isoxazolone, 2-thiazoline-2-thiol, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone under photochemical conditions have been described. The UV light-induced irradiation mainly produced benzazepine and quinoline carboxylic acid derivatives. The products have been ...

  3. Method of making gold thiolate and photochemically functionalized microcantilevers (United States)

    Boiadjiev, Vassil I [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Pinnaduwage, Lal A [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Bonnesen, Peter V [Knoxville, TN; Goretzki, Gudrun [Nottingham, GB


    Highly sensitive sensor platforms for the detection of specific reagents, such as chromate, gasoline and biological species, using microcantilevers and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) whose surfaces have been modified with photochemically attached organic monolayers, such as self-assembled monolayers (SAM), or gold-thiol surface linkage are taught. The microcantilever sensors use photochemical hydrosilylation to modify silicon surfaces and gold-thiol chemistry to modify metallic surfaces thereby enabling individual microcantilevers in multicantilever array chips to be modified separately. Terminal vinyl substituted hydrocarbons with a variety of molecular recognition sites can be attached to the surface of silicon via the photochemical hydrosilylation process. By focusing the activating UV light sequentially on selected silicon or silicon nitride hydrogen terminated surfaces and soaking or spotting selected metallic surfaces with organic thiols, sulfides, or disulfides, the microcantilevers are functionalized. The device and photochemical method are intended to be integrated into systems for detecting specific agents including chromate groundwater contamination, gasoline, and biological species.

  4. Photochemical organonitrate formation in wet aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Lim


    Full Text Available Water is the most abundant component of atmospheric fine aerosol. However, despite rapid progress, multiphase chemistry involving wet aerosols is still poorly understood. In this work, we report results from smog chamber photooxidation of glyoxal- and OH-containing ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the presence of NOx and O3 at high and low relative humidity. Particles were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. During the 3 h irradiation, OH oxidation products of glyoxal that are also produced in dilute aqueous solutions (e.g., oxalic acids and tartaric acids were formed in both ammonium sulfate (AS aerosols and sulfuric acid (SA aerosols. However, the major products were organonitrogens (CHNO, organosulfates (CHOS, and organonitrogen sulfates (CHNOS. These were also the dominant products formed in the dark chamber, indicating non-radical formation. In the humid chamber (> 70 % relative humidity, RH, two main products for both AS and SA aerosols were organonitrates, which appeared at m ∕ z− 147 and 226. They were formed in the aqueous phase via non-radical reactions of glyoxal and nitric acid, and their formation was enhanced by photochemistry because of the photochemical formation of nitric acid via reactions of peroxy radicals, NOx and OH during the irradiation.

  5. Photochemical oxidants: state of the science. (United States)

    Kley, D; Kleinmann, M; Sanderman, H; Krupa, S


    Atmospheric photochemical processes resulting in the production of tropospheric ozone (O(3)) and other oxidants are described. The spatial and temporal variabilities in the occurrence of surface level oxidants and their relationships to air pollution meteorology are discussed. Models of photooxidant formation are reviewed in the context of control strategies and comparisons are provided of the air concentrations of O(3) at select geographic locations around the world. This overall oxidant (O(3)) climatology is coupled to human health and ecological effects. The discussion of the effects includes both acute and chronic responses, mechanisms of action, human epidemiological and plant population studies and briefly, efforts to establish cause-effect relationships through numerical modeling. A short synopsis is provided of the interactive effects of O(3) with other abiotic and biotic factors. The overall emphasis of the paper is on identifying the current uncertainties and gaps in our understanding of the state of the science and some suggestions as to how they may be addressed.

  6. Remotely Sensing the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern


    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside the leaves in a stand of plants. Developed by Gamon et al., (1990 and 1992), PRI evolved from laboratory measurements of the reflectance of individual leaves (Bilger et al.,1989). Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We conducted laboratory experiments comparing values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. We illuminated single detached leaves using a current controlled light source (Oriel model 66881) and measured the leaf weight using an analytical balance (Mettler model AE 260) and the light reflected and transmitted by the leaf during dry down using two Analytical Spectral Devices spectroradiometers. Polarizers on the incident and reflected light beams allowed us to divide the leaf reflectance into two parts: a polarized surface reflectance and a non-polarized 'leaf interior' reflectance. Our results underscore the importance when calculating PRI of removing the leaf surface reflection, which contains no information about physiological processes ongoing in the leaf interior. The results show that the leaf physiology information is in the leaf interior reflectance, not the leaf transmittance. Applied to a plant stand, these results suggest use of polarization measurements in sun-view directions that minimize the number of sunlit transmitting leaves in the sensor field of view.

  7. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millenium (United States)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott


    This project tackles the problem of conversion of validated a priori physics-based modeling capabilities, specifically those relevant to the analysis and interpretation of planetary atmosphere observations, to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. The software package under development, named the Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT), has particular focus on the atmospheric remote sensing data to be acquired by the CIRS instrument during the CASSINI Jupiter flyby and orbital tour of the Saturnian system. Overall, the project has followed the development outline given in the original proposal, and the Year 1 design and architecture goals have been met. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Most of the effort has gone into complete definition of the PPMT interfaces within the context of today's IT arena: adoption and adherence to the CORBA Component Model (CCM) has yielded a solid architecture basis, and CORBA-related issues (services, specification options, development plans, etc.) have been largely resolved. Implementation goals have been redirected somewhat so as to be more relevant to the upcoming CASSINI flyby of Jupiter, with focus now being more on data analysis and remote sensing retrieval applications.

  8. Photochemical Patterning of Ionically Cross-Linked Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bruchet


    Full Text Available Iron(III cross-linked alginate hydrogel incorporating sodium lactate undergoes photoinduced degradation, thus serving as a biocompatible positive photoresist suitable for photochemical patterning. Alternatively, surface etching of iron(III cross-linked hydrogel contacting lactic acid solution can be used for controlling the thickness of the photochemical pattering. Due to biocompatibility, both of these approaches appear potentially useful for advanced manipulation with cell cultures including growing cells on the surface or entrapping them within the hydrogel.

  9. Degradation of artificial sweeteners via direct and indirect photochemical reactions. (United States)

    Perkola, Noora; Vaalgamaa, Sanna; Jernberg, Joonas; Vähätalo, Anssi V


    We studied the direct and indirect photochemical reactivity of artificial sweeteners acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose in environm entally relevant dilute aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions of sweeteners were irradiated with simulated solar radiation (>290 nm; 96 and 168 h) or ultraviolet radiation (UVR; up to 24 h) for assessing photochemical reactions in surface waters or in water treatment, respectively. The sweeteners were dissolved in deionised water for examination of direct photochemical reactions. Direct photochemical reactions degraded all sweeteners under UVR but only acesulfame under simulated solar radiation. Acesulfame was degraded over three orders of magnitude faster than the other sweeteners. For examining indirect photochemical reactions, the sweeteners were dissolved in surface waters with indigenous dissolved organic matter or irradiated with aqueous solutions of nitrate (1 mg N/L) and ferric iron (2.8 mg Fe/L) introduced as sensitizers. Iron enhanced the photodegradation rates but nitrate and dissolved organic matter did not. UVR transformed acesulfame into at least three products: iso-acesulfame, hydroxylated acesulfame and hydroxypropanyl sulfate. Photolytic half-life was one year for acesulfame and more than several years for the other sweeteners in surface waters under solar radiation. Our study shows that the photochemical reactivity of commonly used artificial sweeteners is variable: acesulfame may be sensitive to photodegradation in surface waters, while saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose degrade very slowly even under the energetic UVR commonly used in water treatment.

  10. A window on urban sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  11. Synthesis and photophysical characterization of stable indium bacteriochlorins. (United States)

    Krayer, Michael; Yang, Eunkyung; Kim, Han-Je; Kee, Hooi Ling; Deans, Richard M; Sluder, Camille E; Diers, James R; Kirmaier, Christine; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Lindsey, Jonathan S


    Bacteriochlorins have wide potential in photochemistry because of their strong absorption of near-infrared light, yet metallobacteriochlorins traditionally have been accessed with difficulty. Established acid-catalysis conditions [BF(3)·OEt(2) in CH(3)CN or TMSOTf/2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine in CH(2)Cl(2)] for the self-condensation of dihydrodipyrrin-acetals (bearing a geminal dimethyl group in the pyrroline ring) afford stable free base bacteriochlorins. Here, InBr(3) in CH(3)CN at room temperature was found to give directly the corresponding indium bacteriochlorin. Application of the new acid catalysis conditions has afforded four indium bacteriochlorins bearing aryl, alkyl/ester, or no substituents at the β-pyrrolic positions. The indium bacteriochlorins exhibit (i) a long-wavelength absorption band in the 741-782 nm range, which is shifted bathochromically by 22-32 nm versus the analogous free base species, (ii) fluorescence quantum yields (0.011-0.026) and average singlet lifetime (270 ps) diminished by an order of magnitude versus that (0.13-0.25; 4.0 ns) for the free base analogues, and (iii) higher average yield (0.9 versus 0.5) yet shorter average lifetime (30 vs 105 μs) of the lowest triplet excited state compared to the free base compounds. The differences in the excited-state properties of the indium chelates versus free base bacteriochlorins derive primarily from a 30-fold greater rate constant for S(1) → T(1) intersystem crossing, which stems from the heavy-atom effect on spin-orbit coupling. The trends in optical properties of the indium bacteriochlorins versus free base analogues, and the effects of 5-OMe versus 5-H substituents, correlate well with frontier molecular-orbital energies and energy gaps derived from density functional theory calculations. Collectively the synthesis, photophysical properties, and electronic characteristics of the indium bacteriochlorins and free base analogues reported herein should aid in the further design of such

  12. On the photophysics and photochemistry of the water dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra-Marti, Javier; Merchan, Manuela [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universitat de Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Roca-Sanjuan, Daniel; Lindh, Roland [Department of Chemistry - Angstroem, Theoretical Chemistry Program, Uppsala University, Box 518, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)


    The photochemistry of the water dimer irradiated by UV light is studied by means of the complete active space perturbation theory//complete active space self-consistent field (CASPT2//CASSCF) method and accurate computational approaches like as minimum energy paths. Both electronic structure computations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are carried out. The results obtained show small shifts relative to a single water molecule on the vertical excitation energies of the dimer due to the hydrogen bond placed between the water donor (W{sub D}) and the water acceptor (W{sub A}). A red-shift and a blue-shift are predicted for the W{sub D} and W{sub A}, respectively, supporting previous theoretical and experimental results. The photoinduced chemistry of the water dimer is described as a process occurring between two single water molecules in which the effect of the hydrogen bond plays a minor role. Thus, the photoinduced decay routes correspond to two photodissociation processes, one for each water molecule. The proposed mechanism for the decay channels of the lowest-lying excited states of the system is established as the photochemical production of a hydrogen-bonded H{sub 2}O Horizontal-Ellipsis HO species plus a hydrogen H atom.

  13. Femtosecond Time-Resolved Photophysics of 1,4,5,8-Napthalene Diimides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganesan, P.; Baggerman, J.; Zhang, H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Zuilhof, H.


    The photophysical properties of a tetrahedral molecule with naphthalene diimide (NDI) moieties and of two model compounds were investigated. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of dialkyl-substituted NDI are in agreement with literature. While the absorption spectra of phenyl-substituted

  14. A class of fluorescent heterocyclic dyes revisited: photophysics, structure, and solvent effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Lianjie; Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Henriksen, Lars


    The photophysical behavior of a series of 2-methylthio-5-(Z-carbonyl)thieno-[3,4-e]-3,4-dihydro-1,2,3-triazine-4-ones was investigated by absorption and emission spectroscopy in a range of solvents representing a systematic variation in polarity, polarizability, as well as hydrogen bond donating ...

  15. Analysis of the photophysical properties of zearalenone using density functional theory (United States)

    The intrinsic photophysical properties of the resorcylic acid moiety of zearalenone offer a convenient label free method to determine zearalenone levels in contaminated agricultural products. Density functional theory and steady-state fluorescence methods were applied to investigate the role of stru...

  16. Photo-physics study of an hydroxy-quinoline derivative as inhibitor of Pim-1 kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamhasni, T.; Aitlyazidi, S.; Hnach, M.


    The photophysical properties of the antiviral 7-nicotinoyl-styrylquinoline (MB96) were investigated by means of UV-Vis linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyvinylalcohol (PVA), supported by Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) calculations. ...

  17. Synthesis, photophysical properties, and photovoltaic devices of oligo(p-phenylene vinylene)-fullerene dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Emiel; Hal, Paul A. van; Knol, Joop; Brabec, Christoph J.; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, René A.J.


    The synthesis of a homologous series of oligo(p-phenylene vinylene)-fulleropyrrolidines (OPVn-C60, n = 1-4, where n is the number of phenyl rings) is described. The photophysical properties of these donor-acceptor dyads and the corresponding model compounds,

  18. Pathways and Mechanisms Underlying the Photophysics and Photochemistry of Riboflavin induced cornea crosslinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Ogilby, Peter Remsen

    In this talk, we will describe general pathways involved in the photophysics of a photosensitized process, which can lead to crosslinking due to light excitation of Riboflavin in the cornea. Furthermore, we will elucidate different aspects of reactions that can produce crosslinks, with respect...

  19. Photophysics of organometallic platinum(II) derivatives of the diketopyrrolopyrrole chromophore

    KAUST Repository

    Goswami, Subhadip


    A pair of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) chromophores that are end-functionalized with platinum containing "auxochromes" were subjected to electrochemical and photophysical study. The chromophores contain either platinum acetylide or ortho-metalated 2-thienylpyridinyl(platinum) end-groups (DPP-Pt(CC) and DPP-Pt(acac), respectively). The ground state redox potentials of the chromophores were determined by solution electrochemistry, and the HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated. The chromophores\\' photophysical properties were characterized by absorption, photoluminescence, and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy on time scales from sub-picoseconds to microseconds. Density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed to understand the molecular orbitals involved in both the singlet and triplet excited state photophysics. The results reveal that in both platinum DPP derivatives the organometallic auxochromes have a significant effect on the chromophores\\' photophysics. The most profound effect is a reduction in the fluorescence yields accompanied by enhanced triplet yields due to spin-orbit coupling induced by the metal centers. The effects are most pronounced in DPP-Pt(acac), indicating that the orthometalated platinum auxochrome is able to induce spin-orbital coupling to a greater extent compared to the platinum acetylide units. (Figure Presented).

  20. Photochemical Formation of Sulfur-Containing Aerosols (United States)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica


    In order to understand planetary climate systems, modeling the properties of atmospheric aerosols is vital. Aerosol formation plays an important role in planetary climates and is tied to feedback loops that can either warm or cool a planet. Sulfur compounds are known to play an important role in new particle aerosol formation and have been observed in a number of planetary atmospheres throughout our solar system. Our current understanding of sulfur chemistry explains much of what we observe in Earth's atmosphere; however, several discrepancies arise when comparing observations of the Venusian atmosphere with model predictions. This suggests that there are still problems in our fundamental understanding of sulfur chemistry. This is concerning given recent renewed interest in sulfate injections in the stratosphere for solar radiation management geo-engineering schemes. We investigate the role of sunlight as a potential driver of the formation of sulfur-containing aerosols. I will present recent work investigating the generation of large quantities of aerosol from the irradiation of mixtures of SO_2 with water and organic species, using a solar simulator that mimics the light that is available in the Earth's troposphere and the Venusian middle atmosphere. I will present on recent work done in our lab suggesting the formation of sulfurous acid, H_2SO_3, and describe experimental work that supports this proposed mechanism. Additionally I will present on new work showing the highly reactive nature of electronically excited SO_2 with saturated alkane species. The implications of this photochemically induced sulfur aerosol formation in the atmosphere of Earth and other planetary atmospheres will be discussed.

  1. Topography of photochemical initiation in molecular materials. (United States)

    Aluker, Edward D; Krechetov, Alexander G; Mitrofanov, Anatoly Y; Zverev, Anton S; Kuklja, Maija M


    We propose a fluctuation model of the photochemical initiation of an explosive chain reaction in energetic materials. In accordance with the developed model, density fluctuations of photo-excited molecules serve as reaction nucleation sites due to the stochastic character of interactions between photons and energetic molecules. A further development of the reaction is determined by a competition of two processes. The first process is growth in size of the isolated reaction cell, leading to a micro-explosion and release of the material from the cell towards the sample surface. The second process is the overlap of reaction cells due to an increase in their size, leading to the formation of a continuous reaction zone and culminating in a macro-explosion, i.e., explosion of the entire area, covering a large part of the volume of the sample. Within the proposed analytical model, we derived expressions of the explosion probability and the duration of the induction period as a function of the initiation energy (exposure). An experimental verification of the model was performed by exploring the initiation of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) with the first harmonic of YAG: Nd laser excitation (1,064 nm, 10 ns), which has confirmed the adequacy of the model. This validation allowed us to make a few quantitative assessments and predictions. For example, there must be a few dozen optically excited molecules produced by the initial fluctuations for the explosive decomposition reaction to occur and the life-time of an isolated cell before the micro-explosion must be of the order of microseconds.

  2. Topography of Photochemical Initiation in Molecular Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Aluker


    Full Text Available We propose a fluctuation model of the photochemical initiation of an explosive chain reaction in energetic materials. In accordance with the developed model, density fluctuations of photo-excited molecules serve as reaction nucleation sites due to the stochastic character of interactions between photons and energetic molecules. A further development of the reaction is determined by a competition of two processes. The first process is growth in size of the isolated reaction cell, leading to a micro-explosion and release of the material from the cell towards the sample surface. The second process is the overlap of reaction cells due to an increase in their size, leading to the formation of a continuous reaction zone and culminating in a macro-explosion, i.e., explosion of the entire area, covering a large part of the volume of the sample. Within the proposed analytical model, we derived expressions of the explosion probability and the duration of the induction period as a function of the initiation energy (exposure. An experimental verification of the model was performed by exploring the initiation of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN with the first harmonic of YAG: Nd laser excitation (1,064 nm, 10 ns, which has confirmed the adequacy of the model. This validation allowed us to make a few quantitative assessments and predictions. For example, there must be a few dozen optically excited molecules produced by the initial fluctuations for the explosive decomposition reaction to occur and the life-time of an isolated cell before the micro-explosion must be of the order of microseconds.

  3. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J


    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  4. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan


    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  5. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas


    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  6. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  7. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark


    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  8. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul


    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  9. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset


    Oksanen, Joni


    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  10. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  11. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia


    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at:

  12. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia


    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at:

  13. What's New in Windows Vista?

    CERN Document Server

    Culp, Brian


    Get ready for a quick blast through this significant change to Windows! This guide will give you a quick look at many of the most significant new features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in nearly six years. Starting with the changes to the interface, introducing Aero, and showing you some visuals, we then move on to the completely revamped search options. The new task scheduler and printing gadgets, are next with some cool new changes. Probably the most significant changes, however, come in the area of security and this guide takes a look at them from user priveleges, to

  14. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal (United States)

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Trotter, Steven


    In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  15. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom


    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  16. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina


    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  17. [Photochemical oxidants in Novi Sad 1992-1995]. (United States)

    Kristoforović-Ilić, M


    Nowadays photochemical oxidants present the most important problem of air pollution in the world, and due to this a leading cause of destroying quality of environmental health. Higher concentrations of ozone in urban areas of Europe are evident (about 1-2%) from the North to the South especially. During 1992-1995, from June to September, photochemical oxidants concentrations were studied (ozone at 4 a.m. and 4 p.m.; nitrogen dioxide at 8 a.m.; formaldehyde at 8 a.m. and total carbon dioxide at 8 a.m.) all factors of "Summer photochemical smog", with records on the number of vehicles on highways and climate data. Gathered results show that the health of the population is not endangered by Summer smog. Linear correlation data of certain pollutants with climate (temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative air humidity) are in accordance with data in the world.

  18. Photophysical studies of a new water soluble indocarbocyanine dye adsorbed onto microcrystalline cellulose and β-cyclodextrin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Oliveira, Anabela S; Almeida, Paulo; Ferreira, Diana P; Conceição, David S; Ferreira, Luis F Vieira


    A water-soluble indocarbocyanine dye was synthesized and its photophysics were studied for the first time on two solid hosts, microcrystalline cellulose and b-cyclodextrin, as well as in homogeneous media...

  19. Photophysical Studies of a New Water Soluble Indocarbocyanine Dye Adsorbed onto Microcrystalline Cellulose and b-Cyclodextrin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luis F. Vieira Ferreira; Diana P. Ferreira; David S. Conceição; Paulo Almeida; Anabela S. Oliveira; Reda M. El-Shishtawy


    A water-soluble indocarbocyanine dye was synthesized and its photophysics were studied for the first time on two solid hosts, microcrystalline cellulose and b-cyclodextrin, as well as in homogeneous media...

  20. Low-Absorption Laser Windows (United States)


    ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS AT 1.06 Urn James W. Davisson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington, D.C. 20375 ABSTRACT A procedure for the chemical poli...W. Davisson , Fourth Laser Window Materials Conf. p. 466). The alkaline earth fluorides and LiF were mechanically polished by rubbing: till dry

  1. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas


    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  2. Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure and the role of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles on the photophysical and photocatalytic properties of the metal-semiconductor system (United States)

    Sarma, Bikash; Sarma, Bimal K.


    This report presents findings on microstructural, photophysical, and photocatalytic properties of Ag/ZnO heterostructure grown on flexible and silicon substrates. ZnO microrods are prepared by thermal decomposition method for different solute concentrations and Ag/ZnO heterostructure are fabricated by photo-deposition of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO microrods. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies confirm that ZnO microrods belong to the hexagonal wurtzite structure and grown along [001] direction with random alignment showing that majority microrods are aligned with (100) face parallel to the sample surface. Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles are attached to different faces of ZnO. In the optical reflection spectra of Ag/ZnO heterostructure, the surface plasmon resonance peak due to Ag nanoparticles appears at 445 nm. Due to the oxygen vacancies the band gaps of ZnO microrods turn out to be narrower compared to that of bulk ZnO. The presence of Ag nanoparticles decreases the photoluminescence intensity which might be attributed to the non-radiative energy and direct electron transfer in the plasmon-exciton system. The quenching of photoluminescence in Ag/ZnO heterostructure at different growth conditions depend on the extent of surface coverage of ZnO by plasmonic Ag nanoparticles. Photocatalytic degradation efficiency of Ag/ZnO heterostructure is higher than that of ZnO microrods. The extent of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles is crucial for the observed changes in photophysical and photochemical properties.

  3. Iminium and enamine catalysis in enantioselective photochemical reactions (United States)

    Hörmann, Fabian M.


    Although enantioselective catalysis under thermal conditions has been well established over the last few decades, the enantioselective catalysis of photochemical reactions is still a challenging task resulting from the complex enantiotopic face differentiation in the photoexcited state. Recently, remarkable achievements have been reported by a synergistic combination of organocatalysis and photocatalysis, which have led to the expedient construction of a diverse range of enantioenriched molecules which are generally not easily accessible under thermal conditions. In this tutorial review, we summarize and highlight the most significant advances in iminium and enamine catalysis of enantioselective photochemical reactions, with an emphasis on catalytic modes and reaction types. PMID:29155908

  4. Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide photochemical diodes (United States)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Leygraf, Christofer H.


    Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor photochemical diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The photochemical diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

  5. Windowed versus windowless solar energy cavity receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, P. O.


    A model for a windowed, high-temperature cavity receiver of the heated-air type is developed and used to evaluate the greenhouse effect as a method for obtaining high receiver operating efficiencies. The effects on receiver efficiency of varying the window cutoff wavelength, the amount of absorption in the window pass-band, the cavity operating temperature, and the number of windows are determined. Single windowed cavities are found to offer theoretical efficiencies comparable to windowless ones, while multiple windowed units are found to suffer from low operating efficiencies due to losses resulting from reflections at each window/air interface. A ''first order'' examination is made of the feasibility of air cooling the window to assure its survival. This appears possible if a proper combination of cooling technique and window material characteristics is selected.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Photochemical Air Pollution. (United States)

    McRae, Gregory John

    Air pollution is an environmental problem that is both pervasive and difficult to control. An important element of any rational control approach is a reliable means for evaluating the air quality impact of alternative abatement measures. This work presents such a capability, in the form of a mathematical description of the production and transport of photochemical oxidants within an urban airshed. The combined influences of advection, turbulent diffusion, chemical reaction, emissions and surface removal processes are all incorporated into a series of models that are based on the species continuity equations. A delineation of the essential assumptions underlying the formulation of a three-dimensional, a Lagrangian trajectory, a vertically integrated and single cell air quality model is presented. Since each model employs common components and input data the simpler forms can be used for rapid screening calculations and the more complex ones for detailed evaluations. The flow fields, needed for species transport, are constructed using inverse distance weighted polynomial interpolation techniques that map routine monitoring data onto a regular computational mesh. Variational analysis procedures are then employed to adjust the field so that mass is conserved. Initial concentration and mixing height distributions can be established with the same interpolation algorithms. Subgrid scale turbulent transport is characterized by a gradient diffusion hypothesis. Similarity solutions are used to model the surface layer fluxes. Above this layer different treatments of turbulent diffusivity are required to account for variations in atmospheric stability. Convective velocity scaling is utilized to develop eddy diffusivities for unstable conditions. The predicted mixing times are in accord with results obtained during sulfur hexafluoride (SF(,6)) tracer experiments. Conventional models are employed for neutral and stable conditions. A new formulation for gaseous deposition fluxes

  7. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, Joseph H.


    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  8. Electro- and photochemical switching of dithienylethene self-assembled monolayers on gold electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, W.R.; Kudernac, T.; Katsonis, N.


    The photochemical and electrochemical properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of three structurally distinct hexahydro- and hexafluoro-dithienylcyclopentene-based photochromic switches on gold electrodes are reported. The photochemical and electrochemical switching between the open and clos...

  9. 78 FR 11172 - Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (United States)


    ... Committee (CASAC), an independent science advisory committee whose existence and whose review and advisory... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants AGENCY: Environmental... final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants...

  10. Graphene Charge Transfer, Spectroscopy, and Photochemical Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brus, Louis [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)


    This project focused on the special electronic and optical properties of graphene and adsorbed molecular species. Graphene makes an excellent substrate for current collection in nanostructured photovoltaic designs. Graphene is almost transparent, and can be used as a solar cell window. It also has no surface states, and thus current is efficiently transported over long distances. Progress in graphene synthesis indicates that there will soon be practical methods for making large pieces of graphene for devices. We now need to understand exactly what happens to both ground state and electronically excited molecules and Qdots near graphene, if we are going to use them to absorb light in a nano-structured photovoltaic device using graphene to collect photocurrent. We also need to understand how to shift the graphene Fermi level, to optimize the kinetics of electron transfer to graphene. And we need to learn how to convert local graphene areas to semiconductor structure, to make useful spatially patterned graphenes. In this final report, we describe how we addressed these goals. We explored the question of possible Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy from molecular Charge Transfer onto Graphene substrates. We observed strong hole doping of graphene by adsorbed halogens as indicated by the shift of the graphene G Raman band. In the case of iodine adsorption, we also observed the anionic species made by hole doping. At low frequency in the Raman spectrum, we saw quite intense lines from I3- and I5- , suggesting possible SERS. We reported on Fresnel calculations on this thin film system, which did not show any net electromagnetic field enhancement.

  11. Controlling photophysical properties of ultrasmall conjugated polymer nanoparticles through polymer chain packing

    KAUST Repository

    Piwonski, Hubert Marek


    Applications of conjugated polymer nanoparticles (Pdots) for imaging and sensing depend on their size, fluorescence brightness and intraparticle energy transfer. The molecular design of conjugated polymers (CPs) has been the main focus of the development of Pdots. Here we demonstrate that proper control of the physical interactions between the chains is as critical as the molecular design. The unique design of twisted CPs and fine-tuning of the reprecipitation conditions allow us to fabricate ultrasmall (3.0–4.5 nm) Pdots with excellent photostability. Extensive photophysical and structural characterization reveals the essential role played by the packing of the polymer chains in the particles in the intraparticle spatial alignment of the emitting sites, which regulate the fluorescence brightness and the intraparticle energy migration efficiency. Our findings enhance understanding of the relationship between chain interactions and the photophysical properties of CP nanomaterials, providing a framework for designing and fabricating functional Pdots for imaging applications.

  12. Controlling photophysical properties of ultrasmall conjugated polymer nanoparticles through polymer chain packing (United States)

    Piwoński, Hubert; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi; Habuchi, Satoshi


    Applications of conjugated polymer nanoparticles (Pdots) for imaging and sensing depend on their size, fluorescence brightness and intraparticle energy transfer. The molecular design of conjugated polymers (CPs) has been the main focus of the development of Pdots. Here we demonstrate that proper control of the physical interactions between the chains is as critical as the molecular design. The unique design of twisted CPs and fine-tuning of the reprecipitation conditions allow us to fabricate ultrasmall (3.0-4.5 nm) Pdots with excellent photostability. Extensive photophysical and structural characterization reveals the essential role played by the packing of the polymer chains in the particles in the intraparticle spatial alignment of the emitting sites, which regulate the fluorescence brightness and the intraparticle energy migration efficiency. Our findings enhance understanding of the relationship between chain interactions and the photophysical properties of CP nanomaterials, providing a framework for designing and fabricating functional Pdots for imaging applications.

  13. Photophysics and photochemistry of Riboflavin-induced corneal Cross-Linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas

    In this talk, we will describe general pathways involved in the photophysics of a photosensitized process, which can lead to crosslinking due to light excitation of Riboflavin in the cornea. Furthermore, we will show the contribution of singlet molecular oxygen O2(a1Δg) to this phenomena and show...... difficulties of the measurement in porcine corneas in respect to neat solutions. We will also discuss the mechanism which involves the formation of singlet oxygen as one of the triggering species....

  14. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia


    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: MS03-040:

  15. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T.; Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.


    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  16. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics (United States)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung


    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy.

  17. Chemical kinetic and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modelling (United States)

    Demore, W. B.; Stief, L. J.; Kaufman, F.; Golden, D. M.; Hampton, R. F.; Kurylo, M. J.; Margitan, J. J.; Molina, M. J.; Watson, R. T.


    An evaluated set of rate constants and photochemical cross sections were compiled for use in modelling stratospheric processes. The data are primarily relevant to the ozone layer, and its possible perturbation by anthropogenic activities. The evaluation is current to, approximately, January, 1979.

  18. Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling (United States)

    Demore, W. B.; Sander, S. P.; Golden, D. M.; Hampson, R. F.; Kurylo, M. J.; Howard, C. J.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, M. J.


    As part of a series of evaluated sets, rate constants and photochemical cross sections compiled by the NASA Panel for Data Evaluation are provided. The primary application of the data is in the modeling of stratospheric processes, with particular emphasis on the ozone layer and its possible perturbation by anthropogenic and natural phenomena. Copies of this evaluation are available from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. Photochemical Generation and Reactivity of Naphthyl Cations: cine Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegt, M.; Minne, F.; Zuilhof, H.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Lodder, G.


    The photochemical solvolyses of naphthalen-1-yl(phenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate and naphthalen-2-yl(phenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate in methanol regiospecifically yield the naphthalen-1- and -2-yl ethers but afford scrambled 1- and 2-phenylnaphthalene Friedel-Crafts products. It is demonstrated

  20. Photochemical transformation of graphene oxide in sunlight (journal) (United States)

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a graphene derivative that is more easily manufactured in large scale and used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with properties analogous to graphene. In this study, we investigate the photochemical fate of GO under sunlight conditions. The resu...

  1. Trends in photochemical smog in the Cape Peninsula and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    precursors of photochemical smog, notably nitrogen dioxide, and some of its components, notably ozone, have been shown to be detrimental to respiratory health at levels close to, or below, current recommended guidelines. A continuing increase in these pollutants will therefore result in more respiratory illness, particularly ...

  2. A photochemical reactor for studies of atmospheric chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Eskebjerg, Carsten; Johnson, Matthew Stanley


    A photochemical reactor for studies of atmospheric kinetics and spectroscopy has been built at the Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research. The reactor consists of a vacuum FTIR spectrometer coupled to a 100 L quartz cylinder by multipass optics mounted on electropolished stainless steel end...

  3. Temporal Windowing of Trapped States


    Castellano, L. M.; Gonzalez, D. M.


    Trapped state definition for 3-level atoms in Lambda configuration, is a very restrictive one, and for the case of unpolarized beams, this definition no longer holds.We introduce a more general definition by using a reference frame rotating with the frequency of the control field, obtaining a temporal windowing for the trapped population.This amounts to a time quantization of the coherent population transfer, making possible to study the phase coherence in trapped light.

  4. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc


    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  5. Photophysics of Fluorescent Probes for Single-Molecule Biophysics and Super-Resolution Imaging (United States)

    Ha, Taekjip; Tinnefeld, Philip


    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and super-resolution microscopy are important elements of the ongoing technical revolution to reveal biochemical and cellular processes in unprecedented clarity and precision. Demands placed on the photophysical properties of the fluorophores are stringent and drive the choice of appropriate probes. Such fluorophores are not simple light bulbs of a certain color and brightness but instead have their own “personalities” regarding spectroscopic parameters, redox properties, size, water solubility, photostability, and several other factors. Here, we review the photophysics of fluorescent probes, both organic fluorophores and fluorescent proteins, used in applications such as particle tracking, single-molecule FRET, stoichiometry determination, and super-resolution imaging. Of particular interest is the thiol-induced blinking of Cy5, a curse for single-molecule biophysical studies that was later overcome using Trolox through a reducing/oxidizing system but a boon for super-resolution imaging owing to the controllable photoswitching. Understanding photophysics is critical in the design and interpretation of single-molecule experiments.

  6. Synthetic control of spectroscopic and photophysical properties of triarylborane derivatives having peripheral electron-donating groups. (United States)

    Ito, Akitaka; Kawanishi, Kazuyoshi; Sakuda, Eri; Kitamura, Noboru


    The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of triarylborane derivatives were controlled by the nature of the triarylborane core (trixylyl- or trianthrylborane) and peripheral electron-donating groups (N,N-diphenylamino or 9H-carbazolyl groups). The triarylborane derivatives with and without the electron-donating groups showed intramolecular charge-transfer absorption/fluorescence transitions between the π orbital of the aryl group (π(aryl)) and the vacant p orbital on the boron atom (p(B), π(aryl)-p(B) CT), and the fluorescence color was tunable from blue to red by the combination of peripheral electron-donating groups and a triarylborane core. Detailed electrochemical, spectroscopic, and photophysical studies of the derivatives, including solvent dependences of the spectroscopic and photophysical properties, demonstrated that the HOMO and LUMO of each derivative were determined primarily by the nature of the peripheral electron-donating group and the triarylborane core, respectively. The effects of solvent polarity on the fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime of the derivatives were also tunable by the choice of the triarylborane core. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Photophysics of a coumarin based Schiff base in solvents of varying polarities (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Roy, Nayan; Singh, T. Sanjoy; Chattopadhyay, Nitin


    The present work reports detailed photophysics of a coumarin based Schiff base, namely, (E)-7-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)methylene)amino)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (HMC) in different solvents of varying polarity exploiting steady state absorption, fluorescence and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The dominant photophysical features of HMC are discussed in terms of emission from an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) excited state. Molecular orbital (MO) diagrams as obtained from DFT based computational analysis confirms the occurrence of charge transfer from 8‧-hydroxy quinoline moiety of the molecule to the coumarin part. The notable difference in the photophysical response of HMC from its analogous coumarin (C480) lies in a lower magnitude of fluorescence quantum yield of the former, particularly in the solvents of low polarity, which is rationalized by considering the higher rate of non-radiative decay of HMC in apolar solvents. Phosphorescence emission as well as phosphorescence lifetime of HMC has also been reported in 77 K frozen matrix.

  8. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. (United States)


    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... PLANS California § 52.269 Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and... provide for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons...

  9. Tracking of photochemical Ostwald ripening of nanoparticles through voltammetric atom counting. (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas R; Sokolov, Stanislav V; Plowman, Blake J; Young, Neil P; Compton, Richard G


    We report the tracking of atom count in individual nanoparticles during photochemical Ostwald ripening. The nano-impact technique, in conjunction with UV-Vis and TEM analysis, is used to follow the photochemical formation of silver nano-prisms from spherical seed particles. A mechanism of photochemical Ostwald ripening is deduced and key growth stages are identified.

  10. Window for preferred axion models (United States)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Mescia, Federico; Nardi, Enrico


    We discuss phenomenological criteria for defining "axion windows," namely regions in the parameter space of the axion-photon coupling where realistic models live. Currently, the boundaries of this region depend on somewhat arbitrary criteria, and it would be highly desirable to specify them in terms of precise phenomenological requirements. We first focus on hadronic axion models within post-inflationary scenarios, in which the initial abundance of the new vectorlike quarks Q is thermal. We classify their representations RQ by requiring that (i) the Q are sufficiently short lived to avoid issues with long-lived strongly interacting relics, (ii) the theory remains weakly coupled up to the Planck scale. The more general case of multiple RQ is also studied, and the absolute upper and lower bounds on the axion-photon coupling as a function of the axion mass is identified. Pre-inflationary scenarios in which the axion decay constant remains bounded as fa≤5 ×1011 GeV allow for axion-photon couplings only about 20% larger. Realistic Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky type of axion models also remain encompassed within the hadronic axion window. Some mechanisms that can allow to enhance the axion-photon coupling to values sizeably above the preferred window are discussed.

  11. Feedbacks between microphysics and photochemical aging in viscous aerosol (United States)

    Dou, Jing; Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Alpert, Peter A.; Ammann, Markus; Peter, Thomas; Krieger, Ulrich K.


    Fe(III)-citrate complex photochemistry, which plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in lower troposphere, has been widely recognized in both solution and solid states. It can get excited by light below about 500 nm, inducing the oxidation of carboxylate ligands and the production of peroxides (e.g., OH•, HO2•), which have a significant impact on the climate, air quality and health. Recently, there is literature reporting that aqueous aerosol particles may attain highly viscous, semi-solid or even glassy physical states under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. However, systematic studies on the effect of high viscosity on photochemical processes are scarce. In this research, mass and size changes of a single, aqueous Fe(III)-citrate/citric acid particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) are tracked during photochemical processing. We observe an overall mass loss during photochemical processing due to evaporation of volatile (e.g., CO2) and semi-volatile (e.g., ketones) compounds. It is known that relative humidity and temperature strongly effects the viscosity of citric acid. Hence, under light intensities large enough not limiting photochemical processing (at a wavelength of either 375 nm or 473 nm), the quasi-steady state evaporation rate in our experiments depends on relative humidity and temperature. The same holds true for the characteristic time scale for reaching thermodynamic equilibrium after switching off the light source. We are focusing on the high viscosity case (i.e., reduced molecular mobility and low water content), which slows down the transport of products but can also affect chemical reaction rates (e.g., initial absorption process, charge and energy transfer). Data are compared to kinetic modeling and diffusivities for semi-volatile compounds are estimated aiming at a more detailed understanding of the feedbacks between microphysics and photochemical aging.

  12. Microsoft Windows Intune 20 Quickstart Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Overton, David


    This book is a concise and practical tutorial that shows you how to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs. If you are an administrator or partner who wants to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs then this book is for you . You should have a basic understanding of Windows administration, however, knowledge of Windows Intune would not be required.

  13. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  14. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  15. Studies in Photochemical Smog Chemistry: I. Atmospheric Chemistry of Toluene. I. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Mechanisms for Photochemical Smog (United States)

    Leone, Joseph Anthony

    This study focuses on two related topics in the gas phase organic chemistry of importance in urban air pollution. Part I describes an experimental and modeling effort aimed at developing a new explicit reaction mechanism for the atmospheric photooxidation of toluene. This mechanism is tested using experimental data from both indoor and outdoor smog chamber facilities. The predictions of the new reaction mechanism are found to be in good agreement with both sets of experimental data. Additional simulations performed with the new mechanism are used to investigate various mechanistic paths, and to gain insight into areas where our understanding is not complete. The outdoor experimental facility, which was built to provide the second set of experimental data, consists of a 65 cubic meter teflon smog chamber together with full instrumentation capable of measuring ozone, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), carbon monoxide, relative humidity, temperature, aerosol size distributions, and of course toluene and its photooxidation products. In Part II, we present a theoretical analysis of lumped chemical reaction mechanisms for photochemical smog. Included is a description of a new counter species analysis technique which can be used to analyze any complex chemical reaction mechanism. When applied to mechanisms for photochemical smog, this analysis is shown capable of providing answers to previously inaccessible questions such as the relative contributions of individual organics to photochemical ozone formation. The counter species analysis is applied to six existing mechanisms for photochemical smog to determine why they predict substantially different degrees of emission controls to achieve the same desired air quality under identical conditions. For each mechanism critical areas are identified that when altered bring the predictions of the various mechanisms into much closer agreement. Finally, a new lumped mechanism for photochemical smog is

  16. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul


    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  17. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike


    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  18. Microsoft Windows Server 2008 -tietoturva


    Knuutinen, Timo


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia ja testata Microsoftin Windows Server 2008 -käyttöjärjestelmän keskeisimpiä tietoturvaominaisuuksia keskittyen erityisesti Network Access Protection -suojausominaisuuteen. Opinnäytetyöprosessi alkoi marraskuussa 2009 ja valmistui lokakuun 2009 lopussa. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja Savonia-ammattikorkeakoulu toimitti työtä varten tarvitun laitteiston ja käyttöjärjestelmän. Tämä opinnäytetyö jakaantuu kahteen osioon, joista ensimmäisessä eli teor...

  19. Window Update Patterns in Stream Operators (United States)

    Patroumpas, Kostas; Sellis, Timos

    Continuous queries applied over nonterminating data streams usually specify windows in order to obtain an evolving -yet restricted- set of tuples and thus provide timely results. Among other typical variants, sliding windows are mostly employed in stream processing engines and several advanced techniques have been suggested for their incremental evaluation. In this paper, we set out to study the existence of monotonic-related semantics in windowing constructs towards a more efficient maintenance of their changing contents. We investigate update patterns observed in common window variants as well as their impact on windowed adaptations of typical operators (like selection, join or aggregation), offering more insight towards design and implementation of stream processing mechanisms. Finally, to demonstrate its significance, this framework is validated for several windowed operations against streaming datasets with simulations at diverse arrival rates and window sizes.

  20. Windows 2012 Server network security securing your Windows network systems and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick


    Windows 2012 Server Network Security provides the most in-depth guide to deploying and maintaining a secure Windows network. The book drills down into all the new features of Windows 2012 and provides practical, hands-on methods for securing your Windows systems networks, including: Secure remote access Network vulnerabilities and mitigations DHCP installations configuration MAC filtering DNS server security WINS installation configuration Securing wired and wireless connections Windows personal firewall

  1. Broken Windows and Collective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Abdullah


    Full Text Available The broken windows thesis posits that signs of disorder increase crime and fear, both directly and indirectly. Although considerable theoretical evidence exists to support the idea that disorder is positively related to fear of crime, the empirical literature on examining the indirect effect of the individual’s perception of incivilities on fear of crime is limited, especially in developing countries. This research was conducted to assess the indirect relationship between perceived disorder and fear of crime through collective efficacy. A total of 235 households from Penang, Malaysia, participated in this study. Results reveal that high perception of disorder is negatively associated with collective efficacy. High collective efficacy is associated with low fear of crime. Moreover, a significant and indirect effect of disorder on fear of crime exists through collective efficacy. The results provide empirical support for the broken windows theory in the Malaysian context and suggest that both environmental conditions and interactions of residents play a role in the perceived fear of crime.

  2. Development of windows based software to analyze fluorescence decay with time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, M B; Ravindranath, S V G


    A VUV spectroscopic facility for studies in photophysics and photochemistry is being set up at INDUS-I synchrotron source, CAT, Indore. For this purpose, a data acquisition system based on time-correlated single photon counting method is being developed for fluorescence lifetime measurement. To estimate fluorescence lifetime from the data collected with this sytem, a Windows based program has been developed using Visual Basic 5.0. It uses instrument response function (IRF) and observed decay curve and estimates parameters of single exponential decay by least square analysis and Marquardt method as convergence mechanism. Estimation of parameters was performed using data collected with a commercial setup. Goodness of fit was judged by evaluating chi R sup 2 , weighted residuals and autocorrelation function. Performance is compared with two commercial software packages and found to be satisfactory.

  3. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Dishman, J.L.


    A method is described of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap E/sub g1/ in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap E/sub g2/, wherein E/sub g2/>E/sub g1/. The second semiconductor material is not substantially etched during the method, comprising subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where the etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material where the photons are not present, the photons being of an energy greater than E/sub g1/ but less than E/sub g2/, whereby the first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and the second material is substantially not etched.

  4. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)


    A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.1 in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.2, wherein Eg.sub.2 >Eg.sub.1, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg.sub.1 but less than Eg.sub.2, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  5. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Dishman, J.L.


    Disclosed is a method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 1/ in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 2/, wherein Eg/sub 2/ > Eg/sub 1/, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method. The method comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg/sub 1/ but less than Eg/sub 2/, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  6. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters. (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J; Song, Weihua


    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4-10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9h(-1) at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) and singlet oxygen ((1)ΔO(2)), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, (3)NOM(⁎), also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with (1)ΔO(2) and OH were measured and accounted for 0.02-0.04% and 7.2-38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the (3)NOM(⁎) contributed 50.6-85.4%. Experiments with various (3)NOM(⁎) quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MS Windows domēna darbstaciju migrācija no MS Windows XP uz Windows Vista.


    Tetere, Agate


    Kvalifikācijas darbā izpētīju darbstaciju migrācijas no Windows XP uz Windows Vista plusus un mīnusus. Darba gaitā tika veikti sekojoši uzdevumi: 1.Veikta Windows XP un Windows Vista darbstaciju instalācija, iestatījumu konfigurēšana un tika pārbaudīta sistēmas darbība 2.Veikta Windows Server 2003 un Windows Server 2008 instalācija, iestatījumu konfigurēšana un tika pārbaudīta sistēmas darbība 3.Izstrādāts migrācijas modelis 4.Veikta migrācijas optimizēšana 5.Veikta datu migrāc...

  8. Protein-induced Photophysical Changes to the Amyloid Indicator Dye Thioflavin T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Wolfe; M Calabrese; A Nath; D Blaho; A Miranker; Y Xiong


    The small molecule thioflavin T (ThT) is a defining probe for the identification and mechanistic study of amyloid fiber formation. As such, ThT is fundamental to investigations of serious diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and type II diabetes. For each disease, a different protein undergoes conformational conversion to a {beta}-sheet rich fiber. The fluorescence of ThT exhibits an increase in quantum yield upon binding these fibers. Despite its widespread use, the structural basis for binding specificity and for the changes to the photophysical properties of ThT remain poorly understood. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of ThT with two alternative states of {beta}-2 microglobulin ({beta}2m); one monomeric, the other an amyloid-like oligomer. In the latter, the dye intercalates between {beta}-sheets orthogonal to the {beta}-strands. Importantly, the fluorophore is bound in such a manner that a photophysically relevant torsion is limited to a range of angles generally associated with low, not high, quantum yield. Quantum mechanical assessment of the fluorophore shows the electronic distribution to be strongly stabilized by aromatic interactions with the protein. Monomeric {beta}2m gives little increase in ThT fluorescence despite showing three fluorophores, at two binding sites, in configurations generally associated with high quantum yield. Our efforts fundamentally extend existing understanding about the origins of amyloid-induced photophysical changes. Specifically, the {beta}-sheet interface that characterizes amyloid acts both sterically and electronically to stabilize the fluorophore's ground state electronic distribution. By preventing the fluorophore from adopting its preferred excited state configuration, nonradiative relaxation pathways are minimized and quantum yield is increased.

  9. Protein-induced photophysical changes to the amyloid indicator dye thioflavin T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Leslie S.; Calabrese, Matthew F.; Nath, Abhinav; Blaho, Dorottya V.; Miranker, Andrew D.; Xiong, Yong (Yale)


    The small molecule thioflavin T (ThT) is a defining probe for the identification and mechanistic study of amyloid fiber formation. As such, ThT is fundamental to investigations of serious diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and type II diabetes. For each disease, a different protein undergoes conformational conversion to a {beta}-sheet rich fiber. The fluorescence of ThT exhibits an increase in quantum yield upon binding these fibers. Despite its widespread use, the structural basis for binding specificity and for the changes to the photophysical properties of ThT remain poorly understood. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of ThT with two alternative states of {beta}-2 microglobulin ({beta}2m); one monomeric, the other an amyloid-like oligomer. In the latter, the dye intercalates between {beta}-sheets orthogonal to the {beta}-strands. Importantly, the fluorophore is bound in such a manner that a photophysically relevant torsion is limited to a range of angles generally associated with low, not high, quantum yield. Quantum mechanical assessment of the fluorophore shows the electronic distribution to be strongly stabilized by aromatic interactions with the protein. Monomeric {beta}2m gives little increase in ThT fluorescence despite showing three fluorophores, at two binding sites, in configurations generally associated with high quantum yield. Our efforts fundamentally extend existing understanding about the origins of amyloid-induced photophysical changes. Specifically, the {beta}-sheet interface that characterizes amyloid acts both sterically and electronically to stabilize the fluorophore's ground state electronic distribution. By preventing the fluorophore from adopting its preferred excited state configuration, nonradiative relaxation pathways are minimized and quantum yield is increased.

  10. Photophysical properties and energy transfer mechanism of PFO/Fluorol 7GA hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali, E-mail: [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sana' a University (Yemen); Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji, E-mail: [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Chi Chin; Flaifel, Moayad Husein [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Photophysical properties of poly (9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl) (PFO)/2-butyl-6- (butylamino)benzo [de] isoquinoline-1,3-dione (Fluorol 7GA) and energy transfer between them have been investigated. In this work, both PFO and Fluorol 7GA act as donor and acceptor, respectively. Based on the absorption and luminescence measurements, the photophysical and energy transfer properties such as fluorescence quantum yield (Φ{sub f}), fluorescence lifetime (τ), radiative rate constant (k{sub r}), non-radiative rate constant (k{sub nr}), quenching rate constant (k{sub SV}), energy transfer rate constant (k{sub ET}), energy transfer probability (P{sub DA}), energy transfer efficiency (η), critical concentration of acceptor (C{sub o}), energy transfer time (τ{sub ET}) and critical distance of energy transfer (R{sub o}) were calculated. Large values of k{sub SV}, k{sub ET} and R{sub o} suggested that Förster-type energy transfer was the dominant mechanism for the energy transfer between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules. It was observed that the Förster energy transfer together with the trapping process are crucial for performance improvement in ITO/(PFO/Fluorol7GA)/Al device. -- Highlights: • The efficient of energy transfer from PFO to Fluorol 7GA was evidenced. • The resonance energy transfer (Förster type) is the dominant mechanism. • Hsu et al. model was used to calculate Φ{sub f}, τ, k{sub r} and k{sub nr} of PFO thin film. • Several of the photophysical and energy transfer properties were calculated. • Trapping process and Förster energy transfer led to improve the device performance.

  11. The effect of fuel composition on the formation of photochemical smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutkiewicz, R.K. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Energy Research Inst.


    The high level of solar radiation, moderate to high ambient temperatures and increasing vehicle density have resulted in an increasing number of incidents of photochemical smog in Cape Town. Whilst the situation has not reached levels reported from many cities around the world there is concern that photochemical smog may become a serious pollution problem. Work has started on a characterization of the photochemical smog and to determine what measures will be required to limit photochemical smog. The work has consisted of the monitoring of ambient levels of photochemical precursors such as hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen, and measurement of ozone. In addition to continuous monitoring by the Cape Town City Council some measurements have been made of PAN and other components of photochemical smog. In addition a study is being carried out of the composition of a brown haze which envelopes CaPe Town during spring and autumn under strong inversion episodes. In addition to ambient monitoring, work is being carried out on the effect of vehicle emissions and fuel evaporation on the formation of photochemical smog. This work involves the formation of photochemical smog in an indoor smog chamber in which exhaust emissions and volatile organic compounds are tested in terms of their photochemical smog tendency. This work is aimed at estimating the effect of increasing precursor levels on the potential photochemical smog situation in Cape Town

  12. A push-pull organic dye with a quinoidal thiophene linker: Photophysical properties and solvent effects (United States)

    Climent, Clàudia; Carreras, Abel; Alemany, Pere; Casanova, David


    In the present work we perform a computational study of the properties of a push-pull organic dye with a quinoidal thiophene unit as the conjugated linker between the electron donor and acceptor groups. We investigate the photophysical properties of the dye related to its potential use as a molecular sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. We rationalize the solvation effects on the absorption band of the dye in protic and aprotic solvents, identifying the interaction of alcohol solvents with the amine in the donor group as the source for the blue shift of the absorption band with respect to aprotic solvents.

  13. Influence of halogen atoms and protonation on the photophysical properties of sulfonated porphyrins (United States)

    De Boni, L.; Monteiro, C. J. P.; Mendonça, C. R.; Zílio, S. C.; Gonçalves, P. J.


    This work employs UV/vis absorption and Z-scan techniques to investigate how the presence of one or two halogens atoms and the macrocycle protonation affect the photophysical characteristics of sulfonated porphyrins. The results are relevant to photomedicine and photonics because they show that: (i) the insertion of halogen atoms increases the intersystem crossing quantum yield, a useful feature for photodynamic therapy, (ii) the fluorescence observed in fluorinated porphyrins shows desired characteristics for theranostics, which combine therapy and diagnostics in the same platform, and (iii) the protonation enhances the excited-state absorption in the visible region, an important feature for optical limiting.

  14. Sol-Gel Electrolytes Incorporated by Lanthanide Luminescent Materials and Their Photophysical Properties (United States)

    Yu, Chufang; Zhang, Zhengyang; Fu, Meizhen; Gao, Jinwei; Zheng, Yuhui


    A group of silica gel electrolytes with lanthanide luminescent hybrid materials were assembled and investigated. Photophysical studies showed that terbium and europium hybrids displayed characteristic green and red emissions within the electrolytes. The influence of different concentration of the lanthanide hybrids on the electrochemical behavior of a gelled electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid battery were studied through cyclic voltammograms, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water holding experiments and mobility tests. The morphology and particle size were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results proved that lanthanide (Tb3+/Eu3+) luminescent materials are effective additives which will significantly improve the electrochemical properties of lead-acid batteries.

  15. Multifunctional Zn(II) Complexes: Photophysical Properties and Catalytic Transesterification toward Biodiesel Synthesis. (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek Kumar; Dhir, Abhimanew; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P


    Using 4-substituted derivatives of phenol-based compartmental Schiff-base hydroxyl-rich ligand, four multifunctional binuclear Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of these complexes were explored in the solid state, in solutions, and in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix, which revealed their good potential as tunable solid state emitters. Some of these complexes acted as efficient catalysts for the transesterification of esters and canola oil showing their potential in biodiesel generation. Mechanistic investigations using ESI-MS revealed that the transesterification catalyzed by these complexes proceeds through two types of acyl intermediates.

  16. Editorial - Opening windows onto data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters


    Full Text Available One of Internet Archaeology's strengths and 'unique selling points' not yet replicated by (many other e-journals, is that data is integrated into articles rather than being 'supplementary' or offered for download. The aim has always been for the narrative to be a wave driving readers towards the underlying data. Opening windows onto the data from within the text is one of the things I think the journal does best and is a feature used throughout Emma Durham's article 'Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain'. Archaeological data does not speak for itself. It needs a narrative. It needs context. But by intermeshing data with interpretation, readers can dip into the data and start to explore it while reading the article, allowing a more immediate understanding of the bigger picture.

  17. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  18. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William


    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  19. Windows 8.1 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy


    The bestselling book on Windows, now updated for the new 8.1 features Microsoft has fine-tuned Windows 8 with some important new features, and veteran author Andy Rathbone explains every one in this all-new edition of a long-time bestseller. Whether you're using Windows for the first time, upgrading from an older version, or just moving from Windows 8 to 8.1, here's what you need to know. Learn about the dual interfaces, the new Start button, how to customize the interface and boot operations, and how to work with programs and files, use the web and social media, manage music and photos, and

  20. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome


    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  1. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet (United States)

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  2. Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Mueller, John Paul


    Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security co

  3. Windows 7 Annoyances Tips, Secrets, and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David


    Windows 7 may be faster and more stable than Vista, but it's a far cry from problem-free. David A. Karp comes to the rescue with the latest in his popular Windows Annoyances series. This thorough guide gives you the tools you need to fix the troublesome parts of this operating system, plus the solutions, hacks, and timesaving tips to make the most of your PC. Streamline Windows Explorer, improve the Search tool, eliminate the Green Ribbon of Death, and tame User Account Control promptsExplore powerful Registry tips and tools, and use them to customize every aspect of Windows and solve its sho

  4. On the in vivo photochemical rate parameters for PDT reactive oxygen species modeling (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Ghogare, Ashwini A.; Greer, Alexander; Zhu, Timothy C.


    Photosensitizer photochemical parameters are crucial data in accurate dosimetry for photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on photochemical modeling. Progress has been made in the last few decades in determining the photochemical properties of commonly used photosensitizers (PS), but mostly in solution or in vitro. Recent developments allow for the estimation of some of these photochemical parameters in vivo. This review will cover the currently available in vivo photochemical properties of photosensitizers as well as the techniques for measuring those parameters. Furthermore, photochemical parameters that are independent of environmental factors or are universal for different photosensitizers will be examined. Most photosensitizers discussed in this review are of the type II (singlet oxygen) photooxidation category, although type I photosensitizers that involve other reactive oxygen species (ROS) will be discussed as well. The compilation of these parameters will be essential for ROS modeling of PDT.

  5. Synthesis and photophysics of core-substituted naphthalene diimides: fluorophores for single molecule applications. (United States)

    Bell, Toby D M; Yap, Sheryll; Jani, Chintan H; Bhosale, Sheshanath V; Hofkens, Johan; De Schryver, Frans C; Langford, Steven J; Ghiggino, Kenneth P


    The synthesis and photophysics of two new aminopropenyl naphthalene diimide (SANDI) dyes are reported. A general and convenient method for the synthesis of the precursor mono-, di-, and tetrabrominated 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydrides is described. The two core-substituted SANDIs exhibit many of the photophysical properties required for fluorescence labeling applications including high photostability and high fluorescence quantum yields (>0.5) in the visible region of the spectrum. The emission wavelength is sensitive to the number of substituents on the NDI core, and the fluorescence decay times are in the range of approximately 8-12 ns for both compounds in the solvents investigated. Preliminary fluorescence emission data from single molecules of the compounds embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) films are also reported and show that single molecules have very low yields of photobleaching, particularly the di-substituted system. Furthermore, only a small proportion (<10 %) of the single molecules studied display fluorescence intermittencies or "blinks" in their photon trajectory. The compounds appear to be excellent candidates for applications at the single molecule level, for example, as FRET labels.

  6. Mimicking conjugated polymer thin-film photophysics with a well-defined triblock copolymer in solution. (United States)

    Brazard, Johanna; Ono, Robert J; Bielawski, Christopher W; Barbara, Paul F; Vanden Bout, David A


    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are promising materials for use in electronic applications, such as low-cost, easily processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Improving OPV efficiencies is hindered by a lack of a fundamental understanding of the photophysics in CP-based thin films that is complicated by their heterogeneous nanoscale morphologies. Here, we report on a poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(3-hexylthiophene) rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer. In good solvents, this polymer resembles solutions of P3HT; however, upon the addition of a poor solvent, the two P3HT chains within the triblock copolymer collapse, affording a material with electronic spectra identical to those of a thin film of P3HT. Using this new system as a model for thin films of P3HT, we can attribute the low fluorescence quantum yield of films to the presence of a charge-transfer state, providing fundamental insights into the condensed phase photophysics that will help to guide the development of the next generation of materials for OPVs.

  7. Chloroaluminium phthalocyanine polymeric nanoparticles as photosensitisers: photophysical and physicochemical characterisation, release and phototoxicity in vitro. (United States)

    de Paula, Carina Silva; Tedesco, Antonio Cláudio; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Vilela, José Mário Carneiro; Andrade, Margareth Spangler; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado


    Nanoparticles of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide), poly(d,l-lactide) and polyethylene glycol-block-poly(d,l-lactide) were developed to encapsulate chloroaluminium phthalocyanine (AlClPc), a new hydrophobic photosensitiser used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The mean nanoparticle size varied from 115 to 274 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency ranged from 57% to 96% due to drug precipitation induced by different types of polymer. All nanoparticle formulations presented negative zeta potential values (-37 mV to -59 mV), explaining their colloidal stability. The characteristic photophysical parameters were analysed: the absorption spectrum profile, fluorescence quantum yield and transient absorbance decay, with similar values for free and nanoparticles of AlClPc. The time-resolved spectroscopy measurements for AlClPc triplet excited state lifetimes indicate that encapsulation in nanocapsules increases triplet lifetime, which is advantageous for PDT efficiency. A sustained release profile over 168 h was obtained using external sink method. An in vitro phototoxic effect higher than 80% was observed in human fibroblasts at low laser light doses (3 J/cm(2)) with 10 μM of AlClPc. The AlClPc loaded within polymeric nanocapsules presented suitable physical stability, improved photophysical properties, sustained released profile and suitable activity in vitro to be considered a promising formulation for PDT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of annulation of benzene rings on the photophysics and electronic structure of tetraazachlorin molecules (United States)

    Pershukevich, P. P.; Volkovich, D. I.; Gladkov, L. L.; Dudkin, S. V.; Kuzmitsky, V. A.; Makarova, E. A.; Solovyev, K. N.


    The photophysics and electronic structure of tribenzotetraazachlorins (H2, Zn, and Mg), which are novel analogues of phtalocyanines, have been studied experimentally and theoretically. At 293 K, the electronic absorption, fluorescence, and fluorescence excitation spectra are recorded and the fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime, as well as the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation, are measured; at 77 K, the fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, and fluorescence polarization spectra are recorded and the fluorescence lifetime values are measured. The dependences of the absorption spectra and photophysical parameters on the structure variation are analyzed in detail. Quantum-chemical calculations of the electronic structure and absorption spectra of tribenzotetraazachlorins (H2, Mg) are performed using the INDO/Sm method (modified INDO/S method) based on molecular-geometry optimization by the DFT PBE/TZVP method. The results of quantum-chemical calculations of the electronic absorption spectra are in very good agreement with the experimental data for the transitions to two lower electronic states.

  9. Planar-rotor architecture based pyrene-vinyl-tetraphenylethylene conjugated systems: photophysical properties and aggregation behavior. (United States)

    Jana, Debabrata; Boxi, Shatabdi; Parui, Partha P; Ghorai, Binay K


    Four pyrene-vinyl-tetraphenylethylene based conjugated materials were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The photophysical (including absorption, fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime) and aggregation properties in tetrahydrofuran were investigated. The photophysical and aggregation behavior depends on the spacer, substituent, and also the architecture (mono or tetra-branched) of the molecule. The vinyl spacer mono-branched compound is aggregation induced emission (AIE) active (αAIE = ∼6). Vinyl spacer tetra-branched compounds are AIE inactive, but their emitting efficiency is good in both solution (Φfl = 63%) phase and in the aggregated state (Φfl = 43%). Phenylvinyl spacer tetra-branched compounds emit light strongly in solution (Φfl = 92%), but not in the aggregated state (Φfl = 8%). They are shown to be thermally stable and emit light in the green region (500-550 nm). The results of cyclic voltammetry measurements of these materials showed irreversible oxidation waves, and have high HOMO energy levels (-5.66 to -5.53 eV).

  10. Photophysics and electrochemistry relevant to photocatalytic water splitting involved at solid–electrolyte interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya


    Direct photon to chemical energy conversion using semiconductor-electrocatalyst-electrolyte interfaces has been extensively investigated for more than a half century. Many studies have focused on screening materials for efficient photocatalysis. Photocatalytic efficiency has been improved during this period but is not sufficient for industrial commercialization. Detailed elucidation on the photocatalytic water splitting process leads to consecutive six reaction steps with the fundamental parameters involved: The photocatalysis is initiated involving photophysics derived from various semiconductor properties (1: photon absorption, 2: exciton separation). The generated charge carriers need to be transferred to surfaces effectively utilizing the interfaces (3: carrier diffusion, 4: carrier transport). Consequently, electrocatalysis finishes the process by producing products on the surface (5: catalytic efficiency, 6: mass transfer of reactants and products). Successful photocatalytic water splitting requires the enhancement of efficiency at each stage. Most critically, a fundamental understanding of the interfacial phenomena is highly desired for establishing "photocatalysis by design" concepts, where the kinetic bottleneck within a process is identified by further improving the specific properties of photocatalytic materials as opposed to blind material screening. Theoretical modeling using the identified quantitative parameters can effectively predict the theoretically attainable photon-conversion yields. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art theoretical understanding of interfacial problems mainly developed in our laboratory. Photocatalytic water splitting (especially hydrogen evolution on metal surfaces) was selected as a topic, and the photophysical and electrochemical processes that occur at semiconductor-metal, semiconductor-electrolyte and metal-electrolyte interfaces are discussed.

  11. Synthesis and photophysical properties of metallophthalocyanines substituted with a benzofuran based fluoroprobe (United States)

    Yarasir, Meryem N.; Kandaz, Mehmet; Güney, Orhan; Salih, Bekir

    The synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of the tetra- {6-(-benzofuran-2-carboxylate)-hexylthio} substituted copper(II), cobalt(II), manganese(III) and zinc (II) phthalocyanines, {M[Pc(β-S(CH2)6OCOBz-Furan)4], which were derived from 6-(3,4-dicyanophenylthio)-hexyl-2-benzofuranate (BzF) (1-4) are reported for the first time. The new compounds have been synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-vis, 1H- and 13C NMR, MS (Maldi-TOF). In this work, we also report the effects of peripherally bound BzF substituent on the photophysical properties of metallo phthalocyanine derivatives. The effects of changing the central metal ions on quantum yield are discussed. It was found that the substitution of BzF groups on the framework of phthalocyanines diminished the fluorescence quantum yield of these complexes depending on paramagnetic behavior of central metal atoms. In addition, central metal atoms like Co and Cu also caused to decrease in quantum yield of phthalocyanine backbone.

  12. Photochemical Cyclopolymerization of Polyimides in Ultraviolet Ridgidizing Composites for Use in Inflatable Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovation uses photochemical cyclopolymerization of polyimides to manufacture ultraviolet rigidizable composites for use in RIS (ridgidizing inflatable)...

  13. Do Photochemical Hazes Cloud the Atmosphere of 51 Eri b? (United States)

    Marley, Mark; Zahnle, Kevin; Moses, Julianne; Morley, Caroline


    The first young giant planet to be discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager was the ~ 2MJ planet 51 Eri b. This ~20 Myr old young Jupiter is the first directly imaged planet to show unmistakable methane in H band. To constrain the planet’s mass, atmospheric temperature, and composition, the GPI J and H band spectra as well as some limited photometric points were compared to the predictions of substellar atmosphere models. The best fitting models reported in the discovery paper (Macintosh et al. 2015) relied upon a combination of clear and cloudy atmospheric columns to reproduce the data. In the atmosphere of an object as cool as 700 K the global silicate and iron clouds would be expected to be found well below the photosphere, although strong vertical mixing in the low gravity atmosphere is a possibility. Instead, clouds of Na2S, as have been detected in brown dwarf atmospheres, are a likely source of particle opacity. As a third explanation we have explored whether atmospheric photochemistry, driven by the UV flux from the primary star, may yield hazes that also influence the observed spectrum of the planet. To explore this possibility we have modeled the atmospheric photochemistry of 51 Eri b using two state-of-the-art photochemical models, both capable of predicting yields of complex hydrocarbons under various atmospheric conditions. We also have explored whether photochemical products can alter the equilibrium temperature profile of the atmosphere. In our presentation we will summarize the modeling approach employed to characterize 51 Eri b, explaining constraints on the planet’s effective temperature, gravity, and atmospheric composition and also present results of our studies of atmospheric photochemistry. We will discuss whether photochemical hazes could indeed be responsible for the particulate opacity that apparently sculpts the spectrum of the planet.

  14. The local and observed photochemical reaction rates revisited. (United States)

    Alfano, Orlando M; Irazoqui, Horacio A; Cassano, Alberto E


    In a broad sense, photochemical reactions proceed through pathways involving several reaction steps. The initiation step is the absorption of energy both by the reactant or sensitizer molecules and in some cases, by the catalyst, leading to intermediate products that ultimately give rise to stable end products. Preferably, the reaction rate expression is derived from a proposed mechanism together with sound simplifying assumptions; otherwise, it may be adopted on an empirical basis. Under a kinetic control regime, the rate expression thus obtained depends on the local rate of photon absorption according to a power law whose exponent very often ranges from one half to unity. The kinetic expression should be valid at every point of the reactor volume. However, due to radiation attenuation in an absorbing and/or scattering medium, the value of the photon absorption rate is always a function of the spatial position. Therefore, the overall photochemical reaction rate will not be uniform throughout the entire reaction zone, and the distinction between local and volume average photochemical reaction rates becomes mandatory. Experimental values of reaction rates obtained from concentration measurements performed in well-mixed reaction cells are, necessarily, average values. Consequently, for validation purposes, experimental results from these cells must be compared with volume averages of the mechanistically or empirically derived local reaction rate expressions. In this work it is shown that unless the rate is first order with respect to the photon absorption rate or the attenuation in the absorbing and/or scattering medium is kept very low, when the averaging operation is not performed, significant errors may be expected.

  15. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael


    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  16. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael


    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us...

  17. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen


    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  18. Location of an acoustic window in dolphins. (United States)

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y


    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to sound clicks from sources in different positions were recorded in dolphins Inia geoffrensis. The position of the acoustic window was determined by measurement of acoustic delays. The acoustic window was found to lie close to the auditory meatus and the bulla rather than on the lower jaw.

  19. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.


    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  20. What are windows on language evolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, Rudolf


    This chapter offers an elucidation of the idea that certain phenomena provide windows on language evolution. Non-metaphorically, such windows are shown to be conceptual constructs used for making inferences about aspects of language evolution from data or assumptions about properties of

  1. Android is the new Windows

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team


    Do you recall the early virus attacks in the early 2000s? “Blaster”, “I love you” and “Slammer” were attacking the pretty much unprotected Microsoft Windows operating system.   While Microsoft has been hit hard in the past, they have tried to improve and are now on a par with other software vendors. Today, they can even be happy that Android is taking over the baton - at least on mobile platforms. According to the Sophos 2013 Security Threat Report “Android [is] today’s the biggest target” and Android devices in Australia and the U.S. experienced even more malware attacks, whether successful or unsuccessful, than PCs during the past three months. The Kaspersky security company recently added that 99% of all mobile threats target Android. Lucky you if you use an iPhone, or a good old Nokia with no Internet connectivity at all. But why is that? It is partly down to the same fac...

  2. Apertureless cantilever-free pen arrays for scanning photochemical printing. (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Xie, Zhuang; Brown, Keith A; Park, Daniel J; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Hirtz, Michael; Lin, Qing-Yuan; Dravid, Vinayak P; Schatz, George C; Zheng, Zijian; Mirkin, Chad A


    A novel, apertureless, cantilever-free pen array can be used for dual scanning photochemical and molecular printing. Serial writing with light is enabled by combining self-focusing pyramidal pens with an opaque backing between pens. The elastomeric pens also afford force-tuned illumination and simultaneous delivery of materials and optical energy. These attributes make the technique a promising candidate for maskless high-resolution photopatterning and combinatorial chemistry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The kinetics of photochemical processes in polymer-salt systems (United States)

    Ostroushko, A. A.; Sennikov, M. Yu.


    The kinetics of photochemical reactions in aqueous polymer-salt systems containing ammonium heptamolybdate, dodecatungstate, or metavanadate and polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinylpyrrolidone was studied by measurements of photoinduced electrode potential difference. The rate of primary accumulation of reduced d metal forms was evaluated for different systems. Possible reasons for complex oscillatory processes in the systems were analyzed. Comparative data were obtained for compositions containing polyoxometallate shaped like buckyball:(NH4)42[Mo{72/VI}Mo{60/V}O372(HCOO)30(H2O)72] · 30HCOONH4 · 250H2O. UV irradiation of this system caused the oxidation of molybdenum(V).

  4. Formation of fatty acids in photochemical conversions of saturated hydrocarbons (United States)

    Telegina, T. A.; Pavlovskaya, T. Y.; Ladyzhenskaya, A. I.


    Abiogenic synthesis of fatty acids was studied in photochemical conversions of saturated hydrocarbons. It was shown that, in a hydrocarbon water CaCO3 suspension, the action of 254 nm UV rays caused the formation of fatty acids with a maximum number of carbon atoms in the chain not exceeding that in the initial hydrocarbon. Synthesis of acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, caproic, enanthic and caprylic (in the case of octane) acids occurs in heptane water CaCO3 and octane water CaCO3 systems.

  5. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico


    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  6. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Freeman, J. (VAT, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)); Powell, F. (Luxel, Inc., Friday Harbor, WA (United States))


    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. A redox-flow electrochromic window. (United States)

    Jennings, James R; Lim, Wei Yang; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Wang, Qing


    A low-cost electrochromic (EC) window based on a redox-flow system that does not require expensive transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrates is introduced and demonstrated for the first time. An aqueous I3–/I– redox electrolyte is used in place of a TCO to oxidize/reduce a molecular layer of an EC triphenylamine derivative that is anchored to a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold on the inner faces of a double-paned window. The redox electrolyte is electrochemically oxidized/reduced in an external two-compartment cell and circulated through the window cavity using an inexpensive peristaltic pump, resulting in coloration or decoloration of the window due to reaction of the redox solution with the triphenylamine derivative. The absorption characteristics, coloration/decoloration times, and cycling stability of the prototype EC window are evaluated, and prospects for further development are discussed.

  8. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)


    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  9. Mastering Windows Server 2012 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Booth, Christian; Butler, Robert; McCabe, John; Panek, Robert; Rice, Michael; Roth, Stefan


    Check out the new Hyper-V, find new and easier ways to remotely connect back into the office, or learn all about Storage Spaces-these are just a few of the features in Windows Server 2012 R2 that are explained in this updated edition from Windows authority Mark Minasi and a team of Windows Server experts led by Kevin Greene. This book gets you up to speed on all of the new features and functions of Windows Server, and includes real-world scenarios to put them in perspective. If you're a system administrator upgrading to, migrating to, or managing Windows Server 2012 R2, find what you need to

  10. Comparing the photophysics of the two forms of the Orange Carotenoid Protein using 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathies R.A.


    Full Text Available Broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is applied to investigate the photophysics of the photoactive orange carotenoid protein, which is involved in nonphotochemical quenching in cyanobacteria. Differences in dynamics between the light and dark forms arise from the different structure of the carotenoid in the protein pocket, with consequences for the biological role of the two forms.

  11. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench


    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  12. on the growth and photochemical efficiency of Acropora cervicornis (United States)

    Enochs, I. C.; Manzello, D. P.; Carlton, R.; Schopmeyer, S.; van Hooidonk, R.; Lirman, D.


    The effects of light and elevated pCO2 on the growth and photochemical efficiency of the critically endangered staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, were examined experimentally. Corals were subjected to high and low treatments of CO2 and light in a fully crossed design and monitored using 3D scanning and buoyant weight methodologies. Calcification rates, linear extension, as well as colony surface area and volume of A. cervicornis were highly dependent on light intensity. At pCO2 levels projected to occur by the end of the century from ocean acidification (OA), A. cervicornis exhibited depressed calcification, but no change in linear extension. Photochemical efficiency ( F v / F m ) was higher at low light, but unaffected by CO2. Amelioration of OA-depressed calcification under high-light treatments was not observed, and we suggest that the high-light intensity necessary to reach saturation of photosynthesis and calcification in A. cervicornis may limit the effectiveness of this potentially protective mechanism in this species. High CO2 causes depressed skeletal density, but not linear extension, illustrating that the measurement of extension by itself is inadequate to detect CO2 impacts. The skeletal integrity of A. cervicornis will be impaired by OA, which may further reduce the resilience of the already diminished populations of this endangered species.

  13. Photochemical migration of liquid column in a glass tube (United States)

    Muto, M.; Ayako, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Kondo, Y.; Motosuke, M.


    A light-induced migration of liquid columns in a 2.5-mm glass capillary by photochemical isomerization was demonstrated. The isomerization of a surfactant AZTMA, which was added into ultrapure water, occurred by irradiating UV or visible light and results in the surface tension of the liquid. By utilizing this effect, the column manipulation was performed by irradiating the UV light to a half portion of the liquid column so that liquid-gas interface at two column ends had different surface tension dye to the photochemical isomerization. As a result, the migration of the columns generated by a difference in the Laplace pressure at two ends was observed. The columns firstly advanced at constant speeds depending on their lengths and then decelerated by mixing of isomers in the columns. Moreover, it was found that shorter the column length, higher the mobility. This characteristic was explained by the viscous friction, which counteracted the driving force, and the Marangoni convection in the vicinity of the interface.

  14. TEMPO Specific Photochemical Reflectance Index for Monitoring Crop Productivity (United States)

    Wulamu, A.; Fishman, J.; Maimaitiyiming, M.


    Chlorophyll fluorescence and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) are two key indicators of plant functional status used for early stress detection. With its less than one nanometer hyperspectral resolution and hourly revisit capabilities, NASA's Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) sensor provides new opportunities for monitoring regional food security. Chlorophyll fluorescence can be retrieved by TEMPO using Oxygen B (O2-B) absorption region at 687 nm. The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is calculated from spectral reflectance at 531 and 570. However, TEMPO spectral range covers from 290 mm - 490 nm and 540 nm -740 nm, does not provide the 531 nm measurement band for PRI. It is imperative to develop alternate wavelengths within the TEMPO spectral range for these early stress indicators so that regional crop health can be observed by TEMPO with unparalleled spectral and temporal resolutions to address food security. Combining field and airborne remote sensing experiments and radiative transfer simulations, this work proposes a TEMPO specific PRI and demonstrates that TEMPO offers a new set of high-resolution spectral data for crop monitoring.

  15. Global aspects of photochemical air pollution: A kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, S.S. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting, Ventura, CA (United States); Fernandez, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States)


    One of the most serious effects of increasing photochemical air pollution on a global basis is the production of high concentration of submicron aerosol in the atmosphere, resulting in unfavorable changes in weather patterns and world climate. The probability that these changes may occur with an unchecked increase in photochemical air pollution justifies a comprehensive control of pollutant emission as well as a detailed study into their atmospheric chemistry. Structure-reactivity relationships (SRR) and linear free energy relationships (LFER) are presented for environmentally important chemical reactions of unsaturated aliphatic contaminants in air and water. SRR of the form log k (k = rate constant for reaction with O{sub 3}, OH, and NO{sub 3}) vs ionization potential, and tortional frequency as well as LFER of the form log k (A) vs. log k (B) where A and B = O{sub 3}, OH, and NO{sub 3} are presented and can be used to estimate reaction rate constants and environmental persistence (in air and water) for many unsaturated compounds for which no data exist. As examples of application, rate constants for reactions of OH (gas phase), OH (water) and NO{sub 3} (gas phase) are estimated for many unsaturated compounds.

  16. The influence of aerosols on photochemical smog in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T.; Mar, B. [UNAM, Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico); Madronich, S.; Rivale, S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Muhlia, A. [UNAM, Mexico, Inst. de Geofysica (Mexico)


    Aerosols in the Mexico City atmosphere can have a non-negligible effect on the ultraviolet radiation field and hence on the formation of photochemical smog. We used estimates of aerosol optical depths from sun photometer observations in a detailed radiative transfer model, to calculate photolysis rate coefficients (J{sub NO2}) for the key reaction NO{sub 2}+h{nu}{yields}NO+O ({lambda}<430nm). The calculated values are in good agreement with previously published measurements of J{sub NO2} at two sites in Mexico City: Palacio de Mineria (19 degrees 25'59''N, 99 degrees 07'58''W, 2233masl), and IMP (19 degrees 28'48''N, 99 degrees 11'07''W, 2277masl) and in Tres Marias, a town near Mexico City (19 degrees 03'N, 99 degrees 14'W, 2810masl). In particular, the model reproduces very well the contrast between the two urban sites and the evidently much cleaner Tres Marias site. For the measurement days, reductions in surface J{sub NO2} by 10-30% could be attributed to the presence of aerosols, with considerable uncertainty due largely to lack of detailed data on aerosol optical properties at ultraviolet wavelengths (esp. the single scattering albedo). The potential impact of such large reductions in photolysis rates on surface ozone concentrations is illustrated with a simple zero-dimensional photochemical model. (Author)

  17. Photochemical and other air pollutions in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floor, H.


    Together with the State Institute of Public Health and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, the Institute of Phytopathological Research continued investigations on incidence of air pollution in the country. The main purpose is to measure the effects of air pollution on indicator plants and to detect over the years which components separately or perhaps together damage indicator plants. In 1974, the network of experimental fields in the Netherlands was completed. From April until October, 29 fields were inspected weekly for typical symptoms of air pollution. Just as in the preceding year O3 caused most injury of the photochemical air pollutants, as shown by Spinacia oleracea and Nicotiana tabacum. Other photochemical air pollutants like PAN, and the pollutants SO2, NO/sub x/ and ethylene caused little injury to the indicator plants Urtica urens, Poa annua, Medicago sativa, Petunia nyctaginiflora and Solanum tuberosum. Symptoms of damage on Tulipa gesneriana, Gladiolus gandavensis and Freesia refracta indicated air pollution by HF in all experimental fields, but especially in the south of the country. The F determination in the air by means of the limed paper method established the results with the indicator plants.

  18. Photochemically promoted degradation of poly(ε-caprolactone) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosnáček, Jaroslav, E-mail: [Polymer Institute, Centre of Excellence FUN-MAT, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Borská, Katarína, E-mail: [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Danko, Martin, E-mail: [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Janigová, Ivica, E-mail: [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia)


    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films were doped with photoactive 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-dione (benzil, BZ), and the effect of the photochemical transformation of benzil on the molecular characteristics of the PCL films and the rate of PCL hydrolysis was studied. Both crosslinking and degradation of the PCL film were observed during irradiation of the PCL/BZ films. Irradiation of a PCL/BZ film at λ > 400 nm under an air atmosphere resulted in a decrease of the average molecular weight (M{sub n}) of PCL to approximately one half, while formation of polar groups and an increase in the hydrophilicity of the PCL film were observed. Moreover, a subsequent hydrolytic test showed a significant increase in the hydrolytic degradation rate of the PCL/BZ film in comparison with non-irradiated or irradiated PCL films without doped benzil. Using benzil as a dopant in the PCL matrix can allow adjusting the degradation rate of PCL, what can be very important from both environmental and biomedical perspectives. - Highlights: • Photochemical transformation of doped benzil affected molar characteristics of PCL. • Crosslinking/degradation of PCL was observed depending on irradiation conditions. • Promoted hydrolytic degradation of PCL was achieved.

  19. Structural and photophysical considerations of singlet fission organic thin films for solar photochemistry (United States)

    Ryerson, Joseph L.

    Singlet fission (SF) is a multichromophore charge multiplication process in organic systems in which a singlet exciton shares its energy with a neighboring chromophore, thus generating two triplet excitons from one photon. SF chromophores can boost photocurrent in solar cells, raising the maximum theoretical power conversion efficiency of a single-junction solar cell from ˜33% to ˜45. Thin film (TF) preparation techniques, steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods, and numerous advanced calculations were used to study the three systems presented here, all of which exhibit polymorphism. TFs of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (1), were prepared and two polymorphs, alpha1 and beta-1, were discovered and characterized. alpha-1films exhibit phiTnear 200% and low phiF, whereas the dominant photophysical processes in the beta-1 polymorph are prompt and excimer emissions, with phi T around 10%. Absorption fitting revealed that the S1 state of beta-1 is lower than alpha-1, and therefore SF and the correlated triplet 1(TT) is energetically inaccessible to beta-1. The SF mechanism in TFs of each polymorph is outlined in great detail. Polymorphism in tetracene (Tc), a near 200% phiT SF material, has been previously documented, although morphology considerations have been neglected. While crystallite size has been shown to affect dynamics, the two Tc polymorphs, I and II, have not been analyzed in a thorough comparison of dynamics and photophysics. Tc II films show SF rates that are independent of crystallite size and SF occurs more rapidly than in Tc I. The slower Tc I SF rates are highly dependent on grain size. Coupling calculations suggested that Tc I should be faster, but these calculations are limited, and more sophisticated, multimolecule calculations are needed to support experimental results. Two extremely stable indigo derivatives, Cibalackrot (2) and a tert-butylated derivative(3) were structurally and photophysically characterized in solution and in TFs. Two

  20. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend


    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... frame profiles is to make enough space for hinges and fasteners and still maintaining the functionality and strength of the window. Proposals for new hinges and fasteners is also given in this paper....... window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  1. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... frame profiles is to make enough space for hinges and fasteners and still maintaining the functionality and strength of the window. Proposals for new hinges and fasteners is also given in this paper....... window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The weight window variance reduction method in the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code MCNPTM has recently been rewritten. In particular, it is now possible to generate weight window importance functions on a superimposed mesh, eliminating the need to subdivide geometries for variance reduction purposes. Our assessment addresses the following questions: (1) Does the new MCNP4C treatment utilize weight windows as well as the former MCNP4B treatment? (2) Does the new MCNP4C weight window generator generate importance functions as well as MCNP4B? (3) How do superimposed mesh weight windows compare to cell-based weight windows? (4) What are the shortcomings of the new MCNP4C weight window generator? Our assessment was carried out with five neutron and photon shielding problems chosen for their demanding variance reduction requirements. The problems were an oil well logging problem, the Oak Ridge fusion shielding benchmark problem, a photon skyshine problem, an air-over-ground problem, and a sample problem for variance reduction.

  3. Window technology in the future. Ikkunateknologian kehitysnaekymaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmilae, K.


    The research analysed the latest applications in window and glazing technology as well as inventions. In the report the main thrust was on solutions influencing energy conservation and the comfort within buildings. The report is based on literature-based research. Window glazing technology has developed greatly in twenty years, and progress appears to be powering ahead unbeaten. Today, the selection of materials can influence light and heat penetrating in through a window as well as affecting heat loss. At present it is possible to manufacture selective coatings, sealed glazing units and filler gases to produce superwindows with a thermal transmittance only a third of present-day triple glazed windows. These superwindows are still considerably more expensive than present windows, but the price difference will become smaller as the quantities manufactured increase and as manufacturing technology progresses. In a few years, glazing will be available whose light and thermal transmittance can be controlled by electricity, temperature of glass or lightning conditions. These electrochromatic, thermochromatic and photochromatic glass panes will eventually partly replace solar control glass, awnings and blinds. The most promising window glazing type for the future, in terms of energy conservation, is vacuum glazing. This will raise the thermal insulation of a window to the same level as that of the wall. However, there are major difficulties in producing vacuum glazing, resulting from the stress of temperature difference and air pressure, in addition to technical manufacturing difficulties. It is estimated it will take ten years to overcome these and other problems of manufacturing technology


    CERN Multimedia


    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner Wed 6/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL ...

  5. Gaining new insight into low-temperature aqueous photochemical solution deposited ferroelectric PbTiO{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Dobbelaere, Christopher, E-mail: [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, B-3500, Hasselt (Belgium); Calzada, M. Lourdes; Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Ricote, Jesús [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Hadermann, Joke [University of Antwerp, Department of Physics, EMAT, B-2020, Antwerp (Belgium); Hardy, An [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, B-3500, Hasselt (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, B-3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Bael, Marlies K., E-mail: [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, B-3500, Hasselt (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, B-3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium)


    The nature of the low-temperature photochemical assisted formation process of ferroelectric lead titanate (PbTiO{sub 3}) films is studied in the present work. Films are obtained by the deposition of an aqueous solution containing citric acid based (citrato) metal ion complexes with intrinsic UV activity. This UV activity is crucial for the aqueous photochemical solution deposition (aqueous PCSD) route being used. UV irradiation enhances the early decomposition of organics and results in improved electrical properties for the crystalline oxide film, even if the film is crystallized at low temperature. GATR-FTIR shows that UV irradiation promotes the decomposition of organic precursor components, resulting in homogeneous films if applied in the right temperature window during film processing. The organic content, morphology and crystallinity of the irradiated films, achieved at different processing atmospheres and temperatures, is studied and eventually correlated to the functional behavior of the obtained films. This is an important issue, as crystalline films obtained at low temperatures often lack ferroelectric responses. In this work, the film prepared in pure oxygen at the very low temperature of 400 °C and after an optimized UV treatment presents a significant remanent polarization value of P{sub r} = 8.8 μC cm{sup −2}. This value is attributed to the better crystallinity, the larger grain size and the reduced porosity obtained thanks to the early film crystallization effectively achieved through the UV treatment in oxygen. - Highlights: • Precursor chemistry enables the UV assisted film deposition process. • PbTiO3 films with improved ferroelectric response and crystallinity are obtained. • UV active components are formed during the whole film formation process. • Perovskite, ferroelectric active PbTiO3 films are formed at 400 °C. • Oxide films can be prepared at reduced temperature.

  6. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul


    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  7. CSS for Windows 8 app development

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy


    CSS for Windows 8 App Development is your learning guide for CSS - the language of great Windows 8-style apps. Learn the built-in styles that make the built-in controls shine, how to define them, and how to use CSS to give your custom app assets that beautiful Modern UI style. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is the clear standard for styling web applications, and with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript now powering apps on Windows 8, it's the clear standard there as well. CSS is a powerful styling and layout language that greatly simplifies the selection of page elements and their visual display, layout,

  8. A Memristor Model with Piecewise Window Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a memristor model with piecewise window function, which is continuously differentiable and consists of three nonlinear pieces. By introducing two parameters, the shape of this window function can be flexibly adjusted to model different types of memristors. Using this model, one can easily obtain an expression of memristance depending on charge, from which the numerical value of memristance can be readily calculated for any given charge, and eliminate the error occurring in the simulation of some existing window function models.

  9. Windows PowerShell Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee


    For years, support for scripting and command-line administration on the Windows platform has paled in comparison to the support offered by the Unix platform. Unix administrators enjoyed the immense power and productivity of their command shells, while Windows administrators watched in envy. Windows PowerShell, Microsoft's next-generation command shell and scripting language, changes this landscape completely. This Short Cut contains the essential reference material to help you get your work done-including the scripting language syntax, a regular-expression reference, useful .NET classes, an

  10. Windows Server 2012 ja Active Directory


    Eteläaho, Antti


    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutustua Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston sisältämiin palveluihin sekä perehtyä tarkemmin Active Directoryn peruskäyttöön. Tavoitteena oli antaa lukijalle ymmärrys Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston tarjoamista käyttömahdollisuuksista ja Active Directoryn käytöstä. Opinnäytetyön tietoperusta koostui virtuaaliympäristön käytöstä ja erilaisista Windows Server 2012–ohjelman palveluista. Tietoperusta kattoi esimerkiksi seuraavat käsitteet: Virtuaalisointi, Emulointi, Ohj...

  11. Microsoft Windows Server 2012 administration instant reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Matthew


    Fast, accurate answers for common Windows Server questions Serving as a perfect companion to all Windows Server books, this reference provides you with quick and easily searchable solutions to day-to-day challenges of Microsoft's newest version of Windows Server. Using helpful design features such as thumb tabs, tables of contents, and special heading treatments, this resource boasts a smooth and seamless approach to finding information. Plus, quick-reference tables and lists provide additional on-the-spot answers. Covers such key topics as server roles and functionality, u

  12. Time Modeling: Salvatore Sciarrino, Windows and Beclouding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade


    Full Text Available In this article I intend to discuss one of the figures created by the Italian composer Salvatore Sciarrino: the windowed form. After the composer's explanation of this figure, I argue that windows in composition can open inwards and outwards the musical discourse. On one side, they point to the composition's inner ambiences and constitute an internal remission. On the other, they instigate the audience to comprehend the external reference, thereby constructing intertextuality. After the outward window form, I will consider some techniques of distortion, particularly one that I call beclouding. To conclude, I will comment the question of memory and of compostition as time modeling.

  13. Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae Claxton


    Full Text Available “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAn African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? I...

  14. Windows 8 & Office 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy


    Two complete e-books covering Windows and Office for one low price! This unique value-priced e-book set brings together two bestselling For Dummies books in a single e-book file. Including a comprehensive table of contents and the full text of each book, complete with cover, this e-book set gives you in-depth information on the leading PC productivity tools: Windows 8 and Office 2010. Best of all, you'll pay less than the cost of each book purchased separately. You'll get the complete text of: Windows 8 For Dummies, which covers The core component

  15. 40 CFR 52.229 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles... (United States)


    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.229 Section 52.229... oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) (b) The following rules are... not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of NAAQS for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons...

  16. Photophysical studies of oxicam group of NSAIDs: piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam (United States)

    Banerjee, Rona; Chakraborty, Hirak; Sarkar, Munna


    Oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been chosen as a prototype molecular group that shows diverse biological functions and dynamic structural features. Photophysical studies of three drugs from this group viz., piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam have been carried out in different solvents with varying polarity, H-bond character and viscosity. The spectral responses of different prototropic forms of these drugs towards varying solvent parameters have been studied, with the aim to characterize their interaction in biomimetic environment non-invasively. The nature of the lowest transition has been identified. The extinction coefficient, quantum yield and viscosity dependence on the nature of the solvents, all indicate the extreme sensitivity of these drugs to their microenvironment.

  17. A photophysical study of two fluorogen-activating proteins bound to their cognate fluorogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, Tiziano [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nguyen, Hau B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jung, Jaemyeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gnanakaran, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We are exploring the feasibility of using recently developed flu orogen-activating proteins (FAPs) as reporters for single-molecule imaging. FAPs are single-chain antibodies choosen to specifically bind small chromophoric molecules termed f1uorogens. Upon binding to its cognate FAP the fluorescence quantum yield of the fluorogen can increase substantially giving rise to a fluorescent complex. Based on the seminal work of Szent-Gyorgyi et al. (Nature Biotechnology, Volume 26, Number 2, pp 235-240, 2008) we have chosen to study two fluorogen-activating single-chain antibodies, HL 1.0.1-TOI and H6-MG bound to their cognate fluorogens, thiazole orange and malachite green derivatives, respectively. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy study the photophysics of these fluorescent complexes.

  18. Time-Resolved Microwave Photoconductivity study of the Photophysics of Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices (United States)

    Kopidakis, Nikos; Ferguson, Andrew; Shaheen, Sean; Rumbles, Garry


    Bulk heterojunctions composed of a blend of the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the acceptor fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are the prototypical organic photovoltaic devices. The photophysical processes that take place in these structures involve exciton generation and quenching, and free carrier transport, trapping and recombination. To probe these processes we have performed contactless Time-Resolved Microwave Photoconductivity measurements in pure polymer films and in bulk heterojunctions with varying PCBM concentration. We compare our results with various models for free carrier generation in the pure polymer and in the bulk heterojunction and develop a kinetic scheme to describe free carrier generation and recombination that is consistent with our experimental data. We show that exciton quenching in the presence of the acceptor (PCBM) involves first and second order processes that become prevalent at low and high light intensities, respectively.

  19. Effect of Confinement on Photophysical Properties of P3HT Chains in PMMA Matrix (United States)

    Dimitriev, Oleg P.


    The influence of arrangement of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) chains embedded into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix on photophysical properties, such as electronic absorption spectrum, band gap, and photoluminescence quantum yield, of the formed P3HT aggregates have been studied. It has been found that variation of P3HT fraction in PMMA matrix from 25 to 2 wt% is accompanied with the increasing quantum yield of photoluminescence, red shift of the band gap, and structural change of P3HT crystallites. The above changes are accompanied with disruption of the continuous network of P3HT fraction into smaller P3HT particles with size ranged from several microns to several tens of nanometers. The results are interpreted in terms of the changing intermolecular packing and reduced intramolecular torsional disorder. It is discussed that the most contribution to the above changes comes from P3HT molecules at the interface of P3HT cluster and PMMA environment.

  20. Synthesis and photophysics of a red-light absorbing supramolecular chromophore system. (United States)

    Rombouts, Jeroen A; Ravensbergen, Janneke; Frese, Raoul N; Kennis, John T M; Ehlers, Andreas W; Slootweg, J Chris; Ruijter, Eelco; Lammertsma, Koop; Orru, Romano V A


    In search of supramolecular antenna systems for light-harvesting applications, we report on a short and effective synthesis of a fused NDI-zinc-salphen-based chromophore (salphen = bis-salicylimide phenylene) and its photophysical properties. A supramolecular recognition motif is embedded into the chromophoric π-system of this compound. The fused π-chromophore behaves as one pigment, absorbs light between 600 and 750 nm and displays a modest Stokes shift. Upon binding pyridines, the compound (DATZnS) does not change its redox potentials, does not undergo any internal excited state quenching and does not appreciably alter its excited state lifetime. These notable properties define DATZnS as an alternative to porphyrin-based components used in supramolecular light-harvesting architectures. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Photophysical properties of open-framework germanates templated by nickel complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Peskov, Maxim


    Open-framework germanates are a group of germanium oxides with a well-defined porous structure, suitable for ion-exchange and gas adsorption applications. Recently, Ni incorporation into the porous structure by establishing Ge-O-Ni bonds with the molecular complexes [Ni(H 2N(CH2)2NH2)2] was realized. We investigate the optical and electronic features of these systems (SUT-1 and SUT-2) from first principles. To describe the photophysical behavior, we analyze the bonding between the Ni and nearest-neighboring atoms and simulate the absorption spectra. Because of their optical characteristics, germania-based nanomaterials are expected to be essential components of future optical and electronic devices. We discuss to what extent molecular transition-metal complexes embedded into porous germanium oxide can modify the optical response to potentially expand the area of applications. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  2. Novel fluorescent amphiphilic block copolymers: photophysics behavior and interactions with DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this study, novel amphiphilic fluorescent copolymers poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-b-poly(N-methacryloyl-N'-(α-naphthylthiourea (PVP-b-PNT were synthesized via ATRP with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-Cl as macroinitiator and N-methacryloyl-N'-α-naphthylthiourea (NT as hydrophobic segment. PVP-b-PNT copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR, GPC-MALLS and fluorescence measurements. The aggregation behavior of PVP-b-PNT in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS measurement. The photophysics behavior of PVP-b-PNT showed that block copolymer formed strong excimer. The interaction of DNA with the block copolymer made the excimer of block copolymer quench. The cytotoxicity result of PVP-b-PNT in cell culture in vitro indicated that this copolymer PVP-b-PNT had good biocompatibility.

  3. Physicochemical/photophysical characterization and angiogenic properties of Curcuma longa essential oil. (United States)

    Araújo, Lilhian A; Araújo, Rafael G M; Gomes, Flávia O; Lemes, Susy R; Almeida, Luciane M; Maia, Lauro J Q; Gonçalves, Pablo J; Mrué, Fátima; Silva-Junior, Nelson J; Melo-Reis, Paulo R DE


    This study analyzed the physicochemical and photophysical properties of essential oil of Curcuma longa and its angiogenic potential. The results showed that curcumin is the main fluorescent component present in the oil, although the amount is relatively small. The experimental chorioallantoic membrane model was used to evaluate angiogenic activity, showing a significant increase in the vascular network of Curcuma longa and positive control groups when compared to the neutral and inhibitor controls (P Curcuma longa essential oil and the positive control (P >0.05). Histological analysis showed extensive neovascularization, hyperemia and inflammation in the positive control group and Curcuma longa when compared to other controls (P Curcuma longa oil showed considerable proangiogenic activity and could be a potential compound in medical applications.

  4. Photophysical properties gallium octacarboxy phthalocyanines conjugated to CdSe@ZnS quantum dots. (United States)

    Tshangana, Charmaine; Nyokong, Tebello


    L-Glutathione (GSH) capped core CdSe (2.3 nm) and core shell CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) (3.0 nm and 3.5 nm) were coordinated to gallium octacarboxy phthalocyanine (ClGaPc(COOH)8) to form ClGaPc(COOH)8-QDs conjugates. An efficient transfer of energy from the QDs to the Pcs was demonstrated through Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), the FRET efficiencies in all cases was above 50%. The photophysical parameters (triplet state and fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) were also determined for the conjugates. There was a decrease in the fluorescence lifetimes of ClGaPc(COOH)8 in the presence of all the QDs, due to the heavy atom effect. The triplet quantum yields increased in the conjugates. The lifetimes also became longer for the conjugates compared to Pc alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photophysical properties and biocompatibility of Photoluminescent Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles in polymethylmetacrylate matrix. (United States)

    Abe, Shigeaki; Hamba, Yusuke; Iwadera, Nobuki; Yamagata, Shuichi; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Uo, Motohiro; Iida, Junichiro; Kiba, Takayuki; Murayama, Akihiro; Watari, Fumio


    In this study, we produced europium-doped yttoria (Y2O3:Eu) nanoparticles and investigated their photoluminescent properties and biocompatibility. The Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles showed excellent photoluminescent properties and cytocompatibility. We also analyzed the photophysical properties of the nanoparticles in PMMA films. When the Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles were incorporated in the polymer film, they showed a strong red emission spectrum, similar to that seen with the particles alone. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements indicated that the particles were distributed homogeneously in the PMMA film. Such materials could be applied not only to optoelectronic devices but also to biomedical applications such as bioimaging tools or luminescent medical/dental adhesive materials.

  6. Photophysical Model of 10-Hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline: Internal Conversion and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghwa; Joo, Taiha [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    Photophysics of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (HBQ) has been in controversy, in particular, on the nature of the electronic states before and after the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), even though the dynamics and mechanism of the ESIPT have been well established. We report highly time resolved fluorescence spectra over the full emission frequency regions of the enol and keto isomers and the anisotropy in time domain to determine the accurate rates of the population decay, spectral relaxation and anisotropy decay of the keto isomer. We have shown that the ∼300 fs component observed frequently in ESIPT dynamics arises from the S{sub 2}→S{sub 1} internal conversion in the reaction product keto isomer and that the ESIPT occurs from the enol isomer in S{sub 1} state to the keto isomer in S{sub 2} state.

  7. A Comparative Study on Two Cationic Porphycenes: Photophysical and Antimicrobial Photoinactivation Evaluation. (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Rubén; Agut, Montserrat; Reddi, Elena; Nonell, Santi


    Over the last decades, the number of pathogenic multi-resistant microorganisms has grown dramatically, which has stimulated the search for novel strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is one of the promising alternatives to conventional treatments based on antibiotics. Here, we present a comparative study of two aryl tricationic porphycenes where photoinactivation efficiency against model pathogenic microorganisms is correlated to the photophysical behavior of the porphycene derivatives. Moreover, the extent of photosensitizer cell binding to bacteria has been assessed by flow cytometry in experiments with, or without, removing the unbound porphycene from the incubation medium. Results show that the peripheral substituent change do not significantly affect the overall behavior for both tricationic compounds neither in terms of photokilling efficiency, nor in terms of binding.

  8. A Comparative Study on Two Cationic Porphycenes: Photophysical and Antimicrobial Photoinactivation Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ruiz-González


    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the number of pathogenic multi-resistant microorganisms has grown dramatically, which has stimulated the search for novel strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is one of the promising alternatives to conventional treatments based on antibiotics. Here, we present a comparative study of two aryl tricationic porphycenes where photoinactivation efficiency against model pathogenic microorganisms is correlated to the photophysical behavior of the porphycene derivatives. Moreover, the extent of photosensitizer cell binding to bacteria has been assessed by flow cytometry in experiments with, or without, removing the unbound porphycene from the incubation medium. Results show that the peripheral substituent change do not significantly affect the overall behavior for both tricationic compounds neither in terms of photokilling efficiency, nor in terms of binding.

  9. Tunable photophysical processes of porphyrin macrocycles on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Parida, Manas R.


    We investigated the impact of the molecular structure of cationic porphyrins on the degree of electrostatic interactions with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that the number of cationic pyridinium units has a crucial impact on the photophysics of the porphyrin macrocycle. Fluorescence enhancement, relative to initial free porphyrin fluorescence, was found to be tuned from 3.4 to 1.3 times higher by reducing the number of cationic substituents on the porphyrin from 4 to 2. The resulting enhancement of the intensity of the fluorescence is attributed to the decrease in the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character between the porphyrin cavity and its meso substituent. The novel findings reported in this work provide an understanding of the key variables involved in nanoassembly, paving the way toward optimizing the interfacial chemistry of porphyrin-ZnO NP assembly for photodynamic therapy and energy conversion.

  10. Photophysics of Laser Dye-Doped Polymer Membranes for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Photogrammetry (United States)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Jones, Thomas W.; Danehy, Paul M.


    Laser-induced fluorescence target generation in dye-doped polymer films has recently been introduced as a promising alternative to more traditional photogrammetric targeting techniques for surface profiling of highly transparent or reflective membrane structures. We investigate the photophysics of these dye-doped polymers to help determine their long-term durability and suitability for laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetric targeting. These investigations included experimental analysis of the fluorescence emission pattern, spectral content, temporal lifetime, linearity, and half-life. Results are presented that reveal an emission pattern wider than normal Lambertian diffuse surface scatter, a fluorescence time constant of 6.6 ns, a pump saturation level of approximately 20 micro J/mm(exp 2), and a useful lifetime of more than 300,000 measurements. Furthermore, two demonstrations of photogrammetric measurements by laser-induced fluorescence targeting are presented, showing agreement between photogrammetric and physically measured dimensions within the measurement scatter of 100 micron.

  11. Experimental photophysical characterization of fluorophores in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J P; Baptista, P V [CIGMH, Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lima, J C, E-mail:, E-mail: [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)


    We propose an experimental-based tool for dealing with fluorescence modulation close to nanoparticles for application in studies of fluorophores in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), typically addressed via theoretical models. We performed a photophysical characterization of fluorophores in the vicinity of AuNPs, showing that correct {Phi}{sub F} determination suffers from a local pH effect, and address the observed radiative enhancement. Our approach is based on the experimental assurance that the reference fluorophores are in the same optical conditions as those of the AuNP-fluorophore conjugates. We demonstrate the relevance for introducing corrections for the inner filter effect and the reabsorption of the emitted light caused by AuNPs. The proposed approach could circumvent the need for theoretical based corrections and allow for more accurate determination of fluorescence emission in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles.

  12. Photophysics and light-activated biocidal activity of visible-light-absorbing conjugated oligomers. (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Anand; Goswami, Subhadip; Corbitt, Thomas S; Ji, Eunkyung; Dascier, Dimitri; Whitten, David G; Schanze, Kirk S


    The photophysical properties of three cationic π-conjugated oligomers were correlated with their visible light activated biocidal activity vs S. aureus. The oligomers contain three arylene units (terthiophene, 4a; thiophene-benzotriazole-thiophene, 4b; thiophene-benzothiadiazole-thiophene, 4c) capped on each end by cationic -(CH2)3NMe3(+) groups. The oligomers absorb in the visible region due to their donor-acceptor-donor electronic structure. Oligomers 4a and 4b have high intersystem crossing and singlet oxygen sensitization efficiency, but 4c has a very low intersystem crossing efficiency and it does not sensitize singlet oxygen. The biocidal activity of the oligomers under visible light varies in the order 4a > 4b ≈ 4c.

  13. Cyanomethylene-bis(phosphonate)-based lanthanide complexes: structural, photophysical, and magnetic investigations. (United States)

    Maxim, Catalin; Branzea, Diana G; Tiseanu, Carmen; Rouzières, Mathieu; Clérac, Rodolphe; Andruh, Marius; Avarvari, Narcis


    The syntheses, structural investigations, magnetic and photophysical properties of a series of 10 lanthanide mononuclear complexes, containing the heteroditopic ligand cyanomethylene-bis(5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,3,2λ(5)-dioxa-phosphorinane) (L), are described. The crystallographic analyses indicate two structural types: in the first one, [Ln(III)(L)3(H2O)2]·H2O (Ln = La, Pr, Nd), the metal ions are eight-coordinated within a square antiprism geometry, while the second one, [Ln(III)(L)3(H2O)]·8H2O (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er), contains seven-coordinated Ln(III) ions within distorted monocapped trigonal prisms. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding between nitrogen atoms of the cyano groups, crystallization, and coordination water molecules leads to the formation of extended supramolecular networks. Solid-state photophysical investigations demonstrate that Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes possess intense luminescence with relatively long excited-state lifetimes of 530 and 1370 μs, respectively, while Pr(III), Dy(III), and Ho(III) complexes have weak intensity luminescence characterized by short lifetimes ranging between a few nanoseconds to microseconds. The magnetic properties for Pr(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Ho(III) complexes are in agreement with isolated Ln(III) ions in the solid state, as suggested by the single-crystal X-ray analyses. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements up to 10 kHz reveal that only the Ho(III) complex shows a frequency-dependent ac response, with a relaxation mode clearly observed at 1.85 K around 4500 Hz.

  14. Structural and photophysical properties of anthracenyl and carbazolyl groups in silicone-based polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Raquel A.; Martins, Tatiana D.; Yoshida, Inez V.P. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Brasil, Maria J.S.P. [Gleb Wataghin Institute of Physics, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Atvars, Teresa D.Z., E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    This paper describes a simple methodology to attach luminescent groups (anthracenyl and carbazolyl) to polysiloxanes (silicone), using hydrosilylation reactions between the Si-H groups from the silicone precursor to vinyl derivatives of the lumophores. The photophysical properties of these luminescent silicones were studied using both steady-state and dynamical photoluminescence spectroscopy. A strong correlation was obtained between the structural characteristics of the anthracenyl- and carbazolyl-based polysiloxanes, depending on the amount and the position of the Si-H bonds in the silicone precursors. For sparsely distributed Si-H groups, both the anthracenyl-labeled and carbazolyl-labeled polysiloxanes showed photophysical properties (fluorescence spectrum and fluorescence decays) similar to those of 1-alkyl anthracenyl and 1-alkyl carbazolyl derivatives, respectively. Nevertheless, for closely spaced Si-H groups, emission and decay are different. The presence of excimers was observed for anthracenyl but not for carbazolyl polysiloxanes. This latter observation is quite different from that observed for carbon-based polymers for which the carbazolyl excimer formation is a very common process probably due to the differences in the silicone structure. - Graphical Abstract: The luminescence properties of silicone carbazolyl and silicone-anthracenyl can be controlled by the amount of Si-H groups of the pristine silicone; silicone chain imposes some geometrical restriction to excimer formation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescent and phosphorescent silicones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of the precursor silicone interferes with the emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excimer emission from anthracenyl groups was obtained for some silicones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excimer emission from carbazolyl groups was not observed for silicones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emission quenching is observed for silicones with high content of

  15. Photophysical and adsorption properties of pyronin B in natural bentonite clay dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostami, Mohammad Reza [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Kaya, Mehmet [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Gür, Bahri; Onganer, Yavuz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Meral, Kadem, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey)


    Graphical abstract: The molecular aggregation of PyB in bentonite aqueous dispersion is observed by using molecular absorption spectrum. - Highlights: • Molecular behavior of PyB adsorbed on bentonite was spectroscopically followed. • H-aggregates of PyB in bentonite aqueous dispersion were formed. • The adsorption characteristics of PyB on bentonite particles were determined. - Abstract: The present study focused on the adsorption and photophysical properties of pyronin B (PyB) in bentonite aqueous dispersion. The photophysical properties of PyB in the aqueous dispersion were studied by using UV–vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. In this concept, the interaction of the dye with bentonite particles in the aqueous dispersion was spectroscopically followed depending on certain parameters such as interaction time, pH and the dye concentration. Obtained spectral data revealed that the aggregate structures (H-type) of PyB in the aqueous dispersion were formed in the dye concentration range studied. The non-fluorescence nature of H-aggregates and the clay minerals governed the fluorescence property of PyB. The mentioned non-radiative processes caused the fluorescence lifetime of the dye to decrease compared to that in water. The adsorption process of PyB on bentonite was examined depending on contact time and initial adsorbate concentration. An adsorption isotherm was good-fitted by the Freundlich model with a linear regression correlation value of 0.999. The adsorption of PyB on bentonite particles was in agreement with pseudo second-order kinetics.

  16. Photophysics of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes formed with lacunary polyoxotungstates with iron addenda. (United States)

    Seery, Michael K; Fay, Nigel; McCormac, Timothy; Dempsey, Eithne; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E


    The interactions between luminophore [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and the lacunary Dawson heteropolyanions, [P2W17O61(FeOH2)]7-, [P2W17O61(FeBr)]6- and [P2W17O61]10- were investigated using a combination of photophysics, optical and Raman spectroscopy. Extensive quenching of the excited state of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ was observed in each case. Quenching is attributed to the formation of association complexes between [Ru(bpy)(3)]2+ and the heteropolyanions in which the charge on the heteropolyanions is fully compensated for by the ruthenium polypyridyl species. The interaction appears to be principally electrostatic in nature producing [Ru(bpy)3]3.5[P2W17O61(FeOH2)], [Ru(bpy)3]3[P2W17O61(FeBr)] and [Ru(bpy)3]5[P2W17O61]10-. The association constants for formation of the clusters were obtained from photophysical studies and surprisingly, despite the electrostatic nature of the interaction, there was no correlation between the charge on the polyoxometallate and the association constant. In particular, the unsubstituted lacunary, [P2W17O61]10-, showed considerably weaker association compared to the transition metal substituted lacunaries, in spite of its 10- charge. Difference absorption spectroscopy revealed a new transition at ca. 480 nm for each of the cluster complexes. From resonance Raman spectroscopy the origin of this transition was found to involve the polyoxometallate. Unlike previously reported adducts, the cluster complexes formed were not luminescent. In all cases the cluster complexes exhibit remarkable photostability, with no photodecomposition or photo-induced ligand exchange reactions evident in acetonitrile, under conditions where [Ru(bpy)3]2+ alone exhibits considerable photolability.

  17. Mapping the UV Photophysics of Platinum Metal Complexes Bound to Nucleobases (United States)

    Sen, Ananya; Dessent, Caroline


    We report the first UV laser spectroscopic study of isolated gas-phase complexes of Platinum metal complex anions bound to a nucleobase as model systems for exploring at the molecular level the key photophysical processes involved in photodynamic therapy. Spectra of the PtIV CN 6 2 - • Uracil and PtII CN 4 2 - • Uracil complexes were acquired across the 220 -320 nm range using mass-selective photodepletion and photofragment action spectroscopy. The spectra of both complexes reveal prominent UV absorption bands that we assign primarily to excitation of the Uracil π - π * localized chromophore. Distinctive UV photofragments are observed for the complexes, with PtIV CN 6 2 - • Uracil photoexcitation resulting in complex fission, while PtII CN 4 2 - • Uracil photoexcitation initiates a nucleobase proton-transfer reaction across 4.4 -5.2 eV and electron detachment above 5.2 eV. The observed photofragments are consistent with ultrafast decay of a Uracil localized excited state back to the electronic ground state followed by intramolecular vibrational relaxation and ergodic complex fragmentation. In addition, we present recent results to explore how the photophysics of the Platinum complex-nucleobase clusters evolves as a function of nucleobase. Results are presented for PtII CN 4 2 - • Uracil complexed to Cytosine, Thymine and Adenine, reveal distinctive decay dynamics which we attribute to the intrinsic decay dynamics of the nucleobase. JPC. Lett. 2014, 5, 3281 to 3285 and PCCP 2014, 16, 15490 to 15500.

  18. Microsoft Windows Server 2003: Security Enhancements and New Features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montehermoso, Ronald


    .... Windows NT and Windows 2000 were known to have numerous security vulnerabilities; hence Microsoft focused on improving security by making Windows Server 2003 secure by design, secure by default, secure in deployment...

  19. Tests of RF windows in the resonant ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakin, V.E.; Klyuev, V.F.; Lukin, A.N.; Minkov, A.V.; Pirogov, O.V.; Samoylov, S.L.; Khavin, N.G.; Shemelin, V.D.; Yasnov, G.I. [Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, SB of RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    Klystron output window testing was performed with the help of traveling wave resonators. Two versions of windows were tested. After design modifications, the maximal power transmitted through the window increased up to 40 MW. (J.P.N)

  20. The window of opportunity for treatment withdrawal. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic


    Physicians sometimes refer to a "window of opportunity" for withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in patients with acute severe brain injury. There is a period of critical illness and physiological instability when treatment withdrawal is likely to be followed by death but prognosis is uncertain. If decisions are delayed, greater prognostic certainty can be achieved, but with the risk that the patient is no longer dependent on life support and survives with very severe disability. In this article I draw on the example of birth asphyxia and highlight the role that the window of opportunity sometimes plays in decisions about life-sustaining treatment in intensive care. I outline the potential arguments in favor of and against taking the window into account. I argue that it is, at least sometimes, ethical and appropriate for physicians and parents to be influenced by the window of opportunity in their decisions about life-sustaining treatment.

  1. Salutogenic Window of Opportunity in Nutrition Promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.; Swan, E.C.


    Their workshop will discuss Antonovsky’s Salutogenic Framework and how it offers a window of opportunity for enabling healthy lifestyle practices and nutrition promotion. During the interactive workshop, participants will have the opportunity to practice Salutogenic thinking through discussion,

  2. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window. (United States)

    Pierce, Robin L


    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  3. Microsoft Windows 2000 Router Configuration Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richburg, Florence


    The purpose of this guide is to provide technical guidance to network administrators of small to medium size networks in the configuration and integration of Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Router features...

  4. Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Architecture Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartock, Paul


    The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about the services that are available in the Microsoft Windows 2000 environment and how to integrate these services into their network architecture...

  5. Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. Information Sheet (United States)

    Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bismarck, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Bismarck, North Dakota.

  6. Upstate Windows and Exteriors Information Sheet (United States)

    Upstate Windows and Exteriors (the Company) is located in Greenville, South Carolina. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Greenville and Easley, South Carolina.

  7. Windows XP Operating System Security Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goktepe, Meftun


    .... In this research we performed a security analysis of the Windows XP operating system, assessed its vulnerabilities and made recommendations for XP configurations and use as an extension of enterprise...

  8. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sejeong Kwon; Meeyoung Cha; Kyomin Jung


      This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows--from the first three days to nearly two months...

  9. Dynamic TCP acknowledgment with sliding window

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koga, Hisashi

    .... However, its framework does not consider the sliding window in the TCP protocol that restricts the maximum number of packets that the sender can inject into the network without an acknowledgement...

  10. Structural studies of supramolecular photochemical beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (United States)

    Brett, Thomas John

    X-ray crystallography has played an essential role in our understanding of the factors controlling the outcomes of solid-state photochemical reactions. The detailed and systematic study of supramolecular photochemical systems is not very common. The dissertation research described here was designed to help fill this deficit. beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) is an example of a host molecule which has been used as a host to photochemical reactions. An important influence on the outcome of the solid state reaction is the surrounding crystalline environment. Structural studies of beta-CD inclusion complexes with derivatized biphenyl molecules, biphenyl and p-amino-p '-nitrobiphenyl, characterize the beta-CD dimer environment as non-constraining. Both molecules exhibit twisted conformations within the beta-CD dimer, identical to their conformations displayed in the gas phase. The photodimerization of various coumarins in crystalline beta-CD complexes was studied in detail. The beta-CD/coumarin complex was found to be a 2:3 host:guest (H:G) complex in contradiction to previous literature reports. The beta-CD dimers stack in long channels with the coumarin molecules stacked one on top of another inside creating a reaction nano-tube in which the theoretical yield is limited to 67%. The photodimerization of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin in its crystalline beta-CD inclusion complex was directly observed by X-ray diffraction. Examination of the structure of an unreacted crystal and one that was irradiated for 6 days revealed that the reaction proceeds in a topochemical fashion within the beta-CD dimer cavity. The beta-CD dimers arrange in a manner which creates isolated reaction nano-vessels throughout the crystal. The structure of the beta-CD/7-hydroxycoumarin complex shows that this complex is nearly identical the beta-CD/7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin complex despite the looser spatial fit of the guest to the cavity. The studies of the beta-CD/4,7-dimethylcoumarin complex produced

  11. Holographic window for solar power generation (United States)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu


    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  12. Characteristics of Air Flow through Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Dam, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars C.

    This paper describes the first results of a series of laboratory investigations that is performed to characterise three different window types. The results show the air flow conditions for different ventilation strategies and temperature differences. For one of the windows values of the discharge...... coefficient are shown for both isothermal and non-isothermal flow conditions and the thermal comfort conditions are evaluated by measurements of velocity and temperature levels in the air flow in the occupied zone....

  13. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise


    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  14. High performance solar control office windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.J.


    Investigations conducted over a 9 month period on the use of ion beam sputtering methods for the fabrication of solar control windows for energy conservation are described. Principal emphasis was placed on colored, reflecting, heat rejecting, office building windows for reducing air conditioning loads and to aid in the design of energy conserving buildings. The coating techniques were developed primarily for use with conventional absorbing plate glass such as PPG solarbronze, but were also demonstrated on plastic substrates for retrofit applications. Extensive material investigations were conducted to determine the optimum obtainable characteristics, with associated weathering studies as appropriate aimed at achieving a 20 year minimum life. Conservative estimates indicate that successful commercialization of the windows developed under this program would result in energy savings of 16,000,000 barrels of oil/year by 1990 if installation were only 10 percent of new commercial building stock. These estimates are relative to existing design for energy conserving windows. Installation in a greater percentage of new stock and for retrofit applications could lead to proportionately greater energy savings. All such installations are projected as cost effective as well as energy effective. A secondary program was carried out to modify the techniques to yield thermal control windows for residential applications. These windows were designed to provide a high heat retention capability without seriously affecting their transmission of incident solar radiation, thereby enhancing the greenhouse effect. This part of the program was successful in producing a window form which could be interchanged for standard residential window material in a cost and energy effective manner. The only variation from standard stock in appearance is a very light rose or neutral gray coloring.

  15. On the Correctness of Sliding Window Protocols


    van de Snepscheut, Jan L.A.


    In this note some struggles with the sliding window protocol and the special case known as the alternating bit protocol, are reported. We try to give a correctness proof, and discover that we cannot do so for one of the versions of the sliding window protocol. One may either require channels that satisfy stronger assumptions or, as we will do, adapt the protocol and stick to the weaker assumptions. The alternating bit protocol can be traced back to [Bartlett]. We have been unab...

  16. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos


    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  17. Functional window of the avian compass (United States)

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop


    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form—or even with minor augmentations—it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  18. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10. (United States)

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider


    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


    CERN Multimedia


    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Information: Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner ...

  20. Energy and Molecules from Photochemical/Photocatalytic Reactions. An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ravelli


    Full Text Available Photocatalytic reactions have been defined as those processes that require both a (not consumed catalyst and light. A previous definition was whether such reactions brought a system towards or away from the (thermal equilibrium. This consideration brings in the question whether a part of the photon energy is incorporated into the photochemical reaction products. Data are provided for representative organic reactions involving or not molecular catalysts and show that energy storage occurs only when a heavily strained structure is generated, and in that case only a minor part of photon energy is actually stored (ΔG up to 25 kcal·mol−1. The green role of photochemistry/photocatalysis is rather that of forming highly reactive intermediates under mild conditions.

  1. Photochemical water splitting mediated by a C1 shuttle

    KAUST Repository

    Alderman, N. P.


    The possibility of performing photochemical water splitting in a two-stage system, separately releasing the H and O components, has been probed with two separate catalysts and in combination with a formaldehyde/formate shuttling redox couple. In the first stage, formaldehyde releases hydrogen vigorously in the presence of an Na[Fe(CN)]·10HO catalyst, selectively affording the formate anion. In the second stage, the formate anion is hydro-genated back to formaldehyde by water and in the presence of a BiWO photocatalyst whilst releasing oxygen. Both stages operate at room temperature and under visible light irradiation. The two separate photocatalysts are compatible since water splitting can also be obtained in one-pot experiments with simultaneous H/O evolution.

  2. Applying green chemistry to the photochemical route to artemisinin (United States)

    Amara, Zacharias; Bellamy, Jessica F. B.; Horvath, Raphael; Miller, Samuel J.; Beeby, Andrew; Burgard, Andreas; Rossen, Kai; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W.


    Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen. We demonstrate that applying the principles of green chemistry can lead to innovative strategies that avoid many of the problems in current photochemical processes. The first strategy combines the use of liquid CO2 as solvent and a dual-function solid acid/photocatalyst. The second strategy is an ambient-temperature reaction in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents, where the only inputs are dihydroartemisinic acid, O2 and light, and the output is pure, crystalline artemisinin. Everything else—solvents, photocatalyst and aqueous acid—can be recycled. Some aspects developed here through green chemistry are likely to have wider application in photochemistry and other reactions.

  3. Investigation on Surface Roughness of Inconel 718 in Photochemical Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin D. Misal


    Full Text Available The present work is focused on estimating the optimal machining parameters required for photochemical machining (PCM of an Inconel 718 and effects of these parameters on surface topology. An experimental analysis was carried out to identify optimal values of parameters using ferric chloride (FeCl3 as an etchant. The parameters considered in this analysis are concentration of etchant, etching time, and etchant temperature. The experimental analysis shows that etching performance as well as surface topology improved by appropriate selection of etching process parameters. Temperature of the etchant found to be dominant parameter in the PCM of Inconel 718 for surface roughness. At optimal etching conditions, surface roughness was found to be 0.201 μm.

  4. Effect of fulvic acid on the photochemical degradation of methylparathion. (United States)

    Manzanilla-Cano, José A; Barceló-Quintal, Manuel H; Alcocer-Can, Ligia Del C; Coral-Martínez, Tania I


    Photochemical degradation of methylparathion (O,O,-dimethyl O-4 nitrophenylphosphorothioate) in the presence of fulvic acid (FA) between pH 2 and 7 was studied by differential pulse polarography (DPP). Fulvic acid and its photoproducts were not electro-active under the experimental conditions used in this study, and only the pesticide exhibited polarographic signals. Photolysis of methylparathion in acid media was sensitized by fulvic acid since the pesticide did not degrade in the absence of this compound. Methylparathion degradation was observed at each of the studied pHs. The reaction was first-order with rate constant values ranging from 3.3 x 10(-3) to 8.8 x 10(-3)min(-1).

  5. Versatile and nondestructive photochemical process for biomolecule immobilization. (United States)

    Viel, Pascal; Walter, Justine; Bellon, Sophie; Berthelot, Thomas


    Covalent immobilization of unmodified biological materials as proteins has been performed through a one-step and soft method. This process is based on a polyazidophenylene layer derived from the electroreduction of the parent salt 4-azidobenzenediazonium tetrafluoborate on gold substrates. The wavelength used (365 nm) for the photochemical grafting of a large variety of molecules as biomolecules is a key point to this nondestructive immobilization method. This simple process is also versatile and could be used for covalently binding a wide range of molecules such as polyethylene glycol moieties, for example. To validate this approach for biochip or microarray fabrication, a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) platform for immobilization of various antibody families was created by grafting G-protein through this process. This SPRi antibodies platform was tested with several consecutive cycles of antigen injections/regeneration steps without loss of activity.

  6. Photochemical oxidation of persistent cyanide-related compounds (United States)

    Budaev, S. L.; Batoeva, A. A.; Khandarkhaeva, M. S.; Aseev, D. G.


    Kinetic regularities of the photolysis of thiocyanate solutions using of mono- and polychromatic UV radiation sources with different spectral ranges are studied. Comparative experiments aimed at investigating the role of photochemical action during the oxidation of thiocyanates with persulfates and additional catalytic activation with iron(III) ions are performed. The rate of conversion and the initial rate of thiocyanate oxidation are found to change in the order UV < UV/S2O 8 2- < S2O 8 2- /Fe3+ < UV/S2O 8 2- /Fe3+. A synergistic effect is detected when using the combined catalytic method for the destruction of thiocyanates by the UV/S2O 8 2- /Fe3+ oxidation system. This effect is due to the formation of reactive oxygen species, as a result of both the decomposition of persulfate and the reduction of inactive Fe3+ intermediates into Fe3+.

  7. Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry (United States)

    Baulch, D. L.; Cox, R. A.; Hampson, R. F., Jr.; Kerr, J. A.; Troe, J.; Watson, R. T.


    This paper contains a critical evaluation of the kinetics and photochemistry of gas phase chemical reactions of neutral species involved in middle atmosphere chemistry (10-55 km altitude). Data sheets have been prepared for 148 thermal and photochemical reactions, containing summaries of the available experimental data with notes giving details of the experimental procedures. For each reaction a preferred value of the rate coefficient at 298 K is given together with a temperature dependency where possible. The selection of the preferred value is discussed, and estimates of the accuracies of the rate coefficients and temperature coefficients have been made for each reaction. The data sheets are intended to provide the basic physical chemical data needed as input for calculations which model atmospheric chemistry. A table summarizing the preferred rate data is provided, together with an appendix listing the available data on enthalpies of formation of the reactant and product species.

  8. Windows PowerShell Cookbook For Windows, Exchange 2007, and MOM V3

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee


    This Cookbook provides hundreds of tested scripts that you can use right away to administer Windows systems using Microsoft's new tool-everything from automating routine tasks to working with files, event logs and other forms of structured data to managing the users and resources of complex Windows networks. Along with its task-based introduction to the Windows PowerShell scripting language and environment, this book meets the needs of system administrators at any level.

  9. Window Area and Development Drive Spatial Variation in Bird-Window Collisions in an Urban Landscape


    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.; McKay, Kelly J.; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian


    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings...

  10. Photochemical versus Thermal Synthesis of Cobalt Oxyhydroxide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Samuel R.; Guo, Yijun; Ruberu, T. Purnima A.; Bakac, Andreja; Vela, Javier


    Photochemical methods facilitate the generation, isolation, and study of metastable nanomaterials having unusual size, composition, and morphology. These harder-to-isolate and highly reactive phases, inaccessible using conventional high-temperature pyrolysis, are likely to possess enhanced and unprecedented chemical, electromagnetic, and catalytic properties. We report a fast, low-temperature and scalable photochemical route to synthesize very small (3 nm) monodisperse cobalt oxyhydroxide (Co(O)OH) nanocrystals. This method uses readily and commercially available pentaamminechlorocobalt(III) chloride, [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, under acidic or neutral pH and proceeds under either near-UV (350 nm) or Vis (575 nm) illumination. Control experiments showed that the reaction proceeds at competent rates only in the presence of light, does not involve a free radical mechanism, is insensitive to O2, and proceeds in two steps: (1) Aquation of [Co(NH3)5Cl]2+ to yield [Co(NH3)5(H2O)]3+, followed by (2) slow photoinduced release of NH3 from the aqua complex. This reaction is slow enough for Co(O)OH to form but fast enough so that nanocrystals are small (ca. 3 nm). The alternative dark thermal reaction proceeds much more slowly and produces much larger (250 nm) polydisperse Co(O)OH aggregates. UV–Vis absorption measurements and ab initio calculations yield a Co(O)OH band gap of 1.7 eV. Fast thermal annealing of Co(O)OH nanocrystals leads to Co3O4 nanocrystals with overall retention of nanoparticle size and morphology. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that oxyhydroxide to mixed-oxide phase transition occurs at significantly lower temperatures (up to ΔT = 64 °C) for small nanocrystals compared with the bulk.

  11. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeroff, Daniel E., E-mail: [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, Francois; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, Andre; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD{sub 5}, color, ammonia, and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 10-200 h for PIMA Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  12. Increased Photochemical Efficiency in Cyanobacteria via an Engineered Sucrose Sink. (United States)

    Abramson, Bradley W; Kachel, Benjamin; Kramer, David M; Ducat, Daniel C


    In plants, a limited capacity to utilize or export the end-products of the Calvin-Benson cycle (CB) from photosynthetically active source cells to non-photosynthetic sink cells can result in reduced carbon capture and photosynthetic electron transport (PET), and lowered photochemical efficiency. The down-regulation of photosynthesis caused by reduced capacity to utilize photosynthate has been termed 'sink limitation'. Recently, several cyanobacterial and algal strains engineered to overproduce target metabolites have exhibited increased photochemistry, suggesting that possible source-sink regulatory mechanisms may be involved. We directly examined photochemical properties following induction of a heterologous sucrose 'sink' in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We show that total photochemistry increases proportionally to the experimentally controlled rate of sucrose export. Importantly, the quantum yield of PSII (ΦII) increases in response to sucrose export while the PET chain becomes more oxidized from less PSI acceptor-side limitation, suggesting increased CB activity and a decrease in sink limitation. Enhanced photosynthetic activity and linear electron flow are detectable within hours of induction of the heterologous sink and are independent of pigmentation alterations or the ionic/osmotic effects of the induction system. These observations provide direct evidence that secretion of heterologous carbon bioproducts can be used as an alternative approach to improve photosynthetic efficiency, presumably by by-passing sink limitation. Our results also suggest that engineered microalgal production strains are valuable alternative models for examining photosynthetic sink limitation because they enable greater control and monitoring of metabolite fluxes relative to plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  13. Designing for Windows 8 fundamentals of great design in Windows Store apps

    CERN Document Server

    Schooley, Brent


    Designing for Windows 8 is a fast-paced, 150-page primer on the key design concepts you need to create successful Windows 8 apps. This book will help you design a user interface that is both delightful and effective, feels 'right' to your users, and encapsulates a great Windows 8 experience. In this book, you will: Meet the building blocks of solid Windows 8 UI design in a well-designed sample app. Learn how to incorporate key design elements into your apps, such as the app bar, charms and subtle animations from the animation library. Find out how to deliver the core experience that your users

  14. Microsoft Windows 7 Administrator's Reference Upgrading, Deploying, Managing, and Securing Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Orchilles, Jorge


    Microsoft Windows 7 Administrator's Reference gives you a complete overview of all the important day-to-day duties for which administrators are responsible. From a complete overview of upgrading and implementing to a detailed view of security in Windows 7, this book will keep you on track. Coverage includes: installing and deployment, managing the new Windows 7 environment, overview of the new desktop features, and technical help for troubleshooting and networking (to name a few). Written by current systems administrators with a deep experience in Windows, security, and networked and enterpri

  15. A Numerical Study of the Thermal Characteristics of an Air Cavity Formed by Window Sashes in a Double Window (United States)

    Kang, Jae-sik; Oh, Eun-Joo; Bae, Min-Jung; Song, Doo-Sam


    Given that the Korean government is implementing what has been termed the energy standards and labelling program for windows, window companies will be required to assign window ratings based on the experimental results of their product. Because this has added to the cost and time required for laboratory tests by window companies, the simulation system for the thermal performance of windows has been prepared to compensate for time and cost burdens. In Korea, a simulator is usually used to calculate the thermal performance of a window through WINDOW/THERM, complying with ISO 15099. For a single window, the simulation results are similar to experimental results. A double window is also calculated using the same method, but the calculation results for this type of window are unreliable. ISO 15099 should not recommend the calculation of the thermal properties of an air cavity between window sashes in a double window. This causes a difference between simulation and experimental results pertaining to the thermal performance of a double window. In this paper, the thermal properties of air cavities between window sashes in a double window are analyzed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with the results compared to calculation results certified by ISO 15099. The surface temperature of the air cavity analyzed by CFD is compared to the experimental temperatures. These results show that an appropriate calculation method for an air cavity between window sashes in a double window should be established for reliable thermal performance results for a double window.

  16. Effects of photochemical smog from a flow reactor on bacteria. II. Determination of bactericidal components in photochemical smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nover, H.; Botzenhart, K.


    The mixture of substances in the photochemical smog could be detected by different reduction rates of exposed bacteria. Beside ozone other products of the ozone/olefine-reaction could reduce the survival of exposed bacteria. For Staph. epidermidis a toxic influence from the reaction products could be found only after UV-irradiation. The main components were aldehydes, hydrocarbons, radicals, peroxiradicals and radicaloxides. For peroxiacetylnitrate (PAN) no bactericidal effect could be found for bacteria adsorbed on membrane filters in concentrations of 300 ppb in the smog (UV-irradiation was put off for two hours) and even in concentrations of 1000 ppb prepared by gaschromatography. The influence on lipopolysaccharide (lps) defective mutants of Salmonella minnesota showed the protection of the lps-layer against e.g. relative humidity and ozone (500 ppb), but no specific protection against smog components.

  17. Comparative photophysics and ultrafast dynamics of dimethylaminochalcone and a structurally rigid derivative: experimental identification of TICT coordinate. (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajib; Manna, Biswajit


    Photophysical parameters and ultrafast dynamics of dimethylaminochalone (DMAC-A) have been compared with a structurally bridged analogue (namely, c-DMAC) in solvents of varying polarities. Conformational locking of the single bond connecting the donor and acceptor groups in c-DMAC arrests the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) relaxation and consequently the photophysical parameters such as fluorescence yield, fluorescence lifetime and triplet yield change significantly. The intramolecular charge transfer character of the LE state is found to be unaffected by conformational restriction. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic studies confirmed that in polar solvents, solvation is the only relaxation process in c-DMAC as opposed to the ultrafast TICT of DMAC-A. The solvent polarity effect on the relaxation dynamics has also been discussed.

  18. Photo-physical and interactional behavior of two members of group B vitamins in different solvent media (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Zare Haghighi, L.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.


    In this paper, absorption and fluorescence spectra of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) were recorded in solvents with different polarity, at room temperature. These vitamins' photo-physical behavior depends strongly on the solvent's nature along with different attached groups in their structures. In order to investigate the solvent-solute interactions and environmental effect on spectral variations, linear solvation energy relationships concept, suggested by Kamlet and Taft was used. Solvatochromic method was also used for measuring the ground and excited state dipole moments of these vitamins. According to our experimental results, dipole moment of these groups of vitamins in excited state is larger than ground state. Furthermore, obtained photo-physical and interactional properties of used vitamins can give important information on how this group of vitamins behaves in biological systems.

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of the Interactions between a Cationic Cyanine Dye and a Synthetic Phyllosilicate: From Photophysics to Hybrid Materials. (United States)

    Ley, Christian; Brendlé, Jocelyne; Miranda, Moise; Allonas, Xavier


    The interaction of the cationic organic dye Astrazon orange R (AO-R) with the synthetic phyllosilicate Laponite leads to very interesting hybrid materials. Indeed, the Laponite nanoparticles modify the photophysical properties of AO-R, inducing a stabilization of its excited emissive state by preventing ultrafast isomerization. The long-lived emissive clay-dye hybrid complex can be used to develop efficient photoinitiating systems, leading to organic-inorganic hybrid crosslinked polymer materials.

  20. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan


    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  1. Parametric Dependencies of Sliding Window Correlation. (United States)

    Shakil, Sadia; Billings, Jacob C; Keilholz, Shella D; Lee, Chin-Hui


    In this paper, we explore the dependence of sliding window correlation (SWC) results on different parameters of correlating signals. The SWC is extensively used to explore the dynamics of functional connectivity (FC) networks using resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) scans. These scanned signals often contain multiple amplitudes, frequencies, and phases. However, the exact values of these parameters are unknown. Two recent studies explored the relationship of window length and frequencies (minimum/maximum) in the correlating signals. We extend the findings of these studies by using two deterministic signals with multiple amplitudes, frequencies, and phases. Afterward, we modulate one of the signals to introduce dynamics (nonstationarity) in their relationship. We also explore the relationship of window length and frequency band for real rsfMRI data. For deterministic signals, the spurious fluctuations due to the method itself minimize, and the SWC estimates the stationary correlation when frequencies in the signals have specific relationship. For dynamic relationship also, the undesirable frequencies were removed under specific conditions for the frequencies. For real rsfMRI data, the SWC results varied with frequencies and window length. In the absence of any "ground truth" for different parameters in real rsfMRI signals, the SWC with a constant window size may not be a reliable method to study the dynamics of the FC. This study reveals the parametric dependencies of the SWC and its limitation as a method to analyze dynamics of FC networks in the absence of any ground truth.

  2. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.


    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  3. Model estimates of enhanced photochemical production of ozone resulting from convective transport of precursors (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Dickerson, Russell R.


    Vertical profiles of net photochemical ozone production rates and total tropospheric column production rates were estimated using two models, a simple photochemical box model and a time-dependent one-dimensional transport/kinetics model. Photochemical production of ozone is found to dominate over destruction throughout the vertical extent of the troposphere over the central United States during typical summertime convective conditions. The column net production can be enhanced by the transport of the ozone precursors NO and NMHC from the boundary layer to the free troposphere by convective activity.

  4. Influence of humidity on photochemical ozone generation with 172nm xenon excimer lamps (United States)

    Salvermoser, M. J.; Kogelschatz, U.; Murnick, D. E.


    The reaction kinetics of photochemical ozone (O{3}) generation in humid air and oxygen (O{2}) using efficient, narrow band vacuum ultra violet (VUV) 172 nm xenon excimer lamps is discussed. Trace amounts of water (H{2}O) vapor in the process gas leads to hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO{2}) radical formation. These radicals drive a catalytic O{3} destruction cycle limiting O{3} saturation concentration. This catalytic O{3} destruction cycle was included into a quantitative kinetic model describing photochemical O{3} production. Experimental O{3} saturation concentrations obtained with coaxial VUV driven photochemical O{3} generators compare satisfactorily with the models predictions.

  5. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition (United States)

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.


    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  6. The effects of vibronic coupling on the photophysics of pi-conjugated oligomers and polymers (United States)

    Yamagata, Hajime

    A theoretical model describing photophysics of pi-conjugated aggregates, such as molecular crystals and polymer thin films, is developed. A Holstein-like Hamiltonian expressed with a multi-particle basis set is used to evaluate absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. An analysis with line strength ratio proves to be a powerful diagnostic tool to obtain additional spectral signatures with which to distinguish H- vs. J-aggregation. For the H-aggregates absorption peak ratio, A 0-0/A 0-1, diminishes as the excitonic coupling increases. Also the PL peak ratio, I 0-0/I 0-1, is zero at T=0K with no disorder and the value increases as temperature and disorder increase. By contrast the J-aggregates show the opposite trends. Furthermore we will show the PL peak ratio provides a direct measurement of the exciton coherence length for a linear J-aggregate and could be expressed as I0-0/I 0-1 = Ncoh/gamma2. We will also show that it is inversely proportional to square root of temperature (T-1/2). Applying our theory to the herringbone style oligoacene molecular crystals, we show the lowest singlet exciton states are highly influenced by charge transfer (CT) states and the well known energetic gap in two polarized absorption spectra, so called Davydov Splitting (DS), is a product of the interaction. We have successfully reproduced the DS for all three oligoacenes without any free parameters. Inspired by the CT contribution in oligoacene crystals, we further develop Wannier-Mott exciton model and apply to disorder-free polydiacetylene (PDA) quantum wires, which have been shown to be extremely emissive. We will show the quantum wire is a J-aggregate and we once again derive the peak ratio and the coherence size relation, I0-0/I 0-1 = kappaNcoh/gamma 2, where kappa is a prefactor close to unity. Typical photophysical properties of polymer pi-stacks such as those occurring in P3HT films are well explained by the simple linear H-aggregate model. However several groups have

  7. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed in...

  8. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114... § 238.114 Rescue access windows. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of... rescue access windows. At least one rescue access window shall be located in each side of the car...

  9. Teach yourself visually Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul


    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8.1 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8.1. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more.The tried-and-true f

  10. Low-E windows: lighting considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salares, V.; Russell, P. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Technical Research Div.


    New and retrofitted houses with low-E windows were surveyed to determine owner satisfaction with the product and to collect impressions and observations about occupants` health, plant growth, and lighting and low-E windows. Results indicated that senior citizens were more affected by inadequate lighting because of reduced transmission by the aging lens of the eye to transmit short wavelength light, i. e. the very same ones that are effectively filtered out by low-E coatings. Especially vulnerable were those with environmental hypersensitivity, and those who suffer from seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Plant growth was found to be improved, possibly due to the filtered light provided by low-E windows. On the other hand, lower levels of daylighting means that higher levels of supplemental lighting would be needed, which may, in turn, negate the energy saving from the low-E glazing. 10 refs.

  11. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications (United States)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg


    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  12. Tuning the morphology of silver nanostructures photochemically coated on glass substrates: an effective approach to large-scale functional surfaces (United States)

    Zaier, Mohamed; Vidal, Loic; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Bubendorff, Jean-Luc; Balan, Lavinia


    This paper reports on a simple and environmentally friendly photochemical process capable of generating nano-layers (8-22 nm) of silver nanostructures directly onto glass surfaces. This approach opens the way to large-scale functionalized surfaces with plasmonic properties through a single light-induced processing. Thus, Ag nanostructures top-coated were obtained through photo-reduction, at room temperature, of a photosensitive formulation containing a metal precursor, free from extra toxic stabilizers or reducing agents. The reactive formulation was confined between two glass slides and exposed to a continuous near-UV source. In this way, stable silver nano-layers can be generated directly on the substrate with a very good control of the morphology of as-synthesized nanostructures that allows tailoring the optical properties of the coated layers. The position and width of the corresponding surface plasmon resonance bands can be adjusted over a broad spectral window. By extension, this low-cost and easy-to-apply process can also be used to coat ultra thin layers of metal nanostructures on a variety of substrates. The possibility of controlling of nanostructures shape should achieve valuable developments in many fields, as diverse as plasmonics, surface enhanced Raman scattering, nano-electronic circuitry, or medical devices.

  13. Interfacial solvation and excited state photophysical properties of 7-aminocoumarins at silica/liquid interfaces (United States)

    Roy, Debjani

    The properties of solutes adsorbed at interfaces can be very different compared to bulk solution limits. This thesis examines how polar, hydrophilic silica surfaces and different solvents systematically change a solute's equilibrium and dynamic solvation environment at solid/liquid interfaces. The primary tools used in these studies are steady state fluorescence spectroscopy and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) --a fluorescence method capable resolving fluorescence emission on the picosecond timescale. To sample adsorbed solutes, TCSPC experiments were carried out in total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. These studies used total of six different 7-aminocoumarin dyes to isolate the effects of molecular and electronic structure on solute photophysical behavior. Fluorescence lifetimes measured in the TIR geometry are compared to the lifetimes of coumarins in bulk solution using different solvents to infer interfacial polarity and excited state solute conformation and dynamics. Steady state emission experiments measuring the behavior of the coumarins adsorbed at silica surfaces from bulk methanol solutions show that all coumarins had a similar affinity DeltaG ads ˜ - 25-30 kJ/mole. Despite these similar adsorption energetics solute structure had a very pronounced effect on the tendency of solutes to aggregate and form multilayers. Our finding suggests that hydrogen bonding donating properties of the silica surface plays a dominant role in determining the interfacial behavior of these solutes. The silica surface also had pronounced effects on the time dependent emission of some solutes. In particular, the strong hydrogen bond donating properties of the silica surface inhibit formation of a planar, charge transfer state through hydrogen bond donation to the solute's amine group. A consequence of this interaction is that the time dependent emission from solutes adsorbed at the surface appears to be more similar to emission from solutes in nonpolar

  14. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.


    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  15. A photochemical box model for urban air quality study (United States)

    Jin, Shengxin; Demerjian, Kenneth

    The photochemical box model (PBM) developed in the present study is based on the principle of mass conservation. It has a horizontal domain of the size of a typical city and a vertical dimension defined by the mixed-layer height. The concentration of any pollutant is determined by horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions. A one-dimensional high resolution boundary layer model by Blackadar ( Preprints, Third Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Quality, Raleigh, Am. Met. Soc., pp. 443-447, 1976; Advances in Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1 (edited by Pfafflin J. and Ziegler E.), pp. 50-85. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1979) has been incorporated in the PBM and further developed to consider the effect of urban heat islands in the simulation of mixed layer height. The predicted mixed-layer heights compare very well with observations. The gas phase chemical kinetic mechanism used in the Regional Acid Deposition Model II (RADM2) and that of an earlier version of PBM have been used to calculate the contributions of chemical reactions to the changes of pollutant concentrations. Detailed analysis and comparisons of the two chemical mechanisms have been made. The simulated pollutant concentrations using both chemical mechanisms are in very good agreement with available observations for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3. A radiative transfer model developed by Madronich ( J. geophys. Res.92, 9740-9752, 1987) has been incorporated in the PBM for the calculation of actinic flux and photolytic rate constants. Height-averaged and radiation-corrected photolytic rate constants are used for the photochemical reactions. Budget analyses conducted for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 have enhanced our understanding of the relative contributions of horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions to the overall rate of change of their concentrations. Model predictions are not sensitive to the large

  16. Photochemical ionogenesis in solutions of zinc octaethyl porphyrin (United States)

    Ballard, S. G.; Mauzerall, D. C.


    Absolute ion yields and the kinetic parameters of ion formation and decay have been determined by transient conductimetry for two photochemical ionogenic reactions of zinc octaethyl porphyrin in a variety of inert organic solvents. One reaction (T-P) involves electron transfer in the encounter complex of the porphyrin triplet state (T) and ground state (P); it is relatively slow (kTP˜108M-1s-1, and solvent insensitive). The second (T-T reaction) involves reactive collision between two triplets; it occurs at the encounter limit (kTT˜1010M-1s-1). Neither rate constant depends on solvent dielectric constant. Reaction yields are very dielectric-dependent, however, and provide unusually straightforward experimental access to the problem of geminate ion-pair decorrelation. A two-parameter model is presented in which the initial photochemically-formed ion pair is created by electron tunneling in a specific spin state at nontrivial separation. The electron transfer radii for the two reactions are determined by completely independent analysis of the kinetic and yield data to be ˜21 Å, some 7 Å greater than twice the radius of the porphyrin π-electron system. Following e- transfer, the solvent-separated components of the geminate pair diffuse in their Coulomb field, undergoing both coherent and incoherent changes in their combined spin state as they do so. They either escape beyond the Coulomb radius to give uncorrelated and conductimetrically active doublet ions, or approach to the critical radius for reverse electron transfer to the ground state (2P) and, subject to a spin selection rule, are annihilated. The dominant mechanism of spin interconversion appears to be spin-orbit coupling to the molecular rotations rather than nuclear hyperfine interactions. The coupled diffusion and spin relaxation equations are solved numerically by the method of finite differences; theoretical yields of free ions show good fit to the data over five orders of magnitude. Recombination

  17. Thin Cryogenic X-ray Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O; Davenport, M; Elias, N; Aune, S; Franz, J


    We describe the construction and tests of cryogenic X-ray windows of 47 mm diameter made of 15 ìm thick polypropylene foil glued on a UHV flange and supported with a strongback mesh machined by electro-erosion. These hermetic windows of the solar axion telescope of the CAST experiment at CERN withstand the static and dynamic pressures of the buffer gas that are normally below 130 mbar, but may reach 1.2 bar when the magnet quenches. They were tested at 60 K up to 3.5 bar static pressure without permanent deformation.

  18. Windows Server® 2008 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R


    Learn how to conquer Windows Server 2008-from the inside out! Designed for system administrators, this definitive resource features hundreds of timesaving solutions, expert insights, troubleshooting tips, and workarounds for administering Windows Server 2008-all in concise, fast-answer format. You will learn how to perform upgrades and migrations, automate deployments, implement security features, manage software updates and patches, administer users and accounts, manage Active Directory® directory services, and more. With INSIDE OUT, you'll discover the best and fastest ways to perform core a

  19. Homometric model sets and window covariograms


    Baake, Michael; Grimm, Uwe


    Two Delone sets are called homometric when they share the same autocorrelation or Patterson measure. A model set Lambda within a given cut and project scheme is a Delone set that is defined through a window W in internal space. The autocorrelation measure of Lambda is a pure point measure whose coefficients can be calculated via the so-called covariogram of W. Two windows with the same covariogram thus result in homometric model sets. On the other hand, the inverse problem of determining Lamb...

  20. Experimental study of the plasma window (United States)

    Shi, Ben-Liang; Huang, Sheng; Zhu, Kun; Lu, Yuan-Rong


    The plasma window is an advanced apparatus that can work as the interface between a vacuum and a high pressure region. It can be used in many applications that need atmosphere-vacuum interface, such as a gas target, electron beam welding, synchrotron radiation and a spallation neutron source. A test bench of the plasma window is constructed in Peking University. A series of experiments and the corresponding parameter measurements have been presented in this article. The experiment result indicates the feasibility of such a facility acting as an interface between a vacuum and a high pressure region.

  1. Windows Phone 7:n ja Androidin kommunikointi


    Vuolle, Jani


    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin älypuhelimien kommunikointia ja datan siirtoa. Älypuhelimet siirtävät tietoa palvelimen kautta toisille älypuhelimille, tämä mahdollistaa keskitetyn ja hallittavan tiedonsiirron. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin Windows Phone 7- ja Android-älypuhelimia ja palvelin tekniikoista kolmea eri tekniikkaa. Palvelintekniikoista sovellettiin WCF (Windows Communications foundation)-tekniikkaa. REST (Representational State Transfer)-tekniikan käyttöä harkittiin sekä Web Apin käyttöä...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole


    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  3. Windows Phonen ja HTML5:n sovelluskehitys


    Timonen, Olli


    Tässä opinnäytetyössä kehitettiin Ampparit Oy:lle Windows Phone -alustalle. Mobiilisovelluksen haluttiin näyttävän jo olemassa oleva HTML5-sivusto ja saada se toimimaan hyvin yhteen alustan kanssa. Ampparit Oy oli jo tuonut Android-sovelluksen saataville ja nyt oli Windows Phonen vuoro. Sovellukset luotiin noudattamalla yksinkertaista ohjelmistotuotantotapaa, jossa käytiin läpi neljä vaihetta: suunnittelu, toteutus, testaus ja julkaisu. Sovellukse...

  4. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenguo, Lin; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming


    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore, t......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  5. Microsoft Windows Server 2003 security enhancements and new features


    Montehermoso, Ronald Centeno


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the new features and enhancements of Windows Server 2003. Windows NT and Windows 2000 were known to have numerous security vulnerabilities; hence Microsoft focused on improving security by making Windows Server 2003 "secure by design, secure by default, secure in deployment." This thesis examines the differences between the five unique editions of the Windows Server 2003 family. Some of the pro...

  6. Tree size and light availability increase photochemical instead of non-photochemical capacities of Nothofagus nitida trees growing in an evergreen temperate rain forest. (United States)

    Coopman, Rafael E; Briceño, Verónica F; Corcuera, Luis J; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alvarez, Daniela; Sáez, Katherine; García-Plazaola, José I; Alberdi, Miren; Bravo, León A


    Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser (Nothofagaceae) regenerates under the canopy in microsites protected from high light. Nonetheless, it is common to find older saplings in clear areas and adults as emergent trees of the Chilean evergreen forest. We hypothesized that this shade to sun transition in N. nitida is supported by an increase in photochemical and non-photochemical energy dissipation capacities of both photosystems in parallel with the increase in plant size and light availability. To dissect the relative contribution of light environment and plant developmental stage to these physiological responses, the photosynthetic performance of both photosystems was studied from the morpho-anatomical to the biochemical level in current-year leaves of N. nitida plants of different heights (ranging from 0.1 to 7 m) growing under contrasting light environments (integrated quantum flux (IQF) 5-40 mol m(-2). Tree height (TH) and light environment (IQF) independently increased the saturated electron transport rates of both photosystems, as well as leaf and palisade thickness, but non-photochemical energy flux, photoinhibition susceptibility, state transition capacity, and the contents of D1 and PsbS proteins were not affected by IQF and TH. Spongy mesophyll thickness and palisade cell diameter decreased with IQF and TH. A(max), light compensation and saturation points, Rubisco and nitrogen content (area basis) only increased with light environment (IQF), whereas dark respiration (R(d)) decreased slightly and relative chlorophyll content was higher in taller trees. Overall, the independent effects of more illuminated environment and tree height mainly increased the photochemical instead of the non-photochemical energy flux. Regardless of the photochemical increase with TH, carbon assimilation only significantly improved with higher IQF. Therefore it seems that mainly acclimation to the light environment supports the phenotypic transition of N. nitida from shade to

  7. A review of post-column photochemical reaction systems coupled to electrochemical detection in HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorowski, Jennifer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); LaCourse, William R., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)


    Post-column photochemical reaction systems have developed into a common approach for enhancing conventional methods of detection in HPLC. Photochemical reactions as a means of 'derivatization' have a significant number of advantages over chemical reaction-based methods, and a significant effort has been demonstrated to develop an efficient photochemical reactor. When coupled to electrochemical (EC) detection, the technique allows for the sensitive and selective determination of a variety of compounds (e.g., organic nitro explosives, beta-lactam antibiotics, sulfur-containing antibiotics, pesticides and insecticides). This review will focus on developments and methods using post-column photochemical reaction systems followed by EC detection in liquid chromatography. Papers are presented in chronological order to emphasize the evolution of the approach and continued importance of the application.

  8. Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling. Evaluation number 6 (United States)

    Demore, W. B.; Molina, M. J.; Watson, R. T.; Golden, D. M.; Hampson, R. F.; Kurylo, M. J.; Howard, C. J.; Ravishankara, A. R.


    Evaluated sets of rate constants and photochemical cross sections are presented. The primary application of the data is in the modeling of stratospheric processes, with particular emphasis on the ozone layer and its possible perturbation by anthropogenic and natural phenomena.

  9. Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: Evaluation number 5 (United States)

    Demore, W. B.


    Sets of rate constants and photochemical cross sections compiled which were evaluated. The primary application of the data is in the modeling of stratospheric processes on the ozone layer and its possible perturbation by anthropogenic and natural phenomena are emphasized.

  10. Photochemical Activity of Aldrin and Dieldrin in Liquid and Frozen Aqueous Systems: Field and Laboratory Studies (United States)

    Bausch, A. R.; Rowland, G. A.; Grannas, A. M.


    The phenomenon of global distillation generates significant accumulation of volatile, anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in polar regions. Bioaccumulation presents serious concerns for human health within Arctic subsistence communities. In the recent past, the photochemical processes of POPs have been observed in the laboratory. Despite some established knowledge regarding photochemical processes in reactive frozen media, little published literature exists regarding the chemical transformations and fate of POPs in the Arctic. Here, we consider the photochemical transformations of aldrin and dieldrin, two structurally similar organochlorine pollutants whose presence has been confirmed in the Arctic. Their photochemical transformation, resulting from ultraviolet exposure, was investigated by both field studies in Barrow, AK and controlled laboratory experiments. Pollutant degradation and photoproduct formation were monitored by GC-ECD analysis. Based on kinetic studies of liquid and frozen samples and identification of photoproducts, we will propose potential reaction mechanisms for the transformations of aldrin and dieldrin. Further implications for environmental processes will be discussed.

  11. A Photochemical Reactor for the Study of Kinetics and Adsorption Phenomena (United States)

    Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Gil, M. L. A.; Alcantara, R.; Botella, C.; Martin, J.


    The interaction between light and matter is examined with the help of a photochemical experiment. This experiment is useful for the investigation of heterogeneous catalysis, semiconductor properties and adsorption phenomena.

  12. Diagnostic Evaluation of Ozone Production and Horizontal Transport in a Regional Photochemical Air Quality Modeling System (United States)

    A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O3) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft, Sep 2011) (United States)

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant scienc...

  14. Prevention of vein graft intimal hyperplasia with photochemical tissue passivation. (United States)

    Salinas, Harry M; Khan, Saiqa I; McCormack, Michael C; Fernandes, Justin R; Gfrerer, Lisa; Watkins, Michael T; Redmond, Robert W; Austen, William G


    Saphenous vein is the conduit of choice for bypass grafting. Saphenous vein grafts have poor long-term patency rates because of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and subsequent accelerated atherosclerosis. One of the primary triggers of IH is endothelial injury resulting from excessive dilation of the vein after exposure to arterial pressures. Photochemical tissue passivation (PTP) is a technology that cross-links adventitial collagen by a light-activated process, which limits dilation by improving vessel compliance. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PTP limits the development of IH in a rodent venous interposition graft model. PTP is accomplished by coating venous adventitia with a photosensitizing dye and exposing it to light. To assess the degree of collagen cross-linking after PTP treatment, a biodegradation assay was performed. Venous interposition grafts were placed in the femoral artery of Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were euthanized after 4 weeks, and intimal thickness was measured histologically. Vein dilation at the time of the initial procedure was also measured. Time to digestion was 63 ± 7 minutes for controls, 101 ± 2.4 minutes for rose bengal (RB), and 300 ± 0 minutes for PTP (P collagen cross-linking, decreased vessel compliance, and significant reduction in IH. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface and Interface Control on Photochemically Initiated Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li; Engelhard, Mark H.; Yan, Mingdi


    Surface and interface properties are important in controlling the yield and efficiency of the photochemically initiated immobilization. Using a silane-functionalized perfluorophenylazide (PFPA-silane) as the photoactive crosslinker, the immobilization of polymers was studied by adjusting the density of the surface azido groups. Dilution of the photolinker resulted in a gradual decrease in the density of surface azido groups as well as the thickness of the immobilized film. When a non-photoactive silane was added to PFPA-silane, the film thickness decreased more rapidly, indicating that the additive competed with PFPA-silane and effectively reduced the density of the surface azido groups. The effect of surface topography was studied by adding a non-photoactive silane with either a shorter (n-propyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS)) or a longer spacer (n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODTMS)). In most cases the long chain ODTMS shielded the surface azido groups resulting in more rapid decrease in film thickness as compared to PTMS treated under the same conditions. As the density of the surface azido groups decreased, the immobilized polymer changed from smooth films to patched structures, and eventually single polymer molecules.

  16. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate. (United States)

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D V; Gasnier, François; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, André; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko


    Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO(2) photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO(2) photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO(2) photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO(2) photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n>4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Macrophages as drug delivery vehicles for photochemical internalization (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Gonzalez, Jonathan; Molina, Stephanie; Kumar Nair, Rohit; Hirschberg, Henry


    Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to tumor sites is a major challenge in cancer chemotherapy. Cell-based vectorization of therapeutic agents has great potential for cancer therapy in that it can target and maintain an elevated concentration of therapeutic agents at the tumor site and prevent their spread into healthy tissue. The use of circulating cells such as monocytes/macrophages (Ma) offers several advantages compared to nanoparticles as targeted drug delivery vehicles. Ma can be easily obtained from the patient, loaded in vitro with drugs and reinjected into the blood stream. Ma can selectively cross the partially compromised blood-brain barrier surrounding brain tumors and are known to actively migrate to tumors, drawn by chemotactic factors, including hypoxic regions where conventional chemo and radiation therapy are least effective. The utility of Ma as targeted drug delivery vehicles for photochemical internalization (PCI) of tumors was investigated in this study. In vitro studies were conducted using a mixture of F98 rat glioma cells and rat macrophages loaded with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents including bleomycin and 5-fluorouracil. Preliminary data show that macrophages are resistant to both chemotherapeutics while significant toxicity is observed for F98 cells exposed to both drugs. Co-incubation of F98 cells with loaded Ma results in significant F98 toxicity suggesting that Ma are releasing the drugs and, hence providing the rationale for their use as delivery vectors for cancer therapies such as PCI.

  18. Methane on Mars: Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Photochemical Calculations (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Summers, M. E.; Ewell, M.


    The detection of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars by Mars Express and Earth-based spectroscopy is very surprising, very puzzling, and very intriguing. On Earth, about 90% of atmospheric ozone is produced by living systems. A major question concerning methane on Mars is its origin - biological or geological. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicated that methane cannot be produced by atmospheric chemical/photochemical reactions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for three gases, methane, ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the Earth s atmosphere are summarized in Table 1. The calculations indicate that these three gases should not exist in the Earth s atmosphere. Yet they do, with methane, ammonia and nitrous oxide enhanced 139, 50 and 12 orders of magnitude above their calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentration due to the impact of life! Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations have been performed for the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars based on the assumed composition of the Mars atmosphere shown in Table 2. The calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentrations of the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars is shown in Table 3. Clearly, based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, methane should not be present in the atmosphere of Mars, but it is in concentrations approaching 30 ppbv from three distinct regions on Mars.

  19. Photochemical trajectory modeling of ozone concentrations in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Cheng, H R; Saunders, S M; Guo, H; Louie, P K K; Jiang, F


    In this study, tropical cyclones over the East and South China Seas were found to be the most predominant weather conditions associated with the occurrence of high ozone (O3) episodes in Hong Kong in 2005-2009. A photochemical trajectory model coupled with Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was adapted to simulate the O3 concentrations during two O3 pollution episodes. The results agreed well with the observed data. A representative backward air mass trajectory was used to determine the contribution of each volatile organic compound (VOC) to the O3 levels. After taking into account both reactivity and mass emission of each VOC, 10 species were found to be the key O3 precursors in Hong Kong. Further analysis identified solvent related products accounting for 70% of the modeled O3 concentration in Hong Kong. The results highlight the importance of considering together reactivity and source sector emissions in developing targeted VOC reduction for O3 abatement strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disequilibrium Chemistry and Photochemical Hazes in Temperate Jupiter Atmospheres (United States)

    Gao, Peter; Zahnle, Kevin; Marley, Mark; Morley, Caroline


    Probing the chemical composition and aerosol content of "temperate Jupiters" - young, Jupiter-like worlds with effective temperatures between 400 and 800 K with no direct analogues in our own Solar System - may be possible with the James Webb Space Telescope and its direct imaging capabilities. The relatively low temperatures of these exoplanets, as compared to hot Jupiters, means that disequilibrium processes such as eddy mixing and photochemistry could play a dominant role in determining the composition of their atmospheres. In this work we use a photochemical model and a cloud microphysics model to investigate the impact of disequilibrium processes. We find that the resulting model atmospheres may be significantly different from one predicted by equilibrium chemistry. For example, upward transport of CO from depth leads to the formation of large amounts of CO2, such that observed CO2 abundances may not scale with metallicity the same way as in equilibrium models. In addition, formation of sulfur hazes from H2S loss could lead to UV heating of the atmosphere, and increased albedos at red-optical wavelengths. Our results show that disequilibrium models may be necessary to interpret future observations of these cool objects.

  1. Metal assisted photochemical etching of 4H silicon carbide (United States)

    Leitgeb, Markus; Zellner, Christopher; Schneider, Michael; Schwab, Stefan; Hutter, Herbert; Schmid, Ulrich


    Metal assisted photochemical etching (MAPCE) of 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) in Na2S2O8/HF and H2O2/HF aqueous solutions is investigated with platinum as metallic cathode. The formation process of the resulting porous layer is studied with respect to etching time, concentration and type of oxidizing agent. From the experiments it is concluded that the porous layer formation is due to electron hole pairs generated in the semiconductor, which stem from UV light irradiation. The generated holes are consumed during the oxidation of 4H-SiC and the formed oxide is dissolved by HF. To maintain charge balance, the oxidizing agent has to take up electrons at the Pt/etching solution interface. Total dissolution of the porous layers is achieved when the oxidizing agent concentration decreases during MAPCE. In combination with standard photolithography, the definition of porous regions is possible. Furthermore chemical micromachining of 4 H-SiC at room temperature is possible.

  2. Photochemical chlorine and bromine activation from artificial saline snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Wren


    Full Text Available The activation of reactive halogen species – particularly Cl2 – from sea ice and snow surfaces is not well understood. In this study, we used a photochemical snow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to investigate the production of Br2, BrCl and Cl2 from NaCl/NaBr-doped artificial snow samples. At temperatures above the NaCl-water eutectic, illumination of samples (λ > 310 nm in the presence of gas phase O3 led to the accelerated release of Br2, BrCl and the release of Cl2 in a process that was significantly enhanced by acidity, high surface area and additional gas phase Br2. Cl2 production was only observed when both light and ozone were present. The total halogen release depended on [ozone] and pre-freezing [NaCl]. Our observations support a "halogen explosion" mechanism occurring within the snowpack, which is initiated by heterogeneous oxidation and propagated by Br2 or BrCl photolysis and by recycling of HOBr and HOCl into the snowpack. Our study implicates this important role of active chemistry occurring within the interstitial air of aged (i.e. acidic snow for halogen activation at polar sunrise.

  3. Photochemical ozone budget during the BIBLE A and B campaigns (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm; Hu, Wenjie; Rodríguez, José M.; Kondo, Yutaka; Koike, Makoto; Kita, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Shuji; Blake, Donald; Liu, Shaw; Ogawa, Toshihiro


    Using the measured concentrations of NO, O3, H2O, CO, CH4, and NMHCs along the flight tracks, a photochemical box model is used to calculate the concentrations of the Ox radicals, the HOx radicals, and the nitrogen species at the sampling points. The calculations make use of the measurements from radiometers to scale clear sky photolysis rates to account for cloud cover and ground albedo at the sampling time/point. The concentrations of the nitrogen species in each of the sampled air parcels are computed assuming they are in instantaneous equilibrium with the measured NO and O3. The diurnally varying species concentrations are next calculated using the box model and used to estimate the diurnally averaged production and removal rates of ozone for the sampled air parcels. Clear sky photolysis rates are used in the diurnal calculations. The campaign also provided measured concentration of NOy. The observed NO/NOy ratio is usually larger than the model calculated equilibrium value. There are several possible explanations. It could be a result of recent injection of NO into the air parcel, recent removal of HNO3 from the parcel, recent rapid transport of an air parcel from another location, or a combination of all processes. Our analyses suggest that the local production rate of O3 can be used as another indicator of recent NO injection. However, more direct studies using air trajectory analyses and other collaborative evidences are needed to ascertain the roles played by individual process.

  4. CO2 Reduction: From the Electrochemical to Photochemical Approach. (United States)

    Wu, Jinghua; Huang, Yang; Ye, Wen; Li, Yanguang


    Increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is believed to have a profound impact on the global climate. To reverse the impact would necessitate not only curbing the reliance on fossil fuels but also developing effective strategies capture and utilize CO2 from the atmosphere. Among several available strategies, CO2 reduction via the electrochemical or photochemical approach is particularly attractive since the required energy input can be potentially supplied from renewable sources such as solar energy. In this Review, an overview on these two different but inherently connected approaches is provided and recent progress on the development, engineering, and understanding of CO2 reduction electrocatalysts and photocatalysts is summarized. First, the basic principles that govern electrocatalytic or photocatalytic CO2 reduction and their important performance metrics are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on different CO2 reduction electrocatalysts and photocatalysts as well as their generally designing strategies is provided. At the end of this Review, perspectives on the opportunities and possible directions for future development of this field are presented.

  5. International conference on the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.Z.


    Abstracts are given for the eight formal lectures and the contributed papers from delegates which were presented in the form of posters. There were seven sessions divided by subject as follows: (1) photochemistry, (2) electron transfer mechanisms in photochemical energy conversion processes, (3) photoelectrolysis, (4) photogalvanics, (5) photochemical production of fuels in homogeneous solutions, (6) membranes for photosynthesis reactions, and (7) non-biological systems for organic molecular energy storage. (WHK)

  6. Photochemical pollution indicators; Les indicateurs de la pollution photochimique. La mesure des composes azotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perros, P.E.; Marion, T. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques


    The number of photochemical pollution is generally based on the observation of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentration levels. So, the measurement of photochemical pollution indicators becomes essential to better understand the involved phenomena, and at the end to enable its reduction control and strategy. In this paper, we focus on the measurements of nitrogen compounds (NO{sub x} PAN, HNO{sub 3}). (authors) 24 refs.

  7. Kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry reactions of the nitrogen oxides (United States)

    Hampson, R. F., Jr.


    Data sheets for thermal and photochemical reactions of importance in the atmospheric chemistry of the nitrogen oxides are presented. For each reaction the available experimental data are summarized and critically evaluated, and a preferred value of the rate coefficient is given. The selection of the preferred value is discussed and an estimate of its accuracy is given. For the photochemical process, the data are summarized, and preferred for the photoabsorption cross section and primary quantum yields are given.

  8. Windows XP ends its life at CERN – register for Windows 7 training!

    CERN Multimedia

    Michał Kwiatek (IT-OIS)


    Windows XP has been around for over 10 years and it is now time to move on. At CERN, general support for Windows XP will end in December 2012, and before this date users are requested to schedule a migration to the next version of WindowsWindows 7.   Windows 7 is already well established at CERN – it is used by a large majority of users. In fact, there was a considerable user demand even before its official release in October 2009 and its adoption has been smooth. Users praise Windows 7 for its improved stability and a clear advantage on laptops is a much more efficient implementation of offline files. The migration to Windows 7 involves a reinstallation of the operating system. Files stored in user home folders on DFS will be immediately available after the reinstallation. Applications will be upgraded to more recent versions and in certain cases, an application may even be replaced by another application providing the same functionality. Microsoft Office suite is a good ...

  9. Femtosecond time-resolved photophysics of 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimides. (United States)

    Ganesan, Palaniswamy; Baggerman, Jacob; Zhang, Hong; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Zuilhof, Han


    The photophysical properties of a tetrahedral molecule with naphthalene diimide (NDI) moieties and of two model compounds were investigated. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of dialkyl-substituted NDI are in agreement with literature. While the absorption spectra of phenyl-substituted molecules are similar to all other NDIs, their fluorescence showed a broad band between 500 and 650 nm. This band is sensitive to the polarity of the solvent and is attributed to a CT state. The absorption spectra and lifetime (10+/-2 ps) of the electronically excited singlet state of a dialkyl-substituted NDI was determined by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, and the latter was confirmed by picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy. Nanosecond flash photolysis showed the subsequent formation of the triplet state. The presence of a phenyl substituent on the imide nitrogen of NDI resulted in faster deactivation of the singlet state (lifetime 0.5-1 ps). This is attributed to the formation of a short-lived CT state, which decays to the local triplet state. The faster deactivation was confirmed by fluorescence lifetime measurements in solution and in a low-temperature methyl-tetrahydrofuran glass.

  10. Accounting for Photophysical Processes and Specific Signal Intensity Changes in Fluorescence-Detected Sedimentation Velocity (United States)


    Fluorescence detected sedimentation velocity (FDS-SV) has emerged as a powerful technique for the study of high-affinity protein interactions, with hydrodynamic resolution exceeding that of diffusion-based techniques, and with sufficient sensitivity for binding studies at low picomolar concentrations. For the detailed quantitative analysis of the observed sedimentation boundaries, it is necessary to adjust the conventional sedimentation models to the FDS data structure. A key consideration is the change in the macromolecular fluorescence intensity during the course of the experiment, caused by slow drifts of the excitation laser power, and/or by photophysical processes. In the present work, we demonstrate that FDS-SV data have inherently a reference for the time-dependent macromolecular signal intensity, resting on a geometric link between radial boundary migration and plateau signal. We show how this new time-domain can be exploited to study molecules exhibiting photobleaching and photoactivation. This expands the application of FDS-SV to proteins tagged with photoswitchable fluorescent proteins, organic dyes, or nanoparticles, such as those recently introduced for subdiffraction microscopy and enables FDS-SV studies of their interactions and size distributions. At the same time, we find that conventional fluorophores undergo minimal photobleaching under standard illumination in the FDS. These findings support the application of a high laser power density for the detection, which we demonstrate can further increase the signal quality. PMID:25136929

  11. Accounting for photophysical processes and specific signal intensity changes in fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity. (United States)

    Zhao, Huaying; Ma, Jia; Ingaramo, Maria; Andrade, Eric; MacDonald, Jeff; Ramsay, Glen; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Patterson, George H; Schuck, Peter


    Fluorescence detected sedimentation velocity (FDS-SV) has emerged as a powerful technique for the study of high-affinity protein interactions, with hydrodynamic resolution exceeding that of diffusion-based techniques, and with sufficient sensitivity for binding studies at low picomolar concentrations. For the detailed quantitative analysis of the observed sedimentation boundaries, it is necessary to adjust the conventional sedimentation models to the FDS data structure. A key consideration is the change in the macromolecular fluorescence intensity during the course of the experiment, caused by slow drifts of the excitation laser power, and/or by photophysical processes. In the present work, we demonstrate that FDS-SV data have inherently a reference for the time-dependent macromolecular signal intensity, resting on a geometric link between radial boundary migration and plateau signal. We show how this new time-domain can be exploited to study molecules exhibiting photobleaching and photoactivation. This expands the application of FDS-SV to proteins tagged with photoswitchable fluorescent proteins, organic dyes, or nanoparticles, such as those recently introduced for subdiffraction microscopy and enables FDS-SV studies of their interactions and size distributions. At the same time, we find that conventional fluorophores undergo minimal photobleaching under standard illumination in the FDS. These findings support the application of a high laser power density for the detection, which we demonstrate can further increase the signal quality.

  12. Photophysical properties of betaxanthins: Vulgaxanthin I in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, Monika [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Szot, Dominika; Starzak, Karolina; Tuwalska, Dorota [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Institute C-1, Section of Analytical Chemistry, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, Cracow 31-155 (Poland); Gapinski, Jacek [Molecular Biophysics Department, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Naskrecki, Ryszard [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Prukala, Dorota; Sikorski, Marek [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 89b, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Wybraniec, Slawomir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Institute C-1, Section of Analytical Chemistry, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, Cracow 31-155 (Poland); Burdzinski, Gotard, E-mail: [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland)


    Betaxanthins are yellow pigments present in Caryophyllales plants and some higher fungi. We characterize photophysical properties of vulgaxanthin I and extracts of Amanita muscaria L. Vulgaxanthin I photoexcitation at λ{sub exc}=476 nm leads to the S{sub 1} excited state with the S{sub 1}→S{sub n} absorption bands at ca. 390 and 920 nm in both aqueous and alcoholic solutions. The S{sub 1} state lifetimes (2.9 and 37 ps in water) imply that vulgaxanthin I exists in two stereoisomeric forms. An increase in the solvent viscosity extends the S{sub 1} lifetimes and fluorescence quantum yields, probably due to hindered internal rotations in the dye. Internal conversion is the major S{sub 1} state deactivation path, with fluorescence being a minor channel, and S{sub 1}→T{sub 1} intersystem crossing not observed. Betaxanthins extracted from A. muscaria L. have similar properties. Efficient dissipation of the absorbed light energy as heat supports the postulate of photoprotective role of betaxanthins in vivo. - Highlights: • Betaxanthin S{sub 1} state deactivation mechanism is mainly radiationless. • S{sub 1} state shows absorption band with maxima at about 390 nm and 920 nm. • Solvent viscosity affects S{sub 1} state lifetime and fluorescence quantum yield. • Addition of potassium iodide to solution enhances ISC in betaxanthin.

  13. Synthesis, photophysical studies, solvatochromic analysis and TDDFT calculations of diazaspiro compounds (United States)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khurana, Jitender M.


    Diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-1,3,5,9-tetraones and 3-thioxo-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-1,5,9-trione have been synthesized via double Michael addition of 1,5-diphenyl-1,4-pentadien-3-one with active methylene heterocycles N,N-dimethyl barbituric acid, barbituric acid and thiobarbituric acid in water:ethanol (1:1) using TBAB as catalyst. The solvent effect on photophysical behavior of these compounds showed that stokes shift increases with increase in polarity of solvents. The solvent effect on the spectral properties has been investigated by using the Lippert-Mataga and Reichardt methods. The solvatochromism is analyzed by linear solvation energy relationship using the new four-parameter Catalán polarity scales. The relative fluorescence quantum yield of these diazaspiro compounds varies in solvents of different polarity. The HOMO and LUMO energies have been calculated by TDDFT (B3LYP/6-311G (d, p)) approach. TDDFT calculations were also used to compare the experimental and theoretical absorption spectra.

  14. Synthesis and photophysical properties of halogenated derivatives of (dibenzoylmethanato)boron difluoride (United States)

    Kononevich, Yuriy N.; Surin, Nikolay M.; Sazhnikov, Viacheslav A.; Svidchenko, Evgeniya A.; Aristarkhov, Vladimir M.; Safonov, Andrei A.; Bagaturyants, Alexander A.; Alfimov, Mikhail V.; Muzafarov, Aziz M.


    A series of (dibenzoylmethanato)boron difluoride (BF2DBM) derivatives with a halogen atom in one of the phenyl rings at the para-position were synthesized and used to elucidate the effects of changing the attached halogen atom on the photophysical properties of BF2DBM. The room-temperature absorption and fluorescence maxima of fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- and iodo-substituted derivatives of BF2DBM in THF are red-shifted by about 2-10 nm relative to the corresponding peaks of the parent BF2DBM. The fluorescence quantum yields of the halogenated BF2DBMs (except the iodinated derivative) are larger than that of the unsubstituted BF2DBM. All the synthesized compounds are able to form fluorescent exciplexes with benzene and toluene (emission maxima at λem = 433 and 445 nm, respectively). The conformational structure and electronic spectral properties of halogenated BF2DBMs have been modeled by DFT/TDDFT calculations at the PBE0/SVP level of theory. The structure and fluorescence spectra of exciplexes were calculated using the CIS method with empirical dispersion correction.

  15. Photophysical characterization of cumarin-doped poly (lactic acid) microparticles and visualization of the biodistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Shigeaki, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Kiba, Takayuki; Hosokawa, Kiyotada; Nitobe, Satoru; Hirota, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hirohisa [Division of Biotechnology and Macromolecular Chemistry, Graduate School of Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Akasaka, Tsukasa; Uo, Motohiro; Kuboki, Yoshinori [Department of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sato, Shin-Ichiro [Division of Biotechnology and Macromolecular Chemistry, Graduate School of Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Watari, Fumio [Department of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Rosca, Iosif D. [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. W, Montreal, QC H3G 1M8 (Canada)


    We prepared fluorescent coumarin dye-doped poly (acrylic acid) microparticles, which are well known as a biodegradable polyester, and the photophysical properties were characterized by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and spectroscopic investigation. Spherical particles with diameters ranging from 0.5 to a few {mu}m were obtained. Based on spectroscopic investigation, the internal environment was close to that of a polar solvent such as methanol, and the dyes were dispersed without aggregation inside the particles. The obtained particles were administered to a mouse through the tail vein, and the biodistribution was then observed after some organs were excited at 1-day and 1-week post-injection. The particles were accumulated in the organs, especially in the lung and spleen. After injection, the particles were trapped temporally in the lung, and then seemed to be transported to other organs by blood circulation. This tendency is similar to the biodistribution of TiO{sub 2} microparticles that we have reported previously.

  16. Substituent effects of porphyrins on structures and photophysical properties of amphiphilic porphyrin aggregates. (United States)

    Hosomizu, Kohei; Oodoi, Masaaki; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Matano, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Kaname; Isoda, Seiji; Isosomppi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Imahori, Hiroshi


    Substituent effects of porphyrin on the structures and photophysical properties of the J-aggregates of protonated 5-(4-alkoxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin have been examined for the first time. Selective formation of the porphyrin J-aggregate was attained when suitable length of the alkoxy group was employed for the amphiphilic porphyrin. Namely, a regular leaflike structure was observed for the J-aggregates of protonated 5-(4-octyloxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin, which was consistent with the results obtained by using the UV-visible absorption and dynamic light-scattering measurements. A bilayer structure in which the hydrophobic alkoxyl groups facing inside the bilayer are interdigitated to each other, whereas the hydrophilic porphyrin moieties are exposed outside, was proposed to explain the unique porphyrin J-aggregate. Fast energy migration and efficient quenching by defect site in the J-aggregates were suggested to rationalize the short lifetimes of the excited J-aggregates.

  17. Hydrogen Bond Acceptors and Additional Cationic Charges in Methylene Blue Derivatives: Photophysics and Antimicrobial Efficiency (United States)

    Felgenträger, Ariane; Maisch, Tim; Dobler, Daniel; Späth, Andreas


    Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) by efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizers might be a beneficial alternative to antibiotics in the struggle against multiresistant bacteria. Phenothiazinium dyes belong to the most prominent classes of such sensitizers due to their intense absorption in the red-light region (λ abs, max ca. 600–680 nm, ε > 50000 L mol−1 cm−1), their low toxicity, and their attachment/penetration abilities. Except simple substituents like alkyl or hydroxyalkyl residues, nearly no modifications of the phenothiaziniums have been pursued at the auxochromic sites. By this, the properties of methylene blue derivatives and their fields of application are limited; it remains unclear if their potential antimicrobial efficacy may be enhanced, also to compete with porphyrins. We prepared a set of six mainly novel methylene blue derivatives with the ability of additional hydrogen bonding and/or additional cationic charges to study the substituents' effect on their activity/toxicity profiles and photophysical properties. Direct detection of singlet oxygen was performed at 1270 nm and the singlet oxygen quantum yields were determined. In suspensions with both, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some derivatives were highly active upon illumination to inactivate S. aureus and E. coli up to 7 log10 steps (99.99999%) without inherent toxicities in the nonirradiated state. PMID:23509728

  18. 6-Aminocoumarin-naphthoquinone conjugates: design, synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties and DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Fabio S.; Ronconi, Celia M.; Sousa, Mikaelly O.B.; Silveira, Gleiciani Q.; Vargas, Maria D., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    Four novel 6-aminocoumarin-naphthoquinone conjugates were synthesized and their photophysical and electrochemical properties, investigated. 2-Chloro-3-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-6- ylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone 1 did not present appreciable fluorescence in solution in comparison with 6-aminocoumarin, 6-AC. In order to understand the reasons for the fluorescence quenching in this compound, two strategies were attempted. Firstly, compound 1 was N-methylated to remove the intramolecular N-H...O=C electrostatic interaction that maintained the two units fixed, but the emission properties of the product 2 were not significantly different from those of 1. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of compounds 1 and 2 indicate that the fluorescence quenching is related to the electron acceptor character of the naphthoquinone ring. The second strategy, therefore, involved the substitution of the chlorine atom in position 2 of the naphthoquinone nucleus for different electron donor groups (compounds 3-5), but again the emission properties did not change significantly. To explain these experimental findings, TD-DFT calculations of the ground (S{sub 0}) and excited (S{sub 1}) states of all molecules in solution were carried out. The results suggest that the energy states in these conjugates are such that the fluorescent group (6-AC) donates electrons to the naphthoquinone LUMO resulting in an oxidative photoinduced electron transfer (oxidative-PET). (author)

  19. Hydrogen Bond Acceptors and Additional Cationic Charges in Methylene Blue Derivatives: Photophysics and Antimicrobial Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Felgenträger


    ca. 600–680 nm,  L mol−1 cm−1, their low toxicity, and their attachment/penetration abilities. Except simple substituents like alkyl or hydroxyalkyl residues, nearly no modifications of the phenothiaziniums have been pursued at the auxochromic sites. By this, the properties of methylene blue derivatives and their fields of application are limited; it remains unclear if their potential antimicrobial efficacy may be enhanced, also to compete with porphyrins. We prepared a set of six mainly novel methylene blue derivatives with the ability of additional hydrogen bonding and/or additional cationic charges to study the substituents’ effect on their activity/toxicity profiles and photophysical properties. Direct detection of singlet oxygen was performed at 1270 nm and the singlet oxygen quantum yields were determined. In suspensions with both, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some derivatives were highly active upon illumination to inactivate S. aureus and E. coli up to 7 log10 steps (99.99999% without inherent toxicities in the nonirradiated state.

  20. Synthesis and photo-physical properties of fluorescent 1,3,5-triazine styryl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padalkar Vikas S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic fluorophore contains well-defined D-π-A (Donor-π system-Acceptor push-pull system have wide application in the field of NLO, OLED and high tech application. Electron donor diphenyl, triphenyl and carbazole conjugated with electron acceptor terminal through π-system were reported recently for high-tech applications. N,N-Dialkyl substituted 1,3,5-triazine also acts as donor keeping this idea in mind we developed D-π-A styryl dyes. Results Novel "Y"-shaped acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor type of compounds were synthesized from 4,4'-((6-(4-(diethylaminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4diylbis(oxy dibenzaldehyde (DIPOD as electron donors and different active methylene compounds as electron acceptors by conventional Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Their photophysical and thermal properties were investigated. Conclusion It was found that the strong electron acceptor-donor chromophoric system of these compounds showed high Stoke's shift and excellent thermal stability. Compounds showed positive solvatofluorism behavior from nonpolar to polar solvent. All compounds have good thermal stability.

  1. Synthesis and Investigation of Photophysical and Biological Properties of Novel S-Containing Bacteriopurpurinimides. (United States)

    Mironov, Andrey F; Grin, Mikhail A; Pantushenko, Ivan V; Ostroverkhov, Petr V; Ivanenkov, Yan A; Filkov, Gleb I; Plotnikova, Ekaterina A; Karmakova, Tatyana A; Starovoitova, Anna V; Burmistrova, Nelli V; Yuzhakov, Vadim V; Romanko, Yuri S; Abakumov, Maxim A; Ignatova, Anastasiya A; Feofanov, Alexey V; Kaplan, Mikhail A; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I; Tsigankov, Anatoliy A; Majouga, Alexander G


    Novel hybrid molecule containing 2-mercaptoethylamine was synthesized starting from O-propyloxime-N-propoxy bacteriopurpurinimide (dipropoxy-BPI), which was readily oxidized in oxygen atmosphere yielding the corresponding disulfide analogue (disulfide-BPI). Spectral, photophysical, photodynamic, and biological properties of compound were properly evaluated. Compounds bearing disulfide moiety can directly interact with glutathione (GSH), thereby reducing its intracellular concentration. Indeed, mice sarcoma S37 cell line was treated in vitro with disulfide-BPI, yielding a CC50 value of 0.05 ± 0.005 μM. A relatively high level of singlet oxygen was detected. It was demonstrated (by fluorescence) that the PS was rapidly accumulated in a cancer nest (S37) at a relatively high level after 2 h upon intravenous administration. After 24 h, no traces of the molecule were detected in the tumor mass. Moreover, high photodynamic efficiency was demonstrated at doses of 150-300 J/cm2 against two different in vivo tumor models, achieving 100% regression of cancer growth.

  2. Photophysical properties of ruthenium(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) complexes bearing conjugated thiophene appendages. (United States)

    Harriman, Anthony; Izzet, Guillaume; Goeb, Sébastien; De Nicola, Antoinette; Ziessel, Raymond


    A small series of ruthenium(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) complexes has been synthesized in which ethynylated thiophene residues are attached to one of the 2,2'-bipyridine ligands. The photophysical properties depend on the conjugation length of the thiophene-based ligand, and in each case, dual emission is observed. The two emitting states reside in thermal equilibrium at ambient temperature and can be resolved by emission spectral curve-fitting routines. This allows the properties of the two states to be evaluated in both fluid butyronitrile solution and a transparent KBr disk. It is concluded that both emitting states are of metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) character, and despite the presence of conjugated thiophene residues, there is no indication for a low-lying pi,pi*-triplet state that promotes nonradiative decay of the excited-state manifold. A key feature of these systems is that the conjugation length imposed by the thiophene-based ligand helps to control the rate constants for both radiative and nonradiative decay from the two MLCT triplet states.

  3. An optimal photochemical energy conversion and environmental effects in the reactive molecular dynamics; Optimale Photochemische Energiekonversion und Umgebungseffekte in Reaktiver Molekueldynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerhut, Benjamin Philipp


    }-sigmatropic rearrangement is presented, which predicts that only in the (6-4) dinucleotide the Dewar is exclusively formed from an excited valence state, but not in the free base 5-methyl-2-pyrimidinone (5M2P) nor with a sliced backbone. The mechanism is elucidated by the analysis of conical intersections which show, that the photochemical deactivation of T(6-4)T is strongly influenced by the confinement in the dinucleotide, leading to T(Dewar)T formation, whereas in 5M2P the photophysical protection is ensured by a conical intersection seam. The implementation of the ONIOM-method into the non-adiabatic mixed quantum classical dynamics allows to follow the formation of the T(Dewar)T lesion as well as the competing photophysical relaxation. C=O-vibrations are identified as unambiguous spectroscopic probe of the 4{pi}-sigmatropic rearrangement for highly sensitive UV/VIS pump - IR probe experiments which were successful in following the reaction in real time. As a second photoreaction the ultrafast phototriggered reaction of benzhydryl cations with methanol is investigated. The mechanism of the laser induced generation of highly reactive benzhydryl cations from the precursor molecule diphenylmethyl chloride is derived by quantum chemical and quantum dynamical methods. For the competing reaction channels of ion pair and radical pair formation the interaction of different electronic states leads to ultrafast bond cleavage. The homolytic bond cleavage as a parallel reaction-channel is already accessible in the FC region by the participation of lone-pairs of the Cl-leaving group (n{sub p{sub x,z}}). Based on ab initio data a system Hamiltonian is derived which is suitable to describe the multidimensional dissociation process in a reduced reactive coordinate space. Quantum dynamical calculations show that bond cleavage induced by a Fourier limited femtosecond laser pulse provides the ion pair despite its higher potential energy and the existence of conical intersections. The subsequent

  4. Window of Opportunity? Adolescence, Music, and Algebra (United States)

    Helmrich, Barbara H.


    Research has suggested that musicians process music in the same cortical regions that adolescents process algebra. An early adolescence synaptogenesis might present a window of opportunity during middle school for music to create and strengthen enduring neural connections in those regions. Six school districts across Maryland provided scores from…

  5. The Window of locational opportunity-concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Boschma, R.A.


    This article aims to set out a theoretical concept, i.e. the Window of Locational Opportunity concept, which accounts for notions like indeterminacy, human agency and historical accidents when explaining the spatial pattern of newly emerging industries. We will state that their spatial formation

  6. Windows Phone 8 application development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Szostak, Tomasz


    A mini-tutorial full of code examples and strategies to give you plenty of options when building your own applications for Windows Phone 8.This book is ideal if you are a developers who wants to get into mobile development. Some C# background may be useful for a complete understanding.

  7. New Window into the Human Body (United States)


    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  8. Translational nanomedicine : Through the therapeutic window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, Robin


    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic

  9. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows' Platforms. (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C; Turner, Charles F


    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today.

  10. Probabilistic modeling durability of wooden window frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Abspoel-Bukman, L.M.; Courage, W.M.G.; Mennink, J.


    Nowadays, maintenance of wooden window frames strongly depends on the practical experience of the parties involved. To get a better understanding of the required maintenance period and maintenance actions, a model has been developed to predict durability. This model makes it possible to optimize

  11. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn


    showed that other factors than thermal effects impact the behaviour of the occupants. Some of these factors were included in the model. We present data from repeated questionnaire surveys that show that occupants tend to adjust heating setpoints, adjust clothing and operate windows when feeling thermally...

  12. SOT: A rapid prototype using TAE windows (United States)

    Stephens, Mark; Eike, David; Harris, Elfrieda; Miller, Dana


    The development of the window interface extension feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is discussed. This feature is being used to prototype a space station payload interface in order to demonstrate and assess the benefits of using windows on a bit mapped display and also to convey the concept of telescience, the control and operation of space station payloads from remote sites. The prototype version of the TAE with windows operates on a DEC VAXstation 100. This workstation has a high resolution 19 inch bit mapped display, a keyboard and a three-button mouse. The VAXstation 100 is not a stand-alone workstation, but is controlled by software executing on a VAX/8600. A short scenario was developed utilizing the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) as an example payload. In the scenario the end-user station includes the VAXstation 100 plus an image analysis terminal used to display the CCD images. The layout and use of the prototype elements, i.e., the root menu, payload status window, and target acquisition menu is described.

  13. Windows 8: What Educators Need to Know (United States)

    Vedder, Richard G.


    In October 2012, Microsoft will release the commercial version of its next operating system, presently called "Windows 8." This version represents a significant departure from the past. Microsoft wants this operating system to meet user needs regardless of physical platform (e.g., desktop, notebook, tablet, mobile phone). As part of this mission,…

  14. Schools Facing the Expiration of Windows XP (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean


    Microsoft's plans to end support for Windows XP, believed to be the dominant computer operating system in K-12 education, could pose big technological and financial challenges for districts nationwide--issues that many school systems have yet to confront. The giant software company has made it clear for years that it plans to stop supporting XP…

  15. Broken windows, mediocre methods, and substandard statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Bakker, M.


    Broken windows theory states that cues of inappropriate behavior like litter or graffiti amplify norm-violating behavior. In a series of quasi-experiments, Keizer, Lindenberg, and Steg altered cues of inappropriate behavior in public places and observed how many passersby subsequently violated

  16. Managing customer arrivals with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Jiang, Liping


    in a terminal system, and second develop an optimization model for scaling time windows with three alternative strategies: namely fixed ending-point strategy (FEP), variable end-point strategy and greedy algorithm strategy. Third, to compare the strategies in terms of effectiveness, numerical experiments...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pad ma skyid པདྨ་སྐྱིད།


    Full Text Available One late afternoon, A rig rgad po reached the Jo khang Temple in Lha sa but, finding the temple door locked, he stuck his head through a small window to see the Jo bo image. After gazing at it for some time, he found he couldn't pull his head out, no matter how hard he pulled. ...

  18. Multistate Luminescent Solar Concentrator "Smart" Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Jeroen A.H.P.; Timmermans, Gilles H.; Breugel, van Abraham J.; Schenning, Albertus P.H.J.; Debije, Michael G.


    A supertwist liquid crystalline luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) "smart" window is fabricated which can be switched electrically between three states: one designed for increased light absorption and electrical generation (the "dark" state), one for transparency (the "light" state), and one for

  19. Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per


    This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...

  20. Considerations When Upgrading and Renovating Window Systems (United States)

    Gille, Steve


    Today's educational facilities managers face many challenges. As stewards of their campus' physical assets, these professionals are charged with improving students' learning environments, saving money, and maintaining the historical and aesthetic integrity of their buildings. For schools and universities that have not replaced their windows in…

  1. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka


    This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...

  2. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei


    of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...

  3. Pyloromyotomy through a sliding umbilical window. (United States)

    Yokomori, Kinji; Oue, Takaharu; Odajima, Takayuki; Baba, Naokatsu; Hashimoto, Daijo


    The semi-circumumbilical incision for treatment of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, described by Tan and Bianchi (Tan KC, Bianchi A. Circumumbilical incision for pyloromyotomy. Br J Surg 1986;73:399), does not allow a comfortable access to the pylorus in up to 30% of cases, resulting, not infrequently, in unexpected seromuscular lacerations. To get easier access to the pylorus we have performed the Ramstedt pyloromyotomy through a sliding umbilical window after full-circumumbilical incision in 13 initial consecutive cases. Skin was incised along the entire circumference of the umbilicus, and then was undermined, creating a circular subcutaneous space, 8 cm in diameter. The umbilical window, about 1.5 cm in diameter, was slid diagonally toward the right upper quadrant, by shifting a pair of muscle retractors, 3 to 4 cm from the umbilicus, with the umbilicus left in its original position under the slid skin. Through the sliding window at the right upper quadrant, the abdomen was entered, and the hypertrophied pylorus was identified within the center of the window. Then the pyloromyotomy was performed intracorporeally with ease. In all 13 infants, an adequate pyloromyotomy was safely performed. The wound healed primarily in all cases, without leaving conspicuous scar, subcutaneous abscess formation, or incisional hernia. The postoperative course was quite uneventful in each. This new approach allows far easier access to and exposure of the pylorus, and facilitates a safe intracorporeal pyloromyotomy, and achieves an excellent cosmetic outcome.

  4. Photochemical reactions of aromatic compounds and the concept of the photon as a traceless reagent. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Norbert


    Electronic excitation significantly changes the reactivity of chemical compounds. Compared to ground state reactions, photochemical reactions considerably enlarge the application spectrum of a particular functional group in organic synthesis. Multistep syntheses may be simplified and perspectives for target oriented synthesis (TOS) and diversity oriented synthesis (DOS) are developed. New compound families become available or may be obtained more easily. In contrast to common chemical reagents, photons don't generate side products resulting from the transformation of a chemical reagent. Therefore, they are considered as a traceless reagent. Consequently, photochemical reactions play a central role in the methodology of sustainable chemistry. This aspect has been recognized since the beginning of the 20th century. As with many other photochemical transformations, photochemical reactions of aromatic, benzene-like compounds illustrate well the advantages in this context. Photochemical cycloadditions of aromatic compounds have been investigated for a long time. Currently, they are applied in various fields of organic synthesis. They are also studied in supramolecular structures. The phenomena of reactivity and stereoselectivity are investigated. During recent years, photochemical electron transfer mediated reactions are particularly focused. Such transformations have likewise been performed with aromatic compounds. Reactivity and selectivity as well as application to organic synthesis are studied.

  5. Gabor windows supported on [-1,1] and compactly supported dual windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, H. O.; Rae Young, Kim


    window. More precisely, we show that if b window supported on [-N, N]. Under the additional assumption that g is continuous and only has a finite number of zeros on inverted left perpendicular-1, 1inverted right perpendicular, we...... characterize the frame property of {E(mb)T(n)g}(m,n is an element of Z). As a consequence we obtain easily verifiable criteria for a function g to generate a Gabor frame with a dual window having compact support of prescribed size....

  6. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan


    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  7. Windows 7 Tweaks A Comprehensive Guide on Customizing, Increasing Performance, and Securing Microsoft Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchak, Steve


    The definitive guide to unlocking the hidden potential of the Windows 7 OS. Written by bestselling author and the creator of Steve Sinchak, this unique guide provides you with the ultimate collection of hidden gems that will enable you to get the most out of Windows 7. Packed with more than 400 pages of insider tips, the book delves beneath the surface to reveal little-known ways to tweak, modify, and customize Windows 7 so you can get every ounce of performance from your operating system. Regardless of your experience with tweaking your system, you'll find fascinating and fun tips

  8. Aortopulmonary window. Experience of eleven cases. (United States)

    Freitas, Isabel; Paramés, Filipa; Rebelo, Mónica; Martins, José Diogo Ferreira; Pinto, Maria Fátima F; Kaku, Sashicanta


    Aortopulmonary (AP) window is a communication between the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery, in the presence of two separate arterial valves arising from separate subarterial ventricular outflow tracts. It is a rare anomaly that accounts for approximately 0.1% to 0.2% of all congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical features, surgical treatment and outcome of patients with aortopulmonary window referred to a tertiary pediatric cardiac center over a 30-year period. Eleven patients were diagnosed with AP window, ten with the proximal type and one with the distal type defect. Age at first evaluation ranged from three days to 13 years (mean 44.5+/-63.3 months; median three months). Echocardiography enabled correct diagnosis in the four most recent cases. Seven patients underwent closure of the AP window through a transaortic approach and three patients underwent ligation. Simultaneously, significant associated cardiac anomalies were corrected in three patients: correction of interrupted aortic arch in two patients and closure of ventricular septal defect and Dacron patch enlargement of the right ventricular outflow tract in one patient. One patient was not operated because of fixed high pulmonary vascular resistance. Operative mortality was 10% (1/10) and there were no late deaths. Mean follow-up was 10+/-4.9 years. All nine surviving operated patients are asymptomatic, without medication, with no residual defects and without pulmonary hypertension. In conclusion, advances in diagnostic and surgical approaches to AP window in recent years have enabled earlier intervention with good outcome.

  9. Design, synthesis and photochemical properties of the first examples of iminosugar clusters based on fluorescent cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu L. Lepage


    Full Text Available The synthesis and photophysical properties of the first examples of iminosugar clusters based on a BODIPY or a pyrene core are reported. The tri- and tetravalent systems designed as molecular probes and synthesized by way of Cu(I-catalysed azide–alkyne cycloadditions are fluorescent analogues of potent pharmacological chaperones/correctors recently reported in the field of Gaucher disease and cystic fibrosis, two rare genetic diseases caused by protein misfolding.

  10. Windows 8 XAML primer your essential guide to Windows 8 development

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse


    Windows 8 XAML Primer is a fast-paced introduction to XAML for Windows 8 developers who are already proficient C# coders. It introduces you specifically to the world of XAML development for Windows 8 apps in a practical, hands-on way - so you'll be building apps from the very first pages. Building on your existing C# knowledge, you're introduced to XAML from the ground up - what it is, what it does, and why it's important in Windows 8 development. You'll quickly learn how to use XAML efficiently within Visual Studio. You'll find practical coding quickstarts to get your XAML hands-on knowledge

  11. Convex optimization-based windowed Fourier filtering with multiple windows for wrapped-phase denoising. (United States)

    Yatabe, Kohei; Oikawa, Yasuhiro


    The windowed Fourier filtering (WFF), defined as a thresholding operation in the windowed Fourier transform (WFT) domain, is a successful method for denoising a phase map and analyzing a fringe pattern. However, it has some shortcomings, such as extremely high redundancy, which results in high computational cost, and difficulty in selecting an appropriate window size. In this paper, an extension of WFF for denoising a wrapped-phase map is proposed. It is formulated as a convex optimization problem using Gabor frames instead of WFT. Two Gabor frames with differently sized windows are used simultaneously so that the above-mentioned issues are resolved. In addition, a differential operator is combined with a Gabor frame in order to preserve discontinuity of the underlying phase map better. Some numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is able to reconstruct a wrapped-phase map, even for a severely contaminated situation.

  12. Windows 7 A quick, hands-on introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng


    This compact book offers the quickest path for Windows users to get started with Microsoft's Windows 7 operating system. You get the essential information you need to upgrade or install the system and configure it to fit your activities, along with a tour of Windows 7's features and built-in applications. Microsoft has learned from the mistakes of Windows Vista, and Windows 7 shows it-this new OS is much faster and more stable. With Windows 7: Up and Running, you'll learn what's new and what's changed from XP and Vista, and get advice on ways to use this system for work, entertainment, inst

  13. Finite Element Analysis of PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermal break


    ENG. Mohammad Buhemdi


    Examine a thermal analysis .Numerous analogies exist between thermal and structuralanalysis for PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermalbreak ,Finite Element Analysis, commonly called FEA, is a method of numerical analysis. FEA isused for solving problems in many engineering disciplines such as machine design,acoustics, electromagnetism, soil mechanics, fluid dynamics, and many others. Inmathematical terms, FEA is a numerical technique used for solving...

  14. MS Windows domēna darbstacijas migrācijas iespējas no MS Windows XP uz MS Windows 7.


    Zariņš, Valdis


    Kvalifikācijas darbā tiek aprakstītas MS Windows domēna darbstacijas migrācijas iespējas no MS Windows XP uz MS Windows 7, kā servera operētājsistēmas izmantojot tādus Microsoft produktus, kā Microsoft Windows Server 2003 un Microsoft Windows Server 2008. Kvalifikācijas darba teorētiskaja daļā tiek apskatīti Microsoft Windows 7 priekšrocības un uzlabojumus gan no darbstacijas lietotāja , gan no darbstacijas administratora puses. Ir aprakstītas Microsoft Windows Server 2008 jauninājumu ie...

  15. A photochemical kinetic model for solid dosage forms. (United States)

    Carvalho, Thiago C; La Cruz, Thomas E; Tábora, Jose E


    Photochemical kinetic models to describe the solution phase degradation of pharmaceutical compounds have been extensively reported, but formalisms applicable to the solid phase under polychromatic light have not received as much attention. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to describe the solid state photodegradation of pharmaceutical powder materials under different area/volumetric scales and light exposure conditions. The model considered the previous formalism presented for photodegradation kinetics in solution phase with important elements applied to static powder material being irradiated with a polychromatic light source. The model also included the influence of optical phenomena (i.e. reflectance, scattering factors, etc.) by applying Beer-Lambert law to light attenuation, including effects of powder density. Drug substance and drug product intermediates (blends and tablet cores) were exposed to different light sources and intensities. The model reasonably predicted the photodegradation levels of powder beds of drug substance and drug product intermediates under white and yellow lights with intensities around 5-11kLux. Importantly, the model estimates demonstrated that the reciprocity law for photoreactions was held. Further model evaluation showed that, due to light attenuation, the powder bed is in virtual darkness at cake depths greater than 500μm. At 100μm, the photodegradation of the investigated compound is expected to be close to 100% in 10days under white fluorescent halophosphate light at 9.5kLux. For tablets, defining the volume over exposed surface area ratio is more challenging. Nevertheless, the model can consider a bracket between worst and best cases to provide a reasonable photodegradation estimate. This tool can be significantly leveraged to simulate different light exposure scenarios while assessing photostability risk in order to define appropriate control strategy in manufacturing. Copyright © 2017

  16. Photochemical Thrombosis Of Retinal And Choroidal Vessels Using Rose Bengal (United States)

    Lewis, Mary Lou; Winward, Kirk; Watson, Brant D.; Hernandez, Eleut


    Rose bengal is an effective photosensitizing agent which interacts with argon green light to induce photochemical thrombosis of irradiated vessels. We used focal, low energy irradiation to occlude retinal and choroidal vessels in both albino and pigmented rabbits. Immediately after intravenous injection of rose bengal at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/kg, irradiation was performed via a slit lamp-delivered argon green laser (514.5 nm) with the aid of fundus contact lens. In 11 eyes, arteries were treated with 50-100 interrupted bursts of 75u spot size at 0.2 sec and 40-100 mW (9

  17. Coupled Photochemical and Condensation Model for the Venus Atmosphere (United States)

    Bierson, Carver; Zhang, Xi; Mendonca, Joao; Liang, Mao-Chang


    Ground based and Venus Express observations have provided a wealth of information on the vertical and latitudinal distribution of many chemical species in the Venus atmosphere [1,2]. Previous 1D models have focused on the chemistry of either the lower [3] or middle atmosphere [4,5]. Photochemical models focusing on the sulfur gas chemistry have also been independent from models of the sulfuric acid haze and cloud formation [6,7]. In recent years sulfur-bearing particles have become important candidates for the observed SO2 inversion above 80 km [5]. To test this hypothesis it is import to create a self-consistent model that includes photochemistry, transport, and cloud condensation.In this work we extend the domain of the 1D chemistry model of Zhang et al. (2012) [5] to encompass the region between the surface to 110 km. This model includes a simple sulfuric acid condensation scheme with gravitational settling. It simultaneously solves for the chemistry and condensation allowing for self-consistent cloud formation. We compare the resulting chemical distributions to observations at all altitudes. We have also validated our model cloud mass against pioneer Venus observations [8]. This updated full atmosphere chemistry model is also being applied in our 2D solver (altitude and altitude). With this 2D model we can model how the latitudinal distribution of chemical species depends on the meridional circulation. This allows us to use the existing chemical observations to place constraints on Venus GCMs [9-11].References: [1] Arney et al., JGR:Planets, 2014 [2] Vandaele et al., Icarus 2017 (pt. 1 & 2) [3] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2007 [4] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2012 [5] Zhang et al., Icarus 2012 [6] Gao et al., Icarus, 2014 [7] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2015 [8] Knollenberg and Hunten, JGR:Space Physics, 1980 [9] Lee et al., JGR:Planets, 2007 [10] Lebonnois et al., Towards Understanding the Climate of Venus, 2013 [11] Mendoncca and Read, Planetary and Space Science, 2016

  18. Versatile thin-film reactor for photochemical vapor generation. (United States)

    Zheng, Chengbin; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Brophy, Christine; Hou, Xiandeng


    A novel thin-film reactor is described and evaluated for its analytical performance with photochemical vapor generation (TF-PVG). The device, comprising both the generator and a gas-liquid separator, utilizes a vertical central quartz rod onto which the sample is pumped to yield a thin liquid film conducive to the rapid escape of generated hydrophobic species. The rod is housed within a concentric quartz tube through which a flow of argon carrier/stripping gas is passed to remove and transport the generated species to a detector, which in this study is an inductively coupled argon plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentric quartz tube is itself surrounded by a 78-turn 0.5 m long quartz coil low-pressure mercury discharge lamp operating at 20 W. The performance of this thin-film photoreactor was evaluated through comparison of analytical figures of merit for detection of a number of elements undergoing PVG in the presence of formic or acetic acid with those arising from conventional solution nebulization under optimized conditions. The TF-PVG reactor provided sensitivity enhancements, of 110-, 120-, 130-, 250-, 120-, 230-, 78-, 1.3-, 16-, and 32-fold for As, Sb, Bi, Se, Te, Hg, Ni, Co, Fe, and I, respectively, and detection limit enhancements of 110-, 140-, 170-, 270-, 200-, 300-, 160-, 2.7-, 50-, and 44-fold for these same elements. Vapor generation efficiencies ranged from 20-100% for this suite of analytes. The utility of this technique was demonstrated by the determination of Fe and Ni in Certified Reference Materials DORM-3 (fish protein) and DOLT-4 (dogfish liver tissue).

  19. Photochemical and other air pollutants in South Holland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posthumus, A.C.


    This year at fifteen places, regularly distributed over the industrial area west of Rotterdam, indicator plants for air pollution were again set out in the open. Tulip, gladiolus and freesia, indicators for HF, all demonstrated the same two sites to have maximum HF concentration. Spinach, an indicator for O/sub 3//SO/sub 2/, showed maximum injury in April and May and more south of the New Waterway than north of it. Medicago sativa, a plant species rather sensitive for SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, showed little damage, and the reaction of petunia indicated a possible effect of ethylene only in a few cases. The photochemical air pollutant PAN caused in a few cases as well a slight injury to the indicator plants Urtica urens and Poa annua. The frequency of the injury to tobacco Bel W3 by O/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ was maximum during some periods in summer and autumn. This year again the effect of air pollution on growth and yield of tulips, tobacco and tomato plants was studied at six sites at the mouth of the Rhine with filtered and unfiltered greenhouses. The climatic conditions in these greenhouses were completely alike. Tulips in all the unfiltered greenhouses showed twice as heavy leaf injury as those in the filtered greenhouses. Tobacco plants had a higher average fresh and dry weight in the filtered greenhouses than in the unfiltered ones. The same usually held for tomato plants and also for the number of fruits and the average fresh and dry weight of tomato fruits.

  20. Photo-chemical transport modelling of tropospheric ozone: A review (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, Prateek; Khare, Mukesh


    Ground level ozone (GLO), a secondary pollutant having adverse impact on human health, ecology, and agricultural productivity, apart from being a major contributor to global warming, has been a subject matter of several studies. In order to identify appropriate strategies to control GLO levels, accurate assessment and prediction is essential, for which elaborate simulation and modelling is required. Several studies have been undertaken in the past to simulate GLO levels at different scales and for various applications. It is important to evaluate these studies, widely spread over in literature. This paper aims to critically review various studies that have been undertaken, especially in the past 15 years (2000-15) to model GLO. The review has been done of the studies that range over different spatial scales - urban to regional and continental to global. It also includes a review of performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis of photo-chemical transport models in order to assess the extent of application of these models and their predictive capability. The review indicates following major findings: (a) models tend to over-estimate the night-time GLO concentrations due to limited titration of GLO with NO within the model; (b) dominance of contribution from far-off regional sources to average ozone concentration in the urban region and higher contribution of local sources during days of high ozone episodes; requiring strategies for controlling precursor emissions at both regional and local scales; (c) greater influence of NOx over VOC in export of ozone from urban regions due to shifting of urban plumes from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive as they move out from city centres to neighbouring rural regions; (d) models with finer resolution inputs perform better to a certain extent, however, further improvement in resolutions (beyond 10 km) did not show improvement always; (e) future projections show an increase in GLO concentrations mainly due to rise in

  1. Photophysical investigations on supramolecular fullerene/phthalocyanine charge transfer interactions in solution. (United States)

    Ray, Anamika; Pal, Haridas; Bhattacharya, Sumanta


    The photophysical features of non-covalently linked fullerenes C60 and C70 with a designed free-base phthalocyanine, namely, 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis-(octyloxy)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (1) have been investigated employing various spectroscopic tools like UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, steady state and time resolved fluorescence along with proton NMR measurements in toluene. The ground state interaction between fullerenes and 1 is nicely demonstrated with the appearance of well defined charge transfer absorption bands in the visible region of the electronic spectra. Steady state fluorescence experiment reveals efficient quenching of the excited singlet state of 1 in presence of both C60 and C70. The average values of binding constants for the non-covalent complexes of C60 and C70 with 1 are determined to be ~18,150 and ~32,000 dm(3) mol(-1), respectively. The magnitude of K suggests that 1 preferentially binds C70 in comparison to C60 although average value of selectivity in binding is measured to be low (~1.75). Time resolved emission measurements establish photoinduced energy transfer from the excited singlet state of 1 to fullerene in toluene. Measurements of free energy of electron transfer and free energy of radical ion-pair formation elicit that C70/1 complex is stabilized more in comparison to C60/1 complex regarding generation of charge-separated state. Proton NMR studies provide very good support in favor of effective ground state complexation between fullerenes and 1. Semi empirical theoretical calculations on fullerene/1 systems in vacuo substantiate the stronger binding between C70 and 1 in comparison to C60/1 system in terms of heat of formation value of the respective complexes, and determine the orientation of bound guest (here C70) towards the plane of 1 during complexation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photophysical investigation of energy transfer luminescence of lanthanide chelates with aromatic polyaminocarboxylate ligands in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Takashi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Some photophysical data including emission lifetimes ({tau}), total emission quantum yields ({Phi}), and ligand phosphorescence data are reported for the energy-transfer luminescence of the Eu(III) chelate of Quin 2 and the Tb(III) chelate of BAPTA: Quin 2 means 2-[(2-amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-aminoquinoline-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid; BAPTA means 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid. The energy diagrams for the ligand T{sub 1} and the metal-center f-f levels are proposed. The {tau} values of Tb(III)-BAPTA chelates are 1.73 ms in H{sub 2}O and 3.44 ms in D{sub 2}O. The Eu(III)-Quin 2 chelate system shows a bi-exponential decay of emission; {tau}=0.048 and 0.20 ms in H{sub 2}O and 0.066 and 1.44 ms in D{sub 2}O. The Quin 2 chelate is kinetically inert, so that the interchange of these two conformer structures are very slow at room temperature. The number of water molecules in the primary coordination sphere is calculated from the lifetime data to be 1.9-2.4 for Eu-Quin 2 and 0.5 for Tb-BAPTA. The {Phi} values in aqueous solutions are rather small in these systems; 0.009 for Tb-BAPTA and 0.0023 for Eu-Quin 2, but these are enough counterbalanced by the large molar absorptivities giving the great sensitization factors for the ions; the sensitization factors against each aqua ion are 1380 for Eu-Quin 2 and 1600 for Tb-BAPTA. (author).

  3. Atom transfer radical polymerization preparation and photophysical properties of polypyridylruthenium derivatized polystyrenes. (United States)

    Fang, Zhen; Ito, Akitaka; Keinan, Shahar; Chen, Zuofeng; Watson, Zoe; Rochette, Jason; Kanai, Yosuke; Taylor, Darlene; Schanze, Kirk S; Meyer, Thomas J


    A ruthenium containing polymer featuring a short carbonyl-amino-methylene linker has been prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The polymer was derived from ATRP of the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) derivative of p-vinylbenzoic acid, followed by an amide coupling reaction of the NHS-polystyrene with Ru(II) complexes derivatized with aminomethyl groups (i.e., [Ru(bpy)2(CH3-bpy-CH2NH2)](2+) where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and CH3-bpy-CH2NH2 is 4-methyl-4'-aminomethyl-2,2'-bipyridine). The Ru-functionalized polymer structure was confirmed by using nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy, and the results suggest that a high loading ratio of polypyridylruthenium chromophores on the polystyrene backbone was achieved. The photophysical properties of the polymer were characterized in solution and in rigid ethylene glycol glasses. In solution, emission quantum yield and lifetime studies reveal that the polymer's metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states are quenched relative to a model Ru complex chromophore. In rigid media, the MLCT-ground state band gap and lifetime are both increased relative to solution with time-resolved emission measurements revealing fast energy transfer hopping within the polymer. Molecular dynamics studies of the polymer synthesized here as well as similar model systems with various spatial arrangements of the pendant Ru complex chromophores suggest that the carbonyl-amino-methylene linker probed in our target polymer provides shorter Ru-Ru nearest-neighbor distances leading to an increased Ru*-Ru energy hopping rate, compared to those with longer linkers in counterpart polymers.

  4. The spectroscopic and photophysical effects of the position of methyl substitution. II. 2-methylpyrimidine (United States)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Garrett, Aaron W.; Lee, H. D.; Zwier, Timothy S.


    Laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra of the first n-π* transition of jet-cooled 2-methylpyrimidine have been recorded and analyzed. This work extends our earlier study of the spectroscopic and photophysical effects of methyl substitution in 4- and 5-methylpyrimidine. An unusual Fermi resonance involving the 6an0 progression forms the focus of the present study. The 6a10 vibronic transition is observed to be split into a triad of transitions. Dispersed fluorescence spectra are used to identify the dark background state responsible for the Fermi resonance coupling as the 16b1(3a''2) vibration/internal rotation combination level. This level is selectively coupled by symmetry constraints to 6a1(0a1), leaving the 6a1(1e`) level unperturbed. The positions and intensities of the triad of peaks in the excitation spectrum allow a quantitative determination of the 6a1(0a'1)↔16b1(3a2) coupling matrix element of V=4.1 cm-1. This vibration/internal rotation Fermi resonance is thus typical of the new types of routes to vibrational state mixing which are opened by methyl substitution. Higher members of the 6an0 progression are also involved in Fermi resonance mixing. However, in addition, these levels experience weaker, less state-specific coupling to a bath of same-symmetry states at that energy. The excitation spectrum provides an estimate of the average coupling matrix element of this second tier coupling of ˜1 cm-1.

  5. Distance Dependence of Electron Spin Polarization during Photophysical Quenching of Excited Naphthalene by TEMPO Radical. (United States)

    Rane, Vinayak; Das, Ranjan


    Quenching of excited states by a free radical is generally studied in systems where these two are separate entities freely moving in a liquid solution. Random diffusive encounters bring them together to cause the quenching and leave the spins of the radical polarized. In the dynamics of the radical-triplet pair mechanism of the generation of electron spin polarization (ESP), the distance-dependent exchange interaction plays a crucial role. To investigate how the distance between the excited molecule and the radical influences the ESP, we have covalently linked a naphthalene moiety to a TEMPO free radical through a spacer group of three different lengths. We compared the ESP process of these linked compounds with that of the usual "unlinked system" of naphthalene and TEMPO through time-resolved EPR experiments at low temperature in n-hexane solution. The time evolution of both the linked and the "unlinked system" was treated on a similar footing. The time-dependent EPR signal was analyzed by combining photophysical kinetics and time-dependent Bloch equations incorporating spin dynamics. Sequential quenching of the singlet state and the triplet state of naphthalene was seen in all the systems, as revealed through the spin-polarized TREPR spectra of opposite phase. The magnitudes of the ESP in the linked molecules were higher than those of the "unlinked system," showing that when the two moieties are held together greater mixing of quartet-doublet states takes place. The magnitudes of ESP steadily decrease with increasing the length of the spacer group. The polarization magnitudes due to triplet quenching and singlet quenching are very similar, differing by a factor of only ∼2. These characteristics show that for all the linked molecules the quenching takes place in the "weak exchange" regime and at almost the same distance of separation between the two moieties. Our results also showed that observation of small absorptive TREPR signals does not necessarily imply

  6. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family (United States)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich


    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments.

  7. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are interesting to study as they reflect the subject’s ability to predict movement of external targets, keep focus and move the eyes appropriately. The process of smooth pursuit requires collaboration between several systems in the brain and the resulting action may p...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  8. Performance Evaluation of Vinyl Replacement Windows. (United States)


    VINYL REPLACEMENT WINDOWS P. B. SHEPHERD JOHNS-MANVILLE SALES CORPORATION LEU ! RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER CLE 0 KEN- CARYL RANCH DENVER, COLORADO...AE OKUI UBR Research & Development Center i 0010 Ken- Caryl Ranch, Denver, Colorado 80217(W II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12 5CPORT DATE U.S...The letter sent to manufacturers is reproduced on the following page. The source of manufacturers solicited was the Thomas Register I0 and all firms

  9. GreenRiders : Windows Phone application


    Klatik, Martin


    This thesis was written during the author’s practical training in Bravioz Oy, a company which has created GreenRiders solution for carpooling (ride sharing) management. A part of the work in the company was working on the mobile version of this service. The main objective of this project was to develop a well working basis of the Windows Phone application. The application has all basic functions of the Web version, such as creating, searching and joining of rides as ...

  10. Reverse Skyline Computation over Sliding Windows


    Junchang Xin; Zhiqiong Wang; Mei Bai; Guoren Wang


    Reverse skyline queries have been used in many real-world applications such as business planning, market analysis, and environmental monitoring. In this paper, we investigated how to efficiently evaluate continuous reverse skyline queries over sliding windows. We first theoretically analyzed the inherent properties of reverse skyline on data streams and proposed a novel pruning technique to reduce the number of data points preserved for processing continuous reverse skyline queries. Then, an ...

  11. An Introduction to Radar Sliding Window Detectors


    Weinberg, Graham V.


    An introduction to the theory of sliding window detection processes, used as alternatives to optimal Neyman-Pearson based radar detectors, is presented. Included is an outline of their historical development, together with an explanation for the resurgence of interest in such detectors for operation in modern maritime surveillance radar clutter. In particular, recent research has developed criteria that enables one to construct such detection processes with the desired constant false alarm ra...

  12. Attosecond light sources in the water window (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Li, Jie; Yin, Yanchun; Zhao, Kun; Chew, Andrew; Wang, Yang; Hu, Shuyuan; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu


    As a compact and burgeoning alternative to synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers, high harmonic generation (HHG) has proven its superiority in static and time-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy for the past two decades and has recently gained many interests and successes in generating soft x-ray emissions covering the biologically important water window spectral region. Unlike synchrotron and free-electron sources, which suffer from relatively long pulse width or large time jitter, soft x-ray sources from HHG could offer attosecond time resolution and be synchronized with their driving field to investigate time-resolved near edge absorption spectroscopy, which could reveal rich structural and dynamical information of the interrogated samples. In this paper, we review recent progresses on generating and characterizing attosecond light sources in the water window region. We show our development of an energetic, two-cycle, carrier-envelope phase stable laser source at 1.7 μm and our achievement in producing a 53 as soft x-ray pulse covering the carbon K-edge in the water window. Such source paves the ways for the next generation x-ray spectroscopy with unprecedented temporal resolution.

  13. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli


    Full Text Available The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in a delay in bringing a case to court. The concept of this paper is to start the initial forensic analysis of the storage media in locations that are most likely to contain digital evidence, the Windows Registry. Consequently, the forensic analysis process and the recovery of digital evidence may take less time than would otherwise be required. In this paper, the Registry structure of Windows 7 is discussed together with several elements of information within the Registry of Windows 7 that may be valuable to a forensic investigator. These elements were categorized into five groups which are system, application, networks, attached devices and the history lists. We have discussed the values of identified elements to a forensic investigator. Also, a tool was implemented to perform the function of extracting these elements and presents them in usable form to a forensics investigator.

  14. Windows Server 2012 vulnerabilities and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. López


    Full Text Available This investigation analyses the history of the vulnerabilities of the base system Windows Server 2012 highlighting the most critic vulnerabilities given every 4 months since its creation until the current date of the research. It was organized by the type of vulnerabilities based on the classification of the NIST. Next, given the official vulnerabilities of the system, the authors show how a critical vulnerability is treated by Microsoft in order to countermeasure the security flaw. Then, the authors present the recommended security approaches for Windows Server 2012, which focus on the baseline software given by Microsoft, update, patch and change management, hardening practices and the application of Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS. AD RMS is considered as an important feature since it is able to protect the system even though it is compromised using access lists at a document level. Finally, the investigation of the state of the art related to the security of Windows Server 2012 shows an analysis of solutions given by third parties vendors, which offer security products to secure the base system objective of this study. The recommended solution given by the authors present the security vendor Symantec with its successful features and also characteristics that the authors considered that may have to be improved in future versions of the security solution.

  15. Photophysical analysis of 1,10-phenanthroline-embedded porphyrin analogues and their magnesium(II) complexes. (United States)

    Ishida, Masatoshi; Lim, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Sun; Tani, Fumito; Sessler, Jonathan L; Kim, Dongho; Naruta, Yoshinori


    The synthesis, characterization, photophysical properties, and theoretical analysis of a series of tetraaza porphyrin analogues (H-Pn: n=1-4) containing a dipyrrin subunit and an embedded 1,10-phenanthroline subunit are described. The meso-phenyl-substituted derivative (H-P1) interacts with a Mg(2+) salt (e.g., MgCl(2), MgBr(2), MgI(2), Mg(ClO(4))(2), and Mg(OAc)(2)) in MeCN solution, thereby giving rise to a cation-dependent red-shift in both the absorbance- and emission maxima. In this system, as well as in the other H-Pn porphyrin analogues used in this study, the four nitrogen atoms of the ligand interact with the bound magnesium cation to form Mg(2+)-dipyrrin-phenanthroline complexes of the general structure MgX-Pn (X=counteranion). Both single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the corresponding zinc-chloride derivative (ZnCl-P1) and fluorescence spectroscopy of the Mg-adducts that are formed from various metal salts provide support for the conclusion that, in complexes such as MgCl-P1, a distorted square-pyramidal geometry persists about the metal cation wherein a chloride anion acts as an axial counteranion. Several analogues (HPn) that contain electron-donating and/or electron-withdrawing dipyrrin moieties were prepared in an effort to understand the structure-property relationships and the photophysical attributes of these Mg-dipyrrin complexes. Analysis of various MgX-Pn (X=anion) systems revealed significant substitution effects on their chemical, electrochemical, and photophysical properties, as well as on the Mg(2+)-cation affinities. The fluorescence properties of MgCl-Pn reflected the effect of donor-excited photoinduced electron transfer (d-PET) processes from the dipyrrin subunit (as a donor site) to the 1,10-phenanthroline acceptor subunit. The proposed d-PET process was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and by femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy, as well as by theoretical DFT calculations. Taken

  16. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and theoretical studies of the novel indolo[3,2-b]indole derivatives (United States)

    Tian, Jinchang; Huang, Xin; Mao, Guijie; Xu, Feng; Chu, Wenyi; Sun, ZhiZhong


    A series of novel indolo[3,2-b]indole derivatives as blue-light-emitting materials were designed and synthesized by Pd (Ⅱ) catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction in good yields. The thermal, photophysical, electrochemical properties of the derivatives were investigated and compared by introducing different terminal aromatic units into the target compounds. The results indicated that these new compounds exhibited high thermal stabilities, good solubility, stably blue fluorescent properties and good electronic transmission abilities. All the target compounds showed the potential to be used as blue fluorescent materials.

  17. Windows with an improved energy balance of 30%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    carried out in the project. The large glass distance helps to reduce the traditional thermal bridge effect of the spacer and the integrated frame leads to an increase in transmitted solar energy. Furthermore, a controlled air exchange in case of pressure differences between the enclosures in the glazing......The aim of the project has been to investigate and to develop thermally improved windows based on an evaluation of the energy balance of the window, i.e. the total influence of the window on the energy consumption for space heating. The energy balance is the net heat flow per window area which...... been developed, which combines the results from several different building types and building orientations. The energy balance of the reference window has been calculated to -50 kWh/m2 window area, i.e. the refence window accounts for a net energy consumption for space heating of 50 kWh/m2 window area...

  18. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape. (United States)

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian


    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  19. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window

  20. An Intelligent Window for Optimal Ventilation and Minimum Thermal Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rose, Jørgen; Liu, Mingzhe

    This report compares the simulation results of 12 window typologies for four countries on four selected days. The simulation results are used to select the window frame construction including glazing type and pane configuration.......This report compares the simulation results of 12 window typologies for four countries on four selected days. The simulation results are used to select the window frame construction including glazing type and pane configuration....