WorldWideScience

Sample records for window insulating devices

  1. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  2. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...

  3. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us...

  4. Prototype solid-state electrochromic window devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.H.; Nguyen, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses electrochromic smart windows which are prospective devices for the control of light transmission in response to the variation of brightness of the environment. The fabrication of electrochromic windows based on cathodically coloring transition metal oxides and anodically coloring conducting polymers are described. The device consists of gel or glassy polymer electrolytes sandwiches by a pair of transparent conducting glass coated respectively with a thin film of WO 3 or MoO 3 prepared by electrodeposition, and with a thin film of ploy(aniline) derivatives obtained by electropolymerization or solution casting. The electrochromic properties of the five-layer smart window devices are presented

  5. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...... of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... of approx. 15 mm, a centre heat loss coefficient of below 0.7 W/m² K and a solar transmittance of 76% have been obtained. The research is funded in part by the European Commission within the frameworks of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme – JOULE III and the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development...

  6. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider

    2017-07-18

    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ≤ 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  8. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  9. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  10. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound i...

  11. Experiences with sound insulating open windows in traffic noise exposed housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    purposes, including during night, or simply because it’s a good feeling to have windows open to be in contact with the surroundings. High noise exposure can lead to adverse effects on comfort and health, and thus, there is a need for sound insulating open windows to reduce noise exposure in homes, when......Sound insulating windows are widely used in traffic noise exposed residential areas to reduce indoor noise levels to acceptable levels. However, such windows are typically only designed to provide sound insulation in closed position, and many people prefer open windows parts of time for ventilation...... with different solutions has been collected, and additional field experiments have been carried out in a case with transparent external shutters with sound absorbing slits for ventilation along window sides. It is concluded that occupants in general are satisfied with the solutions and further development...

  12. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    The first main objective deals with “aerogel process optimisation”. The general goal was to demonstrate that the elaboration process, developed during the recent HILIT project, permitted to obtain a significant amount of light transmitting, insulating and transparent 15-20 mm monolithic and crack...... material. Due to the low density, the acoustic impedance of aerogel could help boost the efficiency of piezoelectric transducers. • Waste encapsulation, spacers for vacuum insulation panels, membranes, etc.......-free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its....... No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...

  13. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    -free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its...... avoidance. The final aerogel window is optimised with regard to its production and performance in view of the technical, economical and life cycle aspects. The aerogel production process has been optimised and tuned so monolithic silica aerogel sheets are produced with more than 85% crack free sheets per...... insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance above 85% and a U-value of 0.7 W/m2 K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m2K...

  14. Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Dokos, Adam; Burns, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device (PHOWID) is a measurement system for imaging small defects (scratches, pits, micrometeor impacts, and the like) in the field. Designed primarily for window inspection, PHOWID attaches to a smooth surface with suction cups, and raster scans a small area with an optical pen in order to provide a three-dimensional image of the defect. PHOWID consists of a graphical user interface, motor control subsystem, scanning head, and interface electronics, as well as an integrated camera and user display that allows a user to locate minute defects before scanning. Noise levels are on the order of 60 in. (1.5 m). PHOWID allows field measurement of defects that are usually done in the lab. It is small, light, and attaches directly to the test article in any orientation up to vertical. An operator can scan a defect and get useful engineering data in a matter of minutes. There is no need to make a mold impression for later lab analysis.

  15. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound i...... in the receiving room ceiling, have been simulated and show a general improvement of the sound reduction index from 500 Hz and above, and an improvement of ~3-4 dB at 2 kHz, in relation to the noise angle ofindidence.......The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound...... insulation measurements of the Supply Air Window show a difference in the frequency range above 2 kHz, for field measurements carried out according to EN ISO 140-5 and laboratory measurements carried out according to EN ISO 10140-2. It is found that the sound insulation measured in the field setup...

  16. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  17. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly

  18. Aerodynamic window for a laser fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Wataru

    1983-01-01

    Since the window of a laser system absorbs a part of the laser energy, the output power is determined by the characteristics of the window. The use of an aerodynamic window has been studied. The required characteristics are to keep the large pressure difference. An equation of motion of a vortex was presented and analyzed. The operation power of the system was studied. A multi-stage aerodynamic window was proposed to reduce the power. When the jet flow of 0.3 of the Mach number is used, the operation power will be several Megawatt, and the length of an optical path will be about 100 m. (Kato, T.)

  19. [Preventive effects of sound insulation windows on the indoor noise levels in a street residential building in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Huang, Jing; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    To evaluate the preventive effects of sound insulation windows on traffic noise. Indoor noise levels of the residential rooms (on both the North 4th ring road side and the campus side) with closed sound insulation windows were measured using the sound level meter, and comparisons with the simultaneously measured outdoor noise levels were made. In addition, differences of indoor noise levels between rooms with closed sound insulation windows and open sound insulation windows were also compared. The average outdoor noise levels of the North 4th ring road was higher than 70 dB(A), which exceeded the limitation stated in the "Environmental Quality Standard for Noise" (GB 3096-2008) in our country. However, with the sound insulation windows closed, the indoor noise levels reduced significantly to the level under 35 dB(A) (Pwindows had significant influence on the indoor noise levels (Pwindow, when the sound insulation windows were closed, the indoor noise levels reduced 18.8 dB(A) and 8.3 dB(A) in residential rooms facing North 4th ring road side and campus side, respectively. The results indicated that installation of insulation windows had significant noise reduction effects on street residential buildings especially on the rooms facing major traffic roads. Installation of the sound insulation windows has significant preventive effects on indoor noise in the street residential building.

  20. Dielectrophoresis device and method having insulating ridges for manipulating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Eric B [Livermore, CA; Fiechtner, Gregory J [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-25

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods and devices for manipulating particles using dielectrophoresis. Insulating ridges and valleys are used to generate a spatially non-uniform electrical field. Particles may be concentrated, separated, or captured during bulk fluid flow in a channel having insulating ridges and valleys.

  1. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  2. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  3. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  4. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  5. Testing Devices Garner Data on Insulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To develop a test instrument that could garner measurements of the thermal performance of insulation under extreme conditions, researchers at Kennedy Space Center devised the Cryostat 1 and then Cryostat 2. McLean, Virginia-based QinetiQ North America licensed the technology and plans to market it to organizations developing materials for things like piping and storage tank insulation, refrigeration, appliances, and consumer goods.

  6. NON-INTRUSIVE SENSOR FOR GAS FILL VERIFICATION OF INSULATED GLASS WINDOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Freedman; Paul L. Kebabian; Richard R. Romano; James Woodroffe

    2003-10-01

    A sensor capable of measuring the amount of oxygen (an unwanted component that is only present because of improper filling or seal failure) within an argon-filled insulated glass window has been designed, built and successfully tested. It operates by using the optical absorption of oxygen in the atmospheric A-band centered at 762 nm. Light emitted by an argon-filled surface glow discharge lamp is Zeeman-tuned on and off an oxygen absorption line using an AC-modulated electromagnet. In the presence of oxygen, the change in the measured intensity of the lamp, obtained using standard demodulation techniques, is proportional to the oxygen column density. Measurements using an industry-standard insulated glass window indicate that the sensor can measure the amount of oxygen in a nominally argon-filled IG window (with a window gap of 10 mm) with a precision of 0.50% oxygen using a 16 second integration time. This level of precision is well within the limits required by the IG window manufacturing industry for proper monitoring of newly manufactured window units.

  7. Materials And Devices In Electrochromic Window Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Elizabeth J.; Plante, Timothy D.; Rauh, R. David

    1985-12-01

    Windows with switchable electrochromic glazings are potentially useful for regulating solar input to building interiors. In this article, we describe the structure and operation of a proposed solid-state electrochromic glazing based on crystalline LixWO3 (c-LiXWO3) and a low coloration efficiency counter electrode material such as amorphous Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5). The importance of reversibility in electrochromic glazing operation is emphasized, and optical switching experiments that demonstrate reversible lithium insertion/extraction in c-LixW03, a-LixWO3, and a-LixNb2O5 are described. Additional optical switching experiments in tandem electrochromic cells comprised of c-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 and a-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 demonstrated the proposed design, indicating reversible optical switching over 500 and 200 complete cycles, respectively, without degradation. Optical data on the evolution of reflective and absorp-tive modulation in c-LixWO3 are presented and solar attenuation results are used to demon-strate the advantage of using crystalline electrochromics to conserve daylighting during electrochromic window operation.

  8. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The HILIT AEROGEL WINDOW project with participants from Denmark (coordinator), France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, was formulated in order to develop a safe and clean production of monolithic silica aerogel based on supercritical CO2 drying of the gels, to study the process parameters and to tran...... the thermal bridge effect of the rim seal solution is measured to 0.74 W/m2K. The solar energy transmittance is measured to 76% thanks to the use of low-iron glass with an anti reflective coating....

  9. Topological Insulators and Superconductors for Innovative Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-20

    topological insulator Bi0.91Sb0.09 via magneto -optics, Phys. Rev. B 85 (2012) 195440-(1-6) (Editors’ Suggestion, published on May 17, 2012)). [32] Zhi...nearly ideal Dirac cone. In this Letter, we elucidate how the elastic scattering among the helically spin-polarized surface electrons of...available because elastic scattering of electrons manifests itself in the QPI down to energies close to the Dirac-point energy ED, thanks to the long-range

  10. Simple Design Tool for Development of Well Insulated Window Frames and Optimization of the Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    is generated by the program and is used by the finite element simulator to calculate the thermal performance of the frame (the U value). After the initial design is evaluated, the user can quickly modify chosen parameters and generate a new design. This process can then be repeated in multiple iterations...... in order to approach an optimal solution. The program was also used to conduct an optimization process of the frame geometry. A large number of various window frame designs were created and evaluated, based on their insulation properties. The paper presents the investigation process and some of the best...

  11. Infrared-transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion device with thin-film-transistor-type structure on a glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Katase

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion was demonstrated on a glass substrate by using thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO2 as the active layer in a three-terminal thin-film-transistor-type device with water-infiltrated glass as the gate insulator. Alternative positive/negative gate-voltage applications induce the reversible protonation/deprotonation of a VO2 channel, and two-orders of magnitude modulation of sheet-resistance and 49% modulation of IR-transmittance were simultaneously demonstrated at room temperature by the metal-insulator phase conversion of VO2 in a non-volatile manner. The present device is operable by the room-temperature protonation in an all-solid-state structure, and thus it will provide a new gateway to future energy-saving technology as an advanced smart window.

  12. Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hugen; Li, Xuesong; Chandra, Bhupesh; Tulevski, George; Wu, Yanqing; Freitag, Marcus; Zhu, Wenjuan; Avouris, Phaedon; Xia, Fengnian

    2012-05-01

    The collective oscillation of carriers--the plasmon--in graphene has many desirable properties, including tunability and low loss. However, in single-layer graphene, the dependence on carrier concentration of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and magnitude is relatively weak, limiting its applications in photonics. Here, we demonstrate transparent photonic devices based on graphene/insulator stacks, which are formed by depositing alternating wafer-scale graphene sheets and thin insulating layers, then patterning them together into photonic-crystal-like structures. We show experimentally that the plasmon in such stacks is unambiguously non-classical. Compared with doping in single-layer graphene, distributing carriers into multiple graphene layers effectively enhances the plasmonic resonance frequency and magnitude, which is different from the effect in a conventional semiconductor superlattice and is a direct consequence of the unique carrier density scaling law of the plasmonic resonance of Dirac fermions. Using patterned graphene/insulator stacks, we demonstrate widely tunable far-infrared notch filters with 8.2 dB rejection ratios and terahertz linear polarizers with 9.5 dB extinction ratios. An unpatterned stack consisting of five graphene layers shields 97.5% of electromagnetic radiation at frequencies below 1.2 THz. This work could lead to the development of transparent mid- and far-infrared photonic devices such as detectors, modulators and three-dimensional metamaterial systems.

  13. BIPV-powered smart windows utilizing photovoltaic and electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/Ta(2)O(5)/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750-1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  14. BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO3/Ta2O5/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V. The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750–1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  15. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or approved...

  17. Development of Enhanced Window layers for CIGS Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. Nicholas

    One of the most promising thin film devices right now is the Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) solar cell with maximum reported power conversion efficiency of 22.3%. The Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) which is the top layer of the CIGS device also known as the window layer, is responsible for collecting the electrons generated in the CIGS device and conducting them to the circuit. Development of a very low resistivity film with a high optical transmission is crucial for optimal performance of devices as well as the ability to be deployed without changes to their properties for several decades. Current TCOs such as indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) are met with limitations with either using large amounts of expensive materials such as indium, often requiring and anneal step to obtain good conductivity, or have shown poor long term reliability. This thesis is focused on development of InZnO and zirconium doped InZnO as a potential replacement TCO to obtain high conductivity and high transmission like the leading TCOs without needing heated depositions, post deposition annealing, and maintain a good film reliability. Zirconium doping was employed to farther enhance both the optical and electrical properties through enhancement of the films high frequency permittivity of InZnO while providing improved reliability to the film. The films were grown through a mix of DC and RF co-sputtering. InZnO films were deposited at varying indium concentration ( 10-30%) and samples were able to achieve low resistivity ( 7x10-4 O-cm), high mobility (>30 cm2/v.s), high carrier concentration (>10 20 cm-3), while maintaining high transmission (> 80%) in the visible and near-infrared region. After zirconium was incorporated into the InZnO films by replacement of the ZnO target with a ZrO2/ZnO (5:95) target, films of Zr:InZnO were deposit through the same method to achieve films that maintained very similar electrical and optical properties. The little

  18. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Bergh, Sofie Van Den; Hart, Robert; Jelle, Bjrn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-01-31

    Insulating glass (IG) units typically consist of multiple glass panes that are sealed and held together structurally along their perimeters. This report describes a study of edge seals in IG units. First, we summarize the components, requirements, and desired properties of edge construction in IG units, based on a survey of the available literature. Second, we review commercially available window edge seals and describe their properties, to provide an easily accessible reference for research and commercial purposes. Finally, based on the literature survey and review of current commercial edge seal systems, we identify research opportunities for future edge seal improvements and solutions.

  19. Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

    2008-11-30

    U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while

  20. Nanoporous Insulating Oxide Deionization Device Having Asymmetric Electrodes and Method of Use Thereof

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A nanoporous insulating oxide deionization device, method of manufacture and method of use thereof for deionizing a water supply (such as a hard water supply), for...

  1. µTransparent insulating channels as components for miniaturized chemical separation Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.; Hendrikse, J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Currently, miniaturized devices that apply electro osmotic pumping or electrophoretic separations are mostly constructed by etching small insulating channels for supply and separation on glass substrates. In principle, silicon is a superior construction material in terms of inertness and design

  2. Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor Devices Fabricated with Insulator Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-23

    fluorite structure of 30 barium fluoride has a surface free energy far in excess of the (111) face. See, L.J. Schowalter et al., CRC Critical reviews...when (100) growth is achieved, surface free energy considerations predict faceting of the (100) growth front into (111) asperites. This behavior has...insulator layer is compliantly matched 5 with the substrate and the insulator layer is -free of defects causing surface roughness problems which could

  3. High power RF window deposition apparatus, method, and device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Lawrence R.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Zeller, Daniel

    2017-07-04

    A process for forming a coating for an RF window which has improved secondary electron emission and reduced multipactor for high power RF waveguides is formed from a substrate with low loss tangent and desirable mechanical characteristics. The substrate has an RPAO deposition layer applied which oxygenates the surface of the substrate to remove carbon impurities, thereafter has an RPAN deposition layer applied to nitrogen activate the surface of the substrate, after which a TiN deposition layer is applied using Titanium tert-butoxide. The TiN deposition layer is capped with a final RPAN deposition layer of nitridation to reduce the bound oxygen in the TiN deposition layer. The resulting RF window has greatly improved titanium layer adhesion, reduced multipactor, and is able to withstand greater RF power levels than provided by the prior art.

  4. Transparent Wood Smart Windows: Polymer Electrochromic Devices Based on Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(Styrene Sulfonate) Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Augustus W; Li, Yuanyuan; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Shen, D Eric; Österholm, Anna M; Berglund, Lars; Reynolds, John R

    2018-03-09

    Transparent wood composites, with their high strength and toughness, thermal insulation, and excellent transmissivity, offer a route to replace glass for diffusely transmitting windows. Here, conjugated-polymer-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch on-demand are demonstrated using transparent wood coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a transparent conducting electrode. These ECDs exhibit a vibrant magenta-to-clear color change that results from a remarkably colorless bleached state. Furthermore, they require low energy and power inputs of 3 mWh m -2 at 2 W m -2 to switch due to a high coloration efficiency (590 cm 2  C -1 ) and low driving voltage (0.8 V). Each device component is processed with high-throughput methods, which highlights the opportunity to apply this approach to fabricate mechanically robust, energy-efficient smart windows on a large scale. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  6. Heat insulation device for reactor pressure vessel in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Heiichiro; Tanaka, Yoshimi.

    1993-01-01

    Outer walls of a reactor pressure vessel are covered with water-tight walls made of metals. A heat insulation metal material is disposed between them. The water tight walls are joined by welding and flanges. A supply pipeline for filling gases and a discharge pipeline are in communication with the inside of the water tight walls. Further, a water detector is disposed in the midway of the gas discharge pipeline. With such a constitution, the following advantages can be attained. (1) Heat transfer from the reactor pressure vessel to water of a reactor container can be suppressed by filled gases and heat insulation metal material. (2) Since the pressure at the inside of the water tight walls can be equalized with the pressure of the inside of the reactor container, the thickness of the water-tight walls can be reduced. (3) Since intrusion of water to the inside of the walls due to rupture of the water tight walls is detected by the water detector, reactor scram can be conducted rapidly. (4) The sealing property of the flange joint portion is sufficient and detaching operation thereof is easy. (I.S.)

  7. Study on Automatic Solar Heat Insulated and Cooling Device of Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gui-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the common device for heat insulated and cooling of car, an improved new scheme which drove by solar energy is put forward. In this study, the transmission device are arranged inside the automobile, the thin-film solar is composited into the heat insulated and cooling material. Thus, the whole device can be driven by the energy from the photovoltaic conversion, which is clear and zero-pollution. The theoretical energy consumptions and preventable gas emissions are calculated to verify the environmental savings of the device. The results show that it has promising application prospect since it is not only environmentally friendly but also save and convenient as compared to the conventional device.

  8. Design of device driver program for PCI data acquisition adapters based on WDM of windows 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Weihua; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan; Zhu Haijun

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the design of device driver program for PCI data acquisition adapters based on WDM of Windows 2000. Give an actual example of PCI6208. Now, several data acquisition adapters based in this method are using in national big science engineer HIRFL-CSR. (authors)

  9. Phase Coherence and Andreev Reflection in Topological Insulator Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. K. Finck

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators (TIs have attracted immense interest because they host helical surface states. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, they are robust to nonmagnetic disorder. When superconductivity is induced in these helical states, they are predicted to emulate p-wave pairing symmetry, with Majorana states bound to vortices. Majorana bound states possess non-Abelian exchange statistics that can be probed through interferometry. Here, we take a significant step towards Majorana interferometry by observing pronounced Fabry-Pérot oscillations in a TI sandwiched between a superconducting and a normal lead. For energies below the superconducting gap, we observe a doubling in the frequency of the oscillations, arising from an additional phase from Andreev reflection. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the TI surface, a number of very sharp and gate-tunable conductance peaks appear at or near zero energy, which has consequences for interpreting spectroscopic probes of Majorana fermions. Our results demonstrate that TIs are a promising platform for exploring phase-coherent transport in a solid-state system.

  10. Memory window engineering of Ta2O5-x oxide-based resistive switches via incorporation of various insulating frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Rahm; Baek, Gwang Ho; Kim, Tae Yoon; Ko, Won Bae; Yang, Seung Mo; Kim, Jongmin; Im, Hyun Sik; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) stackable memory frames, including nano-scaled crossbar arrays, are one of the most reliable building blocks to meet the demand of high-density non-volatile memory electronics. However, their utilization has the disadvantage of introducing issues related to sneak paths, which can negatively impact device performance. We address the enhancement of complementary resistive switching (CRS) features via the incorporation of insulating frames as a generic approach to extend their use; here, a Pt/Ta2O5-x/Ta/Ta2O5-x/Pt frame is chosen as the basic CRS cell. The incorporation of Ta/Ta2O5-x/Ta or Pt/amorphous TaN/Pt insulting frames into the basic CRS cell ensures the appreciably advanced memory features of CRS cells including higher on/off ratios, improved read margins, and increased selectivity without reliability degradation. Experimental observations identified that a suitable insulating frame is crucial for adjusting the abrupt reset events of the switching element, thereby facilitating the enhanced electrical characteristics of CRS cells that are suitable for practical applications.

  11. Review of window and filter requirements for commissioning of the Advanced Photon Source insertion device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Wang, Zhibi.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is building 16 insertion device (ID) front ends for the first phase of the project. Eleven of these are to be equipped with the APS Undulator A and the other five with a Wiggler-A-type source. The Undulator A front ends are designed to operate in a ''windowless'' mode using an APS-designed differential pump. However, during beamline commissioning and early operations of the storage ring, it is prudent to install windows to ensure storage ring vacuum safety before easing into windowless operation. However, the window designed for this interim period may not meet all the needs of a user's scientific program. In the early phases of the project through commissioning and start of operations, such a window will permit the user to prepare for his program, while allowing both the user and the facility operators to gain experience for safe phasing into eventual windowless operations. In this report, we will present analysis and design options for a variety of windows particularly suited to either the APS Undulator A front ends or as user windows located in the first optics enclosure (FOE)

  12. All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang

    2017-12-01

    A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  13. Metal insulator semiconductor solar cell devices based on a Cu2O substrate utilizing h-BN as an insulating and passivating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Zettl, Alex; Regan, William Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active Cu 2 O layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu 2 O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date

  14. Device Performance of the Mott InsulatorDevice Performance of the Mott Insulator LaVO3 as a Photovoltaic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lingfei

    2015-06-22

    Searching for solar-absorbing materials containing earth-abundant elements with chemical stability is of critical importance for advancing photovoltaic technologies. Mott insulators have been theoretically proposed as potential photovoltaic materials. In this paper, we evaluate their performance in solar cells by exploring the photovoltaic properties of Mott insulator LaVO3 (LVO). LVO films show an indirect band gap of 1.08 eV as well as strong light absorption over a wide wavelength range in the solar spectrum. First-principles calculations on the band structure of LVO further reveal that the d−d transitions within the upper and lower Mott-Hubbard bands and p−d transitions between the O 2p and V 3d band contribute to the absorption in visible and ultraviolet ranges, respectively. Transport measurements indicate strong carrier trapping and the formation of polarons in LVO. To utilize the strong light absorption of LVO and to overcome its poor carrier transport, we incorporate it as a light absorber in solar cells in conjunction with carrier transporters and evaluate its device performance. Our complementary experimental and theoretical results on such prototypical solar cells made of Mott-Hubbard transition-metal oxides pave the road for developing light-absorbing materials and photovoltaic devices based on strongly correlated electrons.

  15. Filter and window assemblies for high power insertion device synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Viccaro, P.J.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The powerful beams of x-ray radiation generated by insertion devices at high power synchrotron facilities deposit substantial amounts of localized heat in the front end and optical components that they intercept. X-ray beams from undulator sources, in particular, are confined to very narrow solid angles and therefore impose very high absorbed heat fluxes. This paper is devoted to a detailed study of the design of windows for the Advanced Photon Source undulators and wigglers, emphasizing alternative design concepts, material considerations, and cooling techniques necessary for handling the high heat load of the insertion devices. Various designs are thermally and structurally analyzed by numerically simulating full-power operating conditions. This analysis also has relevance to the design and development of other beam line components which are subjected to the high heat loads of insertion devices

  16. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  17. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  18. Solar Heat Gain Reduction of Ventilated Double Skin Windows without a Shading Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokyoung Koo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With global efforts to strengthen various energy-saving policies for buildings to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in South Korea, new laws and regulations have been in force since May 2015 to install shading devices in public buildings and to include the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC reduction performance of shading devices in the evaluation of building performance. By making a ventilated air layer outer glass and inner glass to lower the temperatures of the air layer and glass surface, it is possible to reduce the amount of heat flowing into the building while maintaining the same level of light transmission as plain window systems. This study proposes a double-skin façade window with a 20 mm ventilated air cavity, and assumes that insolation inflow indoors would be reduced through ventilation in the air cavity. The artificial solar lab test results show that the SHGC can be lowered through ventilation by 28% to 52.9%. Additionally, in an outdoor test cell experiment, the results show that the mean temperature was 0.6 K and the peak temperature was 0.9 K lower with ventilation in the air cavity than that without ventilation in the air cavity.

  19. Investigation of the Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) Electron Resist as Insulating Material in Phase Change Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiao; Ji, Hongkai; Lan, Tian; Yan, Junbing; Zhou, Wenli; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-01-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) affords many advantages over conventional solid-state memories due to its nonvolatility, high speed, and scalability. However, high programming current to amorphize the crystalline phase through the melt-quench process of PCRAM, known as the RESET current, poses a critical challenge and has become the most significant obstacle for its widespread commercialization. In this work, an excellent negative tone resist for high resolution electron beam lithography, hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), has been investigated as the insulating material which locally blocks the contact between the bottom electrode and the phase change material in PCRAM devices. Fabrications of the highly scaled HSQ nanopore arrays (as small as 16 nm) are presented. The insulating properties of the HSQ material are studied, especially under e-beam exposure plus thermal curing. Some other critical issues about the thickness adjustment of HSQ films and the influence of the PCRAM electrode on electron scattering in e-beam lithography are discussed. In addition, the HSQ material was successfully integrated into the PCRAM devices, achieving ultra-low RESET current (sub-100 μA), outstanding on/off ratios (~50), and improved endurance at tens of nanometers.

  20. Space and military radiation effects in silicon-on-insulator devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Advantages in transient ionizing and single-event upset (SEU) radiation hardness of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology spurred much of its early development. Both of these advantages are a direct result of the reduced charge collection volume inherent to SOI technology. The fact that SOI transistor structures do not include parasitic n-p-n-p paths makes them immune to latchup. Even though considerable improvement in transient and single-event radiation hardness can be obtained by using SOI technology, there are some attributes of SOI devices and circuits that tend to limit their overall hardness. These attributes include the bipolar effect that can ultimately reduce the hardness of SOI ICs to SEU and transient ionizing radiation, and charge buildup in buried and sidewall oxides that can degrade the total-dose hardness of SOI devices. Nevertheless, high-performance SOI circuits can be fabricated that are hardened to both space and nuclear radiation environments, and radiation-hardened systems remain an active market for SOI devices. The effects of radiation on SOI MOS devices are reviewed

  1. Space and military radiation effects in silicon-on-insulator devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Advantages in transient ionizing and single-event upset (SEU) radiation hardness of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology spurred much of its early development. Both of these advantages are a direct result of the reduced charge collection volume inherent to SOI technology. The fact that SOI transistor structures do not include parasitic n-p-n-p paths makes them immune to latchup. Even though considerable improvement in transient and single-event radiation hardness can be obtained by using SOI technology, there are some attributes of SOI devices and circuits that tend to limit their overall hardness. These attributes include the bipolar effect that can ultimately reduce the hardness of SOI ICs to SEU and transient ionizing radiation, and charge buildup in buried and sidewall oxides that can degrade the total-dose hardness of SOI devices. Nevertheless, high-performance SOI circuits can be fabricated that are hardened to both space and nuclear radiation environments, and radiation-hardened systems remain an active market for SOI devices. The effects of radiation on SOI MOS devices are reviewed.

  2. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of insulation materials for HTS power devices at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyung Seop; Diaz, Mark Angelo [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In superconducting power devices including power cables in which high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes are utilized, a reliable electrical insulation should be achieved for its maximum performance. For an efficient design of HTS superconducting devices, a comparative evaluation of the mechanical and thermal propperties for various insulation materials at cryogenic temperatures is required. Especially, in the process of the property evaluation of the sheet-shaped insulation materials, anisotropy according to the machining direction should be considered because the mechanical and thermal properties are significantly influenced by the sample orientation. In this study, the cryogenic thermal and mechanical properties of various insulation material sheets such as PPLP, Cryoflex, Teflon, and Kapton were determined considering sample orientation. All samples tested at cryogenic temperature showed significantly higher tensile strength as compared with that of room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength at both temperature conditions significantly depended upon the sample orientation. The thermal properties of the insulation materials exhibited a slight difference among samples depending on the orientation: for the PPLP and Cryoflex, the CD orientation showed larger thermal contraction up to 77 K as compared to the MD one. MD samples in PPLP and Cryoflex showed a lower CTE and thermal contraction which made it more promising as an insulation material due to its comparable CTE with HTS CC tapes.

  3. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  4. Thermal processing of strained silicon-on-insulator for atomically precise silicon device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.C.T.; Bishop, N.; Thompson, D.L.; Xue, K.; Scappucci, G.; Cederberg, J.G.; Gray, J.K.; Han, S.M.; Celler, G.K.; Carroll, M.S.; Simmons, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) samples were flash-annealed at high temperature under ultra-high vacuum conditions. ► The extend of surface strain relaxation depends on the annealing temperature with no strain relaxation observed below 1020 °C. ► A 2 × 1 reconstructed surface with low defect density can be achieved. ► The annealed sSOI surface shows enhanced step undulations due to the unique energetics caused by surface strain. - Abstract: We investigate the ability to reconstruct strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) substrates in ultra-high vacuum for use in atomic scale device fabrication. Characterisation of the starting sSOI substrate using μRaman shows an average tensile strain of 0.8%, with clear strain modulation in a crosshatch pattern across the surface. The surfaces were heated in ultra-high vacuum from temperatures of 900 °C to 1100 °C and subsequently imaged using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The initial strain modulation on the surface is observed to promote silicon migration and the formation of crosshatched surface features whose height and pitch increases with increasing annealing temperature. STM images reveal alternating narrow straight S A steps and triangular wavy S B steps attributed to the spontaneous faceting of S B and preferential adatom attachment on S B under biaxial tensile strain. Raman spectroscopy shows that despite these high temperature anneals no strain relaxation of the substrate is observed up to temperatures of 1020 °C. Above 1100 °C, strain relaxation is evident but is confined to the surface.

  5. Ultra high vacuum fabrication of metallic contacts for molecular devices on an insulating surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostner, Shawn

    The preparation and characterization of metallic wires on insulating substrates by a variety of mechanisms has been explored. A multi-scale approach utilizing microfabricated silicon stencil masks, feedback controlled electromigration, and field induced metal cluster deposition in a novel geometry has been explored on potassium bromide (KBr), indium phosphide (InP), and silicon oxide substrates in an ultra-high vacuum environment (UHV). The initial deposition of gold, and tantalum wires between one hundred nanometers and micrometers in size was performed using reinforced silicon nanostencils. The stencil fabrication was discussed, and an examination of the deformation of the integrated structures under the deposition of highly stressed tantalum films was shown to be significantly smaller than typical structures. Metallic wires deposited using these stencils as well as electron beam lithography were electrically stressed and the breaking characteristics analyzed. Typical nanometer scale gaps were observed, as well as larger features more commonly found in the breaking of bamboo-like structures in gold wires 100 nm in size or less, particularly with a significant series resistance. These larger gaps are expected to be more applicable for the deposition of subsequent metallic clusters and preparation of molecular devices. As a step towards connecting the initially deposited wires as well as localized molecules in an a fashion allowing atomic scale imaging by AFM, modelling and experiments of field induced deposition of gold clusters on KBr and InP substrates was carried out. Deposition on InP substrates with a backside 2D electron gas as a counter-electrode demonstrated the feability of this deposition technique in UHV. Subsequent depositions on or adjacent to metallic pads on the bulk insulating KBr provided a proof of principle of the technique, though some experimental limitations such as large current pulses with the tip in close proximity to the surface are

  6. Application of diamond window for infrared laser diagnostics in a tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Yasunori; Chiba, Shinichi; Inoue, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposited diamond disks have been successfully applied as the vacuum windows for infrared CO 2 laser interferometry and polarimetry used in electron density measurement in the JT-60U tokamak. In comparison with the conventional zinc-selenide windows, the Faraday rotation component of diamond windows was negligible. This results in an improvement of the Faraday rotation measurement of tokamak plasma by polarimetry

  7. Optical Evaluation of Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs) with UV-Grade Fused Silica, Sapphire, and Magnesium Fluoride Windows and Longterm Reflectance of Bare Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Travinsky, Anton; Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran; Raisanen, Alan; Robberto, Massimo; Heap, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Digital micromirror devices (DMDs) are commercial micro-electromechanical systems, consisting of millions of mirrors which can be individually addressed and tilted into one of two states (+/-12deg). These devices were developed to create binary patterns in video projectors, in the visible range. Commercially available DMDs are hermetically sealed and extremely reliable. Recently, DMDs have been identified as an alternative to microshutter arrays for space-based multi-object spectrometers (MOS). Specifically, the MOS at the heart of the proposed Galactic Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) uses the DMD as a reprogrammable slit mask. Unfortunately, the protective borosilicate windows limit the use of DMDs in the UV and IR regimes, where the glass has insufficient throughput. In this work, we present our efforts to replace standard DMD windows with custom windows made from UV-grade fused silica, low-absorption optical sapphire (LAOS) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). We present transmission measurements of the antireflection coated windows and the reflectance of bare (window removed) DMDs. Furthermore, we investigated the long-term stability of the DMD reflectance and experiments for coating DMD active area with a layer of pure aluminum (Al) to boost reflectance performance in the UV spectral range (200-400 nm).

  8. Mechanical reliability of ceramic windows in high frequency microwave heating devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferber, M.K.; Kimrey, H.D.; Becher, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature and stress distributions generated in ceramic window materials currently employed in microwave gyrotron tubes were determined for a variety of operating conditions. Face-cooled windows of both polycrystalline BeO and polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 were considered. The actual analysis involved three steps. First, a computer program was used to determine the electric field distribution within the window at a given power level and frequency. This program was capable of describing both the radial and axial dependence of the electric field. Second, the field distribution was used to derive an expression for the heat generated per unit volume per unit time within the window due to dielectric losses. A generalized heat conduction computer code was then used to compute the temperature distribution based on the heat generation function. Finally, the stresses were determined from the temperature profiles using a finite-element computer program. Primary emphasis was given to determining the effect of frequency upon the resulting thermal stress distribution. In addition, the effects of increasing window diameter and enhancing heat removal from the windows were considered. (author)

  9. Mechanical reliability of ceramic windows in high frequency microwave heating devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, P.F.; Ferber, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical reliability was evaluated for the specific alumina and beryllia ceramics now used as microwave windows in the high-power (>= 200 kW) high-frequency (>= 60 GHz) gyrotron tubes being developed for plasma heating in fusion systems. Previous analysis of the stresses generated in the various window configurations and tube operating conditions indicated that significant tensile stresses are generated in the ceramic window by dielectric heating. As a result, we characterized both the static fatigue behaviour in the fluorocarbon fluid used to cool gyrotron windows and the inert strength distributions for these two ceramics. These data were then analysed in order to construct reliability diagrams for these two materials. Such diagrams revealed that the use of these specific ceramic materials will be limited by their time to failure at the tensile stresses imposed on them under the gyrotron operating conditions. The fatigue behaviour and inert strengths of both materials could be improved by increasing their density and employing a uniform fine grain size. Such material improvements would permit significant increases in the mechanical reliability of the gyrotron microwave window. (author)

  10. Measurement of g-value for windows with different solar shading devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Gudum, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    The resulting g-value (total solar energy transmittance) of windows with different combinations of glazing type and solar shading type is investigated by means of measurements. The measurements are carried out by exposing the indoor test facility (METSET) to sun from the indoor solar simulator (64...

  11. Capacitance Variation Induced by Microfluidic Two-Phase Flow across Insulated Interdigital Electrodes in Lab-On-Chip Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic two-phase flow detection has attracted plenty of interest in various areas of biology, medicine and chemistry. This work presents a capacitive sensor using insulated interdigital electrodes (IDEs to detect the presence of droplets in a microchannel. This droplet sensor is composed of a glass substrate, patterned gold electrodes and an insulation layer. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS cover bonded to the multilayered structure forms a microchannel. Capacitance variation induced by the droplet passage was thoroughly investigated with both simulation and experimental work. Olive oil and deionized water were employed as the working fluids in the experiments to demonstrate the droplet sensor. The results show a good sensitivity of the droplet with the appropriate measurement connection. This capacitive droplet sensor is promising to be integrated into a lab-on-chip device for in situ monitoring/counting of droplets or bubbles.

  12. Capacitance variation induced by microfluidic two-phase flow across insulated interdigital electrodes in lab-on-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Barbosa, Cátia

    2015-01-26

    Microfluidic two-phase flow detection has attracted plenty of interest in various areas of biology, medicine and chemistry. This work presents a capacitive sensor using insulated interdigital electrodes (IDEs) to detect the presence of droplets in a microchannel. This droplet sensor is composed of a glass substrate, patterned gold electrodes and an insulation layer. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cover bonded to the multilayered structure forms a microchannel. Capacitance variation induced by the droplet passage was thoroughly investigated with both simulation and experimental work. Olive oil and deionized water were employed as the working fluids in the experiments to demonstrate the droplet sensor. The results show a good sensitivity of the droplet with the appropriate measurement connection. This capacitive droplet sensor is promising to be integrated into a lab-on-chip device for in situ monitoring/counting of droplets or bubbles.

  13. Forming-free resistive switching characteristics of Ag/CeO2/Pt devices with a large memory window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Kim, Hyung Jun; Yang, Paul; Park, Jong-Sung; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyun Ho; Kang, Chi Jung; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2017-05-01

    Ag/CeO2(∼45 nm)/Pt devices exhibited forming-free bipolar resistive switching with a large memory window (low-resistance-state (LRS)/high-resistance-state (HRS) ratio >106) at a low switching voltage (104) at a pulse operation (±5 V, 50 μs). The high oxygen ionic conductivity of the CeO2 layer as well as the migration of silver facilitated the formation of filament for the transition to LRS at a low voltage without a high voltage forming operation. Also, a certain amount of defects in the CeO2 layer was required for stable HRS with space-charge-limited-conduction, which was confirmed comparing the devices with non-annealed and annealed CeO2 layers.

  14. Transistor memory devices with large memory windows, using multi-stacking of densely packed, hydrophobic charge trapping metal nanoparticle array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ikjun; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Sook Won; Cho, Jeong Ho; Cho, Jinhan

    2014-12-19

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memories have rapidly evolved from low-cost and flexible electronics with relatively low-memory capacities to memory devices that require high-capacity memory such as smart memory cards or solid-state hard drives. Here, we report the high-capacity OFET memories based on the multilayer stacking of densely packed hydrophobic metal NP layers in place of the traditional transistor memory systems based on a single charge trapping layer. We demonstrated that the memory performances of devices could be significantly enhanced by controlling the adsorption isotherm behavior, multilayer stacking structure and hydrophobicity of the metal NPs. For this study, tetraoctylammonium (TOA)-stabilized Au nanoparticles (TOA-Au(NPs)) were consecutively layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with an amine-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAD). The formed (PAD/TOA-Au(NP))(n) films were used as a multilayer stacked charge trapping layer at the interface between the tunneling dielectric layer and the SiO2 gate dielectric layer. For a single AuNP layer (i.e. PAD/TOA-Au(NP))1) with a number density of 1.82 × 10(12) cm(-2), the memory window of the OFET memory device was measured to be approximately 97 V. The multilayer stacked OFET memory devices prepared with four Au(NP) layers exhibited excellent programmable memory properties (i.e. a large memory window (ΔV(th)) exceeding 145 V, a fast switching speed (1 μs), a high program/erase (P/E) current ratio (greater than 10(6)) and good electrical reliability) during writing and erasing over a relatively short time scale under an operation voltage of 100 V applied at the gate.

  15. Transistor memory devices with large memory windows, using multi-stacking of densely packed, hydrophobic charge trapping metal nanoparticle array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ikjun; Cho, Jinhan; Kim, Beom Joon; Cho, Jeong Ho; Ryu, Sook Won

    2014-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memories have rapidly evolved from low-cost and flexible electronics with relatively low-memory capacities to memory devices that require high-capacity memory such as smart memory cards or solid-state hard drives. Here, we report the high-capacity OFET memories based on the multilayer stacking of densely packed hydrophobic metal NP layers in place of the traditional transistor memory systems based on a single charge trapping layer. We demonstrated that the memory performances of devices could be significantly enhanced by controlling the adsorption isotherm behavior, multilayer stacking structure and hydrophobicity of the metal NPs. For this study, tetraoctylammonium (TOA)-stabilized Au nanoparticles (TOA-Au NPs ) were consecutively layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with an amine-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAD). The formed (PAD/TOA-Au NP ) n films were used as a multilayer stacked charge trapping layer at the interface between the tunneling dielectric layer and the SiO 2 gate dielectric layer. For a single Au NP layer (i.e. PAD/TOA-Au NP ) 1 ) with a number density of 1.82 × 10 12 cm −2 , the memory window of the OFET memory device was measured to be approximately 97 V. The multilayer stacked OFET memory devices prepared with four Au NP layers exhibited excellent programmable memory properties (i.e. a large memory window (ΔV th ) exceeding 145 V, a fast switching speed (1 μs), a high program/erase (P/E) current ratio (greater than 10 6 ) and good electrical reliability) during writing and erasing over a relatively short time scale under an operation voltage of 100 V applied at the gate. (paper)

  16. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  17. Direct current heating in superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel devices for THz mixing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, P; Klapwijk, T.M; Kovtonyuk, S.; van de Stadt, H.

    1996-01-01

    DC heating effects in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions are studied by comparing junctions sandwiched between niobium or aluminum layers. With niobium a temperature rise of several Kelvin is observed, which is reduced by an order of magnitude by using aluminum. A simple

  18. Experimental evidence of negative quantum capacitance in topological insulator for sub-60-mV/decade steep switching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Lee, H.; Park, J.; Yu, H.-Y.; Kim, T. G.; Shin, C.

    2016-11-01

    As a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) has two-dimensional electron gas on its surface where negative quantum capacitance (NQC) can exist at a specific biasing condition. In order to experimentally confirm NQC in a TI, a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor (i.e., metal-Bi2Te3-SiO2-silicon) is fabricated. The capacitance-voltage measurement of the MIS capacitor at 300 K shows that as the depletion capacitance in silicon decreases, the total capacitance of the MIS capacitor, which consists of two capacitors connected in series (i.e., insulator capacitor and depletion capacitor), increases in the depletion region at a frequency of 50 kHz. The amplified capacitance indicates the existence of NQC on the surface of the TI, and it originates from the strongly correlated electron system. The NQC of the TI opens avenues for sub-60-mV/decade steep switching silicon devices.

  19. Multi Channels PWM Controller for Thermoelectric Cooler Using a Programmable Logic Device and Lab-Windows CVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli FLAXER

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a complete design of a multi channels PID controller for Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC using a pulse width modulation (PWM technique implemented by a dedicated programmable logic device (PLD programmed by VHDL. The PID control loop is implemented by software written by National Instrument Lab-Windows CVI. Due to the fact that the implementation is by a VHDL and PLD the design is modular, as a result, the circuit is very compact in size and very low cost as compared to any commercial product. In addition, since the control loop is implemented by software running on a personal computer (PC using a C language, it is easy to adjust the controller to various environmental conditions and for a width range of sensors like: a thermo couple (TC, thermistor, resistance temperature detectors (RTD etc. We demonstrate the performance of this circuit as a controller for a small incubator using thermistor as the temperature sensor.

  20. Synchronization of pairwise-coupled, identical, relaxation oscillators based on metal-insulator phase transition devices: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Abhinav; Shukla, Nikhil; Datta, Suman; Raychowdhury, Arijit

    2015-02-01

    Computing with networks of synchronous oscillators has attracted wide-spread attention as novel materials and device topologies have enabled realization of compact, scalable and low-power coupled oscillatory systems. Of particular interest are compact and low-power relaxation oscillators that have been recently demonstrated using MIT (metal-insulator-transition) devices using properties of correlated oxides. Further the computational capability of pairwise coupled relaxation oscillators has also been shown to outperform traditional Boolean digital logic circuits. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamics and synchronization of a system of two such identical coupled relaxation oscillators implemented with MIT devices. We focus on two implementations of the oscillator: (a) a D-D configuration where complementary MIT devices (D) are connected in series to provide oscillations and (b) a D-R configuration where it is composed of a resistor (R) in series with a voltage-triggered state changing MIT device (D). The MIT device acts like a hysteresis resistor with different resistances in the two different states. The synchronization dynamics of such a system has been analyzed with purely charge based coupling using a resistive (RC) and a capacitive (CC) element in parallel. It is shown that in a D-D configuration symmetric, identical and capacitively coupled relaxation oscillator system synchronizes to an anti-phase locking state, whereas when coupled resistively the system locks in phase. Further, we demonstrate that for certain range of values of RC and CC, a bistable system is possible which can have potential applications in associative computing. In D-R configuration, we demonstrate the existence of rich dynamics including non-monotonic flows and complex phase relationship governed by the ratios of the coupling impedance. Finally, the developed theoretical formulations have been shown to explain experimentally measured waveforms of such pairwise coupled

  1. Insulator-metal transition in substrate-independent VO2 thin film for phase-change devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohammad; Walia, Sumeet; Ahmed, Taimur; Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu

    2017-12-20

    Vanadium has 11 oxide phases, with the binary VO 2 presenting stimuli-dependent phase transitions that manifest as switchable electronic and optical features. An elevated temperature induces an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) as the crystal reorients from a monoclinic state (insulator) to a tetragonal arrangement (metallic). This transition is accompanied by a simultaneous change in optical properties making VO 2 a versatile optoelectronic material. However, its deployment in scalable devices suffers because of the requirement of specialised substrates to retain the functionality of the material. Sensitivity to oxygen concentration and larger-scale VO 2 synthesis have also been standing issues in VO 2 fabrication. Here, we address these major challenges in harnessing the functionality in VO 2 by demonstrating an approach that enables crystalline, switchable VO 2 on any substrate. Glass, silicon, and quartz are used as model platforms to show the effectiveness of the process. Temperature-dependent electrical and optical characterisation is used demonstrating three to four orders of magnitude in resistive switching, >60% chromic discrimination at infrared wavelengths, and terahertz property extraction. This capability will significantly broaden the horizon of applications that have been envisioned but remained unrealised due to the lack of ability to realise VO 2 on any substrate, thereby exploiting its untapped potential.

  2. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Vogel, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  3. Novel windows for "solar commodities": a device for CO2 reduction using plasmonic catalyst activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Alexander; Muñoz, Sergio; Sanz-Moral, Luis M; Brandner, Juergen J; Pfeifer, Peter; Martín, Ángel; Dittmeyer, Roland; Cocero, María J

    2015-01-01

    A novel plasmonic reactor concept is proposed and tested to work as a visible energy harvesting device while allowing reactions to transform CO2 to be carried out. Particularly the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction has been tested as a means to introduce renewable energy into the economy. The development of the new reactor concept involved the synthesis of a new composite capable of plasmonic activation with light, the development of an impregnation method to create a single catalyst reactor entity, and finally the assembly of a reaction system to test the reaction. The composite developed was based on a Cu/ZnO catalyst dispersed into transparent aerogels. This allows efficient light transmission and a high surface area for the catalyst. An effective yet simple impregnation method was developed that allowed introduction of the composites into glass microchannels. The activation of the reaction was made using LEDs that covered all the sides of the reactor allowing a high power delivery. The results of the reaction show a stable process capable of low temperature transformations.

  4. Suspended graphene devices with local gate control on an insulating substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Florian R; Cui, Zheng; Vojvodin, Cameron; Papaj, Michał; Deng, Chunqing; Bal, Mustafa; Lupascu, Adrian; Yurtalan, Muhammet A; Orgiazzi, Jean-Luc F X

    2015-01-01

    We present a fabrication process for graphene-based devices where a graphene monolayer is suspended above a local metallic gate placed in a trench. As an example we detail the fabrication steps of a graphene field-effect transistor. The devices are built on a bare high-resistivity silicon substrate. At temperatures of 77 K and below, we observe the field-effect modulation of the graphene resistivity by a voltage applied to the gate. This fabrication approach enables new experiments involving graphene-based superconducting qubits and nano-electromechanical resonators. The method is applicable to other two-dimensional materials. (paper)

  5. A device for thermally insulating a concrete wall covered with a thermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornille, Yvon; Felten, Paul.

    1973-01-01

    The device is characterized in that it comprises a stack of bricks of parallelepipedic shape of cellular silica, bound to one another and to a metal plate by means of a silica-mortar layer and of anchoring keys welded to the metal plate, at one end thereof, and embedded in at least two juxtaposed bricks, at the other end thereof. This can be used for unsulating the cavity located under the core of a high temperature reactor [fr

  6. A method and device for generating semi-insulating cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfaing, Yves; Triboulet, Robert; Marfaing, Gerard; Cornet, Alain; Siffert, Paul.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for preparing cadmium telluride in precise stoichiometric proportions. The invention consists in carrying out a series of three syntheses and re-crystallizations of cadmium telluride starting from a mixture in stoichiometric proportions, the last two crystallization steps being characterized in that one of them is carried out at high temperature whereas the other is carried out at a lower temperature, in the presence of a tellurium bath so as to minimize crystal defects. This applies to the manufacture of diodes for ionization chambers, nuclear of infrared detectors and electro-optical modulators [fr

  7. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  8. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  9. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised......-value of 0.7 W/m²K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m²K. No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. At a Danish location and North facing, the energy balance...

  10. Design and implementation of I2Vote-An interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Broekema, A.; Oudkerk, M.

    Purpose: To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. Methods: The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft (R) Windows

  11. Silicon on ferroelectic insulator field effect transistor (SOF-FET) a new device for the next generation ultra low power circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sakhi, Azzedin D.

    concept of negative capacitance. The new field effect transistor (FET) based on ferroelectric insulator named Silicon-On-Ferroelectric Insulator Field Effect Transistor (SOF-FET). This proposal is a promising methodology for future ultra-low-power applications, because it demonstrates the ability to replace the silicon-bulk based MOSFET, and offers subthreshold swing significantly lower than 60mV/decade and reduced threshold voltage to form a conducting channel. The SOF-FET can also solve the issue of junction leakage (due to the presence of unipolar junction between the top plate of the negative capacitance and the diffused areas that form the transistor source and drain). In this device the charge hungry ferroelectric film already limits the leakage.

  12. Carrier transport in flexible organic bistable devices of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong-Ick; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    The bistable effects of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer single layer by using flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that ZnO nanoparticles were formed inside the PMMA polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating PMMA polymer layer/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the ZnO nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing, and emission of charges in the electronic states of the ZnO nanoparticles. The carrier transport mechanism of the bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results by analyzing the effect of space charge.

  13. Identification and prediction of the fertile window with a new web-based medical device using a vaginal biosensor for measuring the circadian and circamensual core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Pedro-Antonio; Kaczmarczyk, Marta; Schiweck, Esther; Goeckenjan-Festag, Maren; Alexander, Henry

    2018-03-01

    Fertility awareness-based (FAB) methods represent a term that includes all family planning methods that are based on the identification of the fertile window. They are based on the woman's observation of physiological signs of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. The first approach consists basically in symptothermal methods accompanied by cervical mucus measurements and clinical menstrual cycling data recording. The second most often used methods are the urinary measurement of E3G and luteinizing hormone (LH) with a personalized computer system. Hence these systems lack the efficacy of the continuous circadian and circamensual measurement of the core body temperature. Only this approach enables the accurate detection of the ovulation during the fertile window. A new medical device called OvulaRing has been developed to fill this gap. In the present study, the system and its first clinical results are presented. OvulaRing is a medical device used just like a tampon. The device is a vaginal ring of evatane that contains an integrated biosensor. This sensor measures continuously every 5 min the core body temperature throughout the entire cycle. This device allows a circadian and circamensual intravaginal exact measurement. With this system, 288 measurements are created per day. The system can detect retrospectively and predict prospectively the fertile window of the users. One hundred and fifty eight women aged between 18 and 45 years used this medical device in an open non-randomized clinical study for 15 months. A total of 470 cycles could be recorded and were able for analysis. By the same time in a subgroup of patients, hormonal assessments of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol and progesterone as well as vaginal ultrasound were performed in parallel between the 9th and the 36th day of the cycle. The validation error due to software errors was 0.89% for the retrospective analysis; that means that the accuracy for the detection of

  14. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  15. Potential for normally-off operation from GaN metal oxide semiconductor devices based upon semi-insulating GaN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for preparing normally-off GaN devices incorporating semi-insulating (SI GaN materials are explored. The properties of SI GaN where carbon behaves as a deep level acceptor are predicted using a Shockley diagram. Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS structures based upon these on SI-GaN layers are designed. The bandgap alignment of these structures is analyzed using Poisson equations. Normally-off operation is shown to be possible in devices featuring a thin n-GaN layer and SI-GaN layer, because of a higher conduction band energy. It is also shown that higher threshold voltage can be achieved by reducing the carrier concentration of the n-GaN channel layer.

  16. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  17. Insulator applications in a Tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.

    1986-06-01

    Insulators, among which insulators ceramics, have great potential applications in fusion reactors. They will be used for all plasma-facing components as protection and, magnetic fusion devices being subject to large electrical currents flowing in any parts of the device, for their electrical insulating properties

  18. Design and implementation of I2Vote--an interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooijen, P M A; Broekema, A; Oudkerk, M

    2011-08-01

    To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft® Windows Mobile® 6 Classic with a large 3.5 in. TFT touch screen (320×240 pixel resolution), high luminance and integrated IEEE 802.11b/g wireless. For software development Visual Studio 2008 professional (Microsoft) was used and all components were written in C#. Two test sessions were conducted to test the software technically followed by two real classroom tests in a radiology class for medical students on thoracic radiology. The novel ARS, called I2Vote, was successfully implemented and provided an easy to use, stable setup. The acceptance of both students and teachers was very high and the interaction with the students improved because of the anonymous interaction possibility. An easy to use handheld based ARS that enables interactive, image-based, teaching is achieved. The system effectively adds an extra dimension to the use of an ARS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrical insulation for large multiaxis superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.R.; Rinde, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of interturn and interlayer insulation for superconducting magnets is discussed. The magnet problems of the Baseball II device are described. Manufacture of the insulation and radiation damage are mentioned. A planned experimental program is outlined

  20. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  1. Design and fabrication of 6.1-.ANG. family semiconductor devices using semi-insulating A1Sb substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherohman, John W [Livermore, CA; Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick Hong [Livermore, CA; Wu, Kuang Jen J [Cupertino, CA

    2007-05-29

    For the first time, an aluminum antimonide (AlSb) single crystal substrate is utilized to lattice-match to overlying semiconductor layers. The AlSb substrate establishes a new design and fabrication approach to construct high-speed, low-power electronic devices while establishing inter-device isolation. Such lattice matching between the substrate and overlying semiconductor layers minimizes the formation of defects, such as threaded dislocations, which can decrease the production yield and operational life-time of 6.1-.ANG. family heterostructure devices.

  2. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  3. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...... of ethnographic tools that required their involvement, such as making a diary of their heating experiences during a random week in the summer of 2014, taking photos of windows and sending postcards with specific tasks....

  4. Flexible transparent aerogels as window retrofitting films and optical elements with tunable birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingkun; Frazier, Allister W.; Zhao, Xinpeng; De La Cruz, Joshua A.; Hess, Andrew J.; Yang, Ronggui; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-06-01

    Experimental realization of optically transparent, mechanically robust and flexible aerogels has been a longstanding challenge, which limits their practical applications in energy-saving devices, such as thermally insulating films for enhancing energy efficiency of windows. The poor transparency precluded even hypothetical consideration of the possibility of birefringent aerogels. We develop birefringent and optically isotropic aerogels that combine properties of thermal super-insulation, mechanical robustness and flexibility, and transparency to visible-spectrum light. This unusual combination of physical properties is achieved by combining liquid crystalline self-organization of cellulose nanofibers with polysiloxane cross-linking and control of the nanoscale porosity to form hybrid organic-inorganic mesostructured aerogels. Potential applications of these inexpensive materials range from single pane window retrofitting to smart fabrics.

  5. Gate-control efficiency and interface state density evaluated from capacitance-frequency-temperature mapping for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Hong-An; Kudo, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis method for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices by using capacitance-frequency-temperature (C-f-T) mapping to evaluate the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density, both exhibiting correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance. The effectiveness of the method was exemplified by application to AlN/AlGaN/GaN MIS devices to elucidate the properties of AlN-AlGaN interfaces depending on their formation processes. Using the C-f-T mapping, we extract the gate-bias-dependent activation energy with its derivative giving the gate-control efficiency, from which we evaluate the AlN-AlGaN interface state density through the Lehovec equivalent circuit in the DC limit. It is shown that the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density have correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance, all depending on the interface formation processes. In addition, we give characterization of the AlN-AlGaN interfaces by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in relation with the results of the analysis

  6. Effect of post annealing on spin accumulation and transport signals in Co{sub 2}FeSi/MgO/n{sup +}-Si on insulator devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Ajay, E-mail: ajay1.tiwari@toshiba.co.jp; Inokuchi, Tomoaki; Ishikawa, Mizue; Sugiyama, Hideyuki; Saito, Yoshiaki [Corporate Research & Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 1 Komukai-Toshiba, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 212-8582 (Japan); Tezuka, Nobuki [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    The post annealing temperature dependence of spin accumulation and transport signals in Co{sub 2}FeSi/MgO/n{sup +}-Si on insulator were investigated. The spin signals were detected using 3- and 4-terminal Hanle, 2-terminal local and 4-terminal nonlocal magnetoresistance measurements. The post annealing temperature (T{sub A}) dependence of the magnitude in 3-terminal narrow Hanle signals is nearly constant up to T{sub A} < 400°C, however a slight decrease above T{sub A} ≥ 400°C is observed. This behavior is consistent with the T{sub A} dependence of the magnitude of 4-terminal nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) signals. The spin polarization estimated from the 3-terminal narrow Hanle signals and the magnitude of 2-terminal local MR signals show a slight improvement with increasing post annealing temperature with a peak at around 325°C and then start reducing slowly. The slight increase in the spin signal would be due to high spin polarization of Co{sub 2}FeSi as a result of structural ordering. The 2-terminal local MR signals do not vary significantly by annealing between as-deposited and T{sub A} = 400°C, indicating the robustness of our device. This result would be useful for future Si spintronics devices.

  7. Cellulose Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  8. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  9. Development of insulating substrates for multilayer thermoelectric devices; Elaboration d'elements de support dans des dispositifs thermoelectriques multicouches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiebu Kandolo, St.

    2005-10-15

    The design and fabrication of a high performance thermoelectric generator based on ceramic technology is envisaged. The system consists of n and p-type semi-conducting layers deposited on a thermally insulating dielectric substrate. The present work is devoted to the choice and preparation of the material for the substrate. The desired characteristics for a low thermal conductivity are an amorphous solid with a porous microstructure. Two raw materials were selected as candidates. The first is a clay, made of layered minerals for which de-hydroxylation at 600 deg. C leads to a disordered structure and the second is diatomite, a material constituted of amorphous silica with and inherent natural porosity inside plate like grains. Sintering the clay at 800 deg. C yields a material with thermal conductivity of 0.21 W/m.K at room temperature increasing to 0.26 W/m.K at 600 deg. C. In an attempt to decrease the thermal conductivity, the clay was mixed with fine amorphous silica or zircon. The zircon based mixture was the most effective giving a thermal conductivity of 0.19 W/m.K which remains constant with temperature. In addition to a low thermal conductivity, diatomite presents another interesting advantage. First, tape casting was used to obtain porous layers yielding a thermal conductivity as low as 0.08 W/m.K at room temperature. Then it was found that under certain preparation conditions, the tape cast diatomite formed with a thin dense layer at the surface. This facilitates deposition of the active semi-conductor layer by avoiding loss from penetration through the open porosity of the substrate. (author)

  10. Device for protecting the section of the airline electricity transmission with insulated neutral from incomplete phase modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagutdinov, R.Sh.; Batoyev, D.

    1982-01-01

    The device for USSR certificate of authorship 792439 is improved in order to raise reliability of isolating the damage zone by including into operation an antenna filter for voltage of zero sequence (AFNIP) only during the operating time of the electrical unit in incomplete phase mode. The newly introduced circuit breaker contract of the inlet relay of the voltage filter for reverse sequence is connected between the outlet of the AFNIP and the ground. The device additionally has a time relay which is connected to the outlet of the voltage filter of reverse sequence. The circuit breaker contact of the inlet relay AFNIP is connected in series to the closure contact of the time relay and the winding of the second outlet relay of the actuating mechanism.

  11. Large area plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline graphite on insulator for electronic device application

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Marek E.; Xu, Cigang; Cooke, Mike; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Chong, H.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on large area plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of nanocrystalline graphite (NCG) on thermally grown SiO2 wafer, quartz and sapphire substrates. Grown films are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Electrical characterization and optical transmission measurementsindicate promising properties of this material for use as transparent electrodes and for electronic device applicati...

  12. Energy efficiency façade design in high-rise apartment buildings using the calculation of solar heat transfer through windows with shading devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, P. T. H.

    2018-04-01

    The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.

  13. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  14. Metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  15. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsuan Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  16. In-situ thermal annealing of on-membrane silicon-on-insulator semiconductor-based devices after high gamma dose irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, S; André, N; Kilchytska, V; Tounsi, F; Mezghani, B; Gérard, P; Ali, Z; Udrea, F; Flandre, D; Francis, L A

    2017-05-05

    In this paper, we investigate the recovery of some semiconductor-based components, such as N/P-type field-effect transistors (FETs) and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter, after being exposed to a high total dose of gamma ray radiation. The employed method consists mainly of a rapid, low power and in situ annealing mitigation technique by silicon-on-insulator micro-hotplates. Due to the ionizing effect of the gamma irradiation, the threshold voltages showed an average shift of -580 mV for N-channel transistors, and -360 mV for P-MOSFETs. A 4 min double-cycle annealing of components with a heater temperature up to 465 °C, corresponding to a maximum power of 38 mW, ensured partial recovery but was not sufficient for full recovery. The degradation was completely recovered after the use of a built-in high temperature annealing process, up to 975 °C for 8 min corresponding to a maximum power of 112 mW, which restored the normal operating characteristics for all devices after their irradiation.

  17. CMOS-analogous wafer-scale nanotube-on-insulator approach for submicrometer devices and integrated circuits using aligned nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Koungmin; Badmaev, Alexander; Wang, Chuan; Lin, Albert; Patil, Nishant; Gomez, Lewis; Kumar, Akshay; Mitra, Subhasish; Wong, H-S Philip; Zhou, Chongwu

    2009-01-01

    Massive aligned carbon nanotubes hold great potential but also face significant integration/assembly challenges for future beyond-silicon nanoelectronics. We report a wafer-scale processing of aligned nanotube devices and integrated circuits, including progress on essential technological components such as wafer-scale synthesis of aligned nanotubes, wafer-scale transfer of nanotubes to silicon wafers, metallic nanotube removal and chemical doping, and defect-tolerant integrated nanotube circuits. We have achieved synthesis of massive aligned nanotubes on complete 4 in. quartz and sapphire substrates, which were then transferred to 4 in. Si/SiO(2) wafers. CMOS analogous fabrication was performed to yield transistors and circuits with features down to 0.5 mum, with high current density approximately 20 muA/mum and good on/off ratios. In addition, chemical doping has been used to build fully integrated complementary inverter with a gain approximately 5, and a defect-tolerant design has been employed for NAND and NOR gates. This full-wafer approach could serve as a critical foundation for future integrated nanotube circuits.

  18. Renovation and design of double casement windows with regard to the occurrence of water vapour condensation or mould on the interior surface of the window jamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnacova, L.; Balik, L.

    2017-10-01

    The condensation of water vapour on the interior surface is an indicator of construction dysfunction or ignoring of the surroundings temperature and relative humidity. This paper deals with analysis of the occurrence of condensation on the jamb of double casement windows (windows with two window casements). More precisely, this is a surface in the interior where water vapour condensation or mould occur. For the renovation of existing double casement windows, there are different solutions based on window design: application of double insulating glazing on the interior window casement, application of double insulating glazing on the exterior casement, or installation of a simple window. We first describe measurement of an existing double casement window located in a mountain cottage. Second, the results and comparison of 2D thermal model of different types of double casement window construction. Also, the external insulation of the peripheral wall was included in the model.

  19. Electrically tunable window based on microwrinkled ZnO/Ag thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Milan; Asundi, Anand; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2017-04-01

    Micro-winkling can turn a transparent thin-film of zinc oxide (ZnO) to be `opaque' that can be reversed by unfolding to restore back to the clear state. This principle was previously used to make a mechanically tunable window device. However, ZnO thin film cannot make a compliant electrode to enable electrical unfolding due to its insulator nature. This paper reports the use of multilayer thin films of 10nm silver (Ag) and 30nm thick ZnO to form a compliant electrode with electrically tunable transmittance. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) with a pair of such compliant Ag/ZnO thin films on both sides of a polyacrylate elastomeric membrane (3M VHB 4910) makes an electrically tunable window device. The DEA without radial compression of the elastomer has wrinkle-free electrode. Hence, it is clear with a 47% in-line transmittance (for 550nm wavelength light). In the wrinkled form, under 10% radial compression, it becomes opaque (with less than 1% transmittance). A voltage induced areal expansion of 10% radial strain enables the electrical unfolding of the initial wrinkles. In addition, this device continues to work after 4000 cycles of unfolding and microwrinkling of Ag/ZnO. The performance of electrically tunable window device is comparable to the existing smart window technologies.

  20. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  1. Thermal monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.E.; Choi, E.; Hu, G.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    In a practical gyrotron device, the design of a reliable vacuum window to withstand high mean power densities is of utmost importance. Computer modelling of an actual window assumes a number of conditions including the power density profile, the electromagnetic wave attenuation constant of the window material and heat transfer coefficients. The last two factors can vary significantly with temperature. A technique for actually monitoring the real time temperature distribution over the window surface with an IR camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. This measurement serves as an aid for developing the analysis of window designs. The ability to observe small hot spots due to tiny metallic specks on the window surface is also of great value in quality control and window failure prevention. The experimental arrangement involves an infrared camera (AGA780) with an indium antimonide detector (3-5 μm) observing the window through a grid pattern of tiny holes (cutoff for the 3rd harmonic of 60 GHz). A 12 0 FOV lens with a 12mm extension ring was used to defocus the grid. The thermal emissivity E /sub w/ approx. = 0.95. Thus, an IR measurement of the window is a surface temperature measurement. To minimize the problem of external reflections, the outside surface of the waveguide was painted black. This then requires a cool waveguide; room temperature is sufficient

  2. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  3. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  4. Topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Topological Insulators, volume six in the Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Series, describes the recent revolution in condensed matter physics that occurred in our understanding of crystalline solids. The book chronicles the work done worldwide that led to these discoveries and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field. Starting in 2004, theorists began to explore the effect of topology on the physics of band insulators, a field previously considered well understood. However, the inclusion of topology brings key new elements into this old field. Whereas it was

  5. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  6. Translucent Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1998-01-01

    Two new types of translucent materials are presented. One is translucent fiber insulation and the other type is a new type of hony-comb made of Celulose-acetat. Data for the materials and calculations of energy savings when using the materials in building envelopes are presented....

  7. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    artificial from natural stimuli and detects common and individual needs by measuring heart pulse and body temperature. The focal point here is light and how light affects human perception while at the same time the perception of sound and how gesture can provide the best possible cognition of actual needs...... light is a form that adapts natures’ properties and modifies the artificial environment as a stage direction, implying at the same time mood and modifying it in collaboration with sound. Having evaluated how this affects the body and human perception in this particular time that we experience nowadays......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  8. Catalytic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-01-23

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to catalytic devices. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, an electrically insulating layer disposed on the substrate, a layer of material disposed on the electrically insulating layer, and a catalyst disposed on the layer of material. The substrate comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate and the layer of material are electrically coupled to one another and configured to have a voltage applied across them.

  9. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  10. Energy-efficient window systems. Effects on energy use and daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow-Huebe, H.

    2001-11-01

    This thesis deals with energy-efficient windows in Swedish buildings. Parametric studies were performed in the dynamic energy simulation tool Derob-LTH in order to study the effects of window choices on energy use and indoor climate for both residential and office buildings. A steady-state program was used to evaluate two years of measurements of energy use and indoor temperatures of an energy-efficient row-house. Two behavioural studies regarding (1) daylight transmittance, view and room perception using super-insulated windows and (2) the satisfaction with the daylight environment and the use of shading devices in response to daylight/sunlight were conducted in full-scale laboratory environments exposed to the natural climate. Results show that as the energy-efficiency of buildings increase, window U-values must decrease in order not to increase the annual heating demand, since the heating season is shortened, and useful solar gains become smaller. For single-family houses with a window-to-floor area ratio of 15 % and insulated according the current Swedish building code, the U-values should thus on average be lower than 1.0 W/m{sup 2}K. For houses insulated according to 1960s standard, the U-value may on average be 1.6 W/m{sup 2}K. For colder climates (northern Sweden), the U-values should be somewhat lower, while slightly higher U-values can be tolerated in milder climates of south Sweden. Thermal comfort during winter is improved for energy-efficient windows. However, overheating problems exist for both super-insulated houses and highly glazed office buildings showing a need for very low U-values in combination with low g-values. Daylight experiments indicate that the use of two low-emittance coatings tints the transmitted daylight enough to be appreciated, and colours may be perceived as more drab and rooms more enclosed. A compromise between energy-efficiency and daylighting may be needed, and it is suggested that only one coating be used except when very

  11. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  12. Ceramics for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  13. Insulating process for HT-7U central solenoid model coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yimin; Pan Wanjiang; Wu Songtao; Wan Yuanxi

    2003-01-01

    The HT-7U superconducting Tokamak is a whole superconducting magnetically confined fusion device. The insulating system of its central solenoid coils is critical to its properties. In this paper the forming of the insulating system and the vacuum-pressure-impregnating (VPI) are introduced, and the whole insulating process is verified under the super-conducting experiment condition

  14. Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-07-14

    The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modification of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. In particular, the field-controlled ferromagnetism in a magnetic topological insulator can be used for voltage based writing of magnetic random access memories in magnetic tunnel junctions. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such devices may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators.

  15. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  16. Si3N4/Si/In0.05Ga0.95As/n endash GaAs metal endash insulator endash semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.; Li, D.; Tao, M.; Fan, Z.; Botchkarev, A.E.; Mohammad, S.N.; Morkoc, H.

    1997-01-01

    We report a novel metal endash insulator endash semiconductor (MIS) structure exhibiting a pseudomorphic In 0.05 Ga 0.95 As layer on GaAs with interface state densities in the low 10 11 eV -1 cm -2 . The structure was grown by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition methods. The hysteresis and frequency dispersion of the MIS capacitor were lower than 100 mV, some of them as low as 30 mV under a field swing of about ±1.3 MV/cm. The 150-Angstrom-thick In 0.05 Ga 0.95 As channel between Si and GaAs is found to bring about a change in the minority carrier recombination behavior of the GaAs channel, in the same way as done by In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As channel MIS structures. Self-aligned gate depletion mode In 0.05 Ga 0.95 As metal endash insulator endash semiconductor field-effect transistors having 3 μm gate lengths exhibited field-effect bulk mobility of 1400 cm 2 /Vs and transconductances of about 170 mS/mm. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. PREFACE: INERA Workshop: Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films-functional Layers in "Smart windows" and Water Splitting Devices. Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Special issue presents the papers for the INERA Workshop entitled "Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices", which was held in Varna, St. Konstantin and Elena, Bulgaria, from the 4th-6th September 2014. The Workshop is organized within the context of the INERA "Research and Innovation Capacity Strengthening of ISSP-BAS in Multifunctional Nanostructures", FP7 Project REGPOT 316309 program, European project of the Institute of Solid State Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. There were 42 participants at the workshop, 16 from Sweden, Germany, Romania and Hungary, 11 invited lecturers, and 28 young participants. There were researchers present from prestigious European laboratories which are leaders in the field of transition metal oxide thin film technologies. The event contributed to training young researchers in innovative thin film technologies, as well as thin films characterization techniques. The topics of the Workshop cover the field of technology and investigation of thin oxide films as functional layers in "Smart windows" and "Water splitting" devices. The topics are related to the application of novel technologies for the preparation of transition metal oxide films and the modification of chromogenic properties towards the improvement of electrochromic and termochromic device parameters for possible industrial deployment. The Workshop addressed the following topics: Metal oxide films-functional layers in energy efficient devices; Photocatalysts and chemical sensing; Novel thin film technologies and applications; Methods of thin films characterizations; From the 37 abstracts sent, 21 manuscripts were written and later refereed. We appreciate the comments from all the referees, and we are grateful for their valuable contributions. Guest Editors: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Tatyana Ivanova Prof. DSc Kostadinka Gesheva Prof. DSc Hassan Chamatti Assoc. Prof. Dr. Georgi Popkirov Workshop Organizing Committee Prof

  18. Large-scale and patternable graphene: direct transformation of amorphous carbon film into graphene/graphite on insulators via Cu mediation engineering and its application to all-carbon based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ze; Medina, Henry; Lin, Hung-Chiao; Tsai, Hung-Wei; Su, Teng-Yu; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-02-07

    Chemical vapour deposition of graphene was the preferred way to synthesize graphene for multiple applications. However, several problems related to transfer processes, such as wrinkles, cleanness and scratches, have limited its application at the industrial scale. Intense research was triggered into developing alternative synthesis methods to directly deposit graphene on insulators at low cost with high uniformity and large area. In this work, we demonstrate a new concept to directly achieve growth of graphene on non-metal substrates. By exposing an amorphous carbon (a-C) film in Cu gaseous molecules after annealing at 850 °C, the carbon (a-C) film surprisingly undergoes a noticeable transformation to crystalline graphene. Furthermore, the thickness of graphene could be controlled, depending on the thickness of the pre-deposited a-C film. The transformation mechanism was investigated and explained in detail. This approach enables development of a one-step process to fabricate electrical devices made of all carbon material, highlighting the uniqueness of the novel approach for developing graphene electronic devices. Interestingly, the carbon electrodes made directly on the graphene layer by our approach offer a good ohmic contact compared with the Schottky barriers usually observed on graphene devices using metals as electrodes.

  19. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  20. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  1. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  2. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  3. Integral window hermetic fiber optic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  4. Initial Processes of Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 on InGaAs: Interface Formation Mechanisms and Impact on Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Device Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Takagi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Interface-formation processes in atomic layer deposition (ALD of Al2O3 on InGaAs surfaces were investigated using on-line Auger electron spectroscopy. Al2O3 ALD was carried out by repeating a cycle of Al(CH33 (trimethylaluminum, TMA adsorption and oxidation by H2O. The first two ALD cycles increased the Al KLL signal, whereas they did not increase the O KLL signal. Al2O3 bulk-film growth started from the third cycle. These observations indicated that the Al2O3/InGaAs interface was formed by reduction of the surface oxides with TMA. In order to investigate the effect of surface-oxide reduction on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS properties, capacitors and field-effect transistors (FETs were fabricated by changing the TMA dosage during the interface formation stage. The frequency dispersion of the capacitance-voltage characteristics was reduced by employing a high TMA dosage. The high TMA dosage, however, induced fixed negative charges at the MIS interface and degraded channel mobility.

  5. Characterization of Textile-Insulated Capacitive Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Charn Loong; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2017-01-01

    Capacitive biosensors are an emerging technology revolutionizing wearable sensing systems and personal healthcare devices. They are capable of continuously measuring bioelectrical signals from the human body while utilizing textiles as an insulator. Different textile types have their own unique properties that alter skin-electrode capacitance and the performance of capacitive biosensors. This paper aims to identify the best textile insulator to be used with capacitive biosensors by analysing ...

  6. Pengaruh Window Level Dan Window Width Pada Lung Window Dan Mediastinum Window Pada Kualitas Citra CT-Scan Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Syahnaro Lumban

    2015-01-01

    This Research of image CT-SCAN thorax with influence of window level and window width, to obtain, get value of window level and optimal window width lung window and mediastinum window, so that get image of CT-SCAN thorax which with image quality. Image of CT-SCAN thorax obtained for mediastinum window use window width 350, 400, 450, 500 HU. And Window level 50,100,150 HU. While for lung window use window width 1000,1100 HU. The window level - 500-,600,-700,-800,-900,-1000 HU, by three observe...

  7. Determination of Thermal Transmittance of Insulated Double Low-E Glazing Panel Using Portable Uglass Measuring Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkoo; Frenzl, Alexander; Kim, Taehan; Min, Steven; Blumm, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Windows are regarded as the primary object of energy efficiency in buildings because window is one of the major energy loss areas in building construction. Existing methods were not field measurements and were not enough to get the correct thermal transmittance. We used portable Ug measuring device on field and measured the thermal transmittance with low-E coated and uncoated double glazing panels in existing houses, apartments and buildings. In addition, we prepared four test benches and compared the insulation performance according to the construction conditions. In results, the insulation performance of double glazing panel with low-E coating is up to about 41 % higher than uncoated panel due to low-E coating inside and the glazing panel filled with about 90 % of argon gas decrease about 0.15 W \\cdot m^{-2} \\cdot K^{-1} than glazing panel filled with air gas. The measured results were compared with the theoretically calculated results according to DIN EN 673 to confirm the reliability of the analytical results. In this study, portable NETZSCH Uglass is used to increase the accuracy of calculation of thermal transmittance with various double and triple glazing panels. The paper analyzes the insulation performance of the double glazing panels in accordance with the construction conditions.

  8. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Freeman, J. (VAT, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)); Powell, F. (Luxel, Inc., Friday Harbor, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  10. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Freeman, J.; Powell, F.

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs

  11. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  12. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  13. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  14. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  15. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...

  16. Foundation for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Akio; Odajima, Kazuo; Ota, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns foundations for a thermonuclear device or relevant facilities and, more in particular, it relates to insulation structures upon installing the foundations. In a case of receiving great force such as of a thermonuclear device by way of insulation materials, since the strength of the insulation materials is smaller as compared with that of steel materials, the size of the foundation insulation structure tends to be increased. In view of the above in the present invention, insulative resin layers are applied to anchor sleeves fitted to the upper portion of foundation bolts. With such a constitution, insulation structure can be formed within foundation concretes. Accordingly, since legs of the device are covered with insulative resins in the foundation structure, it can provide an effect of eliminating the space required for the insulation structures above the ground. The structures can be applied not only to the thermonuclear device but also to electrical insulation structures for large current circuits, with similar effects. (I.S.)

  17. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  18. Insulating and protecting systems for a circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for insulating and protecting systems or pipework carrying liquid sodium in fast neutron nuclear reactor installations or water or superheated steam. This device considerably lowers the risks whilst making it possible to give the insulating improved mechanical strength, without limiting its thermal protection performance and particularly to build into this insulating a protection and safety barrier against projections of the fluid outwards should the system burst accidentally. To this effect, the device considered includes on the outer surface of the system at least two successive windings of a continuous and long strip composed of a flat sock in knitted metal, comprising transversal openings to provide communication between the inside and outside of the sock, such openings allowing the insertion of thin successive metal sheets extending over the length of the strip [fr

  19. High Power Coax Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T.S.; Rimmer, R.A.; Stirbet, M.

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting RF (SRF) power coupler capable of handling 500 kW CW RF power is required for present and future storage rings and linacs. There are over 35 coupler designs for SRF cavities ranging in frequency from 325 to 1500 MHz. Coupler windows vary from cylinders to cones to disks, and RF power couplers are limited by the ability of ceramic windows to withstand the stresses due to heating and mechanical flexure. We propose a novel robust co-axial SRF coupler design which uses compressed window technology. This technology will allow the use of highly thermally conductive materials for cryogenic windows. Using compressed window techniques on disk co-axial windows will make significant improvements in the power handling of SRF couplers. We present the bench test results of two window assemblies back to back, as well as individual window VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vacuum test assembly was made and the windows baked out at 155C. The processes used to build windows is scalable to larger diameter coax and to higher power levels.

  20. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  1. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  2. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  3. Windows Powershell Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This portable reference to Windows PowerShell summarizes both the command shell and scripting language, and provides a concise reference to the major tasks that make PowerShell so successful. Written by Microsoft PowerShell team member Lee Holmes, and excerpted from his Windows PowerShell Cookbook, Windows PowerShell Pocket Reference offers up-to-date coverage of PowerShell's 1.0 release. It's an ideal on-the-job tool for Windows administrators who don't have time to plow through huge books or search online.

  4. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  5. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  6. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  7. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  8. The windows method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neighbour, Roger; Larsen, Jan-Helge

    2017-01-01

    through in sequence, each one opening a different viewpoint or window on the case. To experienced tutors, the windows method’s prescriptive structure may at first seem somewhat rigid. However, for learners with less experience of reflection and self-disclosure, it provides the security necessary...

  9. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  10. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Horóczi, Eszter

    2017-01-01

    integrated into the window. A qualitative experiment is carried out by integrating controllable LED in the frame of a façade window in a full-scale mock-up. It is examined how this set-up can support the colour spectrum and intensity of the daylight intake during the transmission time from daylight...

  11. Air transparent soundproof window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr [Division of Marine Engineering, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  12. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  13. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  14. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  15. Exploring Homeowners’ Insulation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Friege, J; Holtz, G; Chappin, E.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Insulating existing buildings offers great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and meeting Germany’s climate protection targets. Previous research suggests that, since homeowners’ decision-making processes are inadequately understood as yet, today’s incentives aiming at increasing insulation activity lead to unsatisfactory results. We developed an agent-based model to foster the understanding of homeowners’ decision-making processes regarding insulation and to explore how situatio...

  16. A novel partial silicon on insulator high voltage LDMOS with low-k dielectric buried layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Rong, Luo; Yuan-Gang, Wang; Hao, Deng; Udrea, Florin

    2010-01-01

    A novel partial silicon-on-insulator (PSOI) high voltage device with a low-k (relative permittivity) dielectric buried layer (LK PSOI) and its breakdown mechanism are presented and investigated by MEDICI. At a low k value the electric field strength in the dielectric buried layer (E I ) is enhanced and a Si window makes the substrate share the vertical drop, resulting in a high vertical breakdown voltage; in the lateral direction, a high electric field peak is introduced at the Si window, which modulates the electric field distribution in the SOI layer; consequently, a high breakdown voltage (BV) is obtained. The values of E I and BV of LK PSOI with k I = 2 on a 2 μm thick SOI layer over 1 μm thick buried layer are enhanced by 74% and 19%, respectively, compared with those of the conventional PSOI. Furthermore, the Si window also alleviates the self-heating effect. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Plasmonics in Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Lai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With strong spin-orbit coupling, topological insulators have an insulating bulk state, characterized by a band gap, and a conducting surface state, characterized by a Dirac cone. Plasmons in topological insulators show high frequency-tunability in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions with transverse spin oscillations, also called “spin-plasmons”. This paper presents a discussion and review of the developments in this field from the fundamental theory of plasmons in bulk, thin-film, and surface-magnetized topological insulators to the techniques of plasmon excitation and future applications.

  18. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  19. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  20. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and to transfer the results from lab- to mid- and finally to large-scale making of 60 by 60 cm2 in a pre-industrial plant. The large samples forms the basis for assembly of evacuated aerogel glazings optimised with respect to thermal and optical properties. The production process development and transfer to pre...... invention of several technical solutions related to moulding and handling of the large gels. Despite the efforts only aerogels with a thickness up to 15 mm have been produced with a good reproducibility. The thermal conductivity is approximately 0.015 W/mK at atmospheric pressure and 0.010 W/mK at 10 h......Pa. The optical properties have been improved compared to previous aerogels thanks to the process and the smooth surfaces obtained and a heat treatment of the dried aerogel. A rim seal solution that offers the required air and moisture tightness without leading to severe thermal bridge effects has been developed...

  1. Magnonic topological insulators in antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kouki; Kim, Se Kwon; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Extending the notion of symmetry protected topological phases to insulating antiferromagnets (AFs) described in terms of opposite magnetic dipole moments associated with the magnetic N e ´el order, we establish a bosonic counterpart of topological insulators in semiconductors. Making use of the Aharonov-Casher effect, induced by electric field gradients, we propose a magnonic analog of the quantum spin Hall effect (magnonic QSHE) for edge states that carry helical magnons. We show that such up and down magnons form the same Landau levels and perform cyclotron motion with the same frequency but propagate in opposite direction. The insulating AF becomes characterized by a topological Z2 number consisting of the Chern integer associated with each helical magnon edge state. Focusing on the topological Hall phase for magnons, we study bulk magnon effects such as magnonic spin, thermal, Nernst, and Ettinghausen effects, as well as the thermomagnetic properties of helical magnon transport both in topologically trivial and nontrivial bulk AFs and establish the magnonic Wiedemann-Franz law. We show that our predictions are within experimental reach with current device and measurement techniques.

  2. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  4. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  5. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  6. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  7. The Development and Application of Simulative Insulation Resistance Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Chai, Ziqi; Wang, Bo; Ma, Hao

    2018-02-01

    The insulation state determines the performance and insulation life of electrical equipment, so it has to be judged in a timely and accurate manner. Insulation resistance test, as the simplest and most basic test of high voltage electric tests, can measure the insulation resistance and absorption ratio which are effective criterion of part or whole damp or dirty, breakdown, severe overheating aging and other insulation defects. It means that the electrical test personnel need to be familiar with the principle of insulation resistance test, and able to operate the insulation resistance tester correctly. At present, like the insulation resistance test, most of electrical tests are trained by physical devices with the real high voltage. Although this allows the students to truly experience the test process and notes on security, it also has certain limitations in terms of safety and test efficiency, especially for a large number of new staves needing induction training every year. This paper presents a new kind of electrical test training system based on the simulative device of dielectric loss measurement and simulative electrical testing devices. It can not only overcome the defects of current training methods, but also provide other advantages in economical efficiency and scalability. That makes it possible for the system to be allied in widespread.

  8. Windows 10 Technical Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Jyväsjärvi, Teppo

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutustaan uuden kesällä 2015 virallisesti julkaistavan Windows 10 -käyttöjärjestelmän Technical Preview -kehitysversioon. Ensimmäinen Technical Preview -versio julkaistiin syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyössä tutustaan Windows 10:n uusin ominaisuuksiin ja tehdään vertailua aiemman Windows 8.1 -version kanssa. Työssä Windows 10 Technical Preview asennetaan virtuaalikoneelle, käydään läpi asennuksen eri vaiheet sekä suurimmat muutokset käyttöliittymässä ja sovelluksissa. Op...

  9. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  10. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  11. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  12. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  13. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  14. Thermal insulation blanket material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  15. Translucent insulating building envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1997-01-01

    A new type of translucent insulating material has been tested. This material is made of Celulose-Acetat and have a honey-comb structure. The material has a high solar transmittance and is highly insulating. The material is relatively cheap to produce. Danish Title: Translucent isolerende klimaskærm....

  16. High Performance Window Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2∙ F∙h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  17. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  18. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  19. Development and Measurement of Strain Free RF Photoinjector Vacuum Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, Sandra G

    2004-01-01

    RF photoinjectors produce the highest brightness electron bunches only under nearly ideal illumination by a drive laser. The vacuum window used to introduce the laser beam is an essential element that may potentially degrade any distribution, making it difficult or impossible to know the actual uniformity achieved at the cathode. Because of the necessity to obtain ultrahigh vacuum near the photoinjector, some restrictions are imposed on the fabrication technology available to manufacture distortion-free windows. At the UV wavelengths commonly used for photoinjectors, it is challenging to measure and eliminate degradation caused by vacuum windows. Here, we discuss the initial laser-based measurements of a strain-free, coated, UHV window manufactured by Insulator Seal in collaboration with members of Brookhaven and Argonne National Laboratories.

  20. Investigation of electron beam lithography effects on metal–insulator transition behavior of vanadium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, H.; Alaboz, H.; Demirhan, Y.; Ozdemir, M.; Ozyuzer, L.; Aygun, G.

    2017-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows metal–insulator phase transition at nearly 68 °C. This metal–insulator transition (MIT) in VO2 leads to a significant change in near-infrared transmittance and an abrupt change in the resistivity of VO2. Due to these characteristics, VO2 plays an important role on optic and electronic devices, such as thermochromic windows, meta-materials with tunable frequency, uncooled bolometers and switching devices. In this work, VO2 thin films were fabricated by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering in O2/Ar atmosphere on sapphire substrates without any further post annealing processes. The effect of sputtering parameters on optical characteristics and structural properties of grown thin films was investigated by SEM, XRD, Raman and UV/VIS spectrophotometer measurements. Patterning process of VO2 thin films was realized by e-beam lithography technique to monitor the temperature dependent electrical characterization. Electrical properties of VO2 samples were characterized using microprobe station in a vacuum system. MIT with hysteresis behavior was observed for the unpatterned square samples at around 68 °C. By four orders of magnitude of resistivity change was measured for the deposited VO2 thin films at transition temperature. After e-beam lithography process, substantial results in patterned VO2 thin films were observed. In this stage, for patterned VO2 thin films as stripes, the change in resistivity of VO2 was reduced by a factor of 10. As a consequence of electrical resistivity measurements, MIT temperature was shifted from 68 °C to 50 °C. The influence of e-beam process on the properties of VO2 thin films and the mechanism of the effects are discussed. The presented results contribute to the achievement of VO2 based thermochromic windows and bolometer applications.

  1. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2010-01-13

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi2Se5 nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi 2Se5 nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [1120] direction with a rectangular cross-section and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with ∼ 1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitais to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Mastering Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A complete, winning approach to the number one small business solution. Do you have 75 or fewer users or devices on your small-business network? Find out how to integrate everything you need for your mini-enterprise with Microsoft's new Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server, a custom collection of server and management technologies designed to help small operations run smoothly without a giant IT department. This comprehensive guide shows you how to master all SBS components as well as handle integration with other Microsoft technologies.: Focuses on Windows Server 2008 Small Business Serv

  3. Window modelling in Syrthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, V.; Peniguel, C. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France); Rupp, I. [Simulog, N3S, Estet, Simail, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelyne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Developments to take into account windows from a thermal point of view have been implemented in SYRTHES. Windows are discretized along their lateral surfaces in several independent patches. Then a one-dimensional analytical model solves the semi-transparent radiation and conduction problem occurring across the window for each patch. The spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient (`non grey` medium) is taken into account through a multi-band model. This window model is coupled with the conduction and radiation capabilities already existing in SYRTHES. When convection is taking place, it is handled by ESTET. This development will be applied to an infra-red system designed to dry paper. The simplified test case presented here consists very schematically in two cavities separated by a window (vitro-ceramic). The top cavity contains a very hot tungsten wire (the infrared source) surrounded by a tube made of quartz. The bottom cavity is where the fast moving sheet of paper will be located. Of Course the real geometry is much more complex. (authors)

  4. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  5. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  6. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  7. Windows Deployment Services : Esiasennuspalvelin

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Arto

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on Windows Deployment Services, jonka tarkoituksena on toimia esiasennus-palvelimena Windows-käyttöjärjestelmien levykuvien jakamiseen sekä asentamiseen. Opinnäytetyö to-teutettiin yhteistyössä Concept.10 IT:n ja tuotannon kanssa. Concept.10:n tuotannon lähtökohtana on valmistaa ja asentaa Suomen markkinoille tietokonelaitteistoja ohjelmistoineen ja tukipalveluineen. Tuo-tantoon olennaisena osana kuuluu esiasennuspalvelin, jolla voidaan asentaa useita tietokoneita samaa...

  8. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  9. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  10. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  11. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  12. Via sidewall insulation for through cell via contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafontaine, Mathieu; Jaouad, Abdelatif; Darnon, Maxime; Volatier, Maïté; Arès, Richard; Fafard, Simon; Aimez, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    Over the past few years, through cell via contacts (TCVC) architecture has been the object of a growing interest to replace standard front side and backside contact on concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) cells. The technology is based on transferring the front side contact to the backside using insulated and metallized vias. This architecture could reduce shading and series resistance, thus increasing device efficiency. However, the processes involved in TCVC fabrication increases the risk of creating short-circuit, reducing significantly the efficiency of the solar cell. Therefore, the electrical insulation must be defect free. In this paper, an insulation validation protocol is proposed in order to thoroughly study the insulation quality. This process has been used to compare two insulation deposition techniques candidates: plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Results show that the insulation validation protocol presents several strengths such as revealing defects otherwise unobservable even with scanning electron microscopy. PECVD insulation presents several insulation defects whereas PEALD presents almost no defects making it suited for via insulation.

  13. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  14. Vacuum foil insulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John P.; Sabolcik, Rudolph E.; Svedberg, Robert C.

    1976-11-16

    In a multifoil thermal insulation package having a plurality of concentric cylindrical cups, means are provided for reducing heat loss from the penetration region which extends through the cups. At least one cup includes an integral skirt extending from one end of the cup to intersection with the penetration means. Assembly of the insulation package with the skirted cup is facilitated by splitting the cup to allow it to be opened up and fitted around the other cups during assembly.

  15. Photonic Floquet topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Podolsky, Daniel; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on the surface. In two dimensions, surface electrons in topological insulators do not scatter despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wideranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, large theoretical efforts were directed towards achieving topological insulation for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional, and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. However, since magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatterfree edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism - one that is free of magnetic fields. Recently, a number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward. Specifically, one suggested temporally modulating a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, where temporal variations in solidstate systems induce topological edge states. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the first external field-free photonic topological insulator with scatter-free edge transport: a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate acts as `time'. Thus the waveguides

  16. Improved Sprayable Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. F.; Sharpe, M. H.; Lester, C. N.; Echols, Sherman; Simpson, W. G.; Lambert, J. D.; Norton, W. F.; Mclemore, J. P.; Patel, A. K.; Patel, S. V.; hide

    1992-01-01

    MSA-2 and MSA-2A, two similar improved versions of Marshall sprayable ablator, insulating material developed at Marshall Space Flight Center to replace both sheets of cork and MSA-1. Suitable for use on large vehicles and structures exposed to fire or other sources of heat by design or accident. Ablative insulation turns into strong char when exposed to high temperature; highly desireable property in original spacecraft application and possibly in some terrestrial applications.

  17. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  18. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  19. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  20. Opening the Literature Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  1. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  2. The vacuum window - a minimal concept with maximum effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredsdorff, M.; Moltke, I.; Bezzel, E.

    1997-12-01

    The projects primary aim was to develop a production technology in order to produce evacuated panes at a competitive price. Insulating using vacuum is not a new concept. It has been described in patents for over a century. The field of usage of this concept is immense, and the potentials even greater. The general principle of the vacuum window is to have nothing, namely vacuum, in-between two low radiant surfaces, thus obtaining very low heat transmission technique for highly insulating evacuated windows has most certainly been reached. To obtain the mentioned vast improvements in thermal performance of the new generation of glazing there were several technical issues to be dealt with. They have been divided up into 6 tasks: Low emission glass, spacers, tempering, edge seal, evacuation and framing. The target center U-value of the vacuum window was set to be 0.7 W/m{sup 2}K, an ambitious target requiring several previously unsolved details to be solved. The center U-value of 0.7 W/m{sup 2}K has been reached and documented through this project. The production costs compares to that of existing glazing with the same insulating capabilities. (EHS) EFP-93; EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96; EU-BRITE-DURAM; 13 refs.

  3. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  4. Diagnosis of High Voltage Insulators Made of Ceramic Using Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Frącz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of comparative analysis of optical signals emitted by partial discharges occurring on three types of high voltage insulators made of porcelain. The research work consisted of diagnosis of the following devices: a long rod insulator, a cap insulator, and an insulating cylinder. For optical signal registration a spectrophotometer was applied. All measurements were performed under laboratory conditions by changing the value of partial discharges generation voltage. For the cylindrical insulator also the distance between high voltage and ground electrodes was subjected for investigation as a factor having influence on partial discharges. The main contribution which resulted from the studies is statement that application of spectrophotometer enables faster recognition of partial discharges, as compared to standard methods.

  5. Nuclear reactor insulation and preheat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wampole, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    An insulation and preheat system is disclosed for preselected components of a fluid cooled nuclear reactor. A gas tight barrier or compartment of thermal insulation surrounds the selected components and includes devices to heat the internal atmosphere of the ocmpartment. An external surface of the compartment of enclosure is cooled, such as by a circulating fluid. The heating devices provide for preheating of the components, as well as maintenance of a temperature sufficient to ensure that the reactor coolant fluid will not solidify during shutdown. The external cooling limits the heat transferred to other plant structures, such as supporting concrete and steel. The barrier is spaced far enough from the surrounded components so as to allow access for remote or manual inspection, maintenance, and repair

  6. Electrically tuned magnetic order and magnetoresistance in a topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Guo, Minghua; Li, Kang; Zhang, Jinsong; Ou, Yunbo; Feng, Yang; Wang, Lili; Chen, Xi; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Wang, Yayu

    2014-09-15

    The interplay between topological protection and broken time reversal symmetry in topological insulators may lead to highly unconventional magnetoresistance behaviour that can find unique applications in magnetic sensing and data storage. However, the magnetoresistance of topological insulators with spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry is still poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the transport properties of a ferromagnetic topological insulator thin film fabricated into a field effect transistor device. We observe a complex evolution of gate-tuned magnetoresistance, which is positive when the Fermi level lies close to the Dirac point but becomes negative at higher energies. This trend is opposite to that expected from the Berry phase picture, but is intimately correlated with the gate-tuned magnetic order. The underlying physics is the competition between the topology-induced weak antilocalization and magnetism-induced negative magnetoresistance. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and magnetoresistance facilitates future topological insulator based spintronic devices.

  7. Modification of electrical properties of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Peter Anand

    2017-08-29

    Ion implantation or deposition can be used to modify the bulk electrical properties of topological insulators. More particularly, ion implantation or deposition can be used to compensate for the non-zero bulk conductivity due to extrinsic charge carriers. The direct implantation of deposition/annealing of dopants allows better control over carrier concentrations for the purposes of achieving low bulk conductivity. Ion implantation or deposition enables the fabrication of inhomogeneously doped structures, enabling new types of device designs.

  8. Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stephen C.; Michalski, Lech A.; Volltrauer, Hermann N.; Van Dine, John E.

    2000-04-25

    A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

  9. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The open office area (Figure 9) is 48’ deep with a sloped ceiling designed to disperse light down into the cubicle workstations. The sloped ceiling...Ceiling Ht. 9’ , 10’* Window VT 40%, 70%* Office Furniture 60” Cubicle * Lighting Schedule ASHRAE 90.1* Blinds Control Always Closed, Automated...2829 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ESTCP Program Office Dr. James

  10. Fabrication of solution processed carbon nanotube embedded polyvinyl alcohol composite film for non-volatile memory device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, S Chandra; Pandurangan, A

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using nickel coated stainless steel prepared by electrophoretic deposition. CNTs were embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) which acts as an organic insulator to fabricate Si/PVA/CNT/PVA/Al Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor type memory devices. The effect of CNT content in the charge storage capacity of PVA-CNT composite film was investigated. The hysteresis obtained from the capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement resulted in a memory window of 1.9 V with 3% CNT loading with the gate voltage sweep of +/- 6 V at 1 MHz under room temperature. The memory window of the devices was due to electron injection into the CNT charge storage elements from the top electrode through PVA. The extensive pi-conjugation along the CNT axis traps the electrons in the CNT network. The ON/OFF state current ratio of Si/Al/PVA-CNT/AI device with 3% CNT in PVA demonstrated significantly a lower turn-on voltage of -1 V and a higher ON/OFF state current ratio of 10(7). The non-volatile and reprogrammable switching behavior of the device demonstrated the characteristic of a rewritable memory.

  11. Pulse number controlled laser annealing for GeSn on insulator structure with high substitutional Sn concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moto, Kenta; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu, E-mail: miyao@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsumura, Ryo [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JSPS, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Department of Gigaphoton Next GLP, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-06-27

    Crystalline GeSn-on-insulator structures with high Sn concentration (>8%), which exceeds thermal equilibrium solid-solubility (∼2%) of Sn in Ge, are essential to achieve high-speed thin film transistors and high-efficiency optical devices. We investigate non-thermal equilibrium growth of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) on quartz substrates by using pulsed laser annealing (PLA). The window of laser fluence enabling complete crystallization without film ablation is drastically expanded (∼5 times) by Sn doping above 5% into Ge. Substitutional Sn concentration in grown layers is found to be increased with decreasing irradiation pulse number. This phenomenon can be explained on the basis of significant thermal non-equilibrium growth achieved by higher cooling rate after PLA with a lower pulse number. As a result, GeSn crystals with substitutional Sn concentration of ∼12% are realized at pulse irradiation of single shot for the samples with the initial Sn concentration of 15%. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy measurements reveal the high quality of the grown layer. This technique will be useful to fabricate high-speed thin film transistors and high-efficiency optical devices on insulating substrates.

  12. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, D.S.

    2010-06-02

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [11-20] direction with a rectangular crosssection and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with {approx}1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitals to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states.

  13. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  14. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  15. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  16. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Rick D. (Miamisburg, OH); Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH); Massey, Richard T. (Hamilton, OH); Waker, Damon A. (Bellbrook, OH)

    1996-11-12

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  17. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  18. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  19. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  20. Tunneling induced electron transfer in SiNx/AlGaN/GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.J.; Shen, B.; Wang, Y.; Huang, S.; Xu, F.J.; Xu, J.; Qin, Z.X.; Yang, Z.J.; Zhang, G.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Tunneling induced electron transfer in SiN x /Al 0.22 Ga 0.78 N/GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures has been investigated by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements at various temperatures. Large clock-wise hysteresis window in C-V profiles indicates the injection of electrons from the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel to the SiN x layer. Depletion of the 2DEG at positive bias in the negative sweeping direction indicates that the charges injected have a long decay time, which was also observed in the recovery process of the capacitance after injection. The tunneling induced electron transfer effect in SiN x /Al 0.22 Ga 0.78 N/GaN based MIS structure opens up a way to design Al x Ga 1-x N/GaN based variable capacitors and memory devices

  1. Materials For Improved Josephson-Junction Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P.; Barner, Jeffrey B.

    1996-01-01

    Number of superconductive, normally conductive, and insulating materials proposed for use in fabricating improved superconductor/insulator/superconductor (SIS) and superconductor/normal conductor/superconductor (SNS) electronic devices capable of operation at frequencies up into terahertz range. Such devices particularly useful as electrically nonlinear circuit elements of mixers and local oscillators in heterodyne receivers.

  2. Thermal and structural behavior of filters and windows for synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Hahn, U.; Dejus, R.; Kuzay, T.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the following discussions: Introduction: Use of filters and windows in the front end designs; An interactive code for 3D graphic viewing of absorbed power in filters/windows and a new heat load generation algorithm for the finite element analysis; Failure criteria and analysis methods for the filter and window assembly; Comparison with test data and existing devices in HASYLAB; Cooling the filter: Radiation cooling or conduction cooling?; Consideration of window and filter thickness: Thicker or thinner?; Material selection criteria for filters/windows; Photon transmission through filters/windows; Window and filter design for APS undulators; Window and filter design for APS wigglers; and Window design for APS bending magnet front ends

  3. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  4. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  5. Insulation Reformulation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Cynthia; Bray, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The current Space Launch System (SLS) internal solid rocket motor insulation, polybenzimidazole acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (PBI-NBR), is a new insulation that replaced asbestos-based insulations found in Space Shuttle heritage solid rocket boosters. PBI-NBR has some outstanding characteristics such as an excellent thermal erosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, and low density. PBI-NBR also has some significant challenges associated with its use: Air entrainment/entrapment during manufacture and lay-up/cure and low mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. This technology development attempted to overcome these challenges by testing various reformulated versions of booster insulation. The results suggest the SLS program should continue to investigate material alternatives for potential block upgrades or use an entirely new, more advanced booster. The experimental design was composed of a logic path that performs iterative formulation and testing in order to maximize the effort. A lab mixing baseline was developed and documented for the Rubber Laboratory in Bldg. 4602/Room 1178.

  6. Exploring Homeowners’ Insulation Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friege, J; Holtz, G; Chappin, E.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Insulating existing buildings offers great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and meeting Germany’s climate protection targets. Previous research suggests that, since homeowners’ decision-making processes are inadequately understood as yet, today’s incentives aiming at increasing

  7. Conducting and insulating materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotinha, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Conducting materials may be classified into three groups: conductors, semiconductors and imperfect insulators. This section will cover only conductors. In general, metals and alloys are conductors of electricity. The most common metals used in electricity are copper, aluminium and their alloys. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  8. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...

  9. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  10. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  11. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  12. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  13. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  14. Characterization of Textile-Insulated Capacitive Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charn Loong Ng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive biosensors are an emerging technology revolutionizing wearable sensing systems and personal healthcare devices. They are capable of continuously measuring bioelectrical signals from the human body while utilizing textiles as an insulator. Different textile types have their own unique properties that alter skin-electrode capacitance and the performance of capacitive biosensors. This paper aims to identify the best textile insulator to be used with capacitive biosensors by analysing the characteristics of 6 types of common textile materials (cotton, linen, rayon, nylon, polyester, and PVC-textile while evaluating their impact on the performance of a capacitive biosensor. A textile-insulated capacitive (TEX-C biosensor was developed and validated on 3 subjects. Experimental results revealed that higher skin-electrode capacitance of a TEX-C biosensor yields a lower noise floor and better signal quality. Natural fabric such as cotton and linen were the two best insulating materials to integrate with a capacitive biosensor. They yielded the lowest noise floor of 2 mV and achieved consistent electromyography (EMG signals measurements throughout the performance test.

  15. Characterization of Textile-Insulated Capacitive Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charn Loong; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2017-01-01

    Capacitive biosensors are an emerging technology revolutionizing wearable sensing systems and personal healthcare devices. They are capable of continuously measuring bioelectrical signals from the human body while utilizing textiles as an insulator. Different textile types have their own unique properties that alter skin-electrode capacitance and the performance of capacitive biosensors. This paper aims to identify the best textile insulator to be used with capacitive biosensors by analysing the characteristics of 6 types of common textile materials (cotton, linen, rayon, nylon, polyester, and PVC-textile) while evaluating their impact on the performance of a capacitive biosensor. A textile-insulated capacitive (TEX-C) biosensor was developed and validated on 3 subjects. Experimental results revealed that higher skin-electrode capacitance of a TEX-C biosensor yields a lower noise floor and better signal quality. Natural fabric such as cotton and linen were the two best insulating materials to integrate with a capacitive biosensor. They yielded the lowest noise floor of 2 mV and achieved consistent electromyography (EMG) signals measurements throughout the performance test. PMID:28287493

  16. The cost efficiency of improved roof windows in two well-lit nearly zero-energy houses in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Roof windows are efficient and flexible daylight sources that are essential in certain types of houses if theyare to achieve sufficient daylighting throughout. Previous studies have indicated that, for such buildingsto meet nearly zero-energy targets in an easy and robust way without compromising.......The aim of this study was to quantify the scope for investing in improved roof window solutions inbuildings insulated to consume nearly zero-energy. Based on two single-family houses in Copenhagenwith typical roof windows and adequate daylighting, the study identified the prices at which various typesof...... roof window improvements would have to be made available to achieve the same cost efficiency asimproved insulation. If the improvements can be made available for less than these prices, the installationof improved roof windows would make it cheaper to construct well-lit and comfortable nearly zero...

  17. A dosemeter with a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digoy, J.-L.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a semiconducting device for measuring irradiation doses, this device being a Mosfet structure, field effect and insulated-gate device of revolution, with a cylindrical effective surface and ring-shaped source and drain. This can be applied to the measurement of doses up to 10 4 rads, for radiations of a few keV, in the field of in-vivo biology, in a flowing fluid [fr

  18. Fractional Chern Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Regnault

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chern insulators are band insulators exhibiting a nonzero Hall conductance but preserving the lattice translational symmetry. We conclusively show that a partially filled Chern insulator at 1/3 filling exhibits a fractional quantum Hall effect and rule out charge-density-wave states that have not been ruled out by previous studies. By diagonalizing the Hubbard interaction in the flat-band limit of these insulators, we show the following: The system is incompressible and has a 3-fold degenerate ground state whose momenta can be computed by postulating an generalized Pauli principle with no more than 1 particle in 3 consecutive orbitals. The ground-state density is constant, and equal to 1/3 in momentum space. Excitations of the system are fractional-statistics particles whose total counting matches that of quasiholes in the Laughlin state based on the same generalized Pauli principle. The entanglement spectrum of the state has a clear entanglement gap which seems to remain finite in the thermodynamic limit. The levels below the gap exhibit counting identical to that of Laughlin 1/3 quasiholes. Both the 3 ground states and excited states exhibit spectral flow upon flux insertion. All the properties above disappear in the trivial state of the insulator—both the many-body energy gap and the entanglement gap close at the phase transition when the single-particle Hamiltonian goes from topologically nontrivial to topologically trivial. These facts clearly show that fractional many-body states are possible in topological insulators.

  19. Microsoft Windows Server 2003: Security Enhancements and New Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    a central location. With the Fax Service Manager in the Windows Server 2003 family, systems administrators can configure fax devices, and share fax...the Services can be configured for activity logging to track the use of fax resources. Fax Service Manager in Windows Server 2003 is a Microsoft...connection. Fax Service Manager improves the managing of Fax Service, but, systems administrators must install Fax Service because it is not installed

  20. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  1. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  3. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  5. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  6. Bias-induced insulator-metal transition in organic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. H.; Xie, S. J.; Mei, L. M.; Yan, YiJing

    2007-07-01

    The authors investigate the bias-induced insulator-metal transition in organic electronics devices on the basis of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model [W. P. Su et al., Phys. Rev. B 22, 2099 (1980)] combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. The insulator-metal transition is explained with the energy level crossover that eliminates the Peierls phase [R. Peierls, Quantum Theory of Solids (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1955)] and delocalizes the electron states near the threshold voltage. This may account for the experimental observations on the devices that exhibit intrinsic bistable conductance switching with large on-off ratio.

  7. Android is the new Windows

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you recall the early virus attacks in the early 2000s? “Blaster”, “I love you” and “Slammer” were attacking the pretty much unprotected Microsoft Windows operating system.   While Microsoft has been hit hard in the past, they have tried to improve and are now on a par with other software vendors. Today, they can even be happy that Android is taking over the baton - at least on mobile platforms. According to the Sophos 2013 Security Threat Report “Android [is] today’s the biggest target” and Android devices in Australia and the U.S. experienced even more malware attacks, whether successful or unsuccessful, than PCs during the past three months. The Kaspersky security company recently added that 99% of all mobile threats target Android. Lucky you if you use an iPhone, or a good old Nokia with no Internet connectivity at all. But why is that? It is partly down to the same fac...

  8. Pressure Sensitive Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminto, James Tjan-Meng

    A pressure sensitive insulated gate field effect transistor has been developed. The device is an elevated gate field-effect-transistor. It consists of a p-type silicon substrate in which two n^+ region, the source and drain, are formed. The gate electrode is a metal film sandwiched in an insulated micro-diaphragm resembling a pill-box which covers the gate oxide, drain, and source. The space between the gate electrode and the oxide is vacuum or an air-gap. When pressure is applied on the diaphragm it deflects and causes a change in the gate capacitance, and thus modulates the conductance of the channel between source and drain. A general theory dealing with the characteristic of this pressure sensitive insulated gate field effect transistor has been derived, and the device fabricated. The fabrication process utilizes the standard integrated circuit fabrication method. It features a batch fabrication of field effect devices followed by the batch fabrication of the deposited diaphragm on top of each field effect device. The keys steps of the diaphragm fabrication are the formation of spacer layer, formation of the diaphragm layer, and the subsequent removal of the spacer layer. The chip size of the device is 600 μm x 1050 mum. The diaphragm size is 200 μm x 200 mum. Characterization of the device has been performed. The current-voltage characteristics with pressure as parameters have been demonstrated and the current-pressure transfer curves obtained. They show non-linear characteristics as those of conventional capacitive pressure sensors. The linearity of threshold voltage versus pressure transfer curves has been demonstrated. The temperature effect on the device performances has been tested. The temperature coefficient of threshold voltage, rather than the electron mobility, has dominated the temperature coefficient of the device. Two temperature compensation schemes have been tested: one method is by connecting two identical PSIGFET in a differential amplifier

  9. Tunnel Magneto Resistance of Fe/Insulator/Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryee, Dennis; Seifu, Dereje

    Tri-layer thin films of Fe/Insulator/Fe were synthesized using magnetron DC/ RF sputtering with MgO insulator and Bi2Te3 topological insulators as middle buffer layer. The multi-layered samples thus produced were studied using in-house built magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) instrument, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), torque magnetometer (TMM), AFM, MFM, and magneto-resistance (MR). This system, that is Fe/Insulator/Fe on MgO(100) substrate, is a well-known tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) structure often used in magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. TMR effect is a method by which MTJs are used in developing magneto-resistive random access memory (MRAM), magnetic sensors, and novel logic devices. The main purpose behind this research is to measure the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/Insulator /Fe structure and correlate it to magneto-resistance. In this presentation, we will present results from MOKE, VSM, TMM, AFM, MFM, and MR studies of Fe/Insulator/Fe on MgO(100). We would like to acknowledge support by NSF-MRI-DMR-1337339.

  10. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  11. Beyond insulation and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the acoustic environment in the modern Western hospital identifies raised noise levels as the main causal explanation for ranking noise as a critical stressor for patients, relatives and staff. Therefore, the most widely used strategies to tackle the problem in practice are insul......Most research on the acoustic environment in the modern Western hospital identifies raised noise levels as the main causal explanation for ranking noise as a critical stressor for patients, relatives and staff. Therefore, the most widely used strategies to tackle the problem in practice...... are insulation and isolation strategies to reduce measurable and perceptual noise levels. However, these strategies do not actively support the need to feel like an integral part of the shared hospital environment, which is a key element in creating healing environments, according to the paradigm of Evidence...

  12. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  13. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  15. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  16. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  17. Beam line windows at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The A-6 main beam-line window at LAMPF separates the vacuum of the main beam line from the isotope production station, proton irradiation ports, and the beam stop, which operate in air. This window must withstand the design beam current of 1 mA at 800 MeV for periods of at least 3000 hours without failure. The window is water cooled and must be strong enough to withstand the 2.1 MPa (300 psig) cooling water pressure, as well as beam-induced thermal stresses. Two designs have been used to meet these goals, a stepped-plate window and a hemispherical window, both made from a precipitation-hardened nickel base alloy, Alloy 718. Calculations of the temperatures and stresses in each of these windows are presented

  18. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    . Heat loss through windows represents a considerably part of the total heat loss from houses. However windows provide a unique potential of solar energy gain to the building besides from providing daylight access and view. This results in a need for development of windows with improved energy...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  19. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  20. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  1. Establishment of a Rating Program for Pre- and Post-Fabricated Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Shah, B.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-08-01

    This document was prepared to support the Smart Buildings-Material Testing and Rating Centres (SB-2) activity of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Smart Communities Initiative (ESCI). The ESCI was put forward by APEC Leaders at the 2010 meeting in Japan. APEC is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. This document addresses the testing and certification of building products and equipment to support building energy codes, focusing specifically on energy-efficient factory-built windows. It sets forth a proposed structure for an APEC economy to establish a testing, rating, certification, and labeling program for efficient factory-built windows. In the context of this document, efficient windows would be windows made with insulating glass (IG) and an efficient frame assembly. The minimum efficiency metric (or thermal performance) for these windows is not quantified in this document and would generally be established by a governmental agency.

  2. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  3. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  4. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  5. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  6. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  7. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  8. Programming Windows® Embedded CE 60 Developer Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Boling, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Get the popular, practical reference to developing small footprint applications-now updated for the Windows Embedded CE 6.0 kernel. Written by an authority on embedded application development, this book focuses in on core operating concepts and the Win32 API. It delivers extensive code samples and sample projects-helping you build proficiency creating innovative Windows applications for a new generation of devices. Discover how to: Create complex applications designed for the unique requirements of embedded devicesManage virtual memory, heaps, and the stack to minimize your memory footprintC

  9. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh P.E., Dariush; Uvslokk, Sivert; Talev, Goce; Petter Jelle Ph.D., Bjorn

    2010-06-17

    While window frames typically represent 20-30percent of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows which incorporate very low conductance glazings. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. The Passivhaus Institute in Germany states that windows (glazing and frames, combined) should have U-values not exceeding 0.80 W/(m??K). This has created a niche market for highly insulating frames, with frame U-values typically around 0.7-1.0 W/(m2 cdot K). The U-values reported are often based on numerical simulations according to international simulation standards. It is prudent to check the accuracy of these calculation standards, especially for high performance products before more manufacturers begin to use them to improve other product offerings. In this paper the thermal transmittance of five highly insulating window frames (three wooden frames, one aluminum frame and one PVC frame), found from numerical simulations and experiments, are compared. Hot box calorimeter results are compared with numerical simulations according to ISO 10077-2 and ISO 15099. In addition CFD simulations have been carried out, in order to use the most accurate tool available to investigate the convection and radiation effects inside the frame cavities. Our results show that available tools commonly used to evaluate window performance, based on ISO standards, give good overall agreement, but specific areas need improvement.

  10. Strain-induced high-temperature perovskite ferromagnetic insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dechao; Guo, Hongli; Cui, Zhangzhang; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Jin; Lu, Jiangbo; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zhicheng; Hu, Xiang; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Guo, Jinghua; Zhai, Xiaofang; Brown, Gail J; Knize, Randy; Lu, Yalin

    2018-03-20

    Ferromagnetic insulators are required for many new magnetic devices, such as dissipationless quantum-spintronic devices, magnetic tunneling junctions, etc. Ferromagnetic insulators with a high Curie temperature and a high-symmetry structure are critical integration with common single-crystalline oxide films or substrates. So far, the commonly used ferromagnetic insulators mostly possess low-symmetry structures associated with a poor growth quality and widespread properties. The few known high-symmetry materials either have extremely low Curie temperatures (≤16 K), or require chemical doping of an otherwise antiferromagnetic matrix. Here we present compelling evidence that the LaCoO 3 single-crystalline thin film under tensile strain is a rare undoped perovskite ferromagnetic insulator with a remarkably high T C of up to 90 K. Both experiments and first-principles calculations demonstrate tensile-strain-induced ferromagnetism which does not exist in bulk LaCoO 3 The ferromagnetism is strongest within a nearly stoichiometric structure, disappearing when the Co 2+ defect concentration reaches about 10%. Significant impact of the research includes demonstration of a strain-induced high-temperature ferromagnetic insulator, successful elevation of the transition over the liquid-nitrogen temperature, and high potential for integration into large-area device fabrication processes. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Energy-efficient and preservable windows. Measurements and calculations; Energieffektive bevaringsverdige vinduer. Maalinger og beregninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homb, Anders; Uvsloekk, Sivert

    2012-11-01

    SINTEF has carried out a project for Cultural Heritage and Enova to document specific qualities of energy-efficient and preservable windows. The work has been based on an older type two-rams window with simple frames and one glass divided into three squares of horizontal crossbars. There were produced two kinds of commodity window, respectively, with single glazing with Insulating. Measurements and calculations have been performed with two different distances from the outer glass to the last frame. The project had the following contents: Measurements of the U-value, Calculation of U-value of accurate and simplified method, Measurements of air density and drying ability, Measurement and evaluation of sound insulation, Estimation of the heat balance (eb)

  12. Optical Characterization and Energy Simulation of Glazing for High-Performance Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one important component of the energy system - the window. Windows are installed in buildings mainly to create visual contact with the surroundings and to let in daylight, and should also be heat and sound insulating. This thesis covers four important aspects of windows: antireflection and switchable coatings, energy simulations and optical measurements. Energy simulations have been used to compare different windows and also to estimate the performance of smart or switchable windows, whose transmittance can be regulated. The results from this thesis show the potential of the emerging technology of smart windows, not only from a daylight and an energy perspective, but also for comfort and well-being. The importance of a well functioning control system for such windows, is pointed out. To fulfill all requirements of modern windows, they often have two or more panes. Each glass surface leads to reflection of light and therefore less daylight is transmitted. It is therefore of interest to find ways to increase the transmittance. In this thesis antireflection coatings, similar to those found on eye-glasses and LCD screens, have been investigated. For large area applications such as windows, it is necessary to use techniques which can easily be adapted to large scale manufacturing at low cost. Such a technique is dip-coating in a sol-gel of porous silica. Antireflection coatings have been deposited on glass and plastic materials to study both visual and energy performance and it has been shown that antireflection coatings increase the transmittance of windows without negatively affecting the thermal insulation and the energy efficiency. Optical measurements are important for quantifying product properties for comparisons and evaluations. It is important that new measurement routines are simple and applicable to standard commercial instruments. Different systematic error sources for optical measurements of patterned light diffusing samples using

  13. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  14. Automatic identification and location technology of glass insulator self-shattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinbo; Zhang, Huiying; Zhang, Ye

    2017-11-01

    The insulator of transmission lines is one of the most important infrastructures, which is vital to ensure the safe operation of transmission lines under complex and harsh operating conditions. The glass insulator often self-shatters but the available identification methods are inefficient and unreliable. Then, an automatic identification and localization technology of self-shattered glass insulators is proposed, which consists of the cameras installed on the tower video monitoring devices or the unmanned aerial vehicles, the 4G/OPGW network, and the monitoring center, where the identification and localization algorithm is embedded into the expert software. First, the images of insulators are captured by cameras, which are processed to identify the region of insulator string by the presented identification algorithm of insulator string. Second, according to the characteristics of the insulator string image, a mathematical model of the insulator string is established to estimate the direction and the length of the sliding blocks. Third, local binary pattern histograms of the template and the sliding block are extracted, by which the self-shattered insulator can be recognized and located. Finally, a series of experiments is fulfilled to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. For single insulator images, Ac, Pr, and Rc of the algorithm are 94.5%, 92.38%, and 96.78%, respectively. For double insulator images, Ac, Pr, and Rc are 90.00%, 86.36%, and 93.23%, respectively.

  15. Recessed insulator and barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT: A novel structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, a gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with recessed insulator and barrier is reported. In the proposed structure, insulator is recessed into the barrier at the drain side and barrier is recessed into the buffer layer at the source side. We study important device characteristics such as electric ...

  16. New York City's window guard policy: four decades of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprani, Amita; Robinson, Martha; Middleton Iii, James K; Hamade, Ali; Merrill, Thomas

    2018-04-06

    Preventing child falls from windows is easily accomplished by installing inexpensive window-limiting devices but window falls remain a common cause of child injuries. This article describes the history and evolution of the New York City (NYC) window guard rule,which requires building owners to install window guards in apartments housing children aged ≤10 years. The NYC window guard rule was the first directive of its kind in the USA when it was adopted in 1976, and it has led to a dramatic and long-lasting reduction in child window fall-related injuries and deaths. Data about the history of the window guard rule were obtained by reviewing programmatic records, correspondence, legal decisions and the published literature. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted with programme staff. This article describes each stage of policy development, starting with epidemiological studies defining the scope of the problem in the 1960s and pilot-testing of the window guard intervention. We describe the adoption, implementation and enforcement of the rule. In addition, we show how the rule was modified over time and document the rule's impact on window fall incidence in NYC. We describe litigation that challenged the rule's constitutionality and discuss the legal arguments used by opponents of the rule. Finally, we discuss criminal and tort liability as drivers of compliance and summarise lessons learnt. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  18. Electrical insulating liquid: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Deba Kumar; Laskar, Shakuntala

    Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.

  19. Electrical insulating liquid: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba Kumar Mahanta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.

  20. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  1. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  2. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  3. Memristive devices for computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J Joshua; Strukov, Dmitri B; Stewart, Duncan R

    2013-01-01

    Memristive devices are electrical resistance switches that can retain a state of internal resistance based on the history of applied voltage and current. These devices can store and process information, and offer several key performance characteristics that exceed conventional integrated circuit technology. An important class of memristive devices are two-terminal resistance switches based on ionic motion, which are built from a simple conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stack. These devices were originally conceived in the late 1960s and recent progress has led to fast, low-energy, high-endurance devices that can be scaled down to less than 10 nm and stacked in three dimensions. However, the underlying device mechanisms remain unclear, which is a significant barrier to their widespread application. Here, we review recent progress in the development and understanding of memristive devices. We also examine the performance requirements for computing with memristive devices and detail how the outstanding challenges could be met.

  4. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  5. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  6. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  7. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in a delay in bringing a case to court. The concept of this paper is to start the initial forensic analysis of the storage media in locations that are most likely to contain digital evidence, the Windows Registry. Consequently, the forensic analysis process and the recovery of digital evidence may take less time than would otherwise be required. In this paper, the Registry structure of Windows 7 is discussed together with several elements of information within the Registry of Windows 7 that may be valuable to a forensic investigator. These elements were categorized into five groups which are system, application, networks, attached devices and the history lists. We have discussed the values of identified elements to a forensic investigator. Also, a tool was implemented to perform the function of extracting these elements and presents them in usable form to a forensics investigator.

  8. False Windows - Yesterday and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  9. Low Permeability Polyimide Insulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resodyn Technologies proposes a new technology that enables the application of polyimide based cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability. This effort...

  10. Insulators: estructura y funciones

    OpenAIRE

    Fresán Salvo, Ujué

    2016-01-01

    [spa] Los insulators son complejos de DNA y proteínas, cuya función no solo consiste en impedir la comunicación enhancer-promotor y/o bloquear la expansión del silenciamiento de la heterocromatina como clásicamente se habían descrito. Median interacciones intra e intercromosomales, cuyo objetivo fmal es la organización del genoma en diferentes dominios, regulando por consiguiente las funciones del DNA. Uno de los objetivos de esta tesis fue la búsqueda de nuevas funciones de proteínas insulat...

  11. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  12. Absolute measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    A device was developed at the CEA for the absolute measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulators. It can operate in controlled atmospheres (air, CO 2 , Ar, He) and between 100 and 1050 deg C [fr

  13. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  14. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  15. Developing an intelligent control system of automatic window motor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This invention system involves hardware, firmware and software to develop an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network (WSN) devices for health and environmental monitoring. The parts of this invention are improved by implementing the WSN mote into environmental ...

  16. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  17. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (C) Designed and maintained so that a person can access the override device from outside the car..., electrical locker, or kitchen); and (B) There are no more than eight seats in the seating area. (4) Cars with... bathroom, kitchen, or locomotive cab is not considered a “compartment.” (5) Dual-function windows. If, on...

  18. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  19. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  20. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  1. Holography through optically active windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By using two orthogonally polarized reference beams, holograms can be recorded through stressed windows and the reconstructed virtual image will show no stress pattern. As shown analytically, the stress-pattern-free hologram is recordable for any polarization state of the object illumination. Hence, the more efficient nondepolarizing diffuser can be used in performing holography through stressed windows if two reference beams are used. Results are presented for a pair of machined polysulfone windows intended for use in a holographic flow-visualization setup in a single-stage-compressor test rig.

  2. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  3. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  4. Washing Off Polyurethane Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Fogel, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Jet of hot water removes material quickly and safely. Simple, environmentally sound technique found to remove polyurethane foam insulation from metal parts. Developed for (but not limited to) use during rebuilding of fuel system of Space Shuttle main engine, during which insulation must be removed for penetrant inspection of metal parts.

  5. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  6. Switchable photovoltaic windows enabled by reversible photothermal complex dissociation from methylammonium lead iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M; Moore, David T; Ihly, Rachelle; Stanton, Noah J; Miller, Elisa M; Tenent, Robert C; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Neale, Nathan R

    2017-11-23

    Materials with switchable absorption properties have been widely used for smart window applications to reduce energy consumption and enhance occupant comfort in buildings. In this work, we combine the benefits of smart windows with energy conversion by producing a photovoltaic device with a switchable absorber layer that dynamically responds to sunlight. Upon illumination, photothermal heating switches the absorber layer-composed of a metal halide perovskite-methylamine complex-from a transparent state (68% visible transmittance) to an absorbing, photovoltaic colored state (less than 3% visible transmittance) due to dissociation of methylamine. After cooling, the methylamine complex is re-formed, returning the absorber layer to the transparent state in which the device acts as a window to visible light. The thermodynamics of switching and performance of the device are described. This work validates a photovoltaic window technology that circumvents the fundamental tradeoff between efficient solar conversion and high visible light transmittance that limits conventional semitransparent PV window designs.

  7. Research on vacuum insulation for cryocables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.

    1974-01-01

    Vacuum insulation, as compared with solid insulation, simplifies the construction of both resistive or superconducting cryogenic cables. The common vacuum space in the cable can furnish thermal insulation between the environment and the cryogenic coolant, provide electrical insulation between conductors, and establish thermal isolation between go- and return-coolant streams. The differences between solid and vacuum high voltage insulation are discussed, and research on the design, materials selection, and testing of vacuum insulated cryogenic cables is described

  8. Infrared monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.; Lopez, N.; Hu, G.; Choi, E.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for monitoring the gyrotron output window surface temperature with an infrared camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. The IR camera views the window through a perforated waveguide wall, and serves both as a guide for the safe operation at high average power of the tube, as well as an aid in the analysis of new window designs. Window temperatures were studied as a function of a number of parameters, including gun anode voltage, beam current, magnetic field, coolant flow, and load matching. The IR technique is applicable to many types of high average power microwave and millimeter wave tubes. Successful operation of the Varian 60 GHz gyrotron to 214 kW CW was guided by the infrared camera. Analyses on 28, 56 and 60 GHz gyrotrons have led to a number of design changes. A comparison with computer calculations is also presented

  9. A window on urban sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced

  10. Portable pulse X-ray apparatus with gas insulation

    CERN Document Server

    Avilov, E A; Kanunov, I M

    2001-01-01

    There are presented the data on development,investigation and application of a pulse X-ray apparatus with gas insulation.There are described circuit and design solutions for a 90 kV apparatus to be used in medical X-ray diagnostics and 200 kV apparatus to be applied for the researches of high-speed processes.There are demonstrated the advantages of using gas under pressure as insulating medium.There are presented basic output characteristics of the devices.

  11. Multistage charged particle accelerator, with high-vacuum insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, P.

    1976-01-01

    A multistage charged-particle accelerator for operating with accelerating voltages higher than 150 kV is described. The device consists essentially of a high-voltage insulator, a source for producing charged particles, a Wehnelt cylinder, an anode, and a post-accelerating tube containing stack-wise positioned post-accelerating electrodes. A high vacuum is used for insulating the parts carrying the high voltages, and at least one cylindrical screen surrounding these parts is interposed between them and the vacuum vessel, which can itself also function as a cylindrical screen

  12. Mastering Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The one book you absolutely need to get up and running with Windows Server 2008 R2. One of the world's leading Windows authorities and top-selling author Mark Minasi explores every nook and cranny of the latest version of Microsoft's flagship network operating system, Windows Server 2008 R2, giving you the most in-depth coverage in any book on the market.: Focuses on Windows Windows Server 2008 R2, the newest version of Microsoft's Windows' server line of operating system, and the ideal server for new Windows 7 clients; Author Mark Minasi is one of the world's leading Windows authorities and h

  13. Smart windows based on cholesteric liquid crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albert P. H. J.

    2017-02-01

    With increase in global warming, use of active cooling and heating devices are continuously increasing to maintain interior temperature of built environment, greenhouses and cars. To reduce the consumption of tremendous amount of energy on cooling and heating devices we need an improved control of transparent features (i.e. windows). In this respect, smart window which is capable for reflecting solar infrared energy without interfering with the visible light would be very attractive. Most of the technologies developed so far are to control the visible light. These technologies block visual contact to the outside world which cause negative effects on human health. An appealing method to selectively control infrared transmission is via utilizing the reflection properties of cholesteric liquid crystals. In our research, we have fabricated a smart window which is capable of reflecting different amount of solar infrared energy depending on the specific climate conditions. The reflection bandwidth can be tuned from 120 nm to 1100 nm in the infrared region without interfering with the visible solar radiations. Calculations reveal that between 8% and 45% of incident solar infrared light can be reflected with a single cell. Simulation studies predicted that more than 12% of the energy spent on heating, cooling and lighting in the built environment can be saved by using the fabricated smart window compared to standard double glazing window.

  14. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  15. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  16. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  17. Nanometric holograms based on a topological insulator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zengji; Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Gu, Min

    2017-05-01

    Holography has extremely extensive applications in conventional optical instruments spanning optical microscopy and imaging, three-dimensional displays and metrology. To integrate holography with modern low-dimensional electronic devices, holograms need to be thinned to a nanometric scale. However, to keep a pronounced phase shift modulation, the thickness of holograms has been generally limited to the optical wavelength scale, which hinders their integration with ultrathin electronic devices. Here, we break this limit and achieve 60 nm holograms using a topological insulator material. We discover that nanometric topological insulator thin films act as an intrinsic optical resonant cavity due to the unequal refractive indices in their metallic surfaces and bulk. The resonant cavity leads to enhancement of phase shifts and thus the holographic imaging. Our work paves a way towards integrating holography with flat electronic devices for optical imaging, data storage and information security.

  18. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  19. Windows PowerShell desired state configuration revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Chaganti, Ravikanth

    2014-01-01

    Desired State Configuration (DSC) is a powerful new configuration management platform that makes it easier than ever to perform cross-platform configuration management of your infrastructure, whether on-premise or in the cloud. DSC provides the management platform and Application Programming Interface (API) that can be used with any programming language. Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration Revealed will take you through this new technology from start to finish and demonstrates the DSC interfaces through Windows PowerShell. DSC allows you to manage target devices by simply declarin

  20. Thermal resistant efficiency of Nb-doped TiO2 thin film based glass window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu Manh Quynh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The proportional relationship between the infrared (IR transmittance of a transparent material and its IR-induced heat transfer can be explained via a simple model. An agreement between the theory and the experimental work was examined by measuring the temperature rising inside a heat-insulated box with glass windows under IR irradiation, where the material of the glass windows was modified from corning glass (CG to 9 at% Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO fabricated by sputtering deposition. The fabricated TNO thin film was mostly transparent in a visible region and had a low transparency in the IR region, which, in turn, produced the self-cooling effect inside the insulated box. In comparison to the window glass made by CG, the temperature increase inside the box would be 24% less if the window was made by CG coated by TNO (TNO on CG. This suggests the possibility of manufacturing products with desirable features in the energy-cut cooling. The energy-cut was found to decline proportionally to the decrease of the glass window area.

  1. Certificateless Key-Insulated Generalized Signcryption Scheme without Bilinear Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixue Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized signcryption (GSC can be applied as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme, or a signcryption scheme with only one algorithm and one key pair. A key-insulated mechanism can resolve the private key exposure problem. To ensure the security of cloud storage, we introduce the key-insulated mechanism into GSC and propose a concrete scheme without bilinear pairings in the certificateless cryptosystem setting. We provide a formal definition and a security model of certificateless key-insulated GSC. Then, we prove that our scheme is confidential under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH assumption and unforgeable under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm (EC-DL assumption. Our scheme also supports both random-access key update and secure key update. Finally, we evaluate the efficiency of our scheme and demonstrate that it is highly efficient. Thus, our scheme is more suitable for users who communicate with the cloud using mobile devices.

  2. COMFORT PROVIDING SYSTEMS IN SPACES WITH ACOUTIC INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz KLEKOT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High capacities of currently available devices for sound registering and processing have generated a need for sound insulated spaces dedicated to exchange of confidential information. In such spaces, preventing propagation of vibroacoustic signals both by the way of air and construction elements entails complete insulation of the room. In order to meet this requirement, proper chemical composition of air and stabilized temperature conditions have to be guaranteed. The paper discusses questions related to the process of solving the task of providing thermal comfort and satisfying air quality in a room for confidential discussions. It presents prototype solutions of installations dedicated to stabilize human-friendly conditions inside a modular chamber provided with acoustic insulation.

  3. Disorder enabled band structure engineering of a topological insulator surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yishuai; Chiu, Janet; Miao, Lin; He, Haowei

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators are bulk insulators with Z 2 topological electronic order that gives rise to conducting light-like surface states. These surface electrons are exceptionally resistant to localization by non-magnetic disorder, and have been adopted as the basis for a wide range of proposals to achieve new quasiparticle species and device functionality. Recent studies have yielded a surprise by showing that in spite of resisting localization, topological insulator surface electrons can be reshaped by defects into distinctive resonance states. Here we use numerical simulations and scanning tunnelling microscopy data to show that these resonance states have significance well beyond the localized regime usually associated with impurity bands. Lastly, at native densities in the model Bi 2 X 3 (X=Bi, Te) compounds, defect resonance states are predicted to generate a new quantum basis for an emergent electron gas that supports diffusive electrical transport.

  4. Synthesis of optically clear polymeric materials for high temperature windows. [preparation of phenolphthalein polycarbonate resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C. E.; Magner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A polymer has been developed that has excellent potential for use as windows in spacecraft as well as conventional aircraft. This polymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, has outstanding thermal properties, e.g., in place of melting or burning, it produces an insulating charred foam that closes off transmission of radiant heat through the window. This fact, coupled with an oxygen index of 0.43 and a 177 C tensile strength of 58 mega Newtons/sq m, makes this polymer a prime candidate for further development. Pilot plant preparation in a 20 gallon Pfaudler kettle was accomplished and large test specimens were prepared for evaluations.

  5. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  6. Using the CERN generic Windows infrastructure in a specific control environment

    CERN Document Server

    Deloose, I; Pace, A

    1999-01-01

    CERN has a large Windows 95/NT infrastructure with more than 3500 PCs connected that is used as one of the main information services for the laboratory. This infrastructure is used for a wide set of services, including Office Automation, Computing Aided Engineering, Calculations, Software Development, and ... controls. This paper will describe the CERN generic infrastructure for Windows 95 and Windows NT and then give several examples of PC control applications and future directions. The implementation of an object oriented device server based on Windows NT and ActiveX in the CERN ISOLDE-REX experiment will be reported.

  7. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the...

  8. Thermal/acoustical insulation foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. Y.; Struzik, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Lightweight low-density substance can be used as fire resistant insulation in aircraft. Material density can be controlled over range from 0.6-1.2 pounds per cubic foot and has good thermal and acoustic properties.

  9. Evaluation of thermal insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, O. J.; Conti, J. C.; Mcgee, J. V.; Mcpherson, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    Data was obtained on silicone-bonded fiberglass, isocyanurate foam, and two dozen other insulators. Materials were selected to withstand heat sterilization, outer space, and the Martian atmosphere. Significant environmental parameters were vibration, landing shock, and launch venting.

  10. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  11. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  12. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  13. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  14. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  15. The electric strength of high-voltage transformers insulation at effect of partial dischargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshravan, E.; Zeraatparvar, A.; Gashimov, A.M.; Mehdizadeh, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text : In paper the change of electric strength of high-voltage transformers insulation at the effect of partial discharges with space charge accumulation was investigated. It is revealed that the effect of partial discharges of insulation materials results the reduction of their pulsing electric strength which can restore the own initial value at releasing of saved charge the volume of a material under condition of absence the ineversible structural changes in it. Researches of high-voltage transformers insulation's non-failure operation conditions show, that at increasing of insulation work time in a strong electrical field the reduction of average breakdown voltages with simultaneous increasing of spread in discharge voltage values takes place. It authentically testifies to reduction of short-time discharge voltage of insulation materials during their electrical aging. As the basic reason of insulation electrical aging the partial discharges occurring in gas cavities inside insulation were considered. It is known that the space charges will be formed in insulation elements of high-voltage devices which effects in dielectrical property of these elements including the electric strength and the space charge formation can occur also at partial discharges in an alternating voltage while the service of high-voltage transformers. In the given work the experiments in revealing separate influence partial discharges in pulsing electric strength of insulation materials at presence and at absence inside them the space charge were spent

  16. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  17. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  18. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Joni

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  19. Aharonov–Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Hailin

    2009-12-13

    Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport measurements. Recently, Bi2 Se3 and related materials have been proposed as three-dimensional topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface, protected by time-reversal symmetry. The topological surface states have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. However, few transport measurements in this context have been reported, presumably owing to the predominance of bulk carriers from crystal defects or thermal excitations. Here we show unambiguous transport evidence of topological surface states through periodic quantum interference effects in layered single-crystalline Bi2 Se3 nanoribbons, which have larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk materials and can therefore manifest surface effects. Pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance clearly demonstrate the coherent propagation of two-dimensional electrons around the perimeter of the nanoribbon surface, as expected from the topological nature of the surface states. The dominance of the primary h/e oscillation, where h is Plancks constant and e is the electron charge, and its temperature dependence demonstrate the robustness of these states. Our results suggest that topological insulator nanoribbons afford promising materials for future spintronic devices at room temperature.

  20. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  1. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  2. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  3. Advanced Control of Electrochromic Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Zarkadis, Nikos; Morel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In our research we use the technology of electrochromic (EC) glazing to maximize the use of daylight and minimize the energy consumption in buildings while preserving visual and thermal comfort of the users. We propose an advanced automatic control of EC windows coupled with an anidolic daylighting system (ADS), blinds and dimmable fluorescent lights. EC windows with a visible transmittance range (Tv) of 0.15 – 0.50 were installed on the southern façade of an office room of the LESO experimen...

  4. What's New in Windows Vista?

    CERN Document Server

    Culp, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Get ready for a quick blast through this significant change to Windows! This guide will give you a quick look at many of the most significant new features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in nearly six years. Starting with the changes to the interface, introducing Aero, and showing you some visuals, we then move on to the completely revamped search options. The new task scheduler and printing gadgets, are next with some cool new changes. Probably the most significant changes, however, come in the area of security and this guide takes a look at them from user priveleges, to

  5. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  6. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  7. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathav...

  8. Observation of the Quantum-Anomalous-Hall Insulator to Anderson Insulator Quantum Phase Transition in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Li, Jian; Jain, J. K.; Liu, Chaoxing; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Chan, Moses H. W.

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect can be considered as the quantum Hall (QH) effect without external magnetic field, which can be realized by time reversal symmetry breaking in a topologically non-trivial system, and in thin films of magnetically-doped TI. A QAH system carries spin-polarized dissipationless chiral edge transport channels without the need for external energy input, hence may have huge impact on future electronic and spintronic device applications for ultralow-power consumption. The observation of QAH effect has opened up exciting new physics and thus understanding the physical nature of this novel topological quantum state, can lead to a rapid development of this field. In this talk, we will report our recent progress about the experimental observation of a quantum phase transition from a quantum-anomalous-Hall (QAH) insulator to an Anderson insulator by tuning the chemical potential, and finally discuss the existence of scaling behavior for this quantum phase transition. Work Supported by funding from NSF (DMR-1207469), NSF (DMR-0819762) (MIT MRSEC), ONR (N00014-13-1-0301), and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319.

  9. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  10. Coupling of an applied field magnetically insulated ion diode to a high power magnetically insulated transmission line system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenchen, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The coupling of energy from a high power pulsed accelerator through a long triplate magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) in vacuum to an annular applied magnetic field insulated extraction ion diode is examined. The narrow power transport window and the wave front erosion of the MITL set stringent impedance history conditions on the diode load. A new ion diode design developed to satisfy these criteria with marginal electron insulation is presented. The LION accelerator is used to provide a positive polarity 1.5 MV, 350 kA, 40 ns FWHM pulse with a 30 kA/ns current rate from a triplate MITL source. A transition converts the triplate into a cylindrical cross section which flares into the ion diode load. Extensive current and voltage measurements performed along this structure and on the extracted ion beam provide conclusive evidence that the self insulation condition of the MITL is maintained in the transition by current loss alone. The ion diode utilizes a radial magnetic field between a grounded cathode annular emission tip and a disk anode. A 50 cm 2 dielectric/metal anode area serves as the ion plasma source subject to direct electron bombardment from the opposing cathode tip under marginal magnetic insulation conditions. The ions extracted cross the radial magnetic field and exit the diode volume as an annular cross section beam of peak current about 100 kA. The diode current gradually converts from the initial electron flow to nearly 100% ion current after 30 ns, coupling 60% of the diode energy into ions

  11. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  12. High Performance Transparent Transistor Memory Devices Using Nano-Floating Gate of Polymer/ZnO Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chien-Chung; Lee, Wen-Ya; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Han-Wen; Chang, Hsuan-Chun; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Nano-floating gate memory devices (NFGM) using metal nanoparticles (NPs) covered with an insulating polymer have been considered as a promising electronic device for the next-generation nonvolatile organic memory applications NPs. However, the transparency of the device with metal NPs is restricted to 60~70% due to the light absorption in the visible region caused by the surface plasmon resonance effects of metal NPs. To address this issue, we demonstrate a novel NFGM using the blends of hole-trapping poly (9-(4-vinylphenyl) carbazole) (PVPK) and electron-trapping ZnO NPs as the charge storage element. The memory devices exhibited a remarkably programmable memory window up to 60 V during the program/erase operations, which was attributed to the trapping/detrapping of charge carriers in ZnO NPs/PVPK composite. Furthermore, the devices showed the long-term retention time (>105 s) and WRER test (>200 cycles), indicating excellent electrical reliability and stability. Additionally, the fabricated transistor memory devices exhibited a relatively high transparency of 90% at the wavelength of 500 nm based on the spray-coated PEDOT:PSS as electrode, suggesting high potential for transparent organic electronic memory devices. PMID:26831222

  13. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  14. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-07-18

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  15. Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1996-10-08

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  16. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  17. Implementation of window shading models into dynamic whole-building simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomanowski, Bartosz Aleksander

    An important consideration in energy efficient building design is the management of solar gain, as it is the largest and most variable gain in a building. The design of buildings with highly glazed facades, as well as decreased energy transfer rates through better insulated and tighter envelopes are causing interior spaces to become highly sensitive to solar gain. Shading devices such as operable slat-type louver blinds are very effective in controlling solar gain, yet their impact on peak cooing loads and annual energy consumption is poorly understood. With the ever-increasing role of building energy simulation tools in the design of energy efficient buildings, there is a clear need to model windows with shading devices to assess their impact on building performance. Recent efforts at the University of Waterloo's Advanced Glazing Systems Laboratory (AGSL) in window shading research have produced a set of flexible shading models. These models were developed with emphasis on generality and computational efficiency, ideally suited for integration into building simulation. The objective of the current research is to develop a complex fenestration facility within a general purpose integrated building simulation software tool, ESP-r, using the AGSL shading models. The strategy for implementation of the AGSL shading models is the addition of a new multi-layer construction within ESP-r, the Complex Fenestration Construction (CFC). The CFC is based on the standard ESP-r multi-layer nodal structure and finite control volume numerical model, with additional measures for coping with the complexities that arise in the solar, convective and radiant exchanges between glazing/shading layers, the interior zone and exterior surroundings. The CFC algorithms process the solar, convective and radiant properties of the glazing/shading system at each time-step, making it possible to add control (e.g., changing the slat angle of a slat-type blind) at the time-step level. Thermal

  18. A Parametric Study of Thermal Performance of an Exterior Wall Insulated with Vacuum Insulation Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Ciobanu, Adrian-Alexandru; Iacob, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The requirements regarding thermal insulation of the new buildings and thermal rehabilitation of the existing buildings tend to reach a threshold of insulation which allows to fulfill the necessary requirements for a low-energy building. To achieve this level of thermal insulation involves using either thick layers of conventional insulation (polystyrene, mineral wool, etc.) or high thermal performance materials. Vacuum insulation panels are high performance thermal insulation characteri...

  19. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    be quite tedious, and therefore a method to generate and optimize solutions has been developed and implemented in a program that also takes into account the effects of different types of thermal bridges, i.e. roof windows, insulation fasteners, roof/wall joints etc. This paper describes a new method...

  20. Multipurpose Thermal Insulation Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multi-purpose thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials, or other components. The test apparatus is a fluid boil-off calorimeter system for calibrated measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) of a specimen material at a fixed vacuum level. The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a fluid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the inner vessel and thermal guards, is suspended from the top of the vacuum chamber. Handling tools attach to the cold mass assembly for convenient manipulation of the assembly and for the installation or wrapping of insulation test materials. Liquid nitrogen is typically supplied to the inner vessel using a fill tube with funnel. A single port through the top of the vacuum chamber facilitates both filling and venting. Aerogel composite stacks with reflective films are fastened to the top and the bottom of the inner vessel as thermal guards. The comparative k-value of the insulation material is determined by measuring the boil-off flow rate of gas, the temperature differential across the insulation thickness, and the dimensions (length and diameters) of the test specimen.

  1. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  2. Radiation dose rate measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorber, R.

    1987-01-01

    A portable device is described for in-field usage for measuring the dose rate of an ambient beta radiation field, comprising: a housing, substantially impervious to beta radiation, defining an ionization chamber and having an opening into the ionization chamber; beta radiation pervious electrically-conductive window means covering the opening and entrapping, within the ionization chamber, a quantity of gaseous molecules adapted to ionize upon impact with beta radiation particles; electrode means disposed within the ionization chamber and having a generally shallow concave surface terminating in a generally annular rim disposed at a substantially close spacing to the window means. It is configured to substantially conform to the window means to define a known beta radiation sensitive volume generally between the window means and the concave surface of the electrode means. The concave surface is effective to substantially fully expose the beta radiation sensitive volume to the radiation field over substantially the full ambient area faced by the window means

  3. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  4. Differences between Outdoor and Indoor Sound Levels for Open, Tilted, and Closed Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Barbara; Piquerez, André; Habermacher, Manuel; Ragettli, Martina; Röösli, Martin; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Vienneau, Danielle; Foraster, Maria; Müller, Uwe; Wunderli, Jean Marc

    2018-01-18

    Noise exposure prediction models for health effect studies normally estimate free field exposure levels outside. However, to assess the noise exposure inside dwellings, an estimate of indoor sound levels is necessary. To date, little field data is available about the difference between indoor and outdoor noise levels and factors affecting the damping of outside noise. This is a major cause of uncertainty in indoor noise exposure prediction and may lead to exposure misclassification in health assessments. This study aims to determine sound level differences between the indoors and the outdoors for different window positions and how this sound damping is related to building characteristics. For this purpose, measurements were carried out at home in a sample of 102 Swiss residents exposed to road traffic noise. Sound pressure level recordings were performed outdoors and indoors, in the living room and in the bedroom. Three scenarios-of open, tilted, and closed windows-were recorded for three minutes each. For each situation, data on additional parameters such as the orientation towards the source, floor, and room, as well as sound insulation characteristics were collected. On that basis, linear regression models were established. The median outdoor-indoor sound level differences were of 10 dB(A) for open, 16 dB(A) for tilted, and 28 dB(A) for closed windows. For open and tilted windows, the most relevant parameters affecting the outdoor-indoor differences were the position of the window, the type and volume of the room, and the age of the building. For closed windows, the relevant parameters were the sound level outside, the material of the window frame, the existence of window gaskets, and the number of windows.

  5. Enhanced Metal-Insulator Transition Performance in Scalable Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films Prepared Using a Moisture-Assisted Chemical Solution Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weizheng; Gao, Min; Lu, Chang; Zhang, Zhi; Chan, Cheuk Ho; Zhuge, Lanjian; Dai, Jiyan; Yang, Hao; Chen, Chonglin; Park, Bae Ho; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2018-03-07

    Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) is a strong-correlated metal-oxide with a sharp metal-insulator transition (MIT) for a range of applications. However, synthesizing epitaxial VO 2 films with desired properties has been a challenge because of the difficulty in controlling the oxygen stoichiometry of VO x , where x can be in the range of 1 < x < 2.5 and V has multiple valence states. Herein, a unique moisture-assisted chemical solution approach has been developed to successfully manipulate the oxygen stoichiometry, to significantly broaden the growth window, and to significantly enhance the MIT performance of VO 2 films. The obvious broadening of the growth window of stoichiometric VO 2 thin films, from 4 to 36 °C, is ascribed to a self-adjusted process for oxygen partial pressure at different temperatures by introducing moisture. A resistance change as large as 4 orders of magnitude has been achieved in VO 2 thin films with a sharp transition width of less than 1 °C. The much enhanced MIT properties can be attributed to the higher and more uniform oxygen stoichiometry. This technique is not only scientifically interesting but also technologically important for fabricating wafer-scaled VO 2 films with uniform properties for practical device applications.

  6. Influence of void defects on partial discharge behavior of superconducting busbar insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunyu; Huang, Xiongyi, E-mail: huangxy@ipp.ac.cn; Lu, Kun; Li, Guoliang; Zhu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Cao; Dai, Zhiheng; Fang, Linlin; Song, Yuntao

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • PD detection method was used to check the quality of the superconducting busbar insulation. • The samples with different void fraction were manufactured for comparing. • The discharge inception voltage, PRPD pattern was tested and studied for the samples with different void content. • The PD behaviors in oil bath and air condition were compared. - Abstract: For a magnetic confinement fusion device, the superconducting magnets and busbars need to be insulated with one layer of solid insulation to isolate the high voltage potential from the ground. The insulation layer commonly consists of several interleaved layers of epoxy resin-impregnated glass fiber tapes and polyimide films. The traditional electrical inspection methods for such solidified insulation on the magnet and busbar are a DC voltage test or a Paschen test. These tests measure the quality of the insulation based on the value of leakage currents. However, even if there is a larger quantity of high dielectric strength material implemented, if there are some microcavities or delaminations in the insulation system, the leakage current may be limited to microampere levels under testing levels over dozens of kilovolts. Therefore, it is difficult to judge the insulation quality just by the magnitudes of leakage current. Under long-term operation, such imperceptible defects will worsen and finally completely break down the insulation because of partial discharge (PD) incidents. Therefore, a PD detection test is an important complement to the DC voltage and Paschen tests for magnet and busbar insulations in the field of fusion. It is known that the PD detection test is a mature technique in the electric power industry. In this paper, the PD characteristics of samples containing glass fiber-reinforced composite insulations for use with the superconducting busbar were presented and discussed. Various samples with different void contents were prepared and the PD behaviors were tested.

  7. Topological insulators and topological superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernevig, Andrei B

    2013-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom. The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topolo...

  8. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  9. Solution-Processed Smart Window Platforms Based on Plasmonic Electrochromics

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Sara

    2018-04-30

    Electrochromic smart windows offer a viable route to reducing the consumption of buildings energy, which represents about 30% of the worldwide energy consumption. Smart windows are far more compelling than current static windows in that they can dynamically modulate the solar spectrum depending on climate and lighting conditions or simply to meet personal preferences. The latest generation of smart windows relies on nominally transparent metal oxide nanocrystal materials whose chromism can be electrochemically controlled using the plasmonic effect. Plasmonic electrochromic materials selectively control the near infrared (NIR) region of the solar spectrum, responsible for solar heat, without affecting the visible transparency. This is in contrast to conventional electrochromic materials which block both the visible and NIR and thus enables electrochromic devices to reduce the energy consumption of a building or a greenhouse in warm climate regions due to enhancements of both visible lighting and heat blocking. Despite this edge, this technology can benefit from important developments, including low-cost solution-based manufacturing on flexible substrates while maintaining durability and coloration efficiency, demonstration of independent control in the NIR and visible spectra, and demonstration of self-powering capabilities. This thesis is focused on developing low-temperature and all-solution processed plasmonic electrochromic devices and dual-band electrochromic devices. We demonstrate new device fabrication approaches in terms of materials and processes which enhance electrochromic performance all the while maintaining low processing temperatures. Scalable fabrication methods are used to highlight compatibility with high throughput, continuous roll-to-roll fabrication on flexible substrates. In addition, a dualband plasmonic electrochromic device was developed by combining the plasmonic layer with a conventional electrochromic ion storage layer. This enables

  10. Tritium removal and retention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.F.; Durigon, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    A device is provided for removing and retaining tritium from a gaseous medium, and also a method of manufacturing the device. The device, consists of an inner core of zirconium alloy, preferably Zircaloy-4, and an outer adherent layer of nickel which acts as a selective and protective window for passage of tritium. The tritium then reacts with or is absorbed by the zirconium alloy, and is retained until such time as it is desirable to remove it during reprocessing. (auth)

  11. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  12. Topological insulators fundamentals and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ortmann, Frank; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    There are only few discoveries and new technologies in physical sciences that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our electronic world. Topological insulators are one of them. The present book for the first time provides a full overview and in-depth knowledge about this hot topic in materials science and condensed matter physics. Techniques such as angle-resolved photoemission spectrometry (ARPES), advanced solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or scanning-tunnel microscopy (STM) together with key principles of topological insulators such as spin-locked electronic

  13. Better and cheaper extra insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1998-01-01

    of buildings. The thermal performance of the systems is compared to an ideal situation, showing that there is still a potential of further savings by improving the design of the insulation systems.To improve the thermal performance of the systems a number of product developments are proposed.......In the current energy plan, focus in placed on further savings of heat in buildings. If the target of the energy plan should be achieved, there is a need for saving heat both in new and existing buildings.The article investigate and compare the properties of several systems for external insulation...

  14. Aerogels Insulate Against Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, NASA started to pursue the development of aerogel for cryogenic insulation. Kennedy Space Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to Aspen Systems Inc., of Marlborough, Massachusetts, that resulted in a new manufacturing process and a new flexible, durable, easy-to-use form of aerogel. Aspen Systems formed Aspen Aerogels Inc., in Northborough, Massachusetts, to market the product, and by 2009, the company had become the leading provider of aerogel in the United States, producing nearly 20 million square feet per year. With an array of commercial applications, the NASA-derived aerogel has most recently been applied to protect and insulate people s hands and feet.

  15. Development and Investigation of Evacuated Windows Based on Monolithic Silica Xerogel Spacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    with the low thermal conductivity offers good possibilities for production of energy efficient windows. For the xerogel window system it is necessary to have the xerogel sufficiently dried, if not hydrophobic xerogels are used, because residual water vapour adsorbed in the material will cause condensation...... to shortage of large xerogel samples. Within the xerogel project a thermally improved wooden frame has been developed which has been used for measurements on aerogel windows to evaluate the effect on total heat loss coefficients. The calculated centre U-value of a xerogel glazing (xerogel density = 250 kg/m3...... will be approximately 0.013 W/(m K) which is approximately 33% of the value for commonly used insulation materials, e.g. mineral wool. Monolithic silica xerogel is a highly porous material (pore volume up to 90%) with a solar transmittance of 50% (thickness = 20 mm). However, if the silica xerogel is not made...

  16. Evaluation of electrochromic windows impact in the energy performance of buildings in Mediterranean climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, P.F.; Gaspar, A.R.; Martins, A.G.; Frontini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Old buildings refurbishment is essential for the global improvement of building energy indicators. Within this context, the paper focuses on the energy savings that may occur when using electrochromic (EC) windows, an interesting emerging technology alternative to shading devices to control solar gain in buildings located in Mediterranean climates. The EC windows technology is briefly presented and the optical properties adjustments of the glasses are discussed according to the operated range. The EC window dynamic behavior and the different control strategies are modeled and implemented in the ESP-r building simulation program. The EC window impact in the energy needs for heating and cooling is studied, considering different ambient parameters (exterior dry bulb temperature, interior dry bulb temperature and incident radiation) and set points for the EC control. A comparison of several windows solutions (single, double-glazing and EC windows), the type of building, internal gains from occupancy, lighting and equipment and the orientation of windows are considered for discussion through the analysis of the energy needs for heating and cooling. It is concluded that for this climate the best positive results are obtained when the EC are used in the west façade. For the south façade the results show no significant advantages in using EC windows. - Highlights: • Energy performance analysis of Electrochromic (EC) windows is carried out. • EC glass and control strategies are modeled and implemented in ESP-r. • EC windows are evaluated, on a test prototype, as an alternative to shading devices. • Set-points and measured variables are used to control optical properties of EC glass. • The most effective results are obtained when EC windows are used in the west façade

  17. Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Advanced Polymer Composite Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub

    Even though the window frames cover a relatively small fraction of the entire building envelope, they are responsible for a major amount of heat loss, due to their poor insulation properties compared to the other envelope elements. With the current trends to reduce energy use in buildings...... radiation. These, and several other solutions, are investigated in the first part of the study. Simulations on simple geometries are conducted to evaluate the potential of different solutions. The results show that by applying different modifications the thermal transmittance of a frame can be significantly...... reduced, but only to a certain extent. To reach further improvement, more drastic changes need to be done. Therefore, an extensive study is done on how to optimize the frame geometry on a broader level. Contemporary frames can be crafted into various shapes, giving the engineers a large freedom of design...

  18. The flexibility window in zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartbaeva, Asel; Wells, Stephen A; Treacy, M M J; Thorpe, M F

    2006-12-01

    Today synthetic zeolites are the most important catalysts in petrochemical refineries because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-sieving properties. There have been considerable efforts to synthesize new zeolites with specific pore geometries, to add to the 167 available at present. Millions of hypothetical structures have been generated on the basis of energy minimization, and there is an ongoing search for criteria capable of predicting new zeolite structures. Here we show, by geometric simulation, that all realizable zeolite framework structures show a flexibility window over a range of densities. We conjecture that this flexibility window is a necessary structural feature that enables zeolite synthesis, and therefore provides a valuable selection criterion when evaluating hypothetical zeolite framework structures as potential synthetic targets. We show that it is a general feature that experimental densities of silica zeolites lie at the low-density edge of this window--as the pores are driven to their maximum volume by Coulomb inflation. This is in contrast to most solids, which have the highest density consistent with the local chemical and geometrical constraints.

  19. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  20. Microsoft Windows Intune 20 Quickstart Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Overton, David

    2012-01-01

    This book is a concise and practical tutorial that shows you how to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs. If you are an administrator or partner who wants to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs then this book is for you . You should have a basic understanding of Windows administration, however, knowledge of Windows Intune would not be required.

  1. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm 2 (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented

  2. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows. The proposed method...

  3. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    of confocal elliptic windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows...

  4. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  5. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  6. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...

  7. Aerogels: transparent and super-insulating materials; Les aerogels: isolants transparent-super isolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melka, S.; Rigacci, A.; Achard, P.; Bezian, J.J. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06 - Sophia-Antipolis (France); Sallee, H.; Chevalier, B. [Centre des Sciences et Techniques du Batiment, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated the super-insulating properties of silica aerogel in its monolithic or finely divided state. In its monolithic state, this material conciliates excellent thermal insulation performances, a good transmission of visible light and interesting acoustic properties. Also its amazing structural characteristics (lightness, high global porosity, small diameter of pores) are particularly interesting for its use in double glazing windows as transparent insulating spacer. The aim of the work carried out by the Energetic Centre of the Ecole des Mines of Paris is to understand the thermal transfer phenomena in all forms of silica aerogel. In this paper, the main steps of the synthesis process of monolithic silica aerogel is presented with the thermal conductivities obtained. Then, a model is built to describe the thermal transfer mechanisms in finely divided aerogel beds. Finally, the hot wire thermal characterization method is presented and the results obtained on silica aerogels are discussed. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  8. Analysis of Physical Parameters for External Partition Wall Joints Insulated from The Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Nakielska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The article introduces material and technological characteristics in insulation of external partitions from the inside. Selected joints of external partition walls were analyzed: corner joint of external walls and wall-window joint in a frame cross-section. The numerical calculations were performed using TRISCO and WUFI software with various isolation thickness and location. Basic physical parameters were defined: linear heat penetration coefficient Ψ, temperature distribution, temperature factor fRsi and real pressure distribution of steam and saturated steam, and humidity increase of external walls and their joints for insulation applied from the inside. Based on calculations and analyzes performed design recommendation were formulated resulting from application of insulation from the inside, arising from binding requirements for heat and humidity.

  9. Electromagnetic force support for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Tachikawa, Nobuo; Omori, Junji.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention certainly supports electromagnetic force exerted on toroidal magnetic field coils. That is, a pair of support members are disposed being abutted against each other between toroidal magnetic field coils disposed radially in the torus direction of a vacuum vessel. Both of the support members are connected under an insulative state by way of an insulative structural portion having an insulation key. In addition, each of the support members and each of the toroidal magnetic field coils are connected by electromagnetic force support portions having a metal taper key and a metal spacer and supporting the electromagnetic force. With such a constitution, the electromagnetic force exerted on the toroidal magnetic field coils is supported by the electromagnetic force support portion having the metal taper key and the metal spacer. As a result, stable electromagnetic force support can be attained. Further, since the insulative structural portion has the insulation key, it can be assembled easily. (I.S.)

  10. Correlations in a band insulator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sentef, M.; Kuneš, Jan; Werner, P.; Kampf, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 15 (2009), 155116/1-155116/7 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : electronic correlations * dynamical mean-field theory * band insulator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  11. Thermal insulation of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovcak, P.; Pec, V.; Pitonak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The claim of the invention concerns thermal insulation of fuel elements heated for measurement of uranium fuel physical properties. For this, layers of aluminium film and of glass fibre are wound onto the inner tube of the element cladding. The space between the inner and the outer tubes is evacuated and the tubes are spaced using spacer wires. (M.S.)

  12. Effects Of Radiation On Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents data on responses of electrically insulating thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers to radiation. Lowest-threshold-dose (LTD) levels and 25-percent-change levels presented for such properties as tensile strength and electrical resistivity. Data on radiation-induced outgassing also given.

  13. Harnessing the metal-insulator transition for tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charipar, Nicholas A.; Charipar, Kristin M.; Kim, Heungsoo; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Suess, Ryan J.; Mathews, Scott A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    The control of light-matter interaction through the use of subwavelength structures known as metamaterials has facilitated the ability to control electromagnetic radiation in ways not previously achievable. A plethora of passive metamaterials as well as examples of active or tunable metamaterials have been realized in recent years. However, the development of tunable metamaterials is still met with challenges due to lack of materials choices. To this end, materials that exhibit a metal-insulator transition are being explored as the active element for future metamaterials because of their characteristic abrupt change in electrical conductivity across their phase transition. The fast switching times (▵t properties associated with thin film metal-insulator transition materials are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. For this work, we have studied how growth conditions (such as gas partial pressure) influence the metalinsulator transition in VO2 thin films made by pulsed laser deposition. In addition, strain engineering during the growth process has been investigated as a method to tune the metal-insulator transition temperature. Examples of both the optical and electrical transient dynamics facilitating the metal-insulator transition will be presented together with specific examples of thin film metamaterial devices.

  14. Dirac Fermions without bulk backscattering in rhombohedral topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera Acosta, Carlos; Lima, Matheus; Seixas, Leandro; da Silva, Antônio; Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    The realization of a spintronic device using topological insulators is not trivial, because there are inherent difficulties in achieving the surface transport regime. The majority of 3D topological insulators materials (3DTI) despite of support helical metallic surface states on an insulating bulk, forming topological Dirac fermions protected by the time-reversal symmetry, exhibit electronic scattering channels due to the presence of residual continuous bulk states near the Dirac-point. From ab initio calculations, we studied the microscopic origin of the continuous bulk states in rhombohedral topological insulators materials with the space group D3d 5 (R 3 m) , showing that it is possible to understand the emergence of residual continuous bulk states near the Dirac-point into a six bands effective model, where the breaking of the R3 symmetry beyond the Γ point has an important role in the hybridization of the px, py and pz atomic orbitals. Within these model, the mechanisms known to eliminate the bulk scattering, for instance: the stacking faults (SF), electric field and alloy, generated the similar effect in the effective states of the 3DTI. Finally, we show how the surface electronic transport is modified by perturbations of bulk with SF. We would like to thank the financial support by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).

  15. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  16. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  17. Graphene device and method of using graphene device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Vincent; Girit, Caglar; Kessler, Brian; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2015-08-11

    An embodiment of a graphene device includes a layered structure, first and second electrodes, and a dopant island. The layered structure includes a conductive layer, an insulating layer, and a graphene layer. The electrodes are coupled to the graphene layer. The dopant island is coupled to an exposed surface of the graphene layer between the electrodes. An embodiment of a method of using a graphene device includes providing the graphene device. A voltage is applied to the conductive layer of the graphene device. Another embodiment of a method of using a graphene device includes providing the graphene device without the dopant island. A dopant island is placed on an exposed surface of the graphene layer between the electrodes. A voltage is applied to the conductive layer of the graphene device. A response of the dopant island to the voltage is observed.

  18. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows.

  19. Handheld White Light Interferometer for Measuring Defect Depth in Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Simmons, Stephen; Cox, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Accurate quantification of defects (scratches and impacts) is vital to the certification of flight hardware and other critical components. The amount of damage to a particular component contributes to the performance, reliability, and safety of a system, which ultimately affects the success or failure of a mission or test. The launch-commit criteria on a Space Shuttle Orbiter window are governed by the depth of the defects that are identified by a visual inspection. This measurement of a defect is not easy to obtain given the environment, size of the defect, and location of the window(s). The determination of depth has typically been performed by taking a mold impression and measuring the impression with an optical profiling instrument. Another method of obtaining an estimate of the depth is by using a refocus microscope. To use a refocus microscope, the surface of the glass and bottom of the defect are, in turn, brought into focus by the operator. The amount of movement between the two points corresponds to the depth of the defect. The refocus microscope requires a skilled operator and has been proven to be unreliable when used on Orbiter windows. White light interferometry was chosen as a candidate to replace the refocus microscope. The White Light Interferometer (WLI) was developed to replace the refocus microscope as the instrument used for measuring the depth of defects in Orbiter windows. The WLI consists of a broadband illumination source, interferometer, detector, motion control, displacement sensor, mechanical housing, and support electronics. The illumination source for the WLI is typically a visible light emitting diode (LED) or a near-infrared superluminescent diode (SLD) with power levels of less than a milliwatt. The interferometer is a Michelson configuration consisting of a 1-in. (2.5-cm) cube beam splitter, a 0.5-in. (1.3-cm) optical window as a movable leg (used to closely match the return intensity of the fixed leg from the window), and a

  20. Highly Flexible, Multipixelated Thermosensitive Smart Windows Made of Tough Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Li, Xinda; Kumar, Amit; Fu, Yiyang; Yang, Shu; Chung, Hyun-Joong

    2017-09-27

    In a cold night, a clear window that will become opaque while retaining the indoor heat is highly desirable for both privacy and energy efficiency. A thermally responsive material that controls both the transmittance of solar radiance (predominantly in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths) and blackbody radiation (mainly in the mid-infrared) can realize such windows with minimal energy consumption. Here, we report a smart coating made from polyampholyte hydrogel (PAH) that transforms from a transparency state to opacity to visible radiation and strengthens opacity to mid-infrared when lowering the temperature as a result of phase separation between the water-rich and polymer-rich phases. To match a typical temperature fluctuation during the day, we fine-tune the phase transition temperature between 25 and 55 °C by introducing a small amount of relatively hydrophobic monomers (0.1 to 0.5 wt % to PAH). To further demonstrate an actively controlled, highly flexible, and high-contrast smart window, we build in an array of electric heaters made of printed elastomeric composite. The multipixelated window offers rapid switching, ∼70 s per cycle, whereas the device can withstand high strain (up to 80%) during operations.

  1. A robust design window for the heliotron DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takuya; Miyazawa, Junichi; Tanaka, Teruya; Yanagi, Nagato; Sagara, Akio

    2011-01-01

    According to the achievements in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, a design of a DEMO reactor with a LHD-type heliotron system is foreseeable. On the other hand, a DEMO is the next step reactor and high reliability and feasibility are demanded in its design. In this study, a robust design window, i.e., the design window that is not sensitive to a change in uncertain physics parameters, was surveyed through parametric scans using a system design code. It was found that a difference in main design parameters (major radius, magnetic field strength, fusion output) gives only a small change in a dependence of physics requirements on the physics conditions. Therefore, it is important to find the design window with a lower requirement on the confinement improvement to assure the design robustness. In this respect, a reduction in the minimum inboard blanket space, one of the key parameters in a LHD-type heliotron reactor design, can effectively expand the design window and contributes to the design robustness. An acceptance of higher neutron wall load and an achievement of further high confinement improvement are also expected to make both a DEMO and a commercial reactor to be more feasible and economically attractive. (author)

  2. Windows 2012 Server network security securing your Windows network systems and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Windows 2012 Server Network Security provides the most in-depth guide to deploying and maintaining a secure Windows network. The book drills down into all the new features of Windows 2012 and provides practical, hands-on methods for securing your Windows systems networks, including: Secure remote access Network vulnerabilities and mitigations DHCP installations configuration MAC filtering DNS server security WINS installation configuration Securing wired and wireless connections Windows personal firewall

  3. Low-E Storm Windows Gain Acceptance as a Home Weatherization Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2016-05-16

    This article for Home Energy Magazine describes work by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop low-emissivity storm windows as an energy efficiency-retrofit option for existing homes. The article describes the low-emissivity invisible silver metal coatings on the glass, which reflect heat back into the home in winter or back outside in summer and the benefits of low-e storm windows including insulation, air sealing, noise blocking, protection of antique windows, etc. The article also describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's efforts on behalf of DOE to overcome market barriers to adoption of the technology, including performance validation studies in the PNNL Lab Homes, cost effectiveness analysis, production of reports, brochures, how-to guides on low-e storm window installation for the Building America Solution Center, and a video posted on YouTube. PNNL's efforts were reviewed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Technical Forum (RTF), which serves as the advisory board to the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration. In late July 2015, the RTF approved the low-e storm window measure’s savings and specifications, a critical step in integrating low-e storm windows into energy-efficiency planning and utility weatherization and incentive programs. PNNL estimates that more than 90 million homes in the United States with single-pane or low-performing double-pane windows would benefit from the technology. Low-e storm windows are suitable not only for private residences but also for small commercial buildings, historic properties, and facilities that house residents, such as nursing homes, dormitories, and in-patient facilities. To further assist in the market transformation of low-e storm windows and other high-efficiency window attachments, DOE helped found the window Attachment Energy Rating Council (AERC) in 2015. AERC is an independent, public interest, non-profit organization whose mission is to rate

  4. Bonebridge Implantation for Conductive Hearing Loss in a Patient with Oval Window Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minbum

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of oval window atresia is a rare anomaly with conductive hearing loss. Traditional atresia surgeries involve challenging surgical techniques with risks of irreversible inner ear damage. Recent reports on Bonebridge (Medel, Innsbruck, Austria), a novel implantable bone conduction hearing aid system, assert that the device is safe and effective for conductive hearing loss. We present a case of Bonebridge implantation in an eight-year-old girl with bilateral oval window atresia.

  5. Insulator recognition based on convolution neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yanli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulator fault detection plays an important role in maintaining the safety of transmission lines. Insulator recognition is a prerequisite for its fault detection. An insulator recognition algorithm based on convolution neural network (CNN is proposed. A dataset is established to train the constructed CNN. The correct rate is 98.52% for 1220 training samples and the accuracy rate of testing is 89.04% on 1305 samples. The classification result of the CNN is further used to segment the insulator image. The test results show that the proposed method can realize the effective segmentation of insulators.

  6. A Windows Phone 7 Oriented Secure Architecture for Business Intelligence Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia TRIF

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present and implement a Windows Phone 7 Oriented Secure Architecture for Business Intelligence Mobile Application. In the developing process is used a Windows Phone 7 application that interact with a WCF Web Service and a database. The types of Business Intelligence Mobile Applications are presented. The Windows mobile devices security and restrictions are presented. The namespaces and security algorithms used in .NET Compact Framework for assuring the application security are presented. The proposed architecture is showed underlying the flows between the application and the web service.

  7. Chronic cranial window with access port for repeated cellular manipulations, drug application, and electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roome, Christopher J; Kuhn, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cranial windows have been instrumental in advancing optical studies in vivo, permitting long-term, high-resolution imaging in various brain regions. However, once a window is attached it is difficult to regain access to the brain under the window for cellular manipulations. Here we describe a simple device that combines long term in vivo optical imaging with direct brain access via glass or quartz pipettes and metal, glass, or quartz electrodes for cellular manipulations like dye or drug injections and electrophysiological stimulations or recordings while keeping the craniotomy sterile. Our device comprises a regular cranial window glass coverslip with a drilled access hole later sealed with biocompatible silicone. This chronic cranial window with access port is cheap, easy to manufacture, can be mounted just as the regular chronic cranial window, and is self-sealing after retraction of the pipette or electrode. We demonstrate that multiple injections can be performed through the silicone port by repetitively bolus loading calcium sensitive dye into mouse barrel cortex and recording spontaneous cellular activity over a period of weeks. As an example to the extent of its utility for electrophysiological recording, we describe how simple removal of the silicone seal can permit patch pipette access for whole-cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. During these chronic experiments we do not observe any infections under the window or impairment of animal health.

  8. Highly insulating and light transmitting aerogel glazing for window - PPR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1999-01-01

    This report is the twelve-monthly period progress report and the first year assessment of the JOULE III project within EU's fourth framework programme.......This report is the twelve-monthly period progress report and the first year assessment of the JOULE III project within EU's fourth framework programme....

  9. Simple Design Tool for Development of Well Insulated Window Frames and Optimization of the Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    is generated by the program and is used by the finite element simulator to calculate the thermal performance of the frame (the U value). After the initial design is evaluated, the user can quickly modify chosen parameters and generate a new design. This process can then be repeated in multiple iterations...

  10. Image annotation under X Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Steven

    1991-08-01

    A mechanism for attaching graphic and overlay annotation to multiple bits/pixel imagery while providing levels of performance approaching that of native mode graphics systems is presented. This mechanism isolates programming complexity from the application programmer through software encapsulation under the X Window System. It ensures display accuracy throughout operations on the imagery and annotation including zooms, pans, and modifications of the annotation. Trade-offs that affect speed of display, consumption of memory, and system functionality are explored. The use of resource files to tune the display system is discussed. The mechanism makes use of an abstraction consisting of four parts; a graphics overlay, a dithered overlay, an image overly, and a physical display window. Data structures are maintained that retain the distinction between the four parts so that they can be modified independently, providing system flexibility. A unique technique for associating user color preferences with annotation is introduced. An interface that allows interactive modification of the mapping between image value and color is discussed. A procedure that provides for the colorization of imagery on 8-bit display systems using pixel dithering is explained. Finally, the application of annotation mechanisms to various applications is discussed.

  11. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  12. Influence of coatings on the thermal and mechanical processes at insulating glass units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Nina; Krumov, Kalin; Surleva, Andriana; Geshkova, Zlatka

    2017-09-01

    Different coatings on structural glass are used in the advances transparent facades and window systems in order to increase the thermal performance of the glass units and to regulate their optical properties. Coated glass has a higher absorptance in the solar spectrum which leads to correspondent higher temperature in the presence of solar load compared to the uncoated one. That process results in higher climatic loads at the insulating glass units (IGU) and in thermal stresses in the coated glass elements. Temperature fields and gradients in glass panes and climatic loads at IGU in window systems are estimated at different coating of glazed system. The study is implemented by numerical simulation of conjugate heat transfer in the window systems at summer time and presence of solar irradiation, as well as during winter night time.

  13. Optical conductivity of topological insulator thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. L.; Xu, W.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study on the optoelectronic properties of topological insulator thin film (TITFs). The k·p approach is employed to calculate the energy spectra and wave functions for both the bulk and surface states in the TITF. With these obtained results, the optical conductivities induced by different electronic transitions among the bulk and surface states are evaluated using the energy-balance equation derived from the Boltzmann equation. We find that for Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs, three characteristic regimes for the optical absorption can be observed. (i) In the low radiation frequency regime (photon energy ℏω<200 meV), the free-carrier absorption takes place due to intraband electronic transitions. An optical absorption window can be observed. (ii) In the intermediate radiation frequency regime (200<ℏω<300 meV), the optical absorption is induced mainly by interband electronic transitions from surface states in the valance band to surface states in the conduction band and an universal value σ 0 =e 2 /(8ℏ) for the optical conductivity can be obtained. (iii) In the high radiation frequency regime (ℏω>300 meV), the optical absorption can be achieved via interband electronic transitions from bulk and surface states in the valance band to bulk and surface states in the conduction band. A strong absorption peak can be observed. These interesting findings indicate that optical measurements can be applied to identify the energy regimes of bulk and surface states in the TITF

  14. Assessment of Long Thermal Ageing on the Oil-Paper Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraida Kolcunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric power equipment has complex construction. Therefore, it is very important to have enough information about the state of equipment. High voltage transformers play a very important role in the electric power system. One of the most important parts of electric power equipment is the insulation system. Insulation system must be in a good condition for reliable and safe operation of electrical devices. Insulation system of electrical equipment is exposed to various factors which could have negative influence on its condition. Oil impregnated insulation paper is one of the oldest insulation systems used in electrical power equipment. Mineral oils have been used for decades as transformer fluids because of their excellent dielectric properties and availability. However, performance of mineral oil starts to be limited due to environmental consideration. The aim of this paper is to simulate a real insulation system of transformer and to show the influence of accelerated thermal ageing on the insulation system. Properties such as relative permittivity, dissipation factor and the breakdown voltage will be described and analysed.

  15. A Review of Irradiation Effects on Organic-Matrix Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    This review assesses the data base on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation to determine whether organic electric insulation systems can be used in the toroidal field (TF) magnets of next generation fusion devices such as ITER* and TPX*. Owing to the difficulties of testing insulation under fusion reactor conditions, there is a considerable mismatch between the ITER requirements and the data that are currently available. For example, nearly all of the high-dose (5 x 10 7 to 10 8 Gy) data obtained on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation employed gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, or reactor irradiation with a fast neutron fluence far below 10 23 /m 2 , the fluence expected for the insulation at the TF magnets, as set forth in ITER conceptual design documents. Also, the neutron spectrum did not contain a very high energy (E (ge) 5 MeV) component. Such data underestimate the actual damage that would be obtained with the neutron fluence and spectrum expected at a TF magnet. Experiments on a polyimide (Kapton) indicate that gamma or electron doses or mixed gamma and neutron reactor doses would have to be downgraded by a factor of up to ten to simulate fusion neutron doses. Even when neutrons did constitute a significant portion of the total dose, B-containing E-glass reinforcement was often used; therefore, excess damage from the 10 B + n → 7 Li + α reaction occurred near the glass-epoxy interface. This problem can easily be avoided by substituting B-free glass (R, S, or T types)

  16. A Review of Irradiation Effects on Organic-Matrix Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.J.

    1993-06-01

    This review assesses the data base on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation to determine whether organic electric insulation systems can be used in the toroidal field (TF) magnets of next generation fusion devices such as ITER* and TPX*. Owing to the difficulties of testing insulation under fusion reactor conditions, there is a considerable mismatch between the ITER requirements and the data that are currently available. For example, nearly all of the high-dose (5 x 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} Gy) data obtained on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation employed gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, or reactor irradiation with a fast neutron fluence far below 10{sup 23}/m{sup 2}, the fluence expected for the insulation at the TF magnets, as set forth in ITER conceptual design documents. Also, the neutron spectrum did not contain a very high energy (E {ge} 5 MeV) component. Such data underestimate the actual damage that would be obtained with the neutron fluence and spectrum expected at a TF magnet. Experiments on a polyimide (Kapton) indicate that gamma or electron doses or mixed gamma and neutron reactor doses would have to be downgraded by a factor of up to ten to simulate fusion neutron doses. Even when neutrons did constitute a significant portion of the total dose, B-containing E-glass reinforcement was often used; therefore, excess damage from the {sup 10}B + n {yields} {sup 7}Li + {alpha} reaction occurred near the glass-epoxy interface. This problem can easily be avoided by substituting B-free glass (R, S, or T types).

  17. High temperature structural insulating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  18. Giant Edelstein effect in topological-insulator-graphene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vega, M.; Schwiete, G.; Sinova, J.; Rossi, E.

    2017-12-01

    The control of a ferromagnet's magnetization via only electric currents requires the efficient generation of current-driven spin torques. In magnetic structures based on topological insulators (TIs) current-induced spin-orbit torques can be generated. Here we show that the addition of graphene, or bilayer graphene, to a TI-based magnetic structure greatly enhances the current-induced spin-density accumulation and significantly reduces the amount of power dissipated. We find that this enhancement can be as high as a factor of 100, giving rise to a giant Edelstein effect. Such a large enhancement is due to the high mobility of graphene (bilayer graphene) and to the fact that the graphene (bilayer graphene) sheet very effectively screens charge impurities, the dominant source of disorder in topological insulators. Our results show that the integration of graphene in spintronics devices can greatly enhance their performance and functionalities.

  19. Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology; Technologie silicium sur isolant (SOI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristoloveanu, S.; Balestra, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut de Microelectronique, Electromagnetisme et Photonique, IMEP, Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electronique et de Radioelectricite de Grenoble, ENSERG, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-05-01

    The silicon on insulator (SOI) technology was invented in the 1960's and 1970's in order to satisfy the demand of hardened integrated circuits with respect to ionizing radiations. This technology uses an embedded oxide for a perfect dielectric insulation between the active circuit (superficial) layer and the massive silicon substrate (responsible of undesirable parasite effects). The SOI technology is a first-class technology for the fabrication of low consumption and high frequency components. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the SOI technology, starting with the methods of synthesis of the main materials. The essential advantages of SOI circuits with respect to conventional massive silicon devices are presented with some typical examples of components (totally or partially depleted MOS transistors, miniaturization of conventional MOS transistors, innovative architectures). Finally the challenges to be taken up by the SOI technology to spread over the market of microelectronics are discussed. (J.S.)

  20. Single atom anisotropic magnetoresistance on a topological insulator surface

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Awadhesh

    2015-03-12

    © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. We demonstrate single atom anisotropic magnetoresistance on the surface of a topological insulator, arising from the interplay between the helical spin-momentum-locked surface electronic structure and the hybridization of the magnetic adatom states. Our first-principles quantum transport calculations based on density functional theory for Mn on Bi2Se3 elucidate the underlying mechanism. We complement our findings with a two dimensional model valid for both single adatoms and magnetic clusters, which leads to a proposed device setup for experimental realization. Our results provide an explanation for the conflicting scattering experiments on magnetic adatoms on topological insulator surfaces, and reveal the real space spin texture around the magnetic impurity.

  1. Performance of Topological Insulator Interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Timothy M.; Hirsbrunner, Mark R.; Park, Moon Jip; Gilbert, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The poor performance of copper interconnects at the nanometer scale calls for new material solutions for continued scaling of integrated circuits. We propose the use of three dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators (TIs), which host backscattering-protected surface states, for this purpose. Using semiclassical methods, we demonstrate that nanoscale TI interconnects have a resistance 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than copper interconnects and graphene nanoribbons at the nano...

  2. MCSA Microsoft Windows 8.1 complete study guide exams 70-687, 70-688, and 70-689

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, hands-on study guide for the Microsoft Windows 8.1 exams The MCSA: Microsoft Windows 8.1 Complete Study Guide is a comprehensive package loaded with educational study tools, including a pre-assessment test, hands-on exercises, hundreds of review questions, exclusive practice exam questions, electronic flashcards, and over an hour of author-led videos. For IT students and professionals, getting certified on Microsoft Windows 8.1 can mean huge career opportunities. Over 90% of all personal computing devices run on Windows, and those certified on the newest version will be in high

  3. Secondary electron emission from insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, K.; Ono, S.; Ishigaki, F.

    1978-01-01

    The high yield of secondary electron emission from insulators due to electron bombardment may be the result of an increase of the depth of escape. The free-electron scattering theory is applied to the high energy of primary beams, but cannot be applied to the low energy of secondary escaping beams because of the large energy gap of the insulators. The plasmon loss with the valence electron is considered when the secondary electrons escape. Based on the energy retardation power formula of the penetration and energy loss of an electron probe into solid targets, secondary electron emissions from insulators are calculated from the assumptions that the distribution of the secondary electrons due to both incident and back-scattered electrons within the target is isotropic and that it follows the absorption law of the Lenard type. The universal yield-energy curve of the secondary electron emission, which is deduced as a function of three parameters such as ionisation potential, valence electron and the back-scattered coefficient in addition to the free-electron density effect, is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  4. Insulating and preheating device for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wampole, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    In liquid metal cooled reactors, the components and pipes in which the liquid metal flows must be lagged to lessen the losses of thermal energy generated in the reactor, limit the heating of adjacent structures (concrete and steel) and to maintain the liquid metal coolant above its point of solidification in the components during the periods of reactor shut-down. Although the present facilities do their job in a satisfactory manner, nevertheless they are devoid of defects, thus the tightly adjusted lagging used at the present time makes inspections extremely difficult and tedious. Furthermore, the impossibility of inspecting some components owing to the presence of tightly adjusted heat lagging, may well become intolerable in the future. Added to which, the cost of these facilities is high. The feature of the present installation is that certain components are arranged in a lagged enclosure around these components but spaced out enough for their easy inspection; the heating facilities are arranged in this enclosure so that the components may be heated virtually evenly and the cooling facilities are provided on the outside surface of this lagged enclosure. For greater safety, the inside atmosphere of the enclosure is preferably composed of an inert gas for the reactor coolant, such as nitrogen, argon or helium [fr

  5. Top-gate pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with amorphous rubrene gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroki, Mizuha; Maeda, Yasutaka; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro

    2018-02-01

    The scaling of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is necessary for high-density integration and for this, OFETs with a top-gate configuration are required. There have been several reports of damageless lithography processes for organic semiconductor or insulator layers. However, it is still difficult to fabricate scaled OFETs with a top-gate configuration. In this study, the lift-off process and the device characteristics of the OFETs with a top-gate configuration utilizing an amorphous (α) rubrene gate insulator were investigated. We have confirmed that α-rubrene shows an insulating property, and its extracted linear mobility was 2.5 × 10‑2 cm2/(V·s). The gate length and width were 10 and 60 µm, respectively. From these results, the OFET with a top-gate configuration utilizing an α-rubrene gate insulator is promising for the high-density integration of scaled OFETs.

  6. Improving the Performance of a Semitransparent BIPV by Using High-Reflectivity Heat Insulation Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Mei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, standard semitransparent photovoltaic (PV modules can largely replace architectural glass installed in the windows, skylights, and facade of a building. Their main features are power generation and transparency, as well as possessing a heat insulating effect. Through heat insulation solar glass (HISG encapsulation technology, this study improved the structure of a typical semitransparent PV module and explored the use of three types of high-reflectivity heat insulation films to form the HISG building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV systems. Subsequently, the authors analyzed the influence of HISG structures on the optical, thermal, and power generation performance of the original semitransparent PV module and the degree to which enhanced performance is possible. The experimental results indicated that the heat insulation performance and power generation of HISGs were both improved. Selecting an appropriate heat insulation film so that a larger amount of reflective solar radiation is absorbed by the back side of the HISG can yield greater enhancement of power generation. The numerical results conducted in this study also indicated that HISG BIPV system not only provides the passive energy needed for power loading in a building, but also decreases the energy consumption of the HVAC system in subtropical and temperate regions.

  7. Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator

    KAUST Repository

    Mellnik, A. R.

    2014-07-23

    Magnetic devices are a leading contender for the implementation of memory and logic technologies that are non-volatile, that can scale to high density and high speed, and that do not wear out. However, widespread application of magnetic memory and logic devices will require the development of efficient mechanisms for reorienting their magnetization using the least possible current and power. There has been considerable recent progress in this effort; in particular, it has been discovered that spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet bilayers can produce strong current-driven torques on the magnetic layer, via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or the Rashba-Edelstein effect in the ferromagnet. In the search for materials to provide even more efficient spin-orbit-induced torques, some proposals have suggested topological insulators, which possess a surface state in which the effects of spin-orbit coupling are maximal in the sense that an electron\\' s spin orientation is fixed relative to its propagation direction. Here we report experiments showing that charge current flowing in-plane in a thin film of the topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) at room temperature can indeed exert a strong spin-transfer torque on an adjacent ferromagnetic permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film, with a direction consistent with that expected from the topological surface state. We find that the strength of the torque per unit charge current density in Bi 2Se3 is greater than for any source of spin-transfer torque measured so far, even for non-ideal topological insulator films in which the surface states coexist with bulk conduction. Our data suggest that topological insulators could enable very efficient electrical manipulation of magnetic materials at room temperature, for memory and logic applications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the

  9. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  10. Editorial - Opening windows onto data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of Internet Archaeology's strengths and 'unique selling points' not yet replicated by (many other e-journals, is that data is integrated into articles rather than being 'supplementary' or offered for download. The aim has always been for the narrative to be a wave driving readers towards the underlying data. Opening windows onto the data from within the text is one of the things I think the journal does best and is a feature used throughout Emma Durham's article 'Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain'. Archaeological data does not speak for itself. It needs a narrative. It needs context. But by intermeshing data with interpretation, readers can dip into the data and start to explore it while reading the article, allowing a more immediate understanding of the bigger picture.

  11. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  12. Multi-window counting of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, T.M.; Beach, S.E.; Khan, A.J.; Bari, A.; Bradt, C.J.; Haines, D.K.; Syed, U.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In counting of radioactivity, using for example gas proportional (GP) or liquid scintillation (LS) counters, one can set up two or more electronic windows, which can measure two or more radiation components. In this work, we derived general equations for n-window counting in matrix notation, including mutual crosstalk between the windows using both the ratio (not normalized) and the fraction (normalized) methods. A solution for n radiation components is presented. For the two-window measurements, we report complete statistical analysis of the results including propagation of all uncertainties. The decision-level and the detection-limit equations were derived including crosstalk correction, uncertainties of the variables, Gaussian continuity correction, interference correction, and the overdispersion correction. Numerical verifications of the two-window systems are presented, including conditions for the detection of a minor component in the presence of a major component. In addition, limited experimental verifications of the two-window systems using LS counting are reported.

  13. Graphene Based Reversible Nano-Switch/Sensor Schottky Diode (NANOSSSD) Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor); Theofylaktos, Onoufrios (Inventor); Pinto, Nicholas J. (Inventor); Mueller, Carl H. (Inventor); Santos, Javier (Inventor); Meador, Michael A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A nanostructure device is provided and performs dual functions as a nano-switching/sensing device. The nanostructure device includes a doped semiconducting substrate, an insulating layer disposed on the doped semiconducting substrate, an electrode formed on the insulating layer, and at least one layer of graphene formed on the electrode. The at least one layer of graphene provides an electrical connection between the electrode and the substrate and is the electroactive element in the device.

  14. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  15. Insulator-insulator and insulator-conductor transitions in the phase diagram of aluminium trichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Ruberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a classical computer-simulation study of the phase diagram of AlCl3 in the pressure-temperature (p, T plane, showing (i that melting from a layered crystal structure occurs into a molecular liquid at low (p, T and into a dissociated ionic liquid at high (p, T, and (ii that a broad transition from a molecular insulator to an ionic conductor takes place in the liquid state.

  16. Windows 7 Annoyances Tips, Secrets, and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2010-01-01

    Windows 7 may be faster and more stable than Vista, but it's a far cry from problem-free. David A. Karp comes to the rescue with the latest in his popular Windows Annoyances series. This thorough guide gives you the tools you need to fix the troublesome parts of this operating system, plus the solutions, hacks, and timesaving tips to make the most of your PC. Streamline Windows Explorer, improve the Search tool, eliminate the Green Ribbon of Death, and tame User Account Control promptsExplore powerful Registry tips and tools, and use them to customize every aspect of Windows and solve its sho

  17. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  18. Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security co

  19. Windows 8.1 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling book on Windows, now updated for the new 8.1 features Microsoft has fine-tuned Windows 8 with some important new features, and veteran author Andy Rathbone explains every one in this all-new edition of a long-time bestseller. Whether you're using Windows for the first time, upgrading from an older version, or just moving from Windows 8 to 8.1, here's what you need to know. Learn about the dual interfaces, the new Start button, how to customize the interface and boot operations, and how to work with programs and files, use the web and social media, manage music and photos, and

  20. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildkamp, W.; Nikitina, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  1. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...

  2. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2010-01-01

    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  3. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  4. High-Voltage Switch Containing (DI)2 Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Maurice H.; Fiedor, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    Series switching diodes triggered on by passing above threshold voltage. High-voltage switch made by connecting multitude of deep-impurity, double-injection devices in series with each other and with another, triggerable high-voltage device such as thyristor. Device operates near ground potential to avoid insulation problems in triggering circuit.

  5. Electrically Induced Multiple Metal-Insulator Transitions in Oxide Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Javier; Kalcheim, Yoav; Trastoy, Juan; Charnukha, Aliaksei; Basov, Dimitri N.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2017-11-01

    We show that electrical resistive switching can trigger the appearance of multiple metal-insulator transitions (MITs) in VO2 and V2O3 planar nanodevices. We have fabricated planar devices to electrically induce oxygen vacancy drift and filament formation. We show that oxygen migration can create ordered vanadium-oxide phases of varying stoichiometry with an intrinsic MIT, resulting in well-defined hysteresis loops in the R vs T characteristics of the device. We also show that oxygen migration induces oxide phases displaying correlated behaviors. Our results open up the possibility to electrically control the MIT, enabling alternative functionalities in memristive devices and allowing for alternative paradigms in neuromorphic computing or memory applications.

  6. Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, B. S. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hsu, Y. -T. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zeng, B. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hatnean, M. Ciomaga [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Zhu, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartstein, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kiourlappou, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Srivastava, A. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johannes, M. D. [Center for Computational Materials Science, Washington, DC (United States); Murphy, T. P. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Park, J. -H. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Balicas, L. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Lonzarich, G. G. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Balakrishnan, G. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Sebastian, Suchitra E. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-17

    Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.

  7. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  8. Low Permeability Polyimide Insulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resodyn Technologies proposes a new technology that enables the application of polyimide based cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability. This effort...

  9. Systems and Methods for Providing Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods provide a multi-layer insulation (MLI) that includes a plurality of sealed metalized volumes in a stacked arrangement, wherein the plurality of sealed metalized volumes encapsulate a gas therein, with the gas having one of a thermal insulating property, an acoustic insulating property, or a combination insulating property thereof. The MLI also includes at least one spacer between adjacent sealed metalized volumes of the plurality of sealed metalized volumes and a protective cover surrounding the plurality of sealed metalized volumes.

  10. Natural ageing of EPDM composite insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlastos, A.E.; Sherif, E. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, High Voltage Engineering, S-412 96 Gothenburg (SW))

    1990-01-01

    Long-rod composite insulators, with weather sheds (sheds) made of ethylene propylene rubbers (EPDM), were exposed for many years to HVAC and HVDC under realistic conditions and natural pollution. The change of their properties with time and their aging was studied. The results show that the insulator shed material undergoes a slow degradation process and loses successively its water repelling properties which initially make the EPDM composite insulators superior to inorganic glass and porcelain insulator. The outdoor degradation of the shed material depends on the electric stress, in the environmental factors (such as pollution, rain, salt-laden fog, and UV-radiation from sun) and on the materials and fillers used in the construction of the composite insulators. A thorough macro- and microscopic study of the EPDM composite insulator sheds illustrates the differences of the surface state of EPDM insulators of different makes in which different basic material compositions and fillers are used. The poor performance of aged EPDM composite insulators compared to inorganic insulators depends on the design and on environmental factors.

  11. Characterization of Microporous Insulation, Microsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Microsil microporous insulation has been characterized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use in structural and thermal applications in the DPP-1 design. Qualitative test results have provided mechanical behavioral characteristics for DPP-1 design studies and focused on the material behavioral response to being crushed, cyclically loaded, and subjected to vibration for a confined material with an interference fit or a radial gap. Quantitative test results have provided data to support the DPP-1 FEA model analysis and verification and were used to determine mechanical property values for the material under a compression load. The test results are documented within this report.

  12. Transport Experiments on Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-16

    neutral currents as well. In insulating magnets, the heat current below 2 K is largely carried by spin waves or magnons (phonons die out rapidly below 2 K...are not magnons (theorists call them “spinons”). The 2 experiments confirm that \\Omega can exert a large Hall-like force on excitations even when...largely carried by spin waves or magnons (phonons die out rapidly below 2 K). In a certain class of magnets with a Kagome lattice, theory predicts that

  13. Magnon Valve Effect between Two Magnetic Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Huang, L.; Fang, C.; Yang, B. S.; Wan, C. H.; Yu, G. Q.; Feng, J. F.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.

    2018-03-01

    The key physics of the spin valve involves spin-polarized conduction electrons propagating between two magnetic layers such that the device conductance is controlled by the relative magnetization orientation of two magnetic layers. Here, we report the effect of a magnon valve which is made of two ferromagnetic insulators (YIG) separated by a nonmagnetic spacer layer (Au). When a thermal gradient is applied perpendicular to the layers, the inverse spin Hall voltage output detected by a Pt bar placed on top of the magnon valve depends on the relative orientation of the magnetization of two YIG layers, indicating the magnon current induced by the spin Seebeck effect at one layer affects the magnon current in the other layer separated by Au. We interpret the magnon valve effect by the angular momentum conversion and propagation between magnons in two YIG layers and conduction electrons in the Au layer. The temperature dependence of the magnon valve ratio shows approximately a power law, supporting the above magnon-electron spin conversion mechanism. This work opens a new class of valve structures beyond the conventional spin valves.

  14. Characteristics of Air Flow through Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Dam, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars C.

    This paper describes the first results of a series of laboratory investigations that is performed to characterise three different window types. The results show the air flow conditions for different ventilation strategies and temperature differences. For one of the windows values of the discharge...

  15. What are windows on language evolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    This chapter offers an elucidation of the idea that certain phenomena provide windows on language evolution. Non-metaphorically, such windows are shown to be conceptual constructs used for making inferences about aspects of language evolution from data or assumptions about properties of

  16. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  17. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  18. Topology optimized design for silicon-on-insulator mode converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Louise Floor; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Ding, Yunhong

    2015-01-01

    as a potential method for supporting the constantly increasing internet traffic demand [1]. Mode converters are important components necessary to support on-chip processing of MDM signals and multiple approaches has been followed in realizing such devices [2], [3]. Topology optimization (TO) [4] is a powerful...... and the first higher order odd mode (TE1) in a photonic wire. The design is to be fabricated in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material, and previous work has shown excellent correspondence between simulations and experimental results for 3D TO [7]....

  19. BOA: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Abatement Robot System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.

    1996-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  20. Organic semiconductor: Insulator polymer ternary blends for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, Toby A.M. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Mueller, Christian [Department of Materials, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bradley, Donal D.C.; Nelson, Jenny [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Smith, Paul [Department of Materials, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Stingelin, Natalie [Department of Materials, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Ternary blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM) and the insulating bulk polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isotactic- and atactic polystyrene (i-PS, a-PS), are investigated. Addition of up to {approx}50 wt% of the electronically inert, semicrystalline HDPE and i-PS to the organic semiconducting system does not significantly degrade the performance of photovoltaic devices fabricated with these ternary blends. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Insulator-protected mechanically controlled break junctions for measuring single-molecule conductance in aqueous environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthusubramanian, N.; Galan, E.; Maity, C.; Eelkema, R.; Grozema, F.C.; van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate insulated gold mechanically controlled break junctions (MCBJ) by coating the metal with a thin layer of aluminum oxide using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. The Al2O3 thickness deposited on the MCBJ devices was varied from 2 to 15 nm

  2. Trigger of the ubiquitous surface band bending in 3D topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; Ramankutty, S.V.; de Jong, N.; Huang, Y.K.; Pan, Y.; Tytarenko, A.; Radovic, M.; Plumb, N.C.; Shi, M.; Varykhalov, A.; de Visser, A.; van Heumen, E.; Golden, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The main scientific activity in the field of topological insulators (TIs) consists of determining their electronic structure by means of magnetotransport and electron spectroscopy with a view to devices based on topological transport. There is, however, a caveat in this approach. There are

  3. Silicon-on-Insulator Lateral-Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor with Built-in Self-anti-ESD Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Power SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator devices have an inherent sandwich structure of MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor gate which is very easy to suffer ESD (Electro-Static Discharge overstress. To solve this reliability problem, studies on design and modification of a built-in self-anti-ESD diode for a preliminarily optimized high voltage SOI LIGBT (Lateral-Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor were carried out on the Silvaco TCAD (Technology-Computer-Aided-Design platform. According to the constrains of the technological process, the new introduction of the N+ doped region into P-well region that form the built-in self-anti-ESD diode should be done together with the doping of source under the same mask. The modifications were done by adjusting the vertical impurity profile in P-well into retrograde distribution and designing a cathode plate with a proper length to cover the forward depletion terminal and make sure that the thickness of the cathode plate is the same as that of the gate plate. The simulation results indicate that the modified device structure is compatible with the original one in process and design, the breakdown voltage margin of the former was expanded properly, and both the transient cathode voltages are clamped low enough very quickly. Therefore, the design and optimization results of the modified device structure of the built-in self-anti-ESD diode for the given SOI LIGBT meet the given requirements.

  4. Insulator-based dielectrophoresis of microorganisms: theoretical and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada-Hernandez, Hector; Baylon-Cardiel, Javier L; Pérez-González, Victor H; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2011-09-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the motion of particles due to polarization effects in nonuniform electric fields. DEP has great potential for handling cells and is a non-destructive phenomenon. It has been utilized for different cell analysis, from viability assessments to concentration enrichment and separation. Insulator-based DEP (iDEP) provides an attractive alternative to conventional electrode-based systems; in iDEP, insulating structures are used to generate nonuniform electric fields, resulting in simpler and more robust devices. Despite the rapid development of iDEP microdevices for applications with cells, the fundamentals behind the dielectrophoretic behavior of cells has not been fully elucidated. Understanding the theory behind iDEP is necessary to continue the progress in this field. This work presents the manipulation and separation of bacterial and yeast cells with iDEP. A computational model in COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to predict the effect of direct current-iDEP on cells suspended in a microchannel containing an array of insulating structures. The model allowed predicting particle behavior, pathlines and the regions where dielectrophoretic immobilization should occur. Experimental work was performed at the same operating conditions employed with the model and results were compared, obtaining good agreement. This is the first report on the mathematical modeling of the dielectrophoretic response of yeast and bacterial cells in a DC-iDEP microdevice. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Aqueous-Processed Insulating Polymer/Nanocrystal Hybrid Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Gan; Chen, Zhaolai; Dong, Chunwei; Cheng, Zhongkai; Du, Xiaohang; Zeng, Qingsen; Liu, Fangyuan; Sun, Haizhu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-03-23

    A novel kind of hybrid solar cell (HSC) was developed by introducing water-soluble insulating polymer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) into nanocrystals (NCs), which revealed that the most frequently used conjugated polymer could be replaced by an insulating one. It was realized by strategically taking advantage of the characteristic of decomposition for the polymer at annealing temperature, and it was interesting to discover that partial decomposition of PVA left behind plenty of pits on the surfaces of CdTe NC films, enlarging surface contact area between CdTe NCs and subsequently evaporated MoO3. Moreover, the residual annealed PVA filled in the voids among spherical CdTe NCs, which led to the decrease of leakage current. An improved shunt resistance (increased by ∼80%) was achieved, indicating the charge-carrier recombination was effectively overcome. As a result, the new HSCs were endowed with increased Voc, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency compared with the pure NC device. This approach can be applied to other insulating polymers (e.g., PVP) with advantages in synthesis, type, economy, stability, and so on, providing a novel universal cost-effective way to achieve higher photovoltaic performance.

  6. Mastering Windows Server 2012 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Booth, Christian; Butler, Robert; McCabe, John; Panek, Robert; Rice, Michael; Roth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Check out the new Hyper-V, find new and easier ways to remotely connect back into the office, or learn all about Storage Spaces-these are just a few of the features in Windows Server 2012 R2 that are explained in this updated edition from Windows authority Mark Minasi and a team of Windows Server experts led by Kevin Greene. This book gets you up to speed on all of the new features and functions of Windows Server, and includes real-world scenarios to put them in perspective. If you're a system administrator upgrading to, migrating to, or managing Windows Server 2012 R2, find what you need to

  7. Least Squares Moving-Window Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Jong

    2017-08-01

    Least squares regression is proposed as a moving-windows method for analysis of a series of spectra acquired as a function of external perturbation. The least squares moving-window (LSMW) method can be considered an extended form of the Savitzky-Golay differentiation for nonuniform perturbation spacing. LSMW is characterized in terms of moving-window size, perturbation spacing type, and intensity noise. Simulation results from LSMW are compared with results from other numerical differentiation methods, such as single-interval differentiation, autocorrelation moving-window, and perturbation correlation moving-window methods. It is demonstrated that this simple LSMW method can be useful for quantitative analysis of nonuniformly spaced spectral data with high frequency noise.

  8. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  9. “And all the windows, great and small”. Finestre in Nightwood di Djuna Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a recurring subject and powerful symbol, the window dominates the female literary and artistic imagery of the twentieth century. It has been developed into mirror, photograph or painting, according to the writer’s needs, yet the basic shape of the frame is always retraceable. Among late modernist and postmodernist women writers, Djuna Barnes explores in detail the structural resources of this literary device. Although she already understands the potential of the frame in her early career as a journalist, she mostly challenges its extents of versatility in Nightwood (1936. Its crucial moments – either flashing epiphanies or missed catharsis – involve the physical presence of a window, which embodies a powerful narrative agent; more than mere symbol, it is active at several levels. Thematically, doors and windows, pictures and mirrors, play an important cohesive role. At a deeper stage of analysis, the structure of the novel itself is shored up by doors and windows, since the setting is essentially organized into indoors and outdoors scenes; windows and doors allow the characters to move between these two dimensions. On the metaphorical level, windows and doors represent a communicative channel; a room-door opening suggests the access to one’s inner life, whereas a shut window denies any chance of dialogue. However, all the characters seem to be too absorbed by their obsessions to realize such communicative potential, and rather meander uselessly in their mental frames.

  10. The Development of a Hibachi Window for Electron Beam Transmission in a KrF Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Parsells, R.; Butler, J.E.; Sethian, J.D.; Ciebiera, L.; Hegeler, F.; Jun, C.; Langish, S.; Myers, M.

    2003-01-01

    In support of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), a 150 (micro)m thick silicon (Si) wafer coated on one side with a 1.2 (micro)m nanocrystalline diamond foil is being fabricated as an electron beam transmission (hibachi) window for use in KrF lasers. The hibachi window separates the lasing medium from the electron beam source while allowing the electron beam to pass through. The hibachi window must be capable of withstanding the challenging environment presented in the lasing chamber, which include: fluorine gas, delta pressure >2 atm at 5 Hz, and a high heat flux due to the transmission of electrons passing through the foil. Tests at NRL/Electra and at PPPL have shown that a device employing these novel components in the stated configuration provide for a robust hibachi window with structural integrity

  11. Vacuum Window Design for High-Power Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Shaftan, T V

    2005-01-01

    One of the problems in the high-power lasers design is in outcoupling of a powerful laser beam out of a vacuum volume into atmosphere. Usually the laser device is located inside a vacuum tank. The laser radiation is transported to the outside world through the transparent vacuum window. While considered transparent, some of the light passing through the glass is absorbed and converted to heat. For most applications, these properties are academic curiosities; however, in multi-kilowatt lasers, the heat becomes significant and can lead to a failure. The absorbed power can result in thermal stress, reduction of light transmission and, consequently, window damage. Modern optical technology has developed different types of glass (Silica, BK7, diamond, etc.) that have high thermal conductivity and damage threshold. However, for kilo- and megawatt lasers the issue still remains open. In this paper we present a solution that may relieve the heat load on the output window. We discuss advantages and issues of this part...

  12. The influence of the insulator space charge on the dynamic response of self-powered flux detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Visentin, A.A.; Hobbs, C.D.; Beaulieu, R.; Sguigna, A.

    1980-12-01

    A number of self-powered flux detectors and coaxial mineral insulated cables have been irradiated in a Gammacell irradiator to study their dynamic response. The response of these devices is not perfectly prompt. The delayed response is attributed to the filling of trapping centres in the insulation of the cables. It is concluded that similar delayed effects will not impair the effectiveness of self-powered detectors in control and safety systems of nuclear reactors. (auth)

  13. Möbius Kondo insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Yao; Erten, Onur; Coleman, Piers

    2017-08-01

    Heavy fermion materials have recently attracted attention for their potential to combine topological protection with strongly correlated electron physics. To date, the ideas of topological protection have been restricted to the heavy fermion or `Kondo' insulators with the simplest point-group symmetries. Here we argue that the presence of nonsymmorphic crystal symmetries in many heavy fermion materials opens up a new family of topologically protected heavy electron systems. Re-examination of archival resistivity measurements in the nonsymmorphic heavy fermion insulators Ce3Bi4Pt3 and CeNiSn reveals the presence of a low-temperature conductivity plateau, making them candidate members of the new class of material. We illustrate our ideas with a specific model for CeNiSn, showing how glide symmetries generate surface states with a novel Möbius braiding that can be detected by ARPES or non-local conductivity measurements. One of the interesting effects of strong correlation is the development of partially localization or `Kondo breakdown' on the surfaces, which transforms Möbius surface states into quasi-one-dimensional conductors, with the potential for novel electronic phase transitions.

  14. Thermal insulation properties of walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.

  15. Intrauterine Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    S HARE W ITH W OMEN INTRAUTERINE DEVICES INTRAUTERINE DEVICES What is An Intrauterine Device? An intrauterine device (IUD) is anything that is placed inside the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy. ...

  16. Monitoring transformer oil insulation using optical absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin P.

    As the electrical power distribution system ages, new methods of determining the quality of electrical transformer units are needed. Due to the relatively high expense of loss of service and safety hazards, a relatively cheap sensor to track the age of the insulation would aide in the progress of an intelligent power grid. The degradation of solid insulating paper releases some of the age indicating organic compounds into the oil. At present, the only available method to determine the concentration of those compounds is to perform high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing in a laboratory. This is an expensive and time consuming activity that also requires transformer to be taken offline. Currently there are no sensors that can directly (on-line) measure the chemical integrity of the material. This research was focused upon one of the well known organic compounds released by paper into the transformer oil - 2-furfuraldehyde (2FAL). Previous methods of 2FAL detection were explored and expounded upon. A device was constructed to utilize light emitting diodes to optically interrogate solid discs made out of chemically active material in multiple tests. A 10 kVA distribution transformer was fitted with a special device allowing a continuous oil circulation and the optical setup. The transformer was tested while being loaded under accelerated ageing conditions. A premature failure of the distribution transformer did not allow any correlation between concentration of 2FAL and the optical signals. Previously sampled oils for a current transformer (CT) were also tested for chemical analysis in the laboratory and optical signals from the newly developed optical device were obtained. A 95% linear correlation was found between the age of the CT oil and the output of the optical device. Although the technique was validated and does seem to have merit, more tests are needed before the optical device can be recommended for use in the field.

  17. Polysilsesquioxanes for Gate-Insulating Materials of Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Matsukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Printable organic thin-film transistor (O-TFT is one of the most recognized technical issues nowadays. Our recent progress on the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films consists of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ, and its applications for the gate-insulating layer of O-TFTs are introduced in this paper. PMSQ synthesized in toluene solution with formic acid catalyst exhibited the electric resistivity of higher than 1014 Ω cm after thermal treatment at 150°C, and the very low concentration of residual silanol groups in PMSQ was confirmed. The PMSQ film contains no mobile ionic impurities, and this is also important property for the practical use for the gate-insulating materials. In the case of top-contact type TFT using poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT with PMSQ gate-insulating layer, the device properties were comparable with the TFTs having thermally grown SiO2 gate-insulating layer. The feasibility of PMSQ as a gate-insulating material for O-TFTs, which was fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate, has been demonstrated. Moreover, by the modification of PMSQ, further functionalities, such as surface hydrophobicity, high permittivity that allows low driving voltage, and photocurability that allows photolithography, could be appended to the PMSQ gate-insulating layers.

  18. Window-assisted nanosphere lithography for vacuum micro-nano-electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nannan; Pang, Shucai; Yan, Fei; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Xiang, Wei; Zhang, De; Zeng, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    Development of vacuum micro-nano-electronics is quite important for combining the advantages of vacuum tubes and solid-state devices but limited by the prevailing fabricating techniques which are expensive, time consuming and low-throughput. In this work, window-assisted nanosphere lithography (NSL) technique was proposed and enabled the low-cost and high-efficiency fabrication of nanostructures for vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices, thus allowing potential applications in many areas. As a demonstration, we fabricated high-density field emitter arrays which can be used as cold cathodes in vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices by using the window-assisted NSL technique. The details of the fabricating process have been investigated. This work provided a new and feasible idea for fabricating nanostructure arrays for vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices, which would spawn the development of vacuum micro-nano-electronics

  19. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  20. Topological insulators: A romance with many dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Hari C.

    2010-07-01

    Electric charges on the boundaries of certain insulators are programmed by topology to keep moving forward when they encounter an obstacle, rather than scattering backwards and increasing the resistance of the system. This is just one reason why topological insulators are one of the hottest topics in physics right now.