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Sample records for window design study

  1. Photodetachment neutralizer development: Laser window design study: Volume 2, Window design details: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    During 1983, TRW conducted a photodetachment neutralizer development (PDN) - Laser Resonator study. The emphasis of this contract was to assess a technology base of the PDN concept. Three technology assessments were conducted: Mirror Technology assessments, Window Engineering Analysis/Technology assessment, and COIL medium modeling with emphasis on PDN issues. Based on the results of these technology assessments the follow-on contract was funded to develop a technology verification. Due to funding limitations this technology verification program was divided into two separate follow-on contracts. Under this follow-on contract, the following tasks were performed: Measure Attenuation Coefficient of 3M FC-104, FC-77, FC-43 with temperature and attenuation coefficient of sapphire, generate finite element/finite difference thermal/structural model of the HEX double window, determine thermal/structural response from the proposed operating conditions, develop option response data from the deflection/stress inputs, recommend design and operating parameters for demonstrator and operational HEX double window, generate Level 1 layouts and drawings of double paned demonstrator window and window mount/manifold, and generate preliminary layout drawings of shutter. Thermal and structural analyses were conducted for both the operational and demonstrator window heat exchanger (HEX) designs and operating conditions

  2. A scan statistic for identifying optimal risk windows in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stanley; Hambidge, Simon J; McClure, David L; Daley, Matthew F; Glanz, Jason M

    2013-08-30

    In the examination of the association between vaccines and rare adverse events after vaccination in postlicensure observational studies, it is challenging to define appropriate risk windows because prelicensure RCTs provide little insight on the timing of specific adverse events. Past vaccine safety studies have often used prespecified risk windows based on prior publications, biological understanding of the vaccine, and expert opinion. Recently, a data-driven approach was developed to identify appropriate risk windows for vaccine safety studies that use the self-controlled case series design. This approach employs both the maximum incidence rate ratio and the linear relation between the estimated incidence rate ratio and the inverse of average person time at risk, given a specified risk window. In this paper, we present a scan statistic that can identify appropriate risk windows in vaccine safety studies using the self-controlled case series design while taking into account the dependence of time intervals within an individual and while adjusting for time-varying covariates such as age and seasonality. This approach uses the maximum likelihood ratio test based on fixed-effects models, which has been used for analyzing data from self-controlled case series design in addition to conditional Poisson models. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Designing for Windows 8 fundamentals of great design in Windows Store apps

    CERN Document Server

    Schooley, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Designing for Windows 8 is a fast-paced, 150-page primer on the key design concepts you need to create successful Windows 8 apps. This book will help you design a user interface that is both delightful and effective, feels 'right' to your users, and encapsulates a great Windows 8 experience. In this book, you will: Meet the building blocks of solid Windows 8 UI design in a well-designed sample app. Learn how to incorporate key design elements into your apps, such as the app bar, charms and subtle animations from the animation library. Find out how to deliver the core experience that your users

  4. Design considerations for foil windows for PET radioisotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughey, B.J.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study performed at SRL to develop analytical and computational techniques for optimizing the design of conduction-cooled foil windows for PET targets. Single foil conduction cooled windows have been found to be good target entrance windows for both low energy accelerators and medium energy cyclotrons. Detailed thermal analysis has given an approximate analytical expression for the maximum temperature reached in a foil window under conditions of realistic ion beam bombardment. The effects of 'hot spots' in the beam density profile were investigated. It was shown that a factor of two safety margin in window design should be adequate to compensate for any possible beam hot spots. In addition, the reduction of foil stress by slack mounting was verified by experiments. The properties of conventional and novel foil materials were investigated for use in conduction cooled windows. Novel foil materials include two-component Al/Ti and Al/Havar foil. Results on the testing of candidate foil materials for thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at elevated temperature were presented. Two optimum foil window geometries were analyzed: a high aspect ratio window and a multiply slotted window. The multiply slotted window combines the advantages of a high aspect ratio foil window with a circular beam strike and is a promising window design for both TCA and cyclotron targets. A multiply slotted window for a N 2 gas target for 15 O production was designed using the methodologies discussed above. This prototype target was successfully tested using the TCA beam at SRL. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  5. Design considerations for the SINQ target window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubs, M.; Ulrich, J.

    1991-01-01

    Since the proton-beam enters the SINQ liquid lead-bismuth target from below, a special window design is needed at attain safe operation for at least one year. The present design consist of a double-walled water cooled entrance-window and a third wall cooled by lead-bismuth. The intermediate volume contains circulating helium in order to detect any leaks in the 2nd or 3rd wall at an early stage. Several investigations have been made in the fields of radiation-damage, thermohydraulics and stress analysis. (author)

  6. Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...

  7. A robust design window for the heliotron DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takuya; Miyazawa, Junichi; Tanaka, Teruya; Yanagi, Nagato; Sagara, Akio

    2011-01-01

    According to the achievements in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, a design of a DEMO reactor with a LHD-type heliotron system is foreseeable. On the other hand, a DEMO is the next step reactor and high reliability and feasibility are demanded in its design. In this study, a robust design window, i.e., the design window that is not sensitive to a change in uncertain physics parameters, was surveyed through parametric scans using a system design code. It was found that a difference in main design parameters (major radius, magnetic field strength, fusion output) gives only a small change in a dependence of physics requirements on the physics conditions. Therefore, it is important to find the design window with a lower requirement on the confinement improvement to assure the design robustness. In this respect, a reduction in the minimum inboard blanket space, one of the key parameters in a LHD-type heliotron reactor design, can effectively expand the design window and contributes to the design robustness. An acceptance of higher neutron wall load and an achievement of further high confinement improvement are also expected to make both a DEMO and a commercial reactor to be more feasible and economically attractive. (author)

  8. Design of viewing windows for controlled-atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    A guide to the design of safe viewing windows is presented. Design criteria, the properties of materials, the problems of structural design in unreliable materials such as glass, the mathematics of reliability and redundance, and problems associated with testing windows are discussed, and formulas are presented for the design of windows. Criteria adopted at ORNL for controlled-atmosphere chambers are presented, a program for surveying and upgrading the safety of existing facilities is described, and the results of this program are reported

  9. Design of Nonrecursive Digital Filters Using the Ultraspherical Window Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Antoniou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the design of nonrecursive digital filters using the ultraspherical window function is proposed. Economies in computation are achieved in two ways. First, through an efficient formulation of the window coefficients, the amount of computation required is reduced to a small fraction of that required by standard methods. Second, the filter length and the independent window parameters that would be required to achieve prescribed specifications in lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandstop filters as well as in digital differentiators and Hilbert transformers are efficiently determined through empirical formulas. Experimental results demonstrate that in many cases the ultraspherical window yields a lower-order filter relative to designs obtained using windows like the Kaiser, Dolph-Chebyshev, and Saramäki windows. Alternatively, for a fixed filter length, the ultraspherical window yields reduced passband ripple and increased stopband attenuation relative to those produced when using the alternative windows.

  10. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  11. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn't been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  12. Conceptual design of proton beam window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ishikura, Syuichi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    In a MW-scale neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator, a proton beam window is installed as the boundary between a high vacuum region of the proton beam transport line and a helium environment around the target assembly working as a neutron source. The window is cooled by water so as to remove high volumetric heat generated by the proton beam. A concept of the flat-type proton beam window consisting of two plates of 3 mm thick was proposed, which was found to be feasible under the proton beam power of 5 MW through thermal-hydraulic and structural strength analyses. (authors)

  13. Optimisation of sampling windows design for population pharmacokinetic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes an approach for optimising sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments. Sampling windows designs are more practical in late phase drug development where patients are enrolled in many centres and in out-patient clinic settings. Collection of samples under the uncontrolled environment at these centres at fixed times may be problematic and can result in uninformative data. Population pharmacokinetic sampling windows design provides an opportunity to control when samples are collected by allowing some flexibility and yet provide satisfactory parameter estimation. This approach uses information obtained from previous experiments about the model and parameter estimates to optimise sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments within a space of admissible sampling windows sequences. The optimisation is based on a continuous design and in addition to sampling windows the structure of the population design in terms of the proportion of subjects in elementary designs, number of elementary designs in the population design and number of sampling windows per elementary design is also optimised. The results obtained showed that optimal sampling windows designs obtained using this approach are very efficient for estimating population PK parameters and provide greater flexibility in terms of when samples are collected. The results obtained also showed that the generalized equivalence theorem holds for this approach.

  14. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  15. Design and Characterization of the ALMA Band 5 Vacuum Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Arne; Murk, Axel; Yagoubov, Pavel; Patt, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the electromagnetic design process of the vacuum window for the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 5 (163-211 GHz). We have carried out investigations by means of numerical simulations as well as reflection and transmission measurements. Simulations were performed using the finite element method, an efficient quasi-analytical technique, and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. We used an injection-molded vacuum window prototype as a starting point of the design process and investigated deterioration in the electromagnetic performance caused by different types of manufacturing artifacts. Following these analyses, an optimization of the window has been performed based on simulations. We measured the reflectivity and transmittance of the newly designed window and this paper demonstrates that the optimized window exhibits a return loss better than -20 dB, as required by the ALMA specifications.

  16. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions

  17. Documentation of Calculation Program and Guideline for Optimal Window Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    . A user-friendly calculation program based on simple input data has recently been developed to assist engineers and architects during the process of selecting suitable windows for residential building design. The program is organised in four steps, which together represent an analysis of how windows...... in a specific building design perform with regard to energy consumption, thermal indoor environment, and cost. The analyses in the steps gradually increase in level of detail and support the design decisions throughout the design process. This document presents work done to validate the program and demonstrates...

  18. New window design options for CEBAF energy upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, L.; Mammosser, J.; Nguyen, V.

    1997-01-01

    As the Jefferson Laboratory upgrades the existing CEBAF electron accelerator to operate at higher energies, the fundamental power coupler windows will be required to operate with lower RF dissipation and increased immunity to radiation from cavity field emission. New designs and modifications to existing designs which can achieve these goals are described

  19. Application of neural network to multi-dimensional design window search in reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki

    1999-01-01

    In the reactor core design, many parametric survey calculations should be carried out to decide an optimal set of basic design parameter values. They consume a large amount of computation time and labor in the conventional way. To support design work, we investigate a procedure to search efficiently a design window, which is defined as feasible design parameter ranges satisfying design criteria and requirements, in a multi-dimensional space composed of several basic design parameters. The present method is applied to the neutronics and thermal hydraulics fields. The principle of the present method is to construct the multilayer neural network to simulate quickly a response of an analysis code through a training process, and to reduce computation time using the neural network without parametric study using analysis codes. To verify the applicability of the present method to the neutronics and the thermal hydraulics design, we have applied it to high conversion water reactors and examined effects of the structure of the neural network and the number of teaching patterns on the accuracy of the design window estimated by the neural network. From the results of the applications, a guideline to apply the present method is proposed and the present method can predict an appropriate design window in a reasonable computation time by following the guideline. (author)

  20. Methodology for the design of diagnostic windows for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, Marc; Lipa, M.; Portafaix, C.; Gil, C.; Rey, G.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of fusion experiments will operate for much longer pulse lengths within a context of high power density, introducing several new requirements for diagnostics compared with existing experiments. In this context, the upgrade of Tore Supra (CIEL Project) foresees high power and high radiating plasma scenario during very long pulse operation. This long plasma operation imposes the improvement of diagnostic systems and the design of thermally resistant in-vessel components with reliable window assemblies. Hence, the specific requirements and the methodology adopted to design Tore Supra/CIEL (TS) high thermal loaded diagnostic windows are summarised in this paper. Thermal and mechanical analyses are reported for different window materials and assembling methods

  1. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  2. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of gridded radio-frequency cavity windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharo' a, Mohammad M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses of radio-frequency (RF) cavities were performed as part of a developmental RF cavity program for muon cooling. RF cavities are necessary to provide longitudinal focusing of the muons and to compensate for their energy loss. Closing the cavity ends by electrically conducting windows reduces the power requirement and increases the on-axis electric field for a given maximum surface electric field. Many factors must be considered in the design of RF cavity windows. RF heating can cause the windows to deform in the axial direction of the cavity. The resulting thermal stresses in the window must be maintained below the yield stress of the window material. The out-of-plane deflection must be small enough so that the consequent frequency shift is tolerable. For example, for an 805 MHz cavity, the out-of-plane deflection must be kept below 25 microns to prevent the frequency of the cavity from shifting more than 10 kHz. In addition, the window design should yield smooth electric and magnetic fields, terminate field leakage beyond the window, and minimize beam scattering. In the present thesis, gridded-tube window designs were considered because of their high structural integrity. As a starting point in the analysis, a cylindrical pillbox cavity was considered as a benchmark problem. Analytical and finite element solutions were obtained for the electric and magnetic fields, power loss density, and temperature profile. Excellent agreement was obtained between the analytical and finite element results. The finite element method was then used to study a variety of gridded-tube windows. It was found that cooling of the gridded-tube windows by passing helium gas inside the tubes significantly reduces the out-of-plane deflection and the thermal stresses. Certain tube geometries and grid patterns were found to satisfy all of the design requirements.

  3. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of gridded radio-frequency cavity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharoa, Mohammad M.

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses of radio-frequency (RF) cavities were performed as part of a developmental RF cavity program for muon cooling. RF cavities are necessary to provide longitudinal focusing of the muons and to compensate for their energy loss. Closing the cavity ends by electrically conducting windows reduces the power requirement and increases the on-axis electric field for a given maximum surface electric field. Many factors must be considered in the design of RF cavity windows. RF heating can cause the windows to deform in the axial direction of the cavity. The resulting thermal stresses in the window must be maintained below the yield stress of the window material. The out-of-plane deflection must be small enough so that the consequent frequency shift is tolerable. For example, for an 805 MHz cavity, the out-of-plane deflection must be kept below 25 microns to prevent the frequency of the cavity from shifting more than 10 kHz. In addition, the window design should yield smooth electric and magnetic fields, terminate field leakage beyond the window, and minimize beam scattering. In the present thesis, gridded-tube window designs were considered because of their high structural integrity. As a starting point in the analysis, a cylindrical pillbox cavity was considered as a benchmark problem. Analytical and finite element solutions were obtained for the electric and magnetic fields, power loss density, and temperature profile. Excellent agreement was obtained between the analytical and finite element results. The finite element method was then used to study a variety of gridded-tube windows. It was found that cooling of the gridded-tube windows by passing helium gas inside the tubes significantly reduces the out-of-plane deflection and the thermal stresses. Certain tube geometries and grid patterns were found to satisfy all of the design requirements

  4. Mock Target Window OTR and IR Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-19

    In order to fully verify temperature measurements made on the target window using infrared (IR) optical non-contact methods, actual comparative measurements are made with a real beam distribution as the heat source using Argonne National Laboratory’s (ANL) 35 MeV electron accelerator. Using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) simulations and thermal Finite Element Analysis (FEA), a cooled mock target window with thermocouple implants is designed to be used in such a test to achieve window temperatures up to 700°C. An uncoated and blackcoated mock window is designed to enhance the IR temperature measurements and verify optical transmitted radiation (OTR) imagery. This allows us to fully verify and characterize our temperature accuracy with our current IR camera method and any future method we may wish to explore using actual production conditions. This test also provides us with valuable conclusions/concerns regarding the calibration method we developed using our IR test stand at TA-53 in MPF-14.

  5. Uncertainties in liquid-metal fusion blanket design windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, J.K.; Abdou, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium- and lead-lithium (17Li-83Pb)-cooled fusion blankets offer the promise of excellent neutronic performance, high fusion to electrical energy conversion efficiency, and design simplicity. However, interactive effects such as magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) pressure drop, flow distribution, heat transfer, corrosion, and stress appear to have large enough uncertainties to make the presence of a useful design window questionable, especially in large tokamak reactors. The work reported here attempts to: (a) define limits for the design windows for lithium and lead-lithium as breeders and coolants with stainless steel, ferritic steel, and refractory alloy structural materials in various tokamak fusion reactors and (b) quantify the impact of uncertainties in these limits on the design window. Steady-state MHD pressure drop and heat transfer models are developed and used to quantify the effects of varying several tokamak reactor and blanket design parameters and materials properties. Uncertainties in the present pressure drop equations and calculation methods are also considered. Calculations are used to evaluate the impact of the coolant inlet temperature on the thermal cycle efficiency

  6. Counter tube window and X-ray fluorescence analyzer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, R.; Holm, M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the best design tube window and X-ray fluorescence analyzer for quantitative analysis of Venusian dust and condensates. The principal objective of the project was to develop the best counter tube window geometry for the sensing element of the instrument. This included formulation of a mathematical model of the window and optimization of its parameters. The proposed detector and instrument has several important features. The instrument will perform a near real-time analysis of dust in the Venusian atmosphere, and is capable of measuring dust layers less than 1 micron thick. In addition, wide dynamic measurement range will be provided to compensate for extreme variations in count rates. An integral pulse-height analyzer and memory accumulate data and read out spectra for detail computer analysis on the ground.

  7. A thesis investigating the impact of energy related environmental factors on domestic window design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Michael Edward

    In recent years the extent of glazing in houses has been tightly controlled by the Building Regulations in order to save energy. In addition guidelines derived from passive solar principles prescribe the distribution of domestic windows between elevations according to their orientation. This thesis studies the impact of these energy-related environmental factors on domestic window design. The first of these investigations determined the degree to which limitations on the area and arrangement of windows are significant in terms of daylighting. The experiments measured the effect that passive solar requirements and detailed aspects of window design have on the quality of daylighting in houses. The volume of background ventilation required for domestic accommodation has recently been increased. As a result, in a well-sealed construction, heat loss due to background ventilation becomes a larger part of the total heat loss and larger air movements become a potential cause of draughts. The ventilation experiment sought to establish the impact of these more onerous requirements on comfort within rooms. The third experiment combines these factors and asks the question: Could windows be actively involved in overcoming some of these difficulties by being used to preheat ventilation air in order to diminish the extent of heat loss and to alleviate the problem of cold draughts? Also by designing the window to reclaim heat from the room might it be possible to offset the window's thermal inadequacy? Through analysis of responses to a questionnaire and the use of optimisation techniques, scenarios were suggested for the future modification of windows in relation to energy and health expectations. The conclusions form a commentary on recent and future revisions to the Building Regulations and determine whether or not the Regulations facilitate the environmental engineering of windows as an active component of a building's whole environmental system.

  8. Multi-dimensional design window search system using neural networks in reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki

    2000-02-01

    In the reactor core design, many parametric survey calculations should be carried out to decide an optimal set of basic design parameter values. They consume a large amount of computation time and labor in the conventional way. To support directly design work, we investigate a procedure to search efficiently a design window, which is defined as feasible design parameter ranges satisfying design criteria and requirements, in a multi-dimensional space composed of several basic design parameters. We apply the present method to the neutronics and thermal hydraulics fields and develop the multi-dimensional design window search system using it. The principle of the present method is to construct the multilayer neural network to simulate quickly a response of an analysis code through a training process, and to reduce computation time using the neural network without parametric study using analysis codes. The system works on an engineering workstation (EWS) with efficient man-machine interface for pre- and post-processing. This report describes the principle of the present method, the structure of the system, the guidance of the usages of the system, the guideline for the efficient training of neural networks, the instructions of the input data for analysis calculation and so on. (author)

  9. Design of traveling wave windows for the PEP-II RF coupling network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, N.M.; Ng, C.K.; Judkins, J.; Neubauer, M.

    1995-05-01

    The waveguide windows in the PEP-II RF coupling network have to withstand high power of 500 kW. Traveling wave windows have lower power dissipation than conventional self-matched windows, thus rendering the possibility of less stringent mechanical design. The traveling wave behavior is achieved by providing a reflecting iris on each side of the window, and depending on the configuration of the irises, traveling wave windows are characterized as inductive or capacitive types. A numerical design procedure using MAFIA has been developed for traveling wave windows. The relative advantages of inductive and capacitive windows are discussed. Furthermore, the issues of bandwidth and multipactoring are also addressed

  10. Vacuum Window Design for High-Power Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Shaftan, T V

    2005-01-01

    One of the problems in the high-power lasers design is in outcoupling of a powerful laser beam out of a vacuum volume into atmosphere. Usually the laser device is located inside a vacuum tank. The laser radiation is transported to the outside world through the transparent vacuum window. While considered transparent, some of the light passing through the glass is absorbed and converted to heat. For most applications, these properties are academic curiosities; however, in multi-kilowatt lasers, the heat becomes significant and can lead to a failure. The absorbed power can result in thermal stress, reduction of light transmission and, consequently, window damage. Modern optical technology has developed different types of glass (Silica, BK7, diamond, etc.) that have high thermal conductivity and damage threshold. However, for kilo- and megawatt lasers the issue still remains open. In this paper we present a solution that may relieve the heat load on the output window. We discuss advantages and issues of this part...

  11. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  12. Design and Application of CVD Diamond Windows for X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Yifei; Cookson, David

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented

  13. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.

  14. Renovation and design of double casement windows with regard to the occurrence of water vapour condensation or mould on the interior surface of the window jamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnacova, L.; Balik, L.

    2017-10-01

    The condensation of water vapour on the interior surface is an indicator of construction dysfunction or ignoring of the surroundings temperature and relative humidity. This paper deals with analysis of the occurrence of condensation on the jamb of double casement windows (windows with two window casements). More precisely, this is a surface in the interior where water vapour condensation or mould occur. For the renovation of existing double casement windows, there are different solutions based on window design: application of double insulating glazing on the interior window casement, application of double insulating glazing on the exterior casement, or installation of a simple window. We first describe measurement of an existing double casement window located in a mountain cottage. Second, the results and comparison of 2D thermal model of different types of double casement window construction. Also, the external insulation of the peripheral wall was included in the model.

  15. Experimental study of window-ejected flame and plume on glass curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an experimental study to investigate the performance of glass curtain walls exposed to exterior flame and plume ejected from windows. A test facility with 3-storey in height was constructed using steel frame to perform full-scale tests. Ventilation-controlled fire scenarios were designed to generate exterior flame and plume ejected from the burning room through a window opening. To characterize potential threats from window-ejected flame and plume to the glass curtain walls of upper floors, temperature, heat flux and air velocity at different heights above the opening upon curtain walls were measured during each test. The effects of window aspect ratio, horizontal projection were studied. It was found that the window with large aspect ratio provided more severe threat to the curtain walls on upper floors. A horizontal projection of 0.5m in depth was able to protect the glass on the upper floor from breaking.

  16. Effectiveness and Discussion of Ventilation Design with Automatic Revolving Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jing Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to improve and discuss the effectiveness of automatic revolving window ventilation on human comfort, where the temperature sensor mounted indoors gives the signal to start the stepping motor of the revolving window. There is a controller for automatic regulation according to the difference between the preset temperature and indoor temperature, where the air flow of ventilating fan imports outside air to take excess heat away from the room, in order to reduce the indoor temperature. The revolving window opening angle is simulated and analyzed, and the impact of different air rates on the indoor temperature is analyzed. This system can regulate the indoor temperature to effectively reach the optimal human comfort temperature, and can reduce the frequency of using air conditioning, in order to attain the goals of energy saving, carbon reduction, and environmental protection.

  17. Design and characterization of a durable and highly efficient energy-harvesting electrochromic window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasawa, Eri

    With the growing global energy demands, electrochromic window (ECW) technology has attracted great attention for its ability to reversibly change the transmittance of incoming light through applied moderate potential. While ECW has a great potential to conserve energy from lighting and air conditioning in buildings, ECW still consumes energy; ECW should be self-powered for further energy conservation. In this study, a new design of energy-harvesting electrochromic window (EH-ECW) based on fusion of two technologies, organic electrochromic window and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is presented. Unlike other self-powered smart windows such as photoelectrochromic device that only contains two states (i.e. closed circuit colored state and open circuit bleaching state), EH-ECW allows active tuning of transmittance through varying applied potential and function as a photovoltaic cell based on DSSC. The resulting device demonstrates fast switching rate of 1 second in both bleaching and coloring process through the use of electrochromic polymer as a counter electrode layer. In order to increase the transmittance of the device, cobalt redox couple and light colored yet efficient organic dye are employed. The organic dye utilized contains polymeric structure, which contributes to high cyclic stability. The device exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.5 % under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2), change in transmittance (Delta T = Tmax - Tmin) of 34 % upon applied potential, and shows only 3 % degradation in PCE after 5000 cycles.

  18. Machinability studies of infrared window materials and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Morris, T.O.; Sladky, R.E.; Steger, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Diamond machining of materials for optical applications is becoming an important fabrication process. Development work in material-removal technology to better understand the mechanics of the diamond-turning process, its limitations, and applications is described. The technique is presently limited to a select group of metals, most of which are of a face-center-cubic crystal structure. Machinability studies were done which were designed to better understand diamond compatibility and thus expand the range of applicable materials. Nonconventional methods such as ultrasonic tool stimulation were investigated. Work done to determine the machinability of infrared window materials indicates that this is a viable fabrication technique for many materials, although additional effort is needed to optimize the process for particular materials

  19. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical window of a high-speed aerial optical camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Shi, Kui; Wu, Dengshan; Qiao, Mingrui

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 149.6 nm, which is under PV <=1 4λ .The simulation result meets the requirements of optical design very well. The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  20. Design of a new ceramic window in 3.7 GHz LHCD transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liang; Shan Jiafang; Liu Fukun; Kuang Guangli

    2007-01-01

    According to the theory of ceramic window design, using electromagnetic field simulator, CST, and finite element method analysis software, ANSYS, the electromagnetic and thermal performances of LHCD new ceramic window have been calculated and simulated. BeO is used as windows body material for its high conductivity. Within the bandwidth of more than 300 MHz, the stationary wave ratio is below 1.1, and the maximum temperature rising is 11.7 degree C on the center of the ceramic window. (authors)

  1. Design and tests of 500 kW RF windows for the ITER LHCD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillairet, J., E-mail: julien.hillairet@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Faure, N. [PMB/ALCEN, Site de Peynier, Route des Michels, 13790, Peynier (France); Achard, J. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bae, Y.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bernard, J.M.; Delpech, L.; Goniche, M.; Larroque, S.; Magne, R.; Marfisi, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Park, S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Poli, S. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dechambre, N. [PMB/ALCEN, Site de Peynier, Route des Michels, 13790, Peynier (France); Vulliez, K. [Laboratoire d’étanchéité, CEA DEN/DTEC/SDTC, 2 rue James Watt 26700, Pierrelatte (France)

    2015-05-15

    In the frame of a R&D effort conducted by CEA towards the design and the qualification of a 5 GHz LHCD system for the ITER tokamak, two 5 GHz 500 kW/5 s windows have been designed, manufactured and tested at high power in collaboration with the National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI). The window design rely on a symmetrical pill-box concept with a cylindrical beryllium oxide ceramic brazed on an actively water cooled copper skirt. The ceramic RF properties have been measured on a test sample to get realistic values for guiding the design. Low power measurements of the manufactured windows show return losses below −32 dB and insertion losses between −0.01 dB and −0.05 dB, with an optimum frequency shifted toward lower frequencies. High power tests conducted at NFRI show unexpected total power loss for both windows. The ceramic temperature during RF pulses has been found to reach unexpected high temperature, preventing these windows to be used under CW conditions. A post-mortem RF analysis of samples taken from one window shows that the dielectric properties of the ceramic were not the ones measured on the manufacturer sample, which partly explain the differences with the reference modelling.

  2. Optimum design of beam window's diameter and thickness of Hyper target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C. H.; Tak, N. I.; Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    HYPER is designed to transmute long-lived TRU and fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129. Pb-Bi is used as the coolant and spallation target material at the same time. HYPER is expected to need about 20mA proton beam to sustain a 1000MW th power level. The cylindrical beam tube and spherical window is adopted as the basic window shape of HYPER. The window diameter and the window thickness are varied to find the maximum allowable current based on the design criteria : Pb-Bi temperature < 500 .deg. C, window temperature < 600 .deg. C, Pb-Bi velocity < 2m/s and window stress < 160MPa. The LAHET code is used to simulate heat generation. CFX is also used for the thermal-hydraulics calculation. Based on our design criteria, the maximum allowable current is calculated to be about 9.2mA, which is smaller than the required current. Therefore, an upgrade of the target system design is required

  3. Design and fabrication of high power microwave window for 4 MeV LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syunry, T.S.; Bhide, S.S.; Madan, R.S.; Das, S.; D'Sa, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    One of the critical components in the design and fabrication of 4 MeV LINAC is the R.F. window, through which 2 MW pulse R.F. power at 3 GHZ passes from the high pressure side to the chain of cavities under very high vacuum. Readymade windows, which can be incorporated in the LINAC are not easily available. These windows were fabricated inhouse, based upon some standard designs available in literature. However, the fabrication technique proved to be very difficult. The windows have been made successfully and tested for microwave performance. They were also rigorously thermally cycled and pressure tested. Fabrication details, test procedures and data are reported in this paper. (author). 5 figs., 2 tables

  4. A multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; He, Runzhong; Li, Shuangyan; Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained.

  5. Open the Windows: Design New Spaces for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    As a technologist, the author is interested in how the digital world is changing the educational landscape. As he began to research effective learning spaces, he discovered that the architecture, design, and school facilities communities are making a great deal of progress in creating better classrooms and school buildings. Unfortunately, many in…

  6. Development of design window evaluation and display system. 1. System development and performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: The work was performed to develop a design window evaluation and display system for the purpose of obtaining the effects of various design parameters on the typical thermal hydraulic issues resulting from a use of various kind of working fluid etc. easily. Method: The function of the system were 'confirmation of design margin' of the present design, 'confirmation of the affected design zone' when a designer changed some design parameter, and search for an design improvement' for design optimization. The system was developed using existing soft wares on PC and the database relating analytical results of typical thermal hydraulic issues provided by separate work. Results: (1) System design: In order to develop a design window evaluation and display system, 'numerical analysis unit', 'statistical analysis unit', 'MMI unit', 'optimization unit' were designed based on the result of selected optimization procedure and display visualization. Further, total system design was performed combining these units. Typical thermal hydraulic issues to be considered are upper plenum thermal hydraulics, thermal stratification, free surface sloshing, flow-induced vibration of a heat exchanger and thermal striping in the T-junction piping systems. (2) Development of prototype system and a functional check: A prototype system of a design window evaluation and display system was developed and the functions were confirmed as was planned. (author)

  7. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) program computer software design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertzborn, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) Program System Design Description contains a discussion of the design details for the WinCal product. Information in this document will assist a developer in maintaining the WinCal system. The content of this document follows the guidance in WHC-CM-3-10, Software Engineering Standards, Standard for Software User Documentation

  8. Study on the application of low energy U-window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Binghai; Liu Shikai; Chen Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    For using the low energy U-window information, based on the theory and experiment, the advantage of identifying the subtle anomaly that the low energy U-window information has given is discussed, the method of drawing the low energy U-window information is stated; a method of calibration and obtaining the calibration parameters was developed which was applied to Dongsheng region. The result indicated that the anomaly of low energy U-window information upon known field is more easy identified by comparing with the standard three windows U-window information, which proved the practicability of the method of low energy U-windows information. (authors)

  9. Threats, design limits and design windows for laser IFE dry wall chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A. Rene

    2005-01-01

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is carrying out a coordinated effort to develop inertial fusion energy based on lasers, direct-drive targets and a dry wall chamber. The dry wall must accommodate the ion and photon threat spectra from the fusion micro-explosion over its required lifetime. This paper summarizes the current HAPL strategy on the armor/first wall configuration based on tungsten and ferritic steel as preferred armor and structural materials, respectively. The thermal performance of an example fully dense tungsten armor configuration on a ferritic steel first wall is described showing the basis for separating the high energy accommodation function of the armor from the structural function of the first wall. Example design operating windows for the armor, first wall and blanket are presented based on different requirements and constraints. The possibility of utilizing an engineered porous armor is discussed. Key chamber wall and armor issues are summarized

  10. Threats, design limits and design windows for laser IFE dry wall chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, A. René; HAPL Team

    2005-12-01

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is carrying out a coordinated effort to develop inertial fusion energy based on lasers, direct-drive targets and a dry wall chamber. The dry wall must accommodate the ion and photon threat spectra from the fusion micro-explosion over its required lifetime. This paper summarizes the current HAPL strategy on the armor/first wall configuration based on tungsten and ferritic steel as preferred armor and structural materials, respectively. The thermal performance of an example fully dense tungsten armor configuration on a ferritic steel first wall is described showing the basis for separating the high energy accommodation function of the armor from the structural function of the first wall. Example design operating windows for the armor, first wall and blanket are presented based on different requirements and constraints. The possibility of utilizing an engineered porous armor is discussed. Key chamber wall and armor issues are summarized.

  11. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  12. a New Design for Diamond Window Equipped Paris-Edinburgh — First Tests and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Dedera, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2012-12-01

    High pressure cells of the Paris-Edinburgh type are important tools for experimental high pressure studies in material science. Although these cells were originally developed for use in neutron diffraction, today they are also applied in alternative experimental high pressure fields. Their main advantages are their small construction size, limited weight and the relative high reachable pressures with a maximized sample volume. The small construction size also results in very good cost efficiency. The major drawback of these cells is that due to their simple squeezer geometry pressure extrapolations are nearly impossible and, hence, the use of internal standard is mandatory. Consequently, the normal use of Paris-Edinburgh cells is mostly limited to experiments with neutron or synchrotron radiation, during which pressure and temperature are determined by using an internal diffraction standard. To overcome this problem, tone may combine the advantages of diamond anvil cells with those of Paris-Edinburgh-cells by integrating diamond windows into the upper and / or the lower anvil. With such a cell it is possible to retrieve pressure and / or temperature data by measuring the shift of Raman bands or fluorescence lines by spectroscopic methods. Several attempts have been made to build such a cell ([1] and Klotz pers. communication) using different window materials. Until now no final setup has been published. We present a new Paris-Edinburgh cell design especially constructed for use within high energy relativistic heavy ion radiation experiments. This design uses conventional diamond anvils as spectroscopic windows in conjunction with specially designed hardened steel anvils. We have performed first feasibility studies up to 2.5 GPa with a standard Raman spectrometer using a special adapted Raman glass fiber probe. We present results of several mechanical test runs and one experiment with relativistic heavy ion radiation at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f

  13. An in-orbit Thermal Design of Optical Window in Space Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Zhang, Hai-ying

    2017-10-01

    A complex space environment will influence a space solar telescope during its in-orbit operation, and the temperature change of the optical window will affect directly the imaging quality of the optical system behind it. The purpose of the thermal design is to ensure that all the parts of the optical window keep their temperature in a normal range, more importantly, to ensure that the window can rapidly return to its working state as soon as the Earth shadowing is ended, and to complete the operation in a whole period. In order to obtain the temperature distribution and the temperature variation of the window under the space thermal load in the whole period, we have made the steady-state simulation analysis and transient-state simulation analysis of the window with and without heating during the Earth-shadow time. A good thermal control result is obtained by comparing the two kinds of transient state simulation results of the temperature distribution, and by accordingly taking the appropriate thermal control measures on the window.

  14. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Thermal damage study of beryllium windows used as vacuum barriers in synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdener, F.R.; Johnson, G.L.; Karpenko, V.P.; Wiggins, R.K.; Cerino, J.A.; Dormiani, M.T.; Youngman, B.P.; Hoyt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study to investigate thermal-induced damage to SSRL-designed beryllium foil windows was performed at LLNL's Laser Welding Research Facility. The primary goal of this study was to determine the threshold at which thermal-stress-induced damage occurs in these commonly used vacuum barriers. An Nd:Yag pulsed laser with cylindrical optics and a carefully designed test cell provided a test environment that closely resembles the actual beamline conditions at SSRL. Tests performed on two beryllium window geometries, with different vertical aperture dimensions but equal foil thicknesses of 0.254 mm, resulted in two focused total-power thresholds at which incipient damage was determined. For a beam spot size similar to that of the Beamline-X Wiggler Line, onset of surface damage for a 5-mm by 25-mm aperture window was observed at 170 W after 174,000 laser pulses (1.2-ms pulse at 100 pps). A second window with double the vertical aperture dimension (10 mm by 25 mm) was observed to have surface cracking after 180,000 laser pulses with 85 W impinging its front surface. It failed after approximately 1,000,000 pulses. Another window of the same type (10 mm by 25 mm) received 2,160,000 laser pulses at 74.4 W, and subsequent metallographic sectioning revealed no signs of through-thickness damage. Comparison of windows with equal foil thicknesses and aperture dimensions has effectively identified the heat flux limit for incipient failure. The data show that halving the aperture's vertical dimension allows doubling the total incident power for equivalent onsets of thermal-induced damage

  16. Design of device driver program for PCI data acquisition adapters based on WDM of windows 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Weihua; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan; Zhu Haijun

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the design of device driver program for PCI data acquisition adapters based on WDM of Windows 2000. Give an actual example of PCI6208. Now, several data acquisition adapters based in this method are using in national big science engineer HIRFL-CSR. (authors)

  17. High-power RF window design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Hodgson, J.; Ng, C.; Schwarz, H.; Skarpaas, K.; Kroll, N.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the design of RF windows to transmit up to 500 kW CW to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. RF analysis of the windows using high-frequency simulation codes are described. These provide information about the power loss distribution in the ceramic and tim matching properties of the structure. Finite-element analyses of the resulting temperature distribution and thermal stresses are presented. Fabrication methods including a proposed scheme to compensate for thermal expansion s are discussed and hardware tests to validate this approach are described. The effects of surface coatings (intentional and otherwise) and the application of air cooling are considered

  18. The quality estimation of exterior wall’s and window filling’s construction design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykov, Ivan; Bovsunovskaya, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The article reveals the term of “artificial envelope” in dwelling building. Authors offer a complex multifactorial approach to the design quality estimation of external fencing structures, which is based on various parameters impact. These referred parameters are: functional, exploitation, cost, and also, the environmental index is among them. The quality design index Qк is inputting for the complex characteristic of observed above parameters. The mathematical relation of this index from these parameters is the target function for the quality design estimation. For instance, the article shows the search of optimal variant for wall and window designs in small, middle and large square dwelling premises of economic class buildings. The graphs of target function single parameters are expressed for the three types of residual chamber’s dimensions. As a result of the showing example, there is a choice of window opening’s dimensions, which make the wall’s and window’s constructions properly correspondent to the producible complex requirements. The authors reveal the comparison of recommended window filling’s square in accordance with the building standards, and the square, due to the finding of the optimal variant of the design quality index. The multifactorial approach for optimal design searching, which is mentioned in this article, can be used in consideration of various construction elements of dwelling buildings in accounting of suitable climate, social and economic construction area features.

  19. Computerized tomography magnified bone windows are superior to standard soft tissue windows for accurate measurement of stone size: an in vitro and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Kambadakone, Avinash; Monga, Manoj; Anderson, James K; Thoreson, Andrew A; Lee, Hang; Dretler, Stephen P; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2009-04-01

    We determined the most accurate method of measuring urinary stones on computerized tomography. For the in vitro portion of the study 24 calculi, including 12 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 12 uric acid stones, that had been previously collected at our clinic were measured manually with hand calipers as the gold standard measurement. The calculi were then embedded into human kidney-sized potatoes and scanned using 64-slice multidetector computerized tomography. Computerized tomography measurements were performed at 4 window settings, including standard soft tissue windows (window width-320 and window length-50), standard bone windows (window width-1120 and window length-300), 5.13x magnified soft tissue windows and 5.13x magnified bone windows. Maximum stone dimensions were recorded. For the in vivo portion of the study 41 patients with distal ureteral stones who underwent noncontrast computerized tomography and subsequently spontaneously passed the stones were analyzed. All analyzed stones were 100% calcium oxalate monohydrate or mixed, calcium based stones. Stones were prospectively collected at the clinic and the largest diameter was measured with digital calipers as the gold standard. This was compared to computerized tomography measurements using 4.0x magnified soft tissue windows and 4.0x magnified bone windows. Statistical comparisons were performed using Pearson's correlation and paired t test. In the in vitro portion of the study the most accurate measurements were obtained using 5.13x magnified bone windows with a mean 0.13 mm difference from caliper measurement (p = 0.6). Measurements performed in the soft tissue window with and without magnification, and in the bone window without magnification were significantly different from hand caliper measurements (mean difference 1.2, 1.9 and 1.4 mm, p = 0.003, window settings with magnification. For uric acid calculi the measurement error was observed only in standard soft tissue window settings. In vivo 4.0x

  20. Simple Design Tool for Development of Well Insulated Window Frames and Optimization of the Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    is generated by the program and is used by the finite element simulator to calculate the thermal performance of the frame (the U value). After the initial design is evaluated, the user can quickly modify chosen parameters and generate a new design. This process can then be repeated in multiple iterations...... in order to approach an optimal solution. The program was also used to conduct an optimization process of the frame geometry. A large number of various window frame designs were created and evaluated, based on their insulation properties. The paper presents the investigation process and some of the best...

  1. Proton-beam window design for a transmutation facility operating with a liquid lead target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, C.; Lypsch, F.; Lizana, P. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The proton beam target of an accelerator-driven transmutation facility can be designed as a vertical liquid lead column. To prevent lead vapor from entering the accelerator vacuum, a proton-beam window has to separate the area above the lead surface from the accelerator tube. Two radiation-cooled design alternatives have been investigated which should withstand a proton beam of 1.6 GeV and 25 mA. Temperature calculations based on energy deposition calculations with the Monte Carlo code HETC, stability analysis and spallation-induced damage calculations have been performed showing the applicability of both designs.

  2. MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 installation and configuration study guide exam 70-410

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2015-01-01

    Master Windows Server installation and configuration withhands-on practice and interactive study aids for the MCSA: WindowsServer 2012 R2 exam 70-410 MCSA: Windows Server 2012 R2 Installation and ConfigurationStudy Guide: Exam 70-410 provides complete preparationfor exam 70-410: Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2.With comprehensive coverage of all exam topics and plenty ofhands-on practice, this self-paced guide is the ideal resource forthose preparing for the MCSA on Windows Server 2012 R2. Real-worldscenarios demonstrate how the lessons are applied in everydaysettings. Reader

  3. New design for photonic temporal integration with combined high processing speed and long operation time window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Park, Yongwoo; Azaña, José

    2011-01-17

    We propose and experimentally prove a novel design for implementing photonic temporal integrators simultaneously offering a high processing bandwidth and a long operation time window, namely a large time-bandwidth product. The proposed scheme is based on concatenating in series a time-limited ultrafast photonic temporal integrator, e.g. implemented using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), with a discrete-time (bandwidth limited) optical integrator, e.g. implemented using an optical resonant cavity. This design combines the advantages of these two previously demonstrated photonic integrator solutions, providing a processing speed as high as that of the time-limited ultrafast integrator and an operation time window fixed by the discrete-time integrator. Proof-of-concept experiments are reported using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (as the original time-limited integrator) connected in series with a bulk-optics coherent interferometers' system (as a passive 4-points discrete-time photonic temporal integrator). Using this setup, we demonstrate accurate temporal integration of complex-field optical signals with time-features as fast as ~6 ps, only limited by the processing bandwidth of the FBG integrator, over time durations as long as ~200 ps, which represents a 4-fold improvement over the operation time window (~50 ps) of the original FBG integrator.

  4. Illustrative Case Study: Life Cycle Assessment of Four Window Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Bugge, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This report serves as an example report on how to perform an LCA according to the guidance given in Chap. 37 and how to structure the report according to the reporting template in Chap. 38. The goals of the LCA were (i) to perform a benchmarking of a prototype wood/composite (W/C) window made out...... of glass fibre against three alternative window types currently offered in the market (made of wood (W), wood/aluminium (W/ALU), and PVC) and (ii) to identify environmental hotspots for each window system....

  5. Oval Window Size and Shape: a Micro-CT Anatomical Study With Considerations for Stapes Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdilla, Matthew J; Skrzat, Janusz; Kozerska, Magdalena; Leszczyński, Bartosz; Tarasiuk, Jacek; Wroński, Sebastian

    2018-04-11

    The oval window is an important structure with regard to stapes surgeries, including stapedotomy for the treatment of otosclerosis. Recent study of perioperative imaging of the oval window has revealed that oval window niche height can indicate both operative difficulty and subjective discomfort during otosclerosis surgery. With regard to shape, structures incorporated into the oval window niche, such as cartilage grafts, must be compatible with the shape of the oval window. Despite the clinical importance of the oval window, there is little information regarding its size and shape. This study assessed oval window size and shape via micro-computed tomography paired with modern morphometric methodology in the fetal, infant, child, and adult populations. Additionally, the study compared oval window size and shape between sexes and between left- and right-sided ears. No significant differences were found among traditional morphometric parameters among age groups, sides, or sexes. However, geometric morphometric methods revealed shape differences between age groups. Further, geometric morphometric methods provided the average oval window shape and most-likely shape variance. Beyond demonstrating oval window size and shape variation, the results of this report will aid in identifying patients among whom anatomical variation may contribute to surgical difficulty and surgeon discomfort, or otherwise warrant preoperative adaptations for the incorporation of materials into and around the oval window.

  6. Mediated Windows: The Use of Framing and Transparency in Designing for Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Gullström

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the fusion of architecture and media technology that facilitates collaborative practices across spatial extensions: video-mediated spaces. The example presented is a mediated extension of the Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm to a neighbouring park area and archaeological excavation site in 2008, referred to as a mediated window, or a glass-door. The concepts framing and transparency are used to outline the significance of windows and glazing in architecture and art. The author then considers the potential contribution of architecture in representing the passage from indoors to outdoors and designing for presence. Presence design assumes a contribution from architects to presence research, a currently diversified field, spanning media-space research, cognitive science, interaction design, ubiquitous computing, second-order cybernetics, and computer-supported collaborative work, but in which architecture and artistic practices are less represented.The paper thereby addresses the potential of an extended architectural practice, which incorporates the design of mediated spaces, and outlines presence design as a transdisciplinary practice in which presence research meets architectural design, and spatial and aesthetic conceptual tools, derived from related visual practices, may be productively applied.

  7. Design and engineering of IZO/Ag/glass solar filters for low-emissivity window performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Mainet, Luis C.; Aguilar, Miguel A.; Tamargo, Maria C.; Falcony, Ciro

    2017-10-01

    The electricity consumption in houses and commercial buildings generates about 18% of greenhouse gas emission. A critical issue of building energy consumption is heat and cooling loss through the window. Low-emissivity windows control thermal radiation through glass without decreasing the intensity of visible light. They are made up of optical filter coatings grown on a flat glass surface. Solar filters based on Ag/IZO multilayer films are grown and simulated on glass substrate. The targeted structure designs are grown by a sputtering system and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques. To accurately simulate transmission spectrum, silver (Ag) and IZO optical constants were estimated by fitting ellipsometric data at different thicknesses. Transmission spectrum shows a good agreement among experiment and simulation. In addition, optical constant curves strongly show layer thickness dependence in both materials. In particular, the ultrathin Ag layer displays a percolation threshold in the vicinity of 15 nm, which leads to surface plasmon resonance with absorption at about 450 nm. These types of optical filter coatings would have potential applications as low-emission windows.

  8. Select Components and Finish System Design of a Window Air Conditioner with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report describes the technical targets for developing a high efficiency window air conditioner (WAC) using propane (R-290). The baseline unit selected for this activity is a GE R-410A WAC. We established collaboration with a Chinese rotary compressor manufacturer, to select an R-290 compressor. We first modelled and calibrated the WAC system model using R-410A. Next, we applied the calibrated system model to design the R-290 WAC, and decided the strategies to reduce the system charge below 260 grams and achieve the capacity and efficiency targets.

  9. A very thin havar film vacuum window for heavy ions to perform radiobiology studies at the BNL Tandem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieberger, P.; Abendroth, H.; Alessi, J.; Cannizzo, L.; Carlson, C.; Gustavsson, A.; Minty, M.; Snydstrup, L.

    2011-03-28

    Heavy ion beams from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators will be made available for radiobiology studies on cell cultures. Beam energy losses need to be minimized both in the vacuum window and in the air in order to achieve the ranges required for the cells to be studied. This is particularly challenging for ions heavier than iron. The design is presented of a 0.4-inch diameter Havar film window that will satisfy these requirements. Films as thin as 80 microinches were successfully pressure tested. The final thickness to be used may be slightly larger to help in achieving pin hole free windows. We discuss design considerations and present pressure and vacuum test results as well as tests with heavy ion beams.

  10. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  11. Comparative Study of Single-glazed and Double-glazed Windows in Terms of Energy Efficiency and Economic Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Forughian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saving fossil fuels and the use of clean sources of energy lead to reduce in building operating costs, protect the environment and people's health. Windows are the most vulnerable part of building where energy loss occurs. Double-glazed windows are very effective in keeping inside temperature isolated from outside; thereby, saving electrical and thermal energy. The current study estimates the numerical changes in cooling and heating load in case of replacement double-glazed window with single-glazed window and calculates saving level for this replacement. In this context, this paper presents a model of real samples taken in Mashhad climate. To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, real results were compared with electricity and gas bills. To calculate energy related parameters such as cooling load, heating load, the consumption of gas and electricity, the energy simulation software (Design Builder was used. The research method was a quantitative analysis based on energy consumption modeling, associated with building windows which comes in four sections. The field study was also used to compare with real electricity and gas bills. As the first stage, samples of the plan were identified, based on the observation of climate models and library studies. Then, simulation parameters such as window materials and internal and external walls were considered. The simulation was performed based software’s parameters and model limitations were determined based on thermal, lighting, climatic and architectural parameters. Finally, the experimental and practical data were used to determine the validity of the model under Mashhad climate conditions. Overall, the results indicated that double-glazed windows could save 50% of entire building loads, 0.2% on power consumption, 16.2% on gas and 12.4% on overall households’ energy consumption.

  12. Ocean Engineering Studies. Volume 5. Acrylic Windows. Spherical Shell Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    with polishing of all surfaces and annealing at 1750F for 6 hours. Flanges for the windows were fabricated (figure 12) from st- el with a minimum yield...increase in radial apex displacement. The radial apex displacement becomes almost a step function just prior to plastico -elastic instability failure of...20,000 0 / 0 / 0.10 - ,, ,,/ ,0~/ ,oo El , ,--E implosion 2,000 4 ,000 5,000 8,000 PRESSURE (psi) Figure 15. -Iu.,ured Strain aid Displacement at the

  13. MCTS Microsoft Windows 7 Configuration Study Guide Exam 70-680

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2011-01-01

    A fully updated study guide for MCTS exam 70-680 Demand for experienced, qualified Windows 7 administrators remains high. IT professionals seeking certification in Windows 7 administration will find everything they need to learn to pass the MCTS exam (70-680) in this complete Sybex Study Guide. Updated to cover the most recent version of the exam, this comprehensive guide examines all the exam objectives, using real-world scenarios, hands-on exercises, and challenging review questions.Certification in Windows 7 administration is highly prized by IT professionals and employers; this comprehensi

  14. MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 administration study guide exam 70-411

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2015-01-01

    Complete exam coverage, hands-on practice, and interactive studytools for the MCSA: Administering Windows Server 2012 R2 exam70-411 MCSA: Windows Server 2012 R2 Administration Study Guide: Exam70-411 provides comprehensive preparation for exam 70-411:Administering Windows Server 2012 R2. With full coverage of allexam domains, this guide contains everything you need to know to befully prepared on test day. Real-world scenarios illustrate thepractical applications of the lessons, and hands-on exercises allowyou to test yourself against everyday tasks. You get access to aninteractive practice te

  15. Optimal Design for the Diffusion Plate with Nanoparticles in a Diffusive Solar Cell Window by Mie Scattering Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Tang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A diffusive solar cell window comprises a diffusion plate with TiO2 nanoparticles sandwiched between two glass layers. It is a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-made, and highly reliable transparent solar energy module. To improve its power generation efficiency as well as maintain indoor natural lighting, we examined the scattering mechanism in the diffusion plate with TiO2 nanoparticles within a diffusive solar cell window by Mie scattering simulations. In this work, a multiwavelength ASAP ray tracing model for a diffusive solar cell window with acceptable accuracy was developed to investigate the influence of the diffusion plate design parameter, mainly concentration of a diffusion plate with determined particle size distribution, on power generation efficiency and color shift of transmitted sun light. A concept of “effective average radius” was proposed to account for the equivalent scattering effect of a size distribution of quasispherical particles. Simulation results demonstrated that both the transmitted light and its correlated color temperature decreased as the concentration increased for a large-size diffusive solar cell window. However, there existed a maximum power generation efficiency at around 160 ppm concentration. The optimal design for a large-size diffusion plate inside a diffusive solar cell window by taking indoor lighting into account was suggested based on the simulation results.

  16. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  17. Modeling study on the thermal performance of a modified cavity receiver with glass window and secondary reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Duan, Chen; Wen, Ke; Liu, Yuting; Xiang, Can; Wan, Zhongmin; He, Sinian; Jing, Changwei; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified cavity receiver with glass window and secondary reflector is presented. • Optical and thermal performance of the modified cavity receiver is investigated. • Effects of glass window and secondary reflector are analyzed with comparison study. - Abstract: The development of a cavity receiver for a 1 kW beta type solar Stirling engine is presented in this work. The proposed receiver is composed of an additional quartz glass window and a secondary reflector aiming at improving the thermal performance. Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method is adopted to study the optical property and calculate radiative exchange factors of the solar collector system. The results show that the radiation flux sent to the proposed cavity receiver is 5003 W, and the optical efficiency of this receiver is 70.8%. Numerical simulation is conducted to investigate the thermal performance of this modified receiver. The proposed receiver is also compared with other three simulated receivers combining the presence and absence of the quartz glass window and the secondary reflector. The numerical simulation results show that the modified receiver with both quartz glass window and secondary trumpet reflector outperformed other designs, and its heat loss is reduced about 56% compared to the initial receiver without both quartz glass window and secondary reflector. Hence, the impact factors on the modified receiver radiation and convection heat transfer are well analyzed including temperature, the inner surface orientation and emissivity. The research indicates that the proposed cavity receiver can efficiently reduce the heat loss from cavity and is suitable for Stirling engine applications.

  18. Development and experimental study of beryllium window for ITER radial X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhaoxi; Jin, Guangxu; Chen, Kaiyun; Chen, Yebin; Song, Yuntao; Hu, Liqun; Niu, Luying; Sheng, Xiuli; Cheng, Yong; Lu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The thickness of the beryllium foil is chosen as 80 μm to guarantee its safety under high pressure differential in accident events. • Using low purity of beryllium as the transition material, the effect of thermal stress caused by diffusion bonding process can be reduced. • Sealing ring and honeycomb-like supports are designed and used in the mechanical clamped beryllium window to enhance its sealing and safety performance. • The beryllium windows have good performance under severe working conditions like high temperature baking, vibration or impact load. -- Abstract: Radial X-ray camera (RXC) is a diagnostic device planned to be installed in the ITER Equatorial Port no. 12. Beryllium window will be installed between the inner and outer camera of RXC, which severs as the transmission photocathode substrate and also the vacuum isolation component. In this paper the design and manufacture process of two types of beryllium windows were introduced. Although 50 μm thickness of beryllium foil is the best choice, the 80 μm one with X-ray threshold of 1.34 keV was selected for safety consideration. Using the intermediate layer (low purity of beryllium) between the beryllium foil and the stainless steel base flange is an effective strategy to limit the welding thermal deformation and thermal stress of the thin foil caused by bonding between different materials. By using ANSYS software, the feasibility of the aperture design was analyzed and validated. Metal sealing ring was applied in the mechanical clamped beryllium window for its good stability under high temperature and neutron radiation. Although both of the hollow metal sealing ring with 0.03 mm silver coating and the pure silver sealing ring can satisfy the sealing requirement, the later one was chosen to produce the final product. Two hours 240 °C high temperature baking test, two hours 3.3 Hz vibration test and fatigue test were performed on the two types of beryllium windows. Based on the

  19. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  20. Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2015-01-01

    a solution space defined by targets for daylighting and thermal comfort. In contrast with existing guidelines, the results show an upper limit for energy savings and utilisation of solar gains in south-oriented rooms. Instead, low U-values are needed in both north- and south oriented rooms before large......Appropriate window solutions are decisive for the design of 'nearly zero-energy' buildings with healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper focuses on the relationship between size, orientation and glazing properties of façade windows for different side-lit room geometries in Danish...... 'nearly zero-energy' houses. The effect of these parameters on space heating demand, daylighting and thermal environment is evaluated by means of EnergyPlus and DAYSIM and presented in charts illustrating how combinations of design parameters with minimum space heating demand can be selected within...

  1. Impact of the New CLIC Beam Parameters on the Design of the Post-Collision Line and its Exit Window

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A

    2008-01-01

    Following the recent modification of the CLIC beam parameters, we present an updated design of the post-collision line. As a result of the increase of the beamstrahlung photon cone size, the separation of the outgoing beams by the vertical magnetic chicane is more difficult, but still possible. The main changes in the post-collision line design include the implementation of a common dump for the wrong-sign charged particles of the coherent pairs and for the low-energy tails of the disrupted beam, as well as a significant reduction of the overall lattice length (allowing removal of the large refocusing quadrupoles). The thermal and mechanical stresses in the new exit window, 150 m downstream of the interaction point, were computed. We conclude that, despite the recent changes of the CLIC beam parameters and the necessary modifications of the post-collision line and its exit window, their performance is not significantly affected.

  2. Windows Server 2003 Active Directory Design and Implementation Creating, Migrating, and Merging Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Savill, John

    2005-01-01

    This book is for Windows network administrators, analysts, or architects,  with a grasp of the basic operations of Active Directory, and are looking for a book that goes beyond rudimentary operations. However, all of the concepts are explained from the g

  3. Design of blast-loaded glazing windows and facades: A review of essential requirements towards standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larcher, M.; Arrigoni, M.; Bedon, C.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Haberacker, C.; Hüsken, G.; Millon, O.; Saarenheimo, A.; Solomos, G.; Thamie, L.; Valsamos, G.; Williams, A.; Stolz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the blast protection level of laminated glass windows and facades is of crucial importance, and it is normally done by using experimental investigations. In recent years numerical methods have become much more powerful also with respect to this kind of application. This paper

  4. MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 configuring advanced services study guide exam 70-412

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2015-01-01

    The bestselling MCSA study guide, with expert instruction andhands-on practice MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 Configuring Advanced ServicesStudy Guide provides focused preparation for exam 70-412 and isfully updated to align with the latest Windows Server 2012 R2objectives. This comprehensive guide covers 100 percent of all examobjective domains, and includes hundreds of practice questions andanswers. You get access to video demonstrations, electronicflashcards, and practice exams, and hands-on exercises based onreal-world scenarios allow you to apply your skills to everydaytasks. Organized by o

  5. Infrared monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.; Lopez, N.; Hu, G.; Choi, E.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for monitoring the gyrotron output window surface temperature with an infrared camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. The IR camera views the window through a perforated waveguide wall, and serves both as a guide for the safe operation at high average power of the tube, as well as an aid in the analysis of new window designs. Window temperatures were studied as a function of a number of parameters, including gun anode voltage, beam current, magnetic field, coolant flow, and load matching. The IR technique is applicable to many types of high average power microwave and millimeter wave tubes. Successful operation of the Varian 60 GHz gyrotron to 214 kW CW was guided by the infrared camera. Analyses on 28, 56 and 60 GHz gyrotrons have led to a number of design changes. A comparison with computer calculations is also presented

  6. Study of optimal exposure windows using 320-Detector rows dynamic volume CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Sun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gang Sun1, Min Li1, Li Li1, Guo-ying Li1, Zhi-wei Jing21Departments of Medical Imaging, 2Medical Statistics, Jinan Military General Hospital, Shandong Province, ChinaAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal electrocardiographic (ECG pulsing windows and evaluate the effect on reduced dose and accuracy using 320-detector rows dynamic volume computed tomography (DVCT. A total of 170 patients were prospectively studied. The optimal reconstruction windows were analyzed in 76 patients scanned using retrospective ECG gating. Forty-seven patients were scanned by the predicted triggering windows. The optimal positions of exposure intervals according to different heart rates were evaluated. Optimal image quality, radiation dose, and diagnostic accuracy were then investigated by applying optimal triggering windows. The optimal ECG pulsing windows were determined as follows: when heart rate was <70 beats per minute, the exposure windows should be preset at 60%–80%; for a heart rate 70–90 beats per minute at 70%–90%; and for a heart rate ≥90 beats per minute at 30%–50%. The radiation dose for patients scanned with prospective ECG gating was significantly lower (5.9 versus 12.9 mSv, P < 0.001. However, because two or three heart beats were needed when heart rate was >70 beats per minute, the radiation dose increased with increasing heart rate for both retrospective and prospective ECG gating (r = 0.64, P < 0.001 and r = 0.59, P < 0.001, respectively. On the basis of a per segment analysis, overall sensitivity was 98.0% (49/50, specificity was 99.2% (602/607, the positive predictive value was 90.7% (49/54, and the negative predictive value was 99.8% (602/603. In conclusion, DVCT has the potential to provide high image quality across a wide range of heart rates using an optimized ECG pulsing window. However, it is recommended to control heart rate below 70 beats per minute, if possible, to decrease the radiation dose

  7. A novel configurable VLSI architecture design of window-based image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Sang, Hongshi; Shen, Xubang

    2018-03-01

    Most window-based image processing architecture can only achieve a certain kind of specific algorithms, such as 2D convolution, and therefore lack the flexibility and breadth of application. In addition, improper handling of the image boundary can cause loss of accuracy, or consume more logic resources. For the above problems, this paper proposes a new VLSI architecture of window-based image processing operations, which is configurable and based on consideration of the image boundary. An efficient technique is explored to manage the image borders by overlapping and flushing phases at the end of row and the end of frame, which does not produce new delay and reduce the overhead in real-time applications. Maximize the reuse of the on-chip memory data, in order to reduce the hardware complexity and external bandwidth requirements. To perform different scalar function and reduction function operations in pipeline, this can support a variety of applications of window-based image processing. Compared with the performance of other reported structures, the performance of the new structure has some similarities to some of the structures, but also superior to some other structures. Especially when compared with a systolic array processor CWP, this structure at the same frequency of approximately 12.9% of the speed increases. The proposed parallel VLSI architecture was implemented with SIMC 0.18-μm CMOS technology, and the maximum clock frequency, power consumption, and area are 125Mhz, 57mW, 104.8K Gates, respectively, furthermore the processing time is independent of the different window-based algorithms mapped to the structure

  8. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  9. Studies on the viability of perspex as a window material in high radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.

    1998-01-01

    Hot cells meant for handling high radioactivity essentially require proper transparent material in front of lead viewing windows. Inherent demerits of glass like frigility and radiation induced darkening has prompted us to evaluate the viability of commercially available perspex sheets glass. The study of optical absorbance, impact and tensile strengths as a function of absorbed dose indicates its viability. (author)

  10. MCSA Microsoft Windows 8.1 complete study guide exams 70-687, 70-688, and 70-689

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, hands-on study guide for the Microsoft Windows 8.1 exams The MCSA: Microsoft Windows 8.1 Complete Study Guide is a comprehensive package loaded with educational study tools, including a pre-assessment test, hands-on exercises, hundreds of review questions, exclusive practice exam questions, electronic flashcards, and over an hour of author-led videos. For IT students and professionals, getting certified on Microsoft Windows 8.1 can mean huge career opportunities. Over 90% of all personal computing devices run on Windows, and those certified on the newest version will be in high

  11. Design optimization and manufacturing of holographic windows for daylighting applications in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholl, H.D.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Kubiza, R.; Willbold-Lohr, G. [Aachen Inst. of Technology (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The function of holographic optical elements in daylighting applications is to redirect sunlight from the immediate window area into the rear of a room in order to illuminate the darker regions and to reduce glare. A prerequisite for the successful application of holograms in daylighting systems is the solution of the problems of white light diffraction and of uniform holographic properties across a large aperture. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations of these two problems. It will be shown that white light diffraction is possible and that uniform diffraction efficiencies over large apertures are attainable.

  12. Thermal performance of natural airflow window in subtropical and temperate climate zones - A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow Tintai; Lin Zhang; Fong Kwongfai; Chan Lokshun; He Miaomiao

    2009-01-01

    Airflow window is highly useful in conserving building energy, and lessens the comfort problems caused by glazing. In this study, the thermal performance of a natural airflow window was examined through the use of a dynamic model, developed based on the integrated energy balance and airflow networks. The validity of the model was first tested by measured data obtained from a prototype installed at an environmental chamber. The application in the subtropical and temperate climate zones were then examined with the typical weather data of Hong Kong and Beijing. The findings confirmed that the natural airflow window can achieve substantial energy saving in both cities, and the reversible window frame is only required for Beijing, a location with hot summer and cold winter. The space cooling load via fenestration in Hong Kong, a subtropical city, can be reduced to 60% of the commonly used single absorptive glazing. In Beijing, as an example of the temperate climate, this can be reduced to 75% of the commonly used double glazing configuration in the summer period, and the space heat gain can be improved by 46% in the winter period.

  13. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  14. Thermo-mechanical design windows for SiC/SiC composite first wall of A-SSTR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Satoshi Nishio

    2002-01-01

    The finite element analysis and calculation is performed for the blanket first wall made of SiC/SiC composite material for Advanced Steady-state Tokamak Reactor 2, A-SSTR2, which is now conceptually designed in Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI. Comparison analysis and design window is analyzed by using the finite element code ADINA 7.4. Through 2D calculation for various geometrical configurations and sensitive material properties, a fundamental guideline for first wall and blanket design is established with respect to maximum temperature, thermal and mechanical stress for many configurations. To satisfy hydrodynamic requirement, a4d4 (the dimension of coolant channel is 4 mm x 8 mm, and the distance between neighboring channels is 4 mm) is chosen as design point for high thermal conductivity up to 50 W/m·K

  15. High Power Coax Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T.S.; Rimmer, R.A.; Stirbet, M.

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting RF (SRF) power coupler capable of handling 500 kW CW RF power is required for present and future storage rings and linacs. There are over 35 coupler designs for SRF cavities ranging in frequency from 325 to 1500 MHz. Coupler windows vary from cylinders to cones to disks, and RF power couplers are limited by the ability of ceramic windows to withstand the stresses due to heating and mechanical flexure. We propose a novel robust co-axial SRF coupler design which uses compressed window technology. This technology will allow the use of highly thermally conductive materials for cryogenic windows. Using compressed window techniques on disk co-axial windows will make significant improvements in the power handling of SRF couplers. We present the bench test results of two window assemblies back to back, as well as individual window VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vacuum test assembly was made and the windows baked out at 155C. The processes used to build windows is scalable to larger diameter coax and to higher power levels.

  16. Windowing of THz time-domain spectroscopy signals: A study based on lactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cabo, José; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Rubiños-López, Óscar; López-Santos, José María; Martín-Ramos, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Time-domain spectroscopy has established itself as a reference method for determining material parameters in the terahertz spectral range. This procedure requires the processing of the measured time-domain signals in order to estimate the spectral data. In this work, we present a thorough study of the properties of the signal windowing, a step previous to the parameter extraction algorithm, that permits to improve the accuracy of the results. Lactose has been used as sample material in the study.

  17. Mechanical Safety Subcommittee Guideline for Design of Thin Windows Regarding Roark’s Edge Condition Coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ader, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Voirin, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McGee, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Nobrega, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-06-15

    An error was found in an edge stress coefficient used to calculate stresses in thin windows. This error is present in “Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain” 7th and 8th Edition. The 6th Edition is correct. This guideline specially discusses a major difference in regards to a coefficient used in calculating the edge stress in “Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain” 6th Edition compared to the 7th and 8th Editions. In Chapter 10: Flat Plates under “Circular plates under distributed load producing large deflections,” Case 3, which is “Fixed and held. Uniform pressure q over entire plate.” The coefficient for a fixed edge condition in the 6th Edition1 K4 = 0.476 while in the 7th and 8th Edition2, the coefficient is 1.73 which is significant difference.

  18. Design of Blast-Loaded Glazing Windows and Facades: A Review of Essential Requirements towards Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Larcher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the blast protection level of laminated glass windows and facades is of crucial importance, and it is normally done by using experimental investigations. In recent years numerical methods have become much more powerful also with respect to this kind of application. This paper attempts to give a first idea of a possible standardization concerning such numerical simulations. Attention is drawn to the representation of the blast loading and to the proper description of the behaviour of the material of the mentioned products, to the geometrical meshing, and to the modelling of the connections of the glass components to the main structure. The need to validate the numerical models against reliable experimental data, some of which are indicated, is underlined.

  19. Studying Titan's surface photometry in the 5 microns atmospheric window with the Cassini/VIMS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, T.; Altobelli, N.; Sotin, C.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Philippe, S.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the influence of methane gas and a thick aerosols haze in the atmosphere, Titan's surface is only visible in 7 spectral atmospheric windows centered at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.7-2.8 and 5 microns with the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The 5 microns atmospheric window constitutes the only one being almost insensitive to the haze scattering and which presents only a reduced atmospheric absorption contribution to the signal recorded by the instrument. Despite these advantages leading to the almost direct view of the surface, the 5 microns window is also the noisiest spectral window of the entire VIMS spectrum (an effect highly dependent on the time exposure used for the observations), and it is not totally free from atmospheric contributions, enough to keep "artefacts" in mosaics of several thousands of cubes due to atmospheric and surface photometric effects amplified by the very heterogeneous viewing conditions between each Titan flyby. At first order, a lambertian surface photometry at 5 microns has been used as an initial parameter in order to estimate atmospheric opacity and surface photometry in all VIMS atmospheric windows and to determine the albedo of the surface, yet unknown, both using radiative transfer codes on single cubes or empirical techniques on global hyperspectral mosaics. Other studies suggested that Titan's surface photometry would not be uniquely lambertian but would also contain anisotropic lunar-like contributions. In the present work, we aim at constraining accurately the surface photometry of Titan and residual atmospheric absorption effects in this 5 microns window using a comprehensive study of relevant sites located at various latitudes. Those include bright and dark (dunes) terrains, 5-microns bright terrains (Hotei Regio and Tui Regio), the Huygens Landing Site and high latitudes polar lakes and seas. The VIMS 2004 to 2014 database, composed of more than 40,000 hyperspectral cubes acquired on

  20. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  1. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Otsuka, Takamitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Jiang Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O' Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2012-01-02

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  2. Chest CT window settings with multiscale adaptive histogram equalization: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Laura M; Jin, Yinpeng; Laine, Andrew F; Berkmen, Yahya M; Pearson, Gregory D; Freedman, Benjamin; Van Heertum, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    Multiscale adaptive histogram equalization (MAHE), a wavelet-based algorithm, was investigated as a method of automatic simultaneous display of the full dynamic contrast range of a computed tomographic image. Interpretation times were significantly lower for MAHE-enhanced images compared with those for conventionally displayed images. Diagnostic accuracy, however, was insufficient in this pilot study to allow recommendation of MAHE as a replacement for conventional window display.

  3. Design and implementation of a Windows NT network to support CNC activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearrow, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Manufacturing, Materials, & Processes Technology Division is undergoing dramatic changes to bring it's manufacturing practices current with today's technological revolution. The Division is developing Computer Automated Design and Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) abilities. The development of resource tracking is underway in the form of an accounting software package called Infisy. These two efforts will bring the division into the 1980's in relationship to manufacturing processes. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is the final phase of change to be implemented. This document is a qualitative study and application of a CIM application capable of finishing the changes necessary to bring the manufacturing practices into the 1990's. The documentation provided in this qualitative research effort includes discovery of the current status of manufacturing in the Manufacturing, Materials, & Processes Technology Division including the software, hardware, network and mode of operation. The proposed direction of research included a network design, computers to be used, software to be used, machine to computer connections, estimate a timeline for implementation, and a cost estimate. Recommendation for the division's improvement include action to be taken, software to utilize, and computer configurations.

  4. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  5. Simple Design Tool for Development of Well Insulated Window Frames and Optimization of the Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    is generated by the program and is used by the finite element simulator to calculate the thermal performance of the frame (the U value). After the initial design is evaluated, the user can quickly modify chosen parameters and generate a new design. This process can then be repeated in multiple iterations...

  6. Study of the integrity of pressurized LEH window assemblies at cryogenic temperatures for NIF targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a directorate of LLNL, a DOE Lab, and is home to the world’s largest laser. This laser shoots its 192 beams at a target about the size of a pencil eraser. Within the target are two main chambers; and depending on the type of shot, those chambers need to be pressurized to a certain point at a very low temperature (18 Kelvin). The component used for keeping the hohlraum at its designated pressure is a Laser Entrance Hole (LEH) window, made from a thin (0.5um) polyimide film and an aluminum washer attached with a miniscule amount of polymeric adhesive. One issue that has been known to happen is the chambers will leak, at very low rates (5.0E-7 mBar-liter/s and under). At higher pressures significantly larger leak rates have been observed.There are three proposed mechanisms by which the LEH windows are leaking. The first is that there is a small pinhole somewhere in the freestanding film. This is the most unlikely because before any film is shipped from Luxel, it must pass a 50-75 torr room temperature pressure test. The second is a tear in the film at the edge of the washer. This type of damage suggests that the film is under additional stress at this edge portion and/or the edge of the washer itself is what is doing the damage. Lastly, it has been hypothesized that there are small channels under the window that do not get completely filled by the glue and, if they connect to the edge of the freestanding portion of the film, then the pressure can escape through them. These channels were the mechanism being most directly tested over the course of the experiments.

  7. Hardware design of the median filter based on window structure and batcher′s oddeven sort network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Kaimin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Area and speed are two important factors to be considered in designing Median Filter with digital circuits.Area consideration requires the use of logical resources as little as possible,while speed consideration requires the system capable of working on higher clock frequencies,with as few clock cycles as possible to complete a frame filtering or real time filtering.This paper gives a new design of Median Filter,the hardware structure of which is a 3×3 window structure with two buffers.The filter function module is based on Batcher′s Odd-Even Sort network theory.Structural design is implemented in FPGA,verified by ModelSim software and realizes video image filtering.The experimental analysis shows that this new structure of Median Filter effectively decreases logical resources (merely using 741 Logic Elements,and accelerates the pixel processing speed up to 27MHz.This filter achieves realtime processing of video images of 30 frames/s.This design not only has a certain practicality,but also provides a reference for the hardware structure design ideas in digital image processing.

  8. DB2 9 for Linux, Unix, and Windows database administration certification study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Roger E

    2007-01-01

    In DB2 9 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows Database Administration Certification Study Guide, Roger E. Sanders-one of the world's leading DB2 authors and an active participant in the development of IBM's DB2 certification exams-covers everything a reader needs to know to pass the DB2 9 UDB DBA Certification Test (731).This comprehensive study guide steps you through all of the topics that are covered on the test, including server management, data placement, database access, analyzing DB2 activity, DB2 utilities, high availability, security, and much more. Each chapter contains an extensive set of p

  9. A study on the operating characteristics by heat flow analysis of HYPER beam window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Geun; Choi, Jin Ho; Ju, Eun Sun; Song, Tae Young

    2001-01-01

    A spent fuel problem has prevented the nuclear power from claiming to be a completely clean energy source. The nuclear transmutation technology to incinerate the long lived radioactive nuclides and produce energy during the incineration process is believed to be one or the best solutions. HYPER(HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) is the accelerator driven transmutation system which is being developed by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Some major feature of HYPER have been developed and employed. On-power fueling concepts are employed to keep system power constant with minimum variation of accelerator power. A hollow cylinder-type metal fuel is designed for the on-line refueling concept. Lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi) is adopted as a coolant and Spallation target material. HYPER is a subcritical reactor which needs an external neutron source. 1GeV proton beam is irradiated to Lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi) target inside HYPER, and spallation neutrons are produced. When proton beams are irradiated, much heat is also deposited in the Pb-Bi target and beam window which separates Pb-Bi and accelerator vacuum. Therefore, an effective cooling is needed for HYPER target. In this paper, we performed the thermal-hydraulic analysis of HYPER target using FLUENT code, and also calculated thermal and mechanical stress of the beam window using ANSYS code

  10. Feasibility study of a cryogenically cooled window for high-power gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haste, G.R.; Kimrey, H.D.; Prosise, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    Single-crystal sapphire is currently in use as the material for output windows in high-power microwave tubes, particularly gyrotrons. These windows are currently being cooled by fluorocarbon fluids at near-room temperatures. There are, however, several advantages in operating the window at very low temperatures: less absorption and consequent heating of the window, greater material strength, improved resistance to crack formation, greater thermal conductivity, and reduced thermal expansion. Operation at cryogenic temperatures is shown to be feasible. The output power, which is currently limited by window constraints, could be increased by an order of magnitude or more

  11. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  12. Comparison of the Intensity of Ventilation at Windows Exchange in the Room - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapalo, Peter; Voznyak, Orest

    2017-06-01

    Doing the replacement of old wooden windows in a new plastic windows, in the old buildings, we get the great reducing of the building heat loss. Simpler maintenance and attendance of window is the next advantage. New windows are characterized by better tightness. The aim of the article is determination due to the performed experimental measurements, how much more are reduce the uncontrolled ventilation that is caused of the infiltration windows. In the article there is presented the experimental measurement of indoor air quality in the room in two phases. In the first phase there is the room installed by 55 year old wood window. In the second phase there is the same room installed by new plastic window. Due to the experimental measurement of indoor air quality it is calculated intensity of ventilation - infiltration. These results of ventilation intensity are reciprocally compared.

  13. Winflume: Windows-based Software for the Design and Calibration of Long-throated Measuring Flumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs provide a practical, low-cost, flexible means of measuring open-channel flows in new and existing irrigation systems, with distinct advantages over other flume and weir devices. A primary advantage is the fact that these structures can be custom-designed ...

  14. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...... of ethnographic tools that required their involvement, such as making a diary of their heating experiences during a random week in the summer of 2014, taking photos of windows and sending postcards with specific tasks....

  15. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    artificial from natural stimuli and detects common and individual needs by measuring heart pulse and body temperature. The focal point here is light and how light affects human perception while at the same time the perception of sound and how gesture can provide the best possible cognition of actual needs...... light is a form that adapts natures’ properties and modifies the artificial environment as a stage direction, implying at the same time mood and modifying it in collaboration with sound. Having evaluated how this affects the body and human perception in this particular time that we experience nowadays......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  16. Daytime Lighting Assessment in Textile Factories Using Connected Windows in Slovakia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Katunský

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the problems that are associated with daylight use in industrial facilities. In a case study of a multi-story textile factory, we report how to evaluate daylight (as part of integral light in the production halls marked F and G. This study follows the article in the Buildings journal, where Hall E was evaluated (unilateral daylight. These two additional halls have large areas that are 54 × 54 m and are more than five meters high. The daylight is only on the side through the attached windows in envelope structures in the vertical position on the hall. In this paper, we want to present two case studies of these two production halls in a textile factory in the eastern part of Slovakia. These are halls that are illuminated by daylight from two sides through exterior peripheral walls that are against or next to each other. The results of the case studies can be applied in similar production halls illuminated by a “double-sided” (bilateral daylight system. This means that they are illuminated by natural illumination through windows on two sides in a vertical position. Such a situation is typical for multi-storied industrial buildings. The proposed approximate calculation method for the daylight factor can be used to predict the daylight in similar spaces in other similar buildings.

  17. Windows of opportunity for tolerance induction for allergy by studying the evolution of allergic sensitization in birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Marit; Asarnoj, Anna; Hamsten, Carl; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for developing IgE-mediated allergic diseases, which are a major cause of chronic illness world-wide. The introduction of allergen molecules to the field of allergy diagnostics has allowed dissecting the IgE response on a molecular level to pinpoint the specific disease-causing allergens. Studying birth cohorts is an essential tool for understanding the development and life course of allergy, enabling the possibility to design preventive strategies. Here we review the evolution of sensitization using data from some of the large European birth cohort studies. Differences and similarities between sensitization to food and various sources of inhalant allergens are discussed and allergen molecules of importance in early childhood predicting disease in adolescence are highlighted. Finally, we discuss windows of opportunity where intervention could be considered and address possible preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of Rose Bengal/FTO optical thin film system as a novel nonlinear media for infrared blocking windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. El-Bashir

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal (RB is a new organic semiconductor with the highly stable layer, was deposited on highly cleaned conductive glass substrate known as (FTO glass with different thickness in the range from 80 to 292 nm. XRD showed an entirely amorphous structure of the studied film thicknesses. The observed peaks are the indexed peaks for FTO layer. Spectrophotometric data as transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance were used for the analysis the optical constant of RB/FTO optical thin film system. Refractive index was calculated using Fresnel’s equation with the aid of reflectance and absorption index. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were discussed and analyzed according to the applied optical theories. Nonlinear parameters such as third order nonlinear optical susceptibility and the nonlinear refractive index were calculated based on the linear refractive index of the applications of this material in nonlinear media. The results showed that Rose Bengal is a proving material for wide scale optoelectronic applications such as infrared blocking windows. Keywords: Rose Bengal, Dielectric parameters, Linear/nonlinear optics, Dye/FTO, IR blocking windows

  19. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  20. Optimum Design Parameters of Box Window DSF Office at Different Glazing Types under Sub Interval of Intermediate Sky Conditions (20-40 klux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayeb, O. K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Khrita, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    Despite Double skin façade (DSF) buildings are widely deployed worldwide, daylighting strategy is not commonly incorporated in these buildings compare to other strategies. Therefore, further theoretical and experimental studies would lead to adopting daylighting strategy in DSF office buildings. The aim of this study is to investigate the daylighting performance of office building at different design parameters of box window DSF using different glazing types under sub interval of intermediate sky conditions (20-40) klux using the (IES VE) simulation tool from Integrated Environmental Solutions - Virtual Environment. The implemented design parameters are window wall ratio (WWR) of internal façade (10-100) %, cavity depth (CD) of DSF (1-2.5) m and different glazing types. The glazing types were selected from the list available in the (IES VE) simulation tool. After series of evaluations, bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) is implemented for the exterior façade while clear float, clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), grey and brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float) and blue coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) are implemented for the interior façade. In this paper, several evaluation parameters are used to quantify the optimum design parameters that would balance the daylighting requirements of a box window DSF office versus sky conditions range (20-40) klux. The optimum design parameters of DSF office building obtained under different glazing types are highlighted as follows. When using bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) for the exterior façade, the glazing types of interior façade that showed superior daylighting performance of DSF office at (CD of 1.0m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 1.5m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) and (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) are grey tinted coating (Anti-sun float), clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float), and clear float glazing respectively. Blue Coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) of interior façade glazing

  1. Prospective randomized controlled study on small-window craniotomy versus ordinary large-window craniotomy in the evacuation of epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-shui HU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is still controversy on the clinical efficacy of small-window craniotomy (SWCT for acute epidural hematoma with concurrent early-phase cerebral herniation. This study compared multiple surgical and prognostic parameters of SWCT versus ordinary large-window craniotomy (LWCT, which aimed at providing evidences for surgical decision. Compared with LWCT (N = 51, SWCT (N = 44 displayed shortened average operation time (P = 0.000, reduced intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.000 and lessened intraoperative blood transfusion (P = 0.031. Moreover, there was no differences of postoperative residual hematoma (P = 0.141, postoperative palinesthesia time (P = 0.201, the ratio of postoperative secondary ischemia (P = 0.865 or cerebral edema (P = 0.879, and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS score (P = 0.603 between the two surgical approaches.  Results suggested that, for patients with acute epidural hematoma and concurrent early-phase cerebral herniation, SWCT could effectively evacuate hematoma and relief brain herniation without significant differences of effect and prognosis from LWCT. In addition, SWCT has several advantages such as significantly reduced operation time, intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.013

  2. Air transparent soundproof window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr [Division of Marine Engineering, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  3. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  4. Design of an Event-Driven Random-Access-Windowing CCD-Based Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacos, Steve P.; Lam, Raymond K.; Portillo, Angel A.; Ortiz, Gerardo G.

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available cameras are not design for the combination of single frame and high-speed streaming digital video with real-time control of size and location of multiple regions-of-interest (ROI). A new control paradigm is defined to eliminate the tight coupling between the camera logic and the host controller. This functionality is achieved by defining the indivisible pixel read out operation on a per ROI basis with in-camera time keeping capability. This methodology provides a Random Access, Real-Time, Event-driven (RARE) camera for adaptive camera control and is will suited for target tracking applications requiring autonomous control of multiple ROI's. This methodology additionally provides for reduced ROI read out time and higher frame rates compared to the original architecture by avoiding external control intervention during the ROI read out process.

  5. Migrasi dari Windows Server ke Linux Server Studi Kasus: Server POLY050

    OpenAIRE

    Winoto, Basuki; Wardani, Deni

    2005-01-01

    File, as an important aspect of personal computer USAge, can be managed personally by the ownerhimself or centralized in file storage servers. File storage server in Windows network environment use a specificcommunication protocol called SMB. This protocol, instead of being used by Windows Server, can also used bya server application called Samba which runs on Linux. Therefore, file storage server migration from WindowsServer to Linux Server is possible.

  6. Advanced Propulsor Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Report No. CG-D-1-86 ADVANCED PROPULSOR DESIGN STUDIES BY WALTER S. GEARHART 00 DTIC ;00 ELECTE MAR 4 S86 B II This document is available to the U;S...Organization Code Advanced Propulsor Design Studies _.__________ 0. Performing Orgoni ation Report No.7. A’jthoart g) Walter S. Gearhart 9. Performing...USCG Hulls Considered in the Preliminary Design Studies . . . . . . * 2 Preliminary Design Investigation . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 3

  7. My face, a window to communication: using creative design in learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Elizabeth; Collins, Diane; Carey, Melissa

    2010-11-01

    Creative art as part of assessment in nursing is a powerful alternative to traditional methods of promoting engagement for students who have different learning styles, and who value engagement in creative activities. This paper describes an innovative assessment approach for first year nursing students which addressed the development of a beginning knowledge base in therapeutic communication as well as critical thinking and writing skills. Each student was asked to design a wearable mask to display an abstract interpretation of the therapeutic communication skills required as a nursing student, followed by a discussion about therapeutic nursing communication. Results from an evaluation of the assessment are described using Bigg's (1995) structure of observed learning outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Seventy percent of students (n=35) found the new assessment to be an effective learning strategy. As a creative exercise, 82% (n=41) found the assessment to have engaged them at a personal level. More effort is needed for innovative assessment strategies to promote student engagement. Use of a creative assessment approach that incorporates art creation shows much promise in bridging the gap from a superficial understanding of concepts to an understanding characterised by deeper learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DB2 9 for Linux, Unix, and Windows database administration upgrade certification study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Roger E

    2007-01-01

    Written by one of the world's leading DB2 authors who is an active participant in the development of the DB2 certification exams, this resource covers everything a database adminstrator needs to know to pass the DB2 9 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows Database Administration Certification Upgrade exam (Exam 736). This comprehensive study guide discusses all exam topics: server management, data placement, XML concepts, analyzing activity, high availability, database security, and much more. Each chapter contains an extensive set of practice questions along with carefully explained answers. Both information-technology professionals who have experience as database administrators and have a current DBA certification on version 8 of DB2 and individuals who would like to learn the new features of DB2 9 will benefit from the information in this reference guide.

  9. Study of noise in offices with window-type room air-conditioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    A Study of Noise has been carried out in 17 private offices, with window-type room air-conditioners, to assess noise levels in these offices. A-Weighted equivalent sound-pressure levels (dB(A) LAeq) and equivalent octave-band sound-pressure levels (dB Leq) were measured in each office, and Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL) evaluated. The results show that the interior noise-levels in these offices vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) LAeq. which are very high and much above the interior noise limits, recommended for offices by some individual workers. Some ways and means to limit its emission of high level of noise from the air conditioners are also discussed. (author)

  10. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  11. Computational and experimental studies of the flow field near the beam entrance window of a liquid metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geža, Vadims; Milenković, Rade Ž.; Kapulla, Ralf; Dementjevs, Sergejs; Jakovičs, Andris; Wohlmuther, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Water model of liquid metal target for validation of CFD models was built. • PIV measurements showed flow features in the region near beam entrance window. • The zones with high turbulence kinetic energy were distinguished. • Reasonable agreement between modeling and PIV data was obtained. - Abstract: After the first world liquid metal target has been successfully operated at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) for 6 months. The idea of having a reliable target with a bypass flow for cooling the beam entrance window, but with the bypass flow not driven by a separate pump, was examined within the project called LIMETS (Liquid Metal Target for SINQ). In designing of liquid metal targets, turbulence modelling is of high importance due to lack in methods for measuring the spatial distribution of flow and turbulence characteristics. In this study, validation of different turbulence models were performed in water model with hemispherical geometry using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Two components of water flow velocity in plexiglas container with inner radius of 88 mm were measured in different cross sections, with the velocities varying from 1 to 10 m/s. Numerical calculations using large eddy simulation (LES) approach and Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models were carried out to validate their applicability and study performance issues. Mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy data were used for comparison of PIV and calculation results. Reasonable agreement was obtained for mean velocity data, with some discrepancies due to the limited length of the inlet tube. However, several discrepancies in turbulence characteristics were found in numerical results, especially in RANS model calculations

  12. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  13. Thermal analysis of a solar collector with a standard approach and software used to study windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A method of calculating the overall heat loss coefficient of a solar collector was presented. The method was based on a standard approach used to obtain total window U-values. A model of the solar collector was developed with a finite element analysis (FEA) program. Heat loss from the solar collector was represented as the gross collector area; the overall heat loss coefficient; and the difference between the assumed mean absorber plate temperature and ambient temperature. The edge heat loss coefficient was approximated by assuming that there was a 1-D sideways heat flow through the edge area of the collector. Regional heat loss coefficients obtained with the model were then used to calculate the overall heat loss coefficient. Equations used for parallel tube type collectors were applied to the serpentine tube collector. The sightline of the solar collector was defined as being the position along the top cover below absorber plate. The same definitions for the extents of the frame, edge and center-of-glass regions for a window were applied to the collector. Multiple U-values were defined to account for heat flows outward across the top, bottom, and side surfaces of the collector. The absorber plate was simulated as being isothermal. Results were then compared with an experimental study in order to validate the method. The method was also compared with results obtained from a conventional analysis for estimating heat loss coefficients. It was concluded that the new method provided more accurate results than those obtained using the conventional method. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  14. ANABOLIC BONE WINDOW WITH WEEKLY TERIPARATIDE THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS: A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, Vinaya; Dhibar, Deba Prasad; Gupta, Vipin; Arya, Ashutosh Kumar; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Bhansali, Anil; Garg, Sudhir Kumar; Agarwal, Neelam; Rao, Sudhaker D; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem that reduces bone strength and increases fracture risk. Teriparatide is an established and the only currently available anabolic therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) with a recommended daily dose of 20 μg given subcutaneously. However, there are limited data regarding the long-term effect of once-weekly teriparatide therapy on bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers (BTMs), and anabolic bone window. In this prospective observational study, 26 patients with PMO were treated with weekly teriparatide therapy (60 μg) for 2 years. BMD was measured at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. The bone formation marker type 1 collagen C-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and the bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx) were measured at baseline; 6 weeks; and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. BMDs at the lumbar spine increased by 3.1% and 10.8% after 1 and 2 years of weekly teriparatide therapy, respectively. The T-score increased significantly at the lumbar spine compared to baseline after 2 years of therapy (P = .015). Serum P1NP levels increased significantly at 6 months (P = .024), peaked at 1 year, and remained above the baseline even after 2 years. Serum CTx levels decreased significantly at 6 months (P = .025) and remained below baseline after 2 years of teriparatide therapy. Weekly teriparatide therapy (60 μg) appears to be as effective as daily teriparatide for the treatment of PMO by extending the anabolic bone window. AE = adverse event; BMD = bone mineral density; BTM = bone turnover marker; CTx = C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; iPTH = intact parathyroid hormone; P1NP = type 1 collagen C-terminal propeptide; PMO = postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  15. Maxillary sinus augmentation: collagen membrane over the osteotomy window. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Marchionni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Implant rehabilitation has become a very reliable and safe procedure. However, in some cases, a small amount of bone could make implant surgery extremely difficult or even impossible. Hence, a surgical technique to augment sinus floor has been developed and improved. Nevertheless, there is still controversy over the use of a membrane over the osteotomy window. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of a membrane could be beneficial in sinus floor augmentation. Materials and methods A group of 12 patients requiring sinus floor lift were recruited. The patients were randomly allocated to either control group (membrane or test group (no membrane and only one sinus for patient was augmented. After 6 months, a bone biopsy was harvested from the lateral window to be processed for histological analysis. Results The mean amount of newly formed bone in test group was 28.0±19.5%, the connective tissue accounted for a mean value of 59.2±15.6%, while 12.8±12.6% was the amount of residual graft particles. In the membrane group the newly formed bone counted for a mean value of 30.4±15.8%, the mean quantity of connective tissue was 50.3±18.9% and about residual graft particles a mean value of 18.2±20.4% was registered. Conclusion According to our data, the use of a membrane over the lateral bone wall in sinus lift surgery does not significantly influence healing. However, the membrane could influence the residual particles resorption rate as well as soft tissue ingrowth.

  16. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  17. Windows Instant Messaging App Forensics: Facebook and Skype as Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teing Yee; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Muda, Zaiton

    2016-01-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps) made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later) has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files.

  18. Comparison of windowing effects on elastography images: Simulation, phantom and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rifat; Arfin, Rishad; Rubel, Monir Hossan; Islam, Kazi Khairul; Jia, Congxian; Metaxas, Dimitris; Garra, Brian S; Alam, S Kaisar

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have evaluated the use of smooth windows for ultrasound elastography. In ultrasound elastography, local tissue strain is estimated using operations such as cross-correlation on local segments of RF data. In this process, local data segments are selected by multiplying the RF data by a rectangular window. Such data truncation causes non-ideal spectral behavior, which can be mitigated by using smooth windows. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the use of smooth windows may improve the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe) of strain images. The effects of using smooth windows have not been fully characterized for time-domain strain estimators. Thus, we have compared the elastographic performance of rectangular, Hanning, Gaussian, and Chebyshev windows used in conjunction with cross-correlation based algorithm and adaptive stretching algorithm using finite element method (FEM) simulation, experimental phantom, and in vivo data. Smooth windows are found to improve the SNRe by up to 3.94 for FEM data and by up to 1.76 for phantom data which represent 76% and 60.52% improvements, respectively. CNRe improves by up to 12.23 for FEM simulated data and by up to 4.28 for phantom data which represent 213.07% and 248.2% improvements, respectively. Mean structural similarity (MSSIM) was used for assessing the image perceptual quality and smooth windows improved it by up to 0.22 (85.98% improvement) for simulated data. We have evaluated these parameters at 1-6% applied strains for the experimental phantom and at 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 12% applied strains for FEM simulation. We observed a maximum deterioration in axial resolution of 0.375 mm (which is on the order of the wavelength, 0.3mm) due to smooth windows. "Salt-and-pepper" noise from false-peak errors has also been reduced. Smooth windows increased the lesion-to-background contrast (by increasing the CNRe by 213.07%) of a low contrast lesion (10-dB). For the in vivo

  19. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  20. Design of Rose Bengal/FTO optical thin film system as a novel nonlinear media for infrared blocking windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bashir, S. M.; Yahia, I. S.; Binhussain, M. A.; AlSalhi, M. S.

    Rose Bengal (RB) is a new organic semiconductor with the highly stable layer, was deposited on highly cleaned conductive glass substrate known as (FTO glass) with different thickness in the range from 80 to 292 nm. XRD showed an entirely amorphous structure of the studied film thicknesses. The observed peaks are the indexed peaks for FTO layer. Spectrophotometric data as transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance were used for the analysis the optical constant of RB/FTO optical thin film system. Refractive index was calculated using Fresnel's equation with the aid of reflectance and absorption index. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were discussed and analyzed according to the applied optical theories. Nonlinear parameters such as third order nonlinear optical susceptibility and the nonlinear refractive index were calculated based on the linear refractive index of the applications of this material in nonlinear media. The results showed that Rose Bengal is a proving material for wide scale optoelectronic applications such as infrared blocking windows.

  1. High performance solar control office windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.J.

    1977-12-01

    Investigations conducted over a 9 month period on the use of ion beam sputtering methods for the fabrication of solar control windows for energy conservation are described. Principal emphasis was placed on colored, reflecting, heat rejecting, office building windows for reducing air conditioning loads and to aid in the design of energy conserving buildings. The coating techniques were developed primarily for use with conventional absorbing plate glass such as PPG solarbronze, but were also demonstrated on plastic substrates for retrofit applications. Extensive material investigations were conducted to determine the optimum obtainable characteristics, with associated weathering studies as appropriate aimed at achieving a 20 year minimum life. Conservative estimates indicate that successful commercialization of the windows developed under this program would result in energy savings of 16,000,000 barrels of oil/year by 1990 if installation were only 10 percent of new commercial building stock. These estimates are relative to existing design for energy conserving windows. Installation in a greater percentage of new stock and for retrofit applications could lead to proportionately greater energy savings. All such installations are projected as cost effective as well as energy effective. A secondary program was carried out to modify the techniques to yield thermal control windows for residential applications. These windows were designed to provide a high heat retention capability without seriously affecting their transmission of incident solar radiation, thereby enhancing the greenhouse effect. This part of the program was successful in producing a window form which could be interchanged for standard residential window material in a cost and energy effective manner. The only variation from standard stock in appearance is a very light rose or neutral gray coloring.

  2. Beam line windows at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The A-6 main beam-line window at LAMPF separates the vacuum of the main beam line from the isotope production station, proton irradiation ports, and the beam stop, which operate in air. This window must withstand the design beam current of 1 mA at 800 MeV for periods of at least 3000 hours without failure. The window is water cooled and must be strong enough to withstand the 2.1 MPa (300 psig) cooling water pressure, as well as beam-induced thermal stresses. Two designs have been used to meet these goals, a stepped-plate window and a hemispherical window, both made from a precipitation-hardened nickel base alloy, Alloy 718. Calculations of the temperatures and stresses in each of these windows are presented

  3. Designing of a communication program with PC as a master in the half-duplex RS485 Netware in windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jie; Guo Zhongyan; Xiao Guoqing; Zhan Wenlong; Sun Zhiyu; Li Jiaxing; Wang Meng; Chen Zhiqiang; Hu Zhengguo; Chen Lixin; Li Chen; Mao Ruishi; Yao Nan

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a communication program in Windows, with PC as a master in the half-duplex RS-485 Netware. A distinctive feature of the program is: overlapped communication Win32 API, multithread and synchronization are applied to realize half-duplex communication in the program. (authors)

  4. Design and implementation of I2Vote-An interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Broekema, A.; Oudkerk, M.

    Purpose: To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. Methods: The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft (R) Windows

  5. Collimator and energy window optimization for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging: A SIMIND Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan, Hoda Rezaei; Mahmoudian, Babak; Gharepapagh, Esmaeil; Azarm, Ahmadreza; Pirayesh Islamian, Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Treatment efficacy of radioembolization using Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) microspheres is assessed by the 90 Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging following radioembolization. The radioisotopic image has the potential of providing reliable activity map of 90 Y microspheres distribution. One of the main reasons of the poor image quality in 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging is the continuous and broad energy spectrum of the related bremsstrahlung photons. Furthermore, collimator geometry plays an impressive role in the spatial resolution, sensitivity and image contrast. Due to the relatively poor quality of the 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT images, we intend to optimize the medium-energy (ME) parallel-hole collimator and energy window. The Siemens e.cam gamma camera equipped with a ME collimator and a voxelized phantom was simulated by the SImulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors (SIMIND) program. We used the SIMIND Monte Carlo program to generate the 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT projection of the digital Jaszczak phantom. The phantom consist of the six hot spheres ranging from 9.5 to 31.8 mm in diameter, which are used to evaluate the image contrast. In order to assess the effect of the energy window on the image contrast, three energy windows ranging from 60 to 160 KeV, 160 to 400 KeV, and 60 to 400 KeV were set on a 90 Y bremsstrahlung spectrum. As well, the effect of the hole diameter of a ME collimator on the image contrast and bremsstrahlung spectrum were investigated. For the fixed collimator and septa thickness values (3.28 cm and 1.14 mm, respectively), a hole diameter range (2.35–3.3 mm) was chosen based on the appropriate balance between the spatial resolution and sensitivity. The optimal energy window for 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging was extended energy window from 60 to 400 KeV. Besides, The optimal value of the hole diameter of ME collimator was obtained 3.3 mm. Geometry of the ME parallel-hole collimator and energy

  6. A granular t abu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jose; Escobar, John Willmer; Linfati, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW) for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase), a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase). Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  7. A granular t abu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Jose; Escobar, John Willmer; Linfati, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW) for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase), a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase). Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  8. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  9. Windows Instant Messaging App Forensics: Facebook and Skype as Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teing Yee Yang

    Full Text Available Instant messaging (IM has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files.

  10. Windows Instant Messaging App Forensics: Facebook and Skype as Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teing Yee; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Muda, Zaiton

    2016-01-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps) made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later) has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files. PMID:26982207

  11. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  12. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  13. Design of a test-bench to validate a model of a thermal window design; Diseno de un banco de ensayos para la validacion de un modelo de diseno termico de ventanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra O, Claudio; Fissore Sch, Adelqui; Mottard, Jean-Michel [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: clsaaved @udec.cl; afissore@udec.cl

    2000-07-01

    Paper presents the design of a test-bench and instrumentation to validate a window thermal mathematical model. The test-bench simulate the thermal performance of a office with a only one wall in directly contact with outdoors, where a single glass window is mounted. To obtain a similar heat transfer relation as the real building, the chamber has been designed and manufactured with an inner and an outer envelope, and with an air spacing maintaining at the same temperature that the test chamber. To change the window size, the test-bench is equipped with a single modifiable outer wall. Instrumentation and methods of measurement for solar radiation, infra red outdoor radiation, indoor and outdoor air temperatures, wind velocity, heat transfer, air ventilating flow and temperature, wall temperatures, etc. are specified. (author)

  14. Window modelling in Syrthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, V.; Peniguel, C. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France); Rupp, I. [Simulog, N3S, Estet, Simail, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelyne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Developments to take into account windows from a thermal point of view have been implemented in SYRTHES. Windows are discretized along their lateral surfaces in several independent patches. Then a one-dimensional analytical model solves the semi-transparent radiation and conduction problem occurring across the window for each patch. The spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient (`non grey` medium) is taken into account through a multi-band model. This window model is coupled with the conduction and radiation capabilities already existing in SYRTHES. When convection is taking place, it is handled by ESTET. This development will be applied to an infra-red system designed to dry paper. The simplified test case presented here consists very schematically in two cavities separated by a window (vitro-ceramic). The top cavity contains a very hot tungsten wire (the infrared source) surrounded by a tube made of quartz. The bottom cavity is where the fast moving sheet of paper will be located. Of Course the real geometry is much more complex. (authors)

  15. Thermal monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.E.; Choi, E.; Hu, G.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    In a practical gyrotron device, the design of a reliable vacuum window to withstand high mean power densities is of utmost importance. Computer modelling of an actual window assumes a number of conditions including the power density profile, the electromagnetic wave attenuation constant of the window material and heat transfer coefficients. The last two factors can vary significantly with temperature. A technique for actually monitoring the real time temperature distribution over the window surface with an IR camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. This measurement serves as an aid for developing the analysis of window designs. The ability to observe small hot spots due to tiny metallic specks on the window surface is also of great value in quality control and window failure prevention. The experimental arrangement involves an infrared camera (AGA780) with an indium antimonide detector (3-5 μm) observing the window through a grid pattern of tiny holes (cutoff for the 3rd harmonic of 60 GHz). A 12 0 FOV lens with a 12mm extension ring was used to defocus the grid. The thermal emissivity E /sub w/ approx. = 0.95. Thus, an IR measurement of the window is a surface temperature measurement. To minimize the problem of external reflections, the outside surface of the waveguide was painted black. This then requires a cool waveguide; room temperature is sufficient

  16. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm 2 (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented

  17. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  18. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  19. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  1. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The open office area (Figure 9) is 48’ deep with a sloped ceiling designed to disperse light down into the cubicle workstations. The sloped ceiling...Ceiling Ht. 9’ , 10’* Window VT 40%, 70%* Office Furniture 60” Cubicle * Lighting Schedule ASHRAE 90.1* Blinds Control Always Closed, Automated...2829 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ESTCP Program Office Dr. James

  2. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  3. False Windows - Yesterday and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  4. The Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy in estimation of airflow through windows is the key parameter for modelling and designing of naturally ventilated buildings. The flow through windows is usually described by the orifice flow plate equation. This equation involves the discharge coefficient. In practice, often a constant...... value of discharge coefficient is used. The constant value of discharge coefficient leads to deceptive airflow estimation in the cases of centre-pivot roof windows. The object of this paper is to study and evaluate the discharge coefficient of the centre pivot roof window. Focus is given...... on unidirectional flows i.e. inflow and outflow. CFD techniques are used to predict the airflow through the modelled window. Analytical orifice flow equation is used to calculate the discharge coefficient. Results are compared with experimental results. It is concluded that the single value of the discharge...

  5. CEPC booster design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tianjian; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Chuang; Cui, Xiao-Hao; Wang, Yi-Wei; Bai, Sha; Su, Feng; Wang, Dou; Cai, Yun-Hai; Koratzinos, Michael

    2017-12-01

    In September 2012, Chinese scientists proposed a Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) in China at 240 GeV center-of-mass energy for Higgs studies. The booster provides 120 GeV electron and positron beams to the CEPC collider for top-up injection at 0.1 Hz. The design of the full energy booster ring of the CEPC is a challenge. The ejected beam energy is 120 GeV and the injected beam energy is 6 GeV. In this paper we describe two alternative schemes, the wiggler bend scheme and the normal bend scheme. For the wiggler bend scheme, we propose to operate the booster ring as a large wiggler at low energy and as a normal ring at high energy to avoid the problem of very low dipole magnet fields. For the normal bend scheme, we implement the orbit correction to correct the earth field.

  6. BWID System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness

  7. A granular tabu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Bernal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase, a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase. Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  8. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  9. Alteration processes of medieval stained glass windows. Study and protection treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Navarro, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The anxiety caused by the fast growing decay of historical stained glass windows as a consequence of increasing environmental pollution, encouraged institutions of several countries to sponsor a series of scientific works aimed both to slow down this fast forwarding deterioration and to develop repair and preservation methods. After an initial review of the chemical composition of the stained glass windows and of the differences depending on historical epochs and origins, a discussion about chemical attack mechanisms, degradation processes and formation of superficial crusts opens up. Finally, the methodology used in their cleaning and restoration is briefly exposed and some criteria on the still polemic quest.

    La inquietud creada por la creciente alteración que, como consecuencia del aumento de la contaminación atmosférica, están sufriendo las vidrieras históricas, ha movido a las instituciones de varios países a patrocinar la realización de una serie de trabajos científicos dirigidos, por una parte, a detener el avance de este deterioro y, por otra, a desarrollar métodos para su restauración y conservación. Tras una revisión inicial sobre la composición química de las vidrieras y sus diferencias según las distintas épocas y lugares de procedencia, se discuten los mecanismos de ataque químico, los procesos de degradación y la formación de costras superficiales. Finalmente se expone brevemente la metodología seguida para su limpieza y restauración y se comentan algunos de los criterios sobre la todavía polémica cuestión de los tratamientos de protección.

  10. The malleus to oval window revision stapedotomy: Efficacy and longitudinal study outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Peter A; Zhou, Ling; Peng, Robert; Kohan, Darius

    2018-02-01

    To determine the longitudinal effectiveness of the malleus to oval window stapedotomy technique among patients undergoing revision surgery when the incus is unavailable. Retrospective, case series. Charts of 15 patients who underwent 17 malleus attachment stapedotomies performed by a single surgeon from 2000 to 2015 were reviewed. Surgery was ambulatory, transcanal, with laser technique, and under local anesthesia. Of 17 stapedotomies performed, there were nine first revisions, six second revisions, one third revision, and one fourth revision. There were no surgical complications. Mean preoperative air-bone gap (ABG) was 32.3 dB. Mean postoperative ABG at 6 months was 10.7 dB, and at last follow-up was 16.3 dB. Average length of follow-up was 36.5 months. At last follow-up, 100% of first revisions achieved ABG ≤ 20 dB (77.8% ≤ 10 dB), compared to 50% of second revisions with ABG ≤ 20 dB (none ≤ 10 dB), and 0% of third or fourth revisions with ABG ≤ 20 dB. Trend lines for second and third/fourth revisions showed a deterioration (widening) in postoperative ABG by 0.18 and 0.72 dB per month, respectively. The first-revision trend line, conversely, showed negligible change with time, demonstrating the superior durability of first revisions compared to subsequent surgeries. The malleus to oval window stapedotomy technique is more effective and longer lasting in first-revision surgery compared to subsequent procedures. Standard or implantable amplification devices may be preferable for patients with multiple prior procedures. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:461-467, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. DB2 9 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows Advanced Database Administration Certification Certification Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    Database administrators versed in DB2 wanting to learn more about advanced database administration activities and students wishing to gain knowledge to help them pass the DB2 9 UDB Advanced DBA certification exam will find this exhaustive reference invaluable. Written by two individuals who were part of the team that developed the certification exam, this comprehensive study guide prepares the student for challenging questions on database design; data partitioning and clustering; high availability diagnostics; performance and scalability; security and encryption; connectivity and networking; a

  12. Design and implementation of I2Vote--an interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooijen, P M A; Broekema, A; Oudkerk, M

    2011-08-01

    To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft® Windows Mobile® 6 Classic with a large 3.5 in. TFT touch screen (320×240 pixel resolution), high luminance and integrated IEEE 802.11b/g wireless. For software development Visual Studio 2008 professional (Microsoft) was used and all components were written in C#. Two test sessions were conducted to test the software technically followed by two real classroom tests in a radiology class for medical students on thoracic radiology. The novel ARS, called I2Vote, was successfully implemented and provided an easy to use, stable setup. The acceptance of both students and teachers was very high and the interaction with the students improved because of the anonymous interaction possibility. An easy to use handheld based ARS that enables interactive, image-based, teaching is achieved. The system effectively adds an extra dimension to the use of an ARS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aplikasi Game Quiz Animals Berbasis Windows 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulyani Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Game is currently in great demand by various circles, especially children. Children's interest in the game can be used as a tool to increase children’s intellectuality, i.e. English competence. The purpose of this study is to design an animal-themed quiz game in English languange based on Windows 8 operating system, followed by making a game prototype designed. This game is expected to be an exciting educational tool for children in learning English and broadening the knowledge about types of animal. The research is conducted through the stages of game design requirements, game design, evaluation and implementation. Based on theresults of the evaluation it is found that thoroughly the game already meets the standards of IMK by Shneiderman and Plaisant (2010. It is good enough as a game play since it is available at Window Store.

  14. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  15. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the Case-Crossover (CCO) Study Design for Adverse Drug Event Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burningham, Zachary; He, Tao; Teng, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Xi; Nebeker, Jonathan; Sauer, Brian C

    2017-09-01

    The case-crossover (CCO) design was originally intended to study exposures characterized as intermittent with acute effects. The performance of the CCO design is not well characterized under alternative exposure and outcome relationships. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the CCO to identify simulated treatment effects under different drug exposures and outcomes relationships while varying the duration of the 1:1 matched risk and control windows. The simulated data were obtained from the Observational Medical Dataset Simulator, version 2 (OSIM2). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to compare CCO performance across outcome types, simulated relative risk (RR), and duration of risk and control windows. The AUC for acute outcomes was higher for shorter risk and control windows and improved with higher simulated RR. For example, the AUC for the simulated RR of 4 was 0.95 for a 30-day window length and 0.78 for a 360-day window length. The AUC for the accumulative outcomes increased with longer risk and control windows and stronger simulated RR. For example, the AUC for the simulated RR of 4 was 0.85 for a 360-day window length and 0.23 for a 30-day window length. Risk and control window lengths did not appear to sufficiently alter the AUC for insidious onset outcomes. The CCO performed best for acute-onset outcomes, but may be useful for exploring adverse outcomes with accumulative effects. Careful consideration must be given to the hypothesized drug exposure and outcome distribution because specification of risk and control window duration affects CCO performance.

  17. MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 complete study guide exams 70-410, 70-411, 70-412, and 70-417

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2014-01-01

    Prepare for the MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 Exams Microsoft's new version of the MCSA certification for WindowsServer 2012 R2 requires passing three exams (or one Upgrade exam ifyou have your MCSA or MCITP in Windows Server 2008). Thisvalue-priced study guide includes more than 1,000 pages of qualityexam-prep content, covering 100% of the objective domains of allthree exams (as well as the Upgrade exam, 70-417). In addition, you get access to an interactive practice testenvironment with more than 500 questions, electronic flashcards,and videos showing how to perform the more difficult tasks.

  18. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  19. Designing the User Interface COBRET under Windows to Carry out Pre- and Post-Processing for the Programs COBRA-RERTR and PARET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, N.; Monther, A.; Hainoun, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the frame work of testing, evaluation and application of computer codes in the design and safety analysis of research reactors, the dynamic code PARET and the thermal hydraulic code COBRA-RERTR have been adopted. In order to run the codes under windows and to support the user by pre- and post processing, the user interface program COBRET has been developed in the programming language Visual Basic 6 and the data used by it are organized and stored in a relational database in MS Access, an integral part of the software package, MS Office. The interface works in the environment of the Windows operating system and utilizes its graphics as well as other possibilities. It consists of Pre and Post processor. The pre processor deals with the interactive preparation of the input files for PARET and COBRA codes. It supports the user with an automatic check in routine for detecting logical input errors in addition to many direct helps during the multi mode input process. This process includes an automatic branching according to the selected control parameters that depends on the simulation modes of the considered physical problem. The post processor supports the user with graphical tool to present the time and axial distribution of the system variables that consist of many neutronics and thermal hydraulic parameters of the reactor system like neutron flux, reactivity, temperatures, flow rate, pressure and void distribution. (authors)

  20. Studies in Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  1. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  2. Carbon Footprint versus Performance of Aluminum, Plastic, and Wood Window Frames from Cradle to Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kutnar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Window frame material has significant impact on the thermal performance of the window. Moreover, with sustainable design becoming a necessity, window frame materials need to have higher levels of environmental performance to be considered sustainable. As a result, a holistic performance metric is needed to assess window frame material. Three similar frames were considered, manufactured from aluminum, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and wood. First their thermal performance was evaluated and compared using a heat transfer model. Then, carbon footprints of the three materials were considered for 1m2 of window area with a similar thermal performance. It was found that the thermal, as well as the environmental, performance of the wooden window frame was superior to those of aluminum and PVC. On the other hand aluminum frames had high environmental impacts and comparatively lower thermal performance. This study provides a holistic viewpoint on window frames by considering both environmental and thermal performance.

  3. A sealable ultrathin window sample cell for the study of liquids by means of soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grötzsch, D.; Streeck, C.; Nietzold, C.; Malzer, W.; Mantouvalou, I.; Nutsch, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Beckhoff, B.; Kanngießer, B.

    2017-12-01

    A new sample cell concept for the analysis of liquids or solid-liquid interfaces using soft X-ray spectroscopy is presented, which enables the complete sealing of the cell as well as the transport into vacuum via, for example, a load-lock system. The cell uses pressure monitoring and active as well as passive pressure regulation systems, thereby facilitating the full control over the pressure during filling, sealing, evacuation, and measurement. The cell design and sample preparation as well as the crucial sealing procedure are explained in detail. As a first proof-of-principle experiment, successful nitrogen K-edge fluorescence yield near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure experiments of a biomolecular solution are presented. For this purpose, it is shown that the careful evaluation of all involved parameters, such as window type or photon flux, is desirable for optimizing the experimental result.

  4. Impact of acoustic window on accuracy of longitudinal global strain: a comparison study to cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macron, Laurent; Lairez, Olivier; Nahum, Julien; Berry, Mathieu; Deal, Leslie; Deux, Jean-François; Bensaid, Alexandre; Dubois Randé, Jean-Luc; Gueret, Pascal; Lim, Pascal

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of acoustic window on the feasibility and accuracy of longitudinal global strain (global-ε) by speckle tracking for assessing left ventricular (LV) systolic function. The study included 70 patients (57 ± 17 years, 64% men), 28 selected patients with a suboptimal image quality (IQ) defined by three or more segments (4 ± 3 segments/patient) with wall motion score not analysable visually and 42 patients with an optimal two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography IQ. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by Simpson's biplane method (2D-EF), global-ε by speckle tracking, and peak systolic mitral annulus velocity [systolic tissue Doppler imaging (S-TDI)] were compared with LVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (EF-CMR; 45 ± 18%, range 9-76%). Speckle-tracking analysis was feasible in all segments with an optimal acoustic window and in 85% (103/121) of segments poorly visualized. Global-ε similarly correlated with LVEF by CMR in patients with and without optimal IQ (r = 0.81 vs. 0.82 for good vs. poor IQ). In contrast, 2D-EF (r = 0.76) and S-TDI (r = 0.64) less correlated with LVEF by CMR in patients with a suboptimal IQ. Importantly, IQ only impacted on 2D-EF inter-observer reproducibility (9 ± 5 vs. 24 ± 22% for good vs. poor IQ) but not on global-ε reproducibility (9 ± 1 vs. 8 ± 7% for good vs. poor IQ). In patients with a limited acoustic window, longitudinal strain by speckle tracking remains accurate and reproducible for assessing global and regional LV systolic function.

  5. Experimental studies on improvement of coefficient of performance of window air conditioning unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharves Mohideen Sheik Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance analysis of a window air conditioner unit incorporated with wick less loop heat pipes (WLHP. The WLHP are located on the evaporator side of the air conditioning unit. The working medium for the WLHP is R134a refrigerant gas, an alternate refrigerant. The supply and return humidity of room air, the heat removal rat, and the coefficient of performance of the unit are analyzed for various ambient and room temperatures before and after incorporation of WLHP. The performance curves are drawn by comparing the power consumption and humidity collection rates for various room and ambient temperatures. The results show that coefficient of performance of the unit is improved by 18% to 20% after incorporation of WLHP due to pre-cooling of return air by WLHP, which reduces the thermal load on compressor. Similarly, the energy consumption is reduced by 20% to 25% due to higher thermostat setting and the humidity collection is improved by 35% due to pre-cooling effect of WLHP. The results are tabulated and conclusion drawn is presented based on the performance.

  6. Energy efficiency façade design in high-rise apartment buildings using the calculation of solar heat transfer through windows with shading devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, P. T. H.

    2018-04-01

    The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.

  7. Architecture as Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  8. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  9. The Comparative Study of Art of Manufacturing Orosi and Stained Glass Windows in Iran and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadat Abooei Mehrizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, glass manufacturing art has been globally common. There are certain similarities between Stained Glass and Orosi works. Based on historical texts, peak of Orosi art in Iran occurred during the reign of Safavid dynasty while its fall was after Qajar era. After introduction to churches after 12th century, Stained Glass manufacturing art was officially recognized. In contemporary era, Orosi art has almost faded away since it did not adapt to architecture. Similarly, Stained Glass art did not develop after it was introduced to Iran. The objectives of comparison between these arts are clarification of effects of the two arts on each other as well as better understanding of Orosi glass and Stained Glass arts. From methodological viewpoint, this study is descriptive-analytical in nature. In order to obtain better results, similar and available works of Orosi and Stained Glass arts were studied. The results of comparing these two arts suggested similar manufacturing methods and designs. In addition, a common application of the two arts is communication of greatness of the building to visitors’ minds. Stained Glass was mostly used for representation of Christ’s story while Orosi art was commonly used for depicting geometrical patterns. As a result, Orosi art was not initially influenced by Stained Glass art. In some cases, one could claim that Stained Glass art was influenced by Orosi art. Numerous factors played a role in creating differences between these two arts among which one could point to climatic conditions and patrons of such arts.

  10. Studying the Amount of Noise Exposure and Measuring the Hearing Loss in Workers of Door and Window Construction Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khavanin

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Material and method: by using a dosimeter we tried to study the amount of noise exposure each worker is exposed to; the microphone was connected to the collar of the shirts and the dosimeter to the belt. The audiometric evaluations were performed before starting work in the factory. Results: the years of experience in the factory has a significant correlation with amount of hearing loss in the workers of the noisy environments (based on the findings of the dosimetric measurements Conclusion: the findings of the current study demonstrated that workers of the door and window construction factory were exposed to high level of noises and their hearing thresholds were largely affected by the noise pollution. This is in accordance with results of the similar studies. This impact was mostly revealed in the forgers.

  11. HYPER system design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won S.; Han, Seok J.; Song, Tae Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    KAERI is developing ADS, named HYPER for the transmutation of nuclear waste. HYPER is designed to produce 1000 MWth with the subcriticality of 0.97. HYPER adopts a hollow cylinder type metal fuel and require 1.0GeV, 16mA proton beams. Pb-Bi is used as coolant and the inlet and outlet temperatures are 340 deg C, 510 deg C, respectively. In addition, Pb-Bi coolant is used as spallation target also. HYPER is expected to incinerate about 380 kg of TRU a year, which is corresponding to the support ratio 5 {approx} 6. 23 refs., 50 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  12. Design studies of the output system of a 95 GHz, 100 kW, CW gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamshi Krishna, P.; Kartikeyan, M.V., E-mail: sukripec@iitr.ernet.in, E-mail: kartik@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Thumm, M., E-mail: manfred.thumm@kit.edu [I.H.M., Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design studies of the output system of a 95 GHz, 100 kW, CW gyrotron for ECRH7ECRIS applications. During this course, the design studies of an advanced dimpled-wall quasi optical launcher, non-linear taper and RF window will be carried out. (author)

  13. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  14. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window

  15. Designing verbal autopsy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibuya Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008. Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs.

  16. Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekri, Mohamed; Cheung, Ivy N; Reid, Kathryn J; Wang, Chia-Hui; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-06-15

    This research examined the impact of daylight exposure on the health of office workers from the perspective of subjective well-being and sleep quality as well as actigraphy measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Participants (N = 49) included 27 workers working in windowless environments and 22 comparable workers in workplaces with significantly more daylight. Windowless environment is defined as one without any windows or one where workstations were far away from windows and without any exposure to daylight. Well-being of the office workers was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), while sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In addition, a subset of participants (N = 21; 10 workers in windowless environments and 11 workers in workplaces with windows) had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Workers in windowless environments reported poorer scores than their counterparts on two SF-36 dimensions--role limitation due to physical problems and vitality--as well as poorer overall sleep quality from the global PSQI score and the sleep disturbances component of the PSQI. Compared to the group without windows, workers with windows at the workplace had more light exposure during the workweek, a trend toward more physical activity, and longer sleep duration as measured by actigraphy. We suggest that architectural design of office environments should place more emphasis on sufficient daylight exposure of the workers in order to promote office workers' health and well-being.

  17. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows. The proposed method...

  18. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    of confocal elliptic windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows...

  19. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...

  20. Single-sided natural ventilation through a centre-pivot roof window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Nielsen, Peter V.; Gunner, Amalie

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of centre pivot roof windows for wind driven single-sided ventilation has not been studied before. These types of windows are dominating roof windows in Europe. Knowledge of flow characteristics of this kind of window is essential for accurate designing of natural ventilation...... systems. In this study, numerical methods were used to characterise a centre-pivot roof window for wind-driven single-sided ventilation. A 1:20 scale model house of the Energy Flex House (Denmark) was used in this study. The roof slope was 36o. It was found that the single-sided ventilation through...... the centre-pivot roof window can be characterised by a factor called the flow factor. The flow factor was a function of the sash opening-angle and wind direction. The flow factor increased with increase in opening-angle and decreased with increase in wind direction....

  1. Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Benck

    Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide. We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

  2. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  3. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  4. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2010-01-01

    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  5. Improving dipolar recoupling for site-specific structural and dynamics studies in biosolids NMR: windowed RN-symmetry sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingyu; Zhang, Huilan; Lu, Manman; Vega, Alexander J; Hou, Guangjin; Polenova, Tatyana

    2016-02-07

    Experimental characterization of one-bond heteronuclear dipolar couplings is essential for structural and dynamics characterization of molecules by solid-state NMR. Accurate measurement of heteronuclear dipolar tensor parameters in magic-angle spinning NMR requires that the recoupling sequences efficiently reintroduce the desired heteronuclear dipolar coupling term, fully suppress other interactions (such as chemical shift anisotropy and homonuclear dipolar couplings), and be insensitive to experimental imperfections, such as radio frequency (rf) field mismatch. In this study, we demonstrate that the introduction of window delays into the basic elements of a phase-alternating R-symmetry (PARS) sequence results in a greatly improved protocol, termed windowed PARS (wPARS), which yields clean dipolar lineshapes that are unaffected by other spin interactions and are largely insensitive to experimental imperfections. Higher dipolar scaling factors can be attained in this technique with respect to PARS, which is particularly useful for the measurement of relatively small dipolar couplings. The advantages of wPARS are verified experimentally on model molecules N-acetyl-valine (NAV) and a tripeptide Met-Leu-Phe (MLF). The incorporation of wPARS into 3D heteronuclear or homonuclear correlation experiments permits accurate site-specific determination of dipolar tensors in proteins, as demonstrated on dynein light chain 8 (LC8). Through 3D wPARS recoupling based spectroscopy we have determined both backbone and side chain dipolar tensors in LC8 in a residue-resolved manner. We discuss these in the context of conformational dynamics of LC8. We have addressed the effect of paramagnetic relaxant Cu(ii)-EDTA doping on the dipolar coupling parameters in LC8 and observed no significant differences with respect to the neat sample permitting fast data collection. Our results indicate that wPARS is advantageous with respect to the windowless version of the sequence and is applicable

  6. The importance of store windows in creating store identity and store attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renko Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While choosing the store, customer first notices the store window and it plays an important role in retailing strategy. Store's window is what customers see first in meeting with the store. Store window design can lead customer to enter the store, and can give a lot of information about store brands and products. Besides the analysis of the way how specific elements of the window design affect customers and their perception, the explanation of their attraction and rejection to customers is given. If we consider the importance of the topics, we can point out the lack of literature about store windows as the communication tool which allow store to communicate with its customers and to create its retailing strategy as well. There is the scientific contribution of this paper. The paper gives theoretical comprehensions completed with the results of the study about the importance of store windows for retailers as well as for customers. Therefore, for the purpose of this paper, a two-phase research study, including a qualitative and a quantitative approach, was used: 1 the qualitative study among retailers which indicated the most important elements of store windows, the level of financial sources invested in the window design, the basis for the decisions about store window design, etc.; 2 the quantitative study on the sample of consumers conducted with on-line questionnaire. Findings suggest that store window attractiveness is the main motif for store visits. The results of the research confirm that by means of store window and its elements (with special emphasis on price and pricing actions retail store sends messages to its consumers.

  7. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p < 0.05). Although the scores for quality of life assessment was similar between VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  8. Studies on representative disruption scenarios, associated electromagnetic and heat loads and operation window in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, Hirobumi; Shimada, Michiya; Kawano, Yasunori; Ohmori, Junji; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Gribov, Yuri; Ioki, Kimihiro; Khayrutdinov, Rustan; Lukash, Victor

    2007-07-01

    The impacts of plasma disruptions on ITER have been investigated in detail to confirm the robustness of the design of the machine to the potential consequential loads. The loads include both electromagnetic (EM) and heat loads on the in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel (VV). Several representative disruption scenarios are specified based on newly derived physics guidelines for the shortest current quench time as well as the maximum product of halo current fraction and toroidal peaking factor arising from disruptions in ITER. Disruption simulations with the DINA code and EM load analyses with a 3D finite element method (FEM) code are performed for these scenarios. Some margins are confirmed in the EM load on in-vessel components due to induced eddy and halo currents for these representative scenarios. However, the margins are not very large. The heat load on various parts of the first wall due to the vertical movement and the thermal quench (TQ) is calculated with a 2D heat conduction code based on the database of heat deposition during disruptions and simulation results with the DINA code. It is found that the beryllium (Be) wall will not melt during the vertical movement. Significant melting is anticipated for the upper Be wall and tungsten divertor baffle due to the TQ after the vertical movement. However, its impact could be substantially mitigated by implementing a reliable detection system of the vertical movement and a mitigation system, e.g., massive noble gas injection (MGI). Some melting of the upper Be wall is anticipated at major disruptions (MD). At least several tens of unmitigated disruptions must be considered even if an advanced prediction/mitigation system is implemented. With these unmitigated disruptions, the loss of Be layer is expected to be within approx. = 30-100 μm/event out of 10 mm thick Be first wall. Various post processing programs of the results simulated with the DINA code, which are developed for the design work, are

  9. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  10. Pengaruh Window Level Dan Window Width Pada Lung Window Dan Mediastinum Window Pada Kualitas Citra CT-Scan Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Syahnaro Lumban

    2015-01-01

    This Research of image CT-SCAN thorax with influence of window level and window width, to obtain, get value of window level and optimal window width lung window and mediastinum window, so that get image of CT-SCAN thorax which with image quality. Image of CT-SCAN thorax obtained for mediastinum window use window width 350, 400, 450, 500 HU. And Window level 50,100,150 HU. While for lung window use window width 1000,1100 HU. The window level - 500-,600,-700,-800,-900,-1000 HU, by three observe...

  11. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  12. Progressive apraxia of speech as a window into the study of speech planning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganaro, Marina; Croisier, Michèle; Bagou, Odile; Assal, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    We present a 3-year follow-up study of a patient with progressive apraxia of speech (PAoS), aimed at investigating whether the theoretical organization of phonetic encoding is reflected in the progressive disruption of speech. As decreased speech rate was the most striking pattern of disruption during the first 2 years, durational analyses were carried out longitudinally on syllables excised from spontaneous, repetition and reading speech samples. The crucial result of the present study is the demonstration of an effect of syllable frequency on duration: the progressive disruption of articulation rate did not affect all syllables in the same way, but followed a gradient that was function of the frequency of use of syllable-sized motor programs. The combination of data from this case of PAoS with previous psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic data, points to a frequency organization of syllable-sized speech-motor plans. In this study we also illustrate how studying PAoS can be exploited in theoretical and clinical investigations of phonetic encoding as it represents a unique opportunity to investigate speech while it progressively disrupts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  13. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  14. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...

  15. A window on urban sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced

  16. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    , are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...... background EEG in various input signal to noise ratios. While both methods can be applied to track dynamical changes, the simplified Kalman filter has an advantage over the Sliding Window Averaging, most notable in a better noise suppression when both are optimized for faster changing latency and amplitude...

  17. Revisiting climate changes. Isotope studies open scientific windows to the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, John; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2001-01-01

    Earlier this year, scientists warned that 'an increasing body of observations gives a collective picture of a warming world and other changes in the climate system'. The conclusion came from the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Today, it is widely accepted that recent warning is largely a product of enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere derived from post-industrial combustion of fossil fuels and biomass energy sources. However, great uncertainty remains regarding the causal relationships between specific parameters and climate phenomena, and regarding the impacts of climate change on the earth's water cycle. The science of climate change is dynamic. The IAEA contributes to studies via coordination of climate research, participation and support for international scientific programmes, and dissemination of isotope technology and applications. The third quadrennial scientific gathering on the use of isotopes for studying environmental change was held at the IAEA in Vienna 23-27 April 2001. The Conference - attended by 150 experts from 38 countries and seven international organizations - served as an important forum for presentation of results, discussion of ideas and concepts, establishment of international collaboration, and identification of avenues for future research. Selected highlights of issues discussed include: Isotopes are being used as validation tools for predicting impacts of deforestation of the Amazon Basin and for examining the past isotope signals of El Nino events; Isotope signatures in ice cores from low-latitude environments are showing similar temperature signals to polar ice cores,suggesting widespread (global) changes in the past; Isotopes are being used in the World Ocean Circulation Experiment to trace the movement, mixing and residence time of oceanic circulation patterns. Changes in ocean circulation are one of the most important factors controlling the variability of the

  18. The impact of round window vs cochleostomy surgical approaches on interscalar excursions in the cochlea: Preliminary results from a flat-panel computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T. Jiam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate incidence of interscalar excursions between round window (RW and cochleostomy approaches for cochlear implant (CI insertion. Methods: This was a retrospective case-comparison. Flat-panel CT (FPCT scans for 8 CI users with Med-El standard length electrode arrays were collected. Surgical technique was identified by a combination of operative notes and FPCT imaging. Four cochleae underwent round window insertion and 4 cochleae underwent cochleostomy approaches anterior and inferior to the round window. Results: In our pilot study, cochleostomy approaches were associated with a higher likelihood of interscalar excursion. Within the cochleostomy group, we found 29% of electrode contacts (14 of 48 electrodes to be outside the scala tympani. On the other hand, 8.5% of the electrode contacts (4 of 47 electrodes in the round window insertion group were extra-scalar to the scala tympani. These displacements occurred at a mean angle of occurrence of 364° ± 133°, near the apex of the cochlea. Round window electrode displacements tend to localize at angle of occurrences of 400° or greater. Cochleostomy electrodes occurred at an angle of occurrence of 19°–490°. Conclusions: Currently, the optimal surgical approach for standard CI electrode insertion is highly debated, to a certain extent due to a lack of post-operative assessment of intracochlear electrode contact. Based on our preliminary findings, cochleostomy approach is associated with an increased likelihood of interscalar excursions, and these findings should be further evaluated with future prospective studies. Keywords: Cochlear implantation, Round window insertion, Cochleostomy, Interscalar excursion, Electrode position, Flat-panel computed tomography, Surgical approach

  19. Lattice study for conformal windows of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Cynthia Y.-H.; Lin, C.-J. David; Ogawa, Kenji; Ohki, Hiroshi; Ramos, Alberto; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2015-10-30

    We present our investigation of SU(2) gauge theory with 8 flavours, and SU(3) gauge theory with 12 flavours. For the SU(2) case, at strong bare coupling, $\\beta \\lesssim 1.45$, the distribution of the lowest eigenvalue of the Dirac operator can be described by chiral random matrix theory for the Gaussian symplectic ensemble. Our preliminary result indicates that the chiral phase transition in this theory is of bulk nature. For the SU(3) theory, we use high-precision lattice data to perform the step-scaling study of the coupling, $g_{{\\rm GF}}$, in the Gradient Flow scheme. We carefully examine the reliability of the continuum extrapolation in the analysis, and conclude that the scaling behaviour of this SU(3) theory is not governed by possible infrared conformality at $g_{{\\rm GF}}^{2} \\lesssim 6$.

  20. Operation window and part-load performance study of a syngas fired gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fen; Li, Zheng; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) provides a great opportunity for clean utilization of coal while maintaining the advantage of high energy efficiency brought by gas turbines. A challenging problem arising from the integration of an existing gas turbine to an IGCC system is the performance change of the gas turbine due to the shift of fuel from natural gas to synthesis gas, or syngas, mainly consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Besides the change of base-load performance, which has been extensively studied, the change of part-load performance is also of great significance for the operation of a gas turbine and an IGCC plant. In this paper, a detailed mathematical model of a syngas fired gas turbine is developed to study its part-load performance. A baseline is firstly established using the part-load performance of a natural gas fired gas turbine, then the part-load performance of the gas turbine running with different compositions of syngas is investigated and compared with the baseline. Particularly, the impacts of the variable inlet guide vane, the degree of fuel dilution, and the degree of air bleed are investigated. Results indicate that insufficient cooling of turbine blades and a reduced compressor surge margin are the major factors that constrain the part-load performance of a syngas fired gas turbine. Results also show that air bleed from the compressor can greatly improve the working condition of a syngas fired gas turbine, especially for those fired with low lower heating value syngas. The regulating strategy of a syngas fired gas turbine should also be adjusted in accordance to the changes of part-load performance, and a reduced scope of constant TAT (turbine exhaust temperature) control mode is required.

  1. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildkamp, W.; Nikitina, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  2. A Window on the Study of Aversive Instrumental Learning: Strains, Performance, Neuroendocrine and Immunologic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cruz Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The avoidance response is present in pathological anxiety and interferes with normal daily functions. The aim of this article is to shed light on performance markers of active avoidance (AA using two different rat strains, Sprague-Dawley (SD and Wistar. Specifically, good and poor performers were evaluated regarding anxiety traits exhibited in the elevated plus maze (EPM and corticosterone levels and motor activity in the open field test. In addition, the plasma levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-1Beta (IL-1beta, Nerve Growth Factor Beta (NGF-beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-alpha and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1 were compared in the good and poor performers to better understand the role of the immunologic system in aversive learning. Behavioral criteria were employed to identify subpopulations of SD and Wistar rats based on their behavioral scores during a two-way AA test. The animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and motor activity in the open-field test. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured at the end of the avoidance test. Cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, NGF-beta, TNF-alpha and CINC-1 were measured in the plasma of the Wistar rats. Sixty-six percent of the Wistar rats and 35% of the SD rats exhibited a poor performance. This feature was associated with a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM. The poor and good performers exhibited lower levels of corticosterone compared with the control animals, which suggests that training alters corticosterone levels, thereby leading to hypocortisolism, independent of the performance. The CINC-1 levels were increased in the poor performers, which reinforces the role of immunologic system activation in learning deficits. Our study provides a better understanding of the complex interactions that underlie neuroimmune consequences and their implications for performance.

  3. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    , are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...

  4. Sphere-cone-polynomial special window with good aberration characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Zhang Xin; Qu He-Meng; Wang Ling-Jie; Wang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Optical windows with external surfaces shaped to satisfy operational environment needs are known as special windows. A novel special window, a sphere-cone-polynomial (SCP) window, is proposed. The formulas of this window shape are given. An SCP MgF 2 window with a fineness ratio of 1.33 is designed as an example. The field-of-regard (FOR) angle is ±75°. From the window system simulation results obtained with the calculated fluid dynamics (CFD) and optical design software, we find that compared to the conventional window forms, the SCP shape can not only introduce relatively less drag in the airflow, but also have the minimal effect on imaging. So the SCP window optical system can achieve a high image quality across a super wide FOR without adding extra aberration correctors. The tolerance analysis results show that the optical performance can be maintained with a reasonable fabricating tolerance to manufacturing errors

  5. Use of a bipolar microprocessor in a multi-window discriminator for a system studying reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frueh, J.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic evaluation system for non-destructive reactor fuel rod analysis is described. The characteristic γ radiation of certain radioisotopes is measured, and the isotope concentration is derived from this. To determine the radioisotope concentration, a digital multi-window discriminator is installed in the system to isolate the desired γ lines from the total spectrum; in addition, background subtraction is carried out. The multi-window discriminator was constructed of bipolar bit-slice microprocessor modules. A microinstruction set of 4 basic commands was defined by which the functional sequences in the instrument were programmed. (orig.) [de

  6. Estimation of Most Favorable Optical Window Position Subject to Achieve Finest Optical Control of Lateral DDR IMPATT Diode Designed to Operate at W-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Acharyya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum position of the optical window (OW of illuminated lateral double-drift region (DDR impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT device has been determined subject to achieve the finest optical control of both DC and RF properties of the device. The OW is a tiny hole that has to be created on the oxide layer through which the light energy of appropriate wavelength can be coupled to the space charge region of the device. A non-sinusoidal voltage is assumed to be applied across the diode and the corresponding terminal current response is obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D large-signal (L-S simulation technique developed by the authors for illuminated lateral DDR IMPATT diode. Both the DC and L-S properties of the illuminated device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band frequencies (75 – 110 GHz are obtained from the said L-S simulation. Simulation is carried out for different incident optical power levels of different wavelengths (600 – 1000 nm by varying the position of the fixed sized OW on the oxide layer along the direction of electrical conduction of the device. Results show that, the most favorable optical tuning can be achieved when the OW is entirely created over the p-type depletion layer, i.e. when the photocurrent is purely electron dominated. Also the 700 nm wavelength is found to be most suitable wavelength for obtaining the maximum optical modulation of both DC and RF properties of the device.

  7. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  8. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  9. Windows Powershell Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This portable reference to Windows PowerShell summarizes both the command shell and scripting language, and provides a concise reference to the major tasks that make PowerShell so successful. Written by Microsoft PowerShell team member Lee Holmes, and excerpted from his Windows PowerShell Cookbook, Windows PowerShell Pocket Reference offers up-to-date coverage of PowerShell's 1.0 release. It's an ideal on-the-job tool for Windows administrators who don't have time to plow through huge books or search online.

  10. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  11. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  12. Assessing Thermal Comfort Due to a Ventilated Double Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Jorge S.; Corvacho, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Building design and its components are the result of a complex process, which should provide pleasant conditions to its inhabitants. Therefore, indoor acceptable comfort is influenced by the architectural design. ISO and ASHRAE standards define thermal comfort as the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. The energy demand for heating, beside the building’s physical properties, also depend on human behaviour, like opening or closing windows. Generally, windows are the weakest façade element concerning to thermal performance. A lower thermal resistance allows higher thermal conduction through it. When a window is very hot or cold, and the occupant is very close to it, it may result in thermal discomfort. The functionality of a ventilated double window introduces new physical considerations to a traditional window. In consequence, it is necessary to study the local effect on human comfort in function of the boundary conditions. Wind, solar availability, air temperature and therefore heating and indoor air quality conditions will affect the relationship between this passive system and the indoor environment. In the present paper, the influence of thermal performance and ventilation on human comfort resulting from the construction and geometry solutions is shown, helping to choose the best solution. The presented approach shows that in order to save energy it is possible to reduce the air changes of a room to the minimum, without compromising air quality, enhancing simultaneously local thermal performance and comfort. The results of the study on the effect of two parallel windows with a ventilated channel in the same fenestration on comfort conditions for several different room dimensions, are also presented. As the room dimensions’ rate changes so does the window to floor rate; therefore, under the same climatic conditions and same construction solution, different results are obtained.

  13. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  14. Optimal design of pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Leon; Ogungbenro, Kayode

    2010-03-01

    Experimental design is fundamental to successful scientific investigation. Poorly designed experiments lead to the loss of information, which is costly and potentially unethical. Experiments can be designed in an optimal fashion to maximize the amount of information they provide. Optimal design theory uses prior information about the model and parameter estimates to optimize a function of the Fisher information matrix to obtain the best combination of the design factors. In the case of population pharmacokinetic experiments, this involves the selection and a careful balance of a number of design factors, including the number and location of measurement times and the number of subjects to include in the study. It is expected that as the awareness about the benefits of this approach increases, more people will embrace it and ultimately will lead to more efficient population pharmacokinetic experiments and can also help to reduce both cost and time during drug development. This MiniReview provides an introduction to optimal design using examples taken from different pharmacokinetic experiments.

  15. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  16. Applying CSM-CERES-Maize to define a sowing window for irrigated maize crop - The Riacho´s Farm case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Freitas Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation use constitutes an alternative to improve maize production in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. However, even under adequate water supply conditions, other environmental factors may influence maize crop growth and development and may, ultimately, affect grain yield. This study aimed to establish a sowing window for irrigated maize crop, based on simulation results obtained with the decision support model CSM-CERES-Maize. Simulations were made for crop management conditions of Riacho´s Farm, located in Matozinhos, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was employed the model´s seasonal tool, along with a data set containing 46 years of weather data records, to simulate maize yield for weekly sowing scenarios, starting on August 1st and ending on July 24th of each year. One defined an irrigated maize sowing window, taking into account the yield break risk that a farmer would be willing to take. The model proved to be an interesting tool to assist in decision making, regarding crop and irrigation management, for an irrigated maize production system. Assuming a 10% yield break in the expected average maximum maize yield, it was defined as sowing window, the period from January 23rd to March 6th, with February 20th as the best sowing date. Other sowing windows may be established according to the risk that the farmer would be willing to take.

  17. Longitudinal data driven study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Hauke; Gerth, Sven; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Fegeler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for processing EHR data into a longitudinal data model and examples for using this model to identify patients cross-sectionally and longitudinally as well as testing study designs retrospectively. Our data model describes measurements on four dimensions: the associated patient, observed feature, data source and time of survey. The transformation of structured source data into our model is defined by rules written in XML. To showcase the flexibility of the proposed longitudinal data model, we present an evolution of a retrospective study design as well as an example for interpreting biomarkers in emergency situations. With the proposed longitudinal data model complex queries can be performed, study designs tested and optimized.

  18. Collimator and energy window optimization for ⁹⁰Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging: A SIMIND Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Hoda Rezaei; Mahmoudian, Babak; Gharepapagh, Esmaeil; Azarm, Ahmadreza; Pirayesh Islamian, Jalil

    2016-02-01

    Treatment efficacy of radioembolization using Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) microspheres is assessed by the (90)Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging following radioembolization. The radioisotopic image has the potential of providing reliable activity map of (90)Y microspheres distribution. One of the main reasons of the poor image quality in (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging is the continuous and broad energy spectrum of the related bremsstrahlung photons. Furthermore, collimator geometry plays an impressive role in the spatial resolution, sensitivity and image contrast. Due to the relatively poor quality of the (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT images, we intend to optimize the medium-energy (ME) parallel-hole collimator and energy window. The Siemens e.cam gamma camera equipped with a ME collimator and a voxelized phantom was simulated by the SImulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors (SIMIND) program. We used the SIMIND Monte Carlo program to generate the (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT projection of the digital Jaszczak phantom. The phantom consist of the six hot spheres ranging from 9.5 to 31.8mm in diameter, which are used to evaluate the image contrast. In order to assess the effect of the energy window on the image contrast, three energy windows ranging from 60 to 160 KeV, 160 to 400 KeV, and 60 to 400 KeV were set on a (90)Y bremsstrahlung spectrum. As well, the effect of the hole diameter of a ME collimator on the image contrast and bremsstrahlung spectrum were investigated. For the fixed collimator and septa thickness values (3.28 cm and 1.14 mm, respectively), a hole diameter range (2.35-3.3mm) was chosen based on the appropriate balance between the spatial resolution and sensitivity. The optimal energy window for (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging was extended energy window from 60 to 400 KeV. Besides, The optimal value of the hole diameter of ME collimator was obtained 3.3mm. Geometry of the ME parallel-hole collimator and energy

  19. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Feng; Li Yan; Tang Tian-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects. Considering the imaging performance, flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows. For aircrafts operating at high speeds, the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic, but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes. The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with, respectively, a flat window, a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared. Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard, aerodynamic drag, narcissus effect, and imaging performance, so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  1. The windows method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neighbour, Roger; Larsen, Jan-Helge

    2017-01-01

    through in sequence, each one opening a different viewpoint or window on the case. To experienced tutors, the windows method’s prescriptive structure may at first seem somewhat rigid. However, for learners with less experience of reflection and self-disclosure, it provides the security necessary...

  2. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  3. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Horóczi, Eszter

    2017-01-01

    integrated into the window. A qualitative experiment is carried out by integrating controllable LED in the frame of a façade window in a full-scale mock-up. It is examined how this set-up can support the colour spectrum and intensity of the daylight intake during the transmission time from daylight...

  4. Aerodynamic window for a laser fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Wataru

    1983-01-01

    Since the window of a laser system absorbs a part of the laser energy, the output power is determined by the characteristics of the window. The use of an aerodynamic window has been studied. The required characteristics are to keep the large pressure difference. An equation of motion of a vortex was presented and analyzed. The operation power of the system was studied. A multi-stage aerodynamic window was proposed to reduce the power. When the jet flow of 0.3 of the Mach number is used, the operation power will be several Megawatt, and the length of an optical path will be about 100 m. (Kato, T.)

  5. Front-line window therapy with cisplatin in patients with primary disseminated Ewing sarcoma: A study by the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica and Italian Sarcoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksch, Roberto; Grignani, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Paolo; Prete, Arcangelo; Puma, Nadia; Podda, Marta; Casanova, Michela; Ferrari, Andrea; Morosi, Carlo; Fagioli, Franca; Aglietta, Massimo; Ferrari, Stefano; Picci, Piero; Massimino, Maura

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to assess the activity of cisplatin (CDDP) in Ewing sarcoma (ES). The study consisted of front-line window therapy with CDDP 120 mg/sqm every 3 weeks for two courses in children and young adults with primary disseminated ES. Response was assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours criteria, and Simon's two-stage design was applied. Twelve consecutive patients were enrolled in stage 1. Only one objective response was observed. Since the target response rate was not achieved, accrual was stopped and CDDP as a single agent in ES was judged unworthy of further assessment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Compact ignition tokamak design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Viewgraphs are given on the following objectives of the design study: (1) develop core module concept, (2) develop a method to apply preload, (3) perform sufficient analysis to demonstrate total concept is structurally sound, (4) develop component fit-up and assembly scheme, and (5) minimize size and cost

  7. Study designs may influence results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena

    2017-01-01

    Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed...

  8. Thin windows for gaseous and liquid targets: an optimization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Gray, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require cryogenic or high-pressure gas targets with thin windows. To obtain the best data, that is, to reduce background signals, a target window would ideally have zero thickness and zero deflextion. Since this is not possible a trade-off is made among target geometry, window geometry, window material, and window thickness. Measurements of deflexions of a variety of window materials and geometries were performed at room temperature and in liquid nitrogen to aid window design in the future. A simple graphical method for predicting the rupture pressure for several typical window materials is described. The results of the deflexion measurements are compared to a finite element computer programme Membran which predicts window deflexion and material stresses for a uniform applied pressure. (author)

  9. LCFI vertex detector design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstene, C.; Sopczak, A.

    2005-12-01

    A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  10. Study on factors inducing workplace violence in Chinese hospitals based on the broken window theory: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenyu; Mou, Huitong; Xu, Wen; Li, Zhe; Liu, Xin; Shi, Lei; Peng, Boshi; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Lei; Fan, Lihua

    2017-07-28

    To explore the potential components of hospital workplace violence (HWPV) from the perspectives of hospital administrators and patients, and put forward corresponding strategies for its prevention and control. Using convenience sampling methods, 116 hospitals in 14 provinces of China were surveyed using a self-designed questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was used. Hospital administrators and patients from 116 hospitals in 14 provinces of China. First, hospital administrators point of workplace factors included six factors, with the following weighting coefficients: hospital administrator factors (29.40%), patient-related factors (20.08%), hospital environmental factors (19.45%), policy and institutional factors (11.92%), social psychological factors (10.26%), objective events factors (8.89%). Second, patients from the hospital workplace predisposing factors included three common factors. The weight coefficients of these were hospital-related factors (60.27%), social and governmental factors (23.64%) and patient-related factors (16.09%). A wide range of factors according to hospital administrators, patients and in the hospital environment play important roles in HWPV. From the perspectives of hospital administrators, communication skills and attitude to the service are important factors for inducing HWPV. From the perspective of patients, the characteristics of staff personalities and medical cognition are more important inducing factors. As far as social factors are concerned, economic compensation of medical malpractice is an important inducing factor for HWPV. In terms of environmental factors, management of Chinese medical hospitals, medical procedures and the layout of departments are all potential factors for the occurrence of violence. Corresponding defects were exposed in the health legal system and the supervision system for influencing public opinion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017

  11. Study of a brittle and precious medieval rose-window by means of the integration of GPR, stress wave tests and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2009-04-01

    The correct management and restoration of architectural monuments of high cultural interest requires a comprehensive understanding of their status of preservation, the detection of the building features, the localization of damages and possibly the identification of their causes, nature and extent. To this aim, in recent times there is a growing interest on non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical methods as an invaluable tool for correlating spatially the information gained through destructive tests, which are restricted to a few locations of the investigated structure, and to optimize the choice of their position in order to minimize their impact on the monument structural stability. Moreover, the integration of the classical geophysical techniques with emerging surface and subsurface sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) provides a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the monument state of preservation and its material and building components, which is vital for addressing maintenance and restoration issues. The present case study focuses on the application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), infrared thermography (IRT), sonic and ultrasonic tests to analyze a 13th century precious rose window in Southern Italy, affected by widespread decay and instability problems. The Cathedral of Troia (Apulia, Italy) is the masterpiece of the Apulian Romanesque architecture. Its façade is adorned with an astonishing 6 m diameter rose window consisting of 11 twin columns, in various stone and reused marbles, connected to a central oculus and to a ring of trapezoidal elements decorated with arched ribworks. Between the twin columns there are 11 triangular carved panels with different and strongly symbolic geometrical patterns. According to visual inspection, mineralogical and petrographic studies, different materials have been used for the different architectural elements: fine grained limestone for the central oculus, medium-fine grained calcarenite

  12. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  13. High Momentum Particle Identification Detector The Study of Cesium Iodide Quantum Efficiency Dependency on Substrate Material, Temperature and Quartz Window

    CERN Document Server

    Wisna, Gde Bimananda M

    2014-01-01

    The Cesium Iodide (CsI) is used as a material for detecting Cherenkov radiation produced by high momentum particle in High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (HMPID) at ALICE Experiment at CERN. This work provides investigation and analysis of The Quantum Efficiency (QE) result of CsI which is deposited on five samples substrates such as copper passivated red, copper passivated yellow, aluminium, copper coated with nickel and copper coated with nickel then coated with gold. The measurement of five samples is held under temperature $60^{0}$ C and $25^{0}$ C (room temperature) and also with optical quartz window which can be adjusted to limit the wavelength range which reach the CsI. The result shows there are dependency of substrate, temperature due to enhancement effect and also quartz windows usage on QE of CsI. The results of five samples is then compared and analyzed.

  14. 14 CFR 25.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 25.775 Section 25... § 25.775 Windshields and windows. (a) Internal panes must be made of nonsplintering material. (b.... (d) The design of windshields and windows in pressurized airplanes must be based on factors peculiar...

  15. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  16. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  17. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  18. Does slab-window opening cause uplift of the overriding plate? A case study from the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Chris; Chew, David; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-11-01

    Complete subduction of an oceanic plate results in slab-window opening. A key uncertainty in this process is whether the higher heat flux and asthenospheric upwelling conventionally associated with slab-window opening generate a detectable topographic signature in the overriding plate. We focus on the Baja California Peninsula, which incorporates the western margin of the Gulf of California rift. The topography and tectonics of the rift flank along the peninsula are strongly bimodal. North of the Puertecitos accommodation zone, the primary drainage divide attains a mean elevation of ca. 1600 m above sea level (asl), above an asthenospheric slab-window opened by Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge subduction along this section of the trench at ca. 17-15 Ma. To the south, mean topography decreases abruptly to ca. 800 m asl (excluding the structurally distinct Los Cabos block at the southern tip of the peninsula), above fragments of the oceanic Farallon slab which stalled following slab tear-off at ca. 15-14 Ma. Along the peninsula, a low-relief surface established atop Miocene subduction-related volcaniclastic units has been incised by a west-draining canyon network in response to uplift. These canyons exhibit cut-and-fill relationships with widespread post-subduction lavas. Here, we utilise LANDSAT and digital elevation model (DEM) data, integrated with previously published K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar lava crystallisation ages, to constrain the onset of rift flank uplift to ca. 9-5 Ma later than slab-window formation in the north and ca. 11-10 Ma later in the south. These greatly exceed response time estimates of ca. 2 Ma or less for uplift triggered by slab-window opening. Instead, uplift timing of the high-elevation northern region is consistent with lower-lithospheric erosion driven by rift-related convective upwelling. To the south, stalled slab fragments likely inhibited convective return flow, preventing lithospheric erosion and limiting uplift to the isostatic response

  19. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  20. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  1. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  2. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  3. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  4. Round window closure affects cochlear responses to suprathreshold stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qunfeng; Whitcomb, Carolyn; Eggleston, Jessica; Sun, Wei; Salvi, Richard; Hu, Bo Hua

    2013-12-01

    The round window acts as a vent for releasing inner ear pressure and facilitating basilar membrane vibration. Loss of this venting function affects cochlear function, which leads to hearing impairment. In an effort to identify functional changes that might be used in clinical diagnosis of round window atresia, the current investigation was designed to examine how the cochlea responds to suprathreshold stimuli following round window closure. Prospective, controlled, animal study. A rat model of round window occlusion (RWO) was established. With this model, the thresholds of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the input/output (IO) functions of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and acoustic startle responses were examined. Round window closure caused a mild shift in the thresholds of the auditory brainstem response (13.5 ± 9.1 dB). It also reduced the amplitudes of the distortion product otoacoustic emissions and the slope of the input/output functions. This peripheral change was accompanied by a significant reduction in the amplitude, but not the threshold, of the acoustic startle reflex, a motor response to suprathreshold sounds. In addition to causing mild increase in the threshold of the auditory brainstem response, round window occlusion reduced the slopes of both distortion product otoacoustic emissions and startle reflex input/output functions. These changes differ from those observed for typical conductive or sensory hearing loss, and could be present in patients with round window atresia. However, future clinical observations in patients are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Research on the honeycomb restrain layer application to the high power microwave dielectric window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Shao, Hao; Huang, Wenhua; Guo, Letian

    2018-01-01

    Dielectric window breakdown is an important problem of high power microwave radiation. A honeycomb layer can suppress the multipactor in two directions to restrain dielectric window breakdown. This paper studies the effect of the honeycomb restrain layer on improving the dielectric window power capability. It also studies the multipactor suppression mechanism by using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell software, gives the design method, and accomplishes the test experiment. The experimental results indicated that the honeycomb restrain layer can effectively improve the power capability twice.

  6. Empirical Study on Total Factor Productive Energy Efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region-Analysis based on Malmquist Index and Window Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.

  7. Exam 70-411 administering Windows Server 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Course, Microsoft Official Academic

    2014-01-01

    Microsoft Windows Server is a multi-purpose server designed to increase reliability and flexibility of  a network infrastructure. Windows Server is the paramount tool used by enterprises in their datacenter and desktop strategy. The most recent versions of Windows Server also provide both server and client virtualization. Its ubiquity in the enterprise results in the need for networking professionals who know how to plan, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot networks relying on Windows Server. Microsoft Learning is preparing the next round of its Windows Server Certification program

  8. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  9. Windows 10 Technical Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Jyväsjärvi, Teppo

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutustaan uuden kesällä 2015 virallisesti julkaistavan Windows 10 -käyttöjärjestelmän Technical Preview -kehitysversioon. Ensimmäinen Technical Preview -versio julkaistiin syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyössä tutustaan Windows 10:n uusin ominaisuuksiin ja tehdään vertailua aiemman Windows 8.1 -version kanssa. Työssä Windows 10 Technical Preview asennetaan virtuaalikoneelle, käydään läpi asennuksen eri vaiheet sekä suurimmat muutokset käyttöliittymässä ja sovelluksissa. Op...

  10. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  11. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  12. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  13. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  14. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  15. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  16. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  17. Microsoft Windows Server 2012 administration instant reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers for common Windows Server questions Serving as a perfect companion to all Windows Server books, this reference provides you with quick and easily searchable solutions to day-to-day challenges of Microsoft's newest version of Windows Server. Using helpful design features such as thumb tabs, tables of contents, and special heading treatments, this resource boasts a smooth and seamless approach to finding information. Plus, quick-reference tables and lists provide additional on-the-spot answers. Covers such key topics as server roles and functionality, u

  18. High Performance Window Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2∙ F∙h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  19. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  20. Superior Semicircular Canal Ampullae Dehiscence As Part of the Spectrum of the Third Window Abnormalities: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Constant Ionescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old man was referred to the ENT department for intense episodic vertigo triggered by loud sounds. Pure tone audiometry and otoneurological assessment, including videonystagmography using auditory stimulation and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential measures, conducted to the hypothesis of a third window syndrome in the left ear. Results from the high-resolution computed tomography of the petrous bone confirmed the hypothesis and revealed the presence of a submillimeter semicircular canal dehiscence, located between the left lateral and superior semicircular canal ampullae on the left side.

  1. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  2. Vehicle speed prediction via a sliding-window time series analysis and an evolutionary least learning machine: A case study on San Francisco urban roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Mozaffari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current study is to take advantage of advanced numerical and intelligent tools to predict the speed of a vehicle using time series. It is clear that the uncertainty caused by temporal behavior of the driver as well as various external disturbances on the road will affect the vehicle speed, and thus, the vehicle power demands. The prediction of upcoming power demands can be employed by the vehicle powertrain control systems to improve significantly the fuel economy and emission performance. Therefore, it is important to systems design engineers and automotive industrialists to develop efficient numerical tools to overcome the risk of unpredictability associated with the vehicle speed profile on roads. In this study, the authors propose an intelligent tool called evolutionary least learning machine (E-LLM to forecast the vehicle speed sequence. To have a practical evaluation regarding the efficacy of E-LLM, the authors use the driving data collected on the San Francisco urban roads by a private Honda Insight vehicle. The concept of sliding window time series (SWTS analysis is used to prepare the database for the speed forecasting process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, a number of well-known approaches, such as auto regressive (AR method, back-propagation neural network (BPNN, evolutionary extreme learning machine (E-ELM, extreme learning machine (ELM, and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, are considered. The performances of the rival methods are then compared in terms of the mean square error (MSE, root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, median absolute percentage error (MDAPE, and absolute fraction of variances (R2 metrics. Through an exhaustive comparative study, the authors observed that E-LLM is a powerful tool for predicting the vehicle speed profiles. The outcomes of the current study can be of use for the engineers of automotive industry who have been

  3. Window selection for dual photopeak window scatter correction in Tc-99m imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, D.J. de; King, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The width and placement of the windows for the dual photopeak window (DPW) scatter subtraction method for Tc-99m imaging is investigated in order to obtain a method that is stable on a multihead detector system for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and is capable of providing a good scatter estimate for extended objects. For various window pairs, stability and noise were examined with experiments using a SPECT system, while Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the accuracy of scatter estimates for a variety of objects and to guide the development of regression relations for various window pairs. The DPW method that resulted from this study was implemented with a symmetric 20% photopeak window composed of a 15% asymmetric photopeak window and a 5% lower window abutted at 7 keV below the peak. A power function regression was used to relate the scatter-to-total ratio to the lower window-to-total ratio at each pixel, from which an estimated scatter image was calculated. DPW demonstrated good stability, achieved by abutting the two windows away from the peak. Performance was assessed and compared with Compton window subtraction (CWS). For simulated extended objects, DPW generally produced a less biased scatter estimate than the commonly used CWS method with k = 0.5. In acquisitions of a clinical SPECT phantom, contrast recovery was comparable for both DPW and CWS; however, DPW showed greater visual contrast in clinical SPECT bone studies

  4. High-power RF window and coupler development for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Fant, K.; Hodgson, J.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of the RF windows designed to transmit power to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. Design choices to maximize the reliability of the window are discussed. Fabrication technologies for the window are described and finite-element analysis of the assembly process is presented. Conditioning and high-power testing of the window are discussed. Design of the coupler assembly including the integration of the window and other components is reported

  5. Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-05-31

    This study examines the performance of exterior and interior low-e storm panels with a controlled whole home experimental design using PNNL's Lab Homes. Summing the estimated annual average heating and cooling savings, the installation of low-e storm panels resulted in approximately 10% annual energy savings. The results of the experiment will be used to determine and validate performance of low-e storm windows over double pane clear glass windows in a whole home setting.

  6. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb3Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb3Sn magnet make...

  7. Development of vacuum barrier windows for high power gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Problems in the realization of vacuum barrier windows for 1MW CW gyrotrons are reviewed from the viewpoint of removing heat generation in the window materials. The merits and demerits of various window structures currently in use or under proposal are explained in detail. The design of a multiple disk window, including RF design and thermal stress analysis, is also described. As an example of a recent successful window structure, the experimental results of a forced gas-cooled single disk window with low loss silicon nitride composite are presented. By this window structure, 130kW CW (8kW/cm 2 ) transmission was achieved with an effective diameter of only 88.9 mm. (author)

  8. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engagement......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking....

  9. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engageme......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking....

  10. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Launch Window Trade Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wayne; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-EarthMoon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  12. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  13. Sustainable Design Approach: A case study of BIM use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Wael

    2017-11-01

    alternative's consequences. The architect would settle down and proceed in the alternative design of the best sustainable analysis. In later design stages, using the sustainable types of materials such as insulation, cladding, etc., and applying sustainable building components such as doors, windows, etc. would add more improvements and enhancements in reaching better values and metrics. The paper describes the methodology of this design approach through BIM strategies adopted in design creation. Case studies of architectural designs are used to highlight the details and benefits of this proposed approach.

  14. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  15. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  16. Windows Deployment Services : Esiasennuspalvelin

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Arto

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on Windows Deployment Services, jonka tarkoituksena on toimia esiasennus-palvelimena Windows-käyttöjärjestelmien levykuvien jakamiseen sekä asentamiseen. Opinnäytetyö to-teutettiin yhteistyössä Concept.10 IT:n ja tuotannon kanssa. Concept.10:n tuotannon lähtökohtana on valmistaa ja asentaa Suomen markkinoille tietokonelaitteistoja ohjelmistoineen ja tukipalveluineen. Tuo-tantoon olennaisena osana kuuluu esiasennuspalvelin, jolla voidaan asentaa useita tietokoneita samaa...

  17. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  18. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  19. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  20. Bird-Window Collisions at a West-Coast Urban Park Museum: Analyses of Bird Biology and Window Attributes from Golden Gate Park, San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Logan Q; Flannery, Maureen E; Dumbacher, John P

    2016-01-01

    Bird-window collisions are a major and poorly-understood generator of bird mortality. In North America, studies of this topic tend to be focused east of the Mississippi River, resulting in a paucity of data from the Western flyways. Additionally, few available data can critically evaluate factors such as time of day, sex and age bias, and effect of window pane size on collisions. We collected and analyzed 5 years of window strike data from a 3-story building in a large urban park in San Francisco, California. To evaluate our window collision data in context, we collected weekly data on local bird abundance in the adjacent parkland. Our study asks two overarching questions: first-what aspects of a bird's biology might make them more likely to fatally strike windows; and second, what characteristics of a building's design contribute to bird-window collisions. We used a dataset of 308 fatal bird strikes to examine the relationships of strikes relative to age, sex, time of day, time of year, and a variety of other factors, including mitigation efforts. We found that actively migrating birds may not be major contributors to collisions as has been found elsewhere. We found that males and young birds were both significantly overrepresented relative to their abundance in the habitat surrounding the building. We also analyzed the effect of external window shades as mitigation, finding that an overall reduction in large panes, whether covered or in some way broken up with mullions, effectively reduced window collisions. We conclude that effective mitigation or design will be required in all seasons, but that breeding seasons and migratory seasons are most critical, especially for low-rise buildings and other sites away from urban migrant traps. Finally, strikes occur throughout the day, but mitigation may be most effective in the morning and midday.

  1. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  2. The selection of window width and levels for measuring the airway dimensions with spiral CT scan: an experimental study in Japanese white big-ear rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Lu Huuibing; Wu Gang; Ma Ji; Wang Nan; Si Jiangtao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the optimal window width and window level for measuring the airway dimensions with spiral CT scan in Japanese white big-ear rabbits so as to lay the foundation for airway stenting in animal experiments. Methods: Multi-slice spiral CT scanning of cervico-thoracic region was performed in 30 healthy adult Japanese white big-ear rabbits, the anteroposterior and transversal diameter of the thoracic trachea, the anteroposterior diameter of the right and left bronchus were measured with lung window, mediastinum window and special fat window separately. The revealing rate of the tracheal wall and the measuring results in different windows and levels were recorded and compared with the anatomical data. The differences of the relevant data were statistically analyzed. Results: With lung window, the tracheal wall was well demonstrated, but the relevant data were smaller than that with mediastinum window. With mediastinum window, the data were bigger and the tracheal wall border appeared blurred. The results obtained with fat window were close to the actual anatomical data. Conclusion: For accurately measuring the anteroposterior and transversal diameter of the thoracic trachea in Japanese white big-ear rabbits with multi- slice spiral CT scan, fat window should be adopted, which is helpful for the preparation of tracheal and bronchial stents. (authors)

  3. NOUR. Daylighting and thermal effects of windows in desert houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Djamel

    1999-07-01

    This study is on a combined effect of window, the daylighting and the thermal effects, in desert houses. It is comprised of two complementary studies. In the introduction a historical review on the development of using daylight has been carried out in order to place the case study in a historical perspective. The first study is comprehensive and contains two main parts. In the first part a study was carried out on the people and history of the town of Ghardaia in Southern Algeria. This was done in order to understand the architectural form of that region. The second part is experimental and consists of two field studies carried out in Ghardaia. Their aim was to investigate the influence of daylight and temperature on the use of residential houses. This investigation included both traditional and 'modern' houses, the modern having relatively large windows similar to those of the northern part of Algeria, the traditional ones having small or no windows. The second study is also experimental consisting of computer parametric studies on window design from two standpoints, namely daylighting level and thermal effects of windows in desert houses. A typical traditional house is described as it was observed. Then the recorded light values are presented and commented upon. In the second part, three types of modern houses observed in the field studies are presented and compared to the traditional archetype. The comparison especially dwells on the relative effectiveness of the two systems of daylighting. In the third part, focusing on various issues of lighting, the results of interviews with the inhabitants are presented. The historical studies indicate that the process of housing development, in several respects, has reached a certain quality (social, technology, and adaptation to climate) appropriate to the local original context, but that development has slowed down. The results of the lighting study indicate that the use of more windows in modern houses

  4. Impact of three window configurations on daylight conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    The report describes the results of a pilot study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. As a tool for the analyses the Radiance Lighting Simulating System was used to simulate one room with three different window configurations, a vertical window, a dormer window......, and a roof window. The simulations were performed for overcast sky conditions and under one sunny sky, for two different times of the day. The study shows that the window configuration affects the daylight conditions (distribution and intensity) significantly. The roof window results in a higher (average......) daylight factor on a horizontal plane, i.e. more than twice as high compared with the vertical window, and more than triple as high compared with the dormer window....

  5. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  6. Opening the Literature Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  7. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  8. Visualizing feasible operating ranges within tissue engineering systems using a "windows of operation" approach: a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ryan J; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2012-12-01

    Tissue engineering approaches to developing functional substitutes are often highly complex, multivariate systems where many aspects of the biomaterials, bio-regulatory factors or cell sources may be controlled in an effort to enhance tissue formation. Furthermore, success is based on multiple performance criteria reflecting both the quantity and quality of the tissue produced. Managing the trade-offs between different performance criteria is a challenge. A "windows of operation" tool that graphically represents feasible operating spaces to achieve user-defined levels of performance has previously been described by researchers in the bio-processing industry. This paper demonstrates the value of "windows of operation" to the tissue engineering field using a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor system as a case study. In our laboratory, perfusion bioreactor systems are utilized in the context of bone tissue engineering to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of cell-seeded scaffolds. A key challenge of such perfusion bioreactor systems is to maximize the induction of osteogenesis but minimize cell detachment from the scaffold. Two key operating variables that influence these performance criteria are the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate. Using cyclooxygenase-2 and osteopontin gene expression levels as surrogate indicators of osteogenesis, we employed the "windows of operation" methodology to rapidly identify feasible operating ranges for the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate that achieved user-defined levels of performance for cell detachment and differentiation. Incorporation of such tools into the tissue engineer's armory will hopefully yield a greater understanding of the highly complex systems used and help aid decision making in future translation of products from the bench top to the market place. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  10. Windows to the soul: vision science as a tool for studying biological mechanisms of information processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H; Sheremata, Summer L; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A

    2013-10-31

    Cognitive and information processing deficits are core features and important sources of disability in schizophrenia. Our understanding of the neural substrates of these deficits remains incomplete, in large part because the complexity of impairments in schizophrenia makes the identification of specific deficits very challenging. Vision science presents unique opportunities in this regard: many years of basic research have led to detailed characterization of relationships between structure and function in the early visual system and have produced sophisticated methods to quantify visual perception and characterize its neural substrates. We present a selective review of research that illustrates the opportunities for discovery provided by visual studies in schizophrenia. We highlight work that has been particularly effective in applying vision science methods to identify specific neural abnormalities underlying information processing deficits in schizophrenia. In addition, we describe studies that have utilized psychophysical experimental designs that mitigate generalized deficit confounds, thereby revealing specific visual impairments in schizophrenia. These studies contribute to accumulating evidence that early visual cortex is a useful experimental system for the study of local cortical circuit abnormalities in schizophrenia. The high degree of similarity across neocortical areas of neuronal subtypes and their patterns of connectivity suggests that insights obtained from the study of early visual cortex may be applicable to other brain regions. We conclude with a discussion of future studies that combine vision science and neuroimaging methods. These studies have the potential to address pressing questions in schizophrenia, including the dissociation of local circuit deficits vs. impairments in feedback modulation by cognitive processes such as spatial attention and working memory, and the relative contributions of glutamatergic and GABAergic deficits.

  11. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Don [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  12. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  13. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, S. Alex; Bogacz, S.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Ya.; Evtushenko, P.; Krafft, G.; Hutton, A.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sayed, H.; Qiang, J.

    2008-06-16

    A conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF with a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 has been proposed at JLab to fulfil science requirements. Here, we summarize design progress including collider ring and interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation. Electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, stacking of ion beams in an accumulator-cooler ring, beam-beam simulations and a faster kicker for the circulator electron cooler ring are also discussed.

  14. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S. Alex; Bogacz, S.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Ya.; Evtushenko, P.; Krafft, G.; Hutton, A.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sayed, H.; Qiang, J.

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF with a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 has been proposed at JLab to fulfill science requirements. Here, we summarize design progress including collider ring and interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation. Electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, stacking of ion beams in an accumulator-cooler ring, beam-beam simulations and a faster kicker for the circulator electron cooler ring are also discussed

  15. Preliminary aerosol generator design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, J. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The design and construction of a prototype vaporization generator for highly dispersed sodium chloride aerosols is described. The aerosol generating system is to be used in the Science Simulator of the Cloud Physics Laboratory Project and as part of the Cloud Physics Laboratory payload to be flown on the shuttle/spacelab.

  16. Development of ITER diagnostic window assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maquet, Ph.; Walker, C.I.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Encheva, A.; Pitcher, C.S.; Reichle, R.; Vayakis, G.; Veshchev, E.; Udintsev, V.S.; Walsh, M.J.; Watts, C.; Patel, K.M.; Giacomin, T.; Hughes, Shaun; Taylor, Neill; Pearce, Robert; Okayama, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The concepts chosen for ITER Diagnostic Windows are given. • The description of the main components of the window assemblies is presented. • An overview of the R and D related to the window assemblies is given. • The process for their development is briefly explained. -- Abstract: Most of ITER's diagnostics will be provided with viewing lines (optical, microwave, spectroscopic) for the monitoring of key characteristics of the plasma or for the achievement of physical measurements inside the vacuum vessel. For many of them the nature of the physical signal transmitted through the viewing lines requires the implementation of window assemblies incorporating either Glass/Ceramic or Beryllium window. The main requirements of the Diagnostic Window Assemblies are the transmission of the signals without attenuation or disturbances, the containment of vacuum, the confinement of in-vessel radioactive materials. Although they are generally not in direct viewing of the plasma, they are exposed to severe environmental conditions in normal and accidental conditions. The concept chosen for ITER Diagnostic Window Assemblies is based on a system of two windows with a monitored interspace, largely inspired from previous large machine solutions. Such a system is able to satisfy the transmission and vacuum requirements. Although this capability has previously proven a high reliability level, ITER conditions, which are more stringent, impose the requirement for improvement of existing designs and even the development of novel solutions, in particular to assure the radioactive material confinement function, which must be met in all circumstances including all off-normal conditions. Moreover the qualification of these concepts shall meet the nuclear safety requirements, although non metallic and beryllium components are not covered by existing codes and standards. This paper presents designs of window assemblies for different diagnostics. It gives an update of the

  17. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  18. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  19. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  20. Thermal and structural behavior of filters and windows for synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Hahn, U.; Dejus, R.; Kuzay, T.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the following discussions: Introduction: Use of filters and windows in the front end designs; An interactive code for 3D graphic viewing of absorbed power in filters/windows and a new heat load generation algorithm for the finite element analysis; Failure criteria and analysis methods for the filter and window assembly; Comparison with test data and existing devices in HASYLAB; Cooling the filter: Radiation cooling or conduction cooling?; Consideration of window and filter thickness: Thicker or thinner?; Material selection criteria for filters/windows; Photon transmission through filters/windows; Window and filter design for APS undulators; Window and filter design for APS wigglers; and Window design for APS bending magnet front ends

  1. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  2. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explan...

  3. Computed Tomography Window Blending: Feasibility in Thoracic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Jacob C; Wortman, Jeremy R; Rocha, Tatiana C; Folio, Les R; Andriole, Katherine P; Khurana, Bharti

    2018-02-07

    This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of processing computed tomography (CT) images with a custom window blending algorithm that combines soft-tissue, bone, and lung window settings into a single image; to compare the time for interpretation of chest CT for thoracic trauma with window blending and conventional window settings; and to assess diagnostic performance of both techniques. Adobe Photoshop was scripted to process axial DICOM images from retrospective contrast-enhanced chest CTs performed for trauma with a window-blending algorithm. Two emergency radiologists independently interpreted the axial images from 103 chest CTs with both blended and conventional windows. Interpretation time and diagnostic performance were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar test, respectively. Agreement with Nexus CT Chest injury severity was assessed with the weighted kappa statistic. A total of 13,295 images were processed without error. Interpretation was faster with window blending, resulting in a 20.3% time saving (P window-blended cases was 82.7%, compared to 81.6% for conventional windows. The specificity of the window-blended cases was 93.1%, compared to 90.5% for conventional windows. All injuries of major clinical significance (per Nexus CT Chest criteria) were correctly identified in all reading sessions, and all negative cases were correctly classified. All readers demonstrated near-perfect agreement with injury severity classification with both window settings. In this pilot study utilizing retrospective data, window blending allows faster preliminary interpretation of axial chest CT performed for trauma, with no significant difference in diagnostic performance compared to conventional window settings. Future studies would be required to assess the utility of window blending in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  5. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  6. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Chevtsov, Pavel; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Evtushenko, Pavel; Hutton, M.; Krafft, Geoffrey; Li, Rui; Merminga, Nikolitsa; Musson, John; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Yuhong; Qiang, Yi; Sayed Abdalghaffar, Hisham

    2008-07-01

    An electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 with both beams highly polarized is essential for exploring the new QCD frontier of strong color fields in nuclear and precisely imaging the sea-quarks and gluons in the nucleon. A conceptual design of a ring-ring collider based on CEBAF (ELIC) with energies up to 9 GeV for electrons/positrons and up to 225 GeV for protons and 100 GeV/u for ions has been proposed to fulfill the science desire and to serve as the next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. Here, we summarize recent design progress for the ELIC complex with four interaction points (IP); including interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation scheme and complete lattices for the Figure-8 collider rings. Further optimization of crab crossing angles at the IPs, simulations of beam-beam interactions and electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring and its matching at

  7. Motion management within two respiratory-gating windows: feasibility study of dual quasi-breath-hold technique in gated medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Kim, Siyong; Park, Yang-Kyun; Youn, Kaylin K.; Keall, Paul; Lee, Rena

    2014-11-01

    A dual quasi-breath-hold (DQBH) technique is proposed for respiratory motion management (a hybrid technique combining breathing-guidance with breath-hold task in the middle). The aim of this study is to test a hypothesis that the DQBH biofeedback system improves both the capability of motion management and delivery efficiency. Fifteen healthy human subjects were recruited for two respiratory motion measurements (free breathing and DQBH biofeedback breathing for 15 min). In this study, the DQBH biofeedback system utilized the abdominal position obtained using an real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) to audio-visually guide a human subject for 4 s breath-hold at EOI and 90% EOE (EOE90%) to improve delivery efficiency. We investigated the residual respiratory motion and the delivery efficiency (duty-cycle) of abdominal displacement within the gating window. The improvement of the abdominal motion reproducibility was evaluated in terms of cycle-to-cycle displacement variability, respiratory period and baseline drift. The DQBH biofeedback system improved the abdominal motion management capability compared to that with free breathing. With a phase based gating (mean ± std: 55  ±  5%), the averaged root mean square error (RMSE) of the abdominal displacement in the dual-gating windows decreased from 2.26 mm of free breathing to 1.16 mm of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.007). The averaged RMSE of abdominal displacement over the entire respiratory cycles reduced from 2.23 mm of free breathing to 1.39 mm of DQBH biofeedback breathing in the dual-gating windows (p-value = 0.028). The averaged baseline drift dropped from 0.9 mm min-1 with free breathing to 0.09 mm min-1 with DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.048). The averaged duty-cycle with an 1 mm width of displacement bound increased from 15% of free breathing to 26% of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.003). The study demonstrated that the DQBH biofeedback

  8. Motion management within two respiratory-gating windows: feasibility study of dual quasi-breath-hold technique in gated medical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeho; Kim, Siyong; Youn, Kaylin K; Park, Yang-Kyun; Keall, Paul; Lee, Rena

    2014-01-01

    A dual quasi-breath-hold (DQBH) technique is proposed for respiratory motion management (a hybrid technique combining breathing-guidance with breath-hold task in the middle). The aim of this study is to test a hypothesis that the DQBH biofeedback system improves both the capability of motion management and delivery efficiency. Fifteen healthy human subjects were recruited for two respiratory motion measurements (free breathing and DQBH biofeedback breathing for 15 min). In this study, the DQBH biofeedback system utilized the abdominal position obtained using an real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) to audio-visually guide a human subject for 4 s breath-hold at EOI and 90% EOE (EOE 90% ) to improve delivery efficiency. We investigated the residual respiratory motion and the delivery efficiency (duty-cycle) of abdominal displacement within the gating window. The improvement of the abdominal motion reproducibility was evaluated in terms of cycle-to-cycle displacement variability, respiratory period and baseline drift. The DQBH biofeedback system improved the abdominal motion management capability compared to that with free breathing. With a phase based gating (mean ± std: 55  ±  5%), the averaged root mean square error (RMSE) of the abdominal displacement in the dual-gating windows decreased from 2.26 mm of free breathing to 1.16 mm of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.007). The averaged RMSE of abdominal displacement over the entire respiratory cycles reduced from 2.23 mm of free breathing to 1.39 mm of DQBH biofeedback breathing in the dual-gating windows (p-value = 0.028). The averaged baseline drift dropped from 0.9 mm min −1 with free breathing to 0.09 mm min −1 with DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.048). The averaged duty-cycle with an 1 mm width of displacement bound increased from 15% of free breathing to 26% of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.003). The study demonstrated that the DQBH

  9. Diffusion escape through a cluster of small absorbing windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcman, D [Department of Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Schuss, Z [Department of Mathematics, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2008-04-18

    We study the first eigenvalue of the Laplace equation in a bounded domain in R{sup d} (d=2,3) with mixed Neumann-Dirichlet (Zaremba) boundary conditions. The Neumann condition is imposed on most of the boundary and the Dirichlet boundary consists of a cluster of small windows. When the windows are well separated the first eigenvalue is asymptotically the sum of eigenvalues of mixed problems with a single Dirichlet window. However, when two or more Dirichlet windows cluster tightly together they interact nonlinearly. We compare our asymptotic approximation of the eigenvalue to the escape rate of simulated Brownian particles through the small windows.

  10. A design study of VOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, P. P.; Vickery, Anette; Andersen, K. H.

    2015-01-01

    VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS), 30.2m moderator to sample......, and provides instantaneous access to a broad dynamic range, 1-120 meV within each ESS period. The short instrument length combined with the long ESS pulse width enables a quadratic flux increase, even at longer wavelengths, by relaxing energy resolution from ΔE/E = 1% up to ΔE/E = 7%. This is impossible both...... with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering....

  11. Collective design in 3D printing: A large scale empirical study of designs, designers and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study of a collective design platform (Thingiverse); with the aim of understanding the phenomenon and investigating how designs concurrently evolve through the large and complex network of designers. The case study is based on the meta-data collected from 158 489...... designs and 247 768 users; and it reveals that (i) Designs can be shared and quickly evolved into other designs through a distributed network of designers, (ii) only a small portion of the users are designers and (iv) collective design has deep and strong evolutionary roots. Better understanding...... of collective design platforms can help design practitioners to identify lead users in their respective domains and to discover latent needs that stem from different sub-communities or geographic regions....

  12. Multistate Luminescent Solar Concentrator "Smart" Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Jeroen A.H.P.; Timmermans, Gilles H.; Breugel, van Abraham J.; Schenning, Albertus P.H.J.; Debije, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    A supertwist liquid crystalline luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) "smart" window is fabricated which can be switched electrically between three states: one designed for increased light absorption and electrical generation (the "dark" state), one for transparency (the "light" state), and one for

  13. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  14. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  15. Windows of sensitivity to toxic chemicals in the motor effects development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Susan Z; Pohl, Hana R

    2016-02-01

    Many chemicals currently used are known to elicit nervous system effects. In addition, approximately 2000 new chemicals introduced annually have not yet undergone neurotoxicity testing. This review concentrated on motor development effects associated with exposure to environmental neurotoxicants to help identify critical windows of exposure and begin to assess data needs based on a subset of chemicals thoroughly reviewed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in Toxicological Profiles and Addenda. Multiple windows of sensitivity were identified that differed based on the maturity level of the neurological system at the time of exposure, as well as dose and exposure duration. Similar but distinct windows were found for both motor activity (GD 8-17 [rats], GD 12-14 and PND 3-10 [mice]) and motor function performance (insufficient data for rats, GD 12-17 [mice]). Identifying specific windows of sensitivity in animal studies was hampered by study designs oriented towards detection of neurotoxicity that occurred at any time throughout the developmental process. In conclusion, while this investigation identified some critical exposure windows for motor development effects, it demonstrates a need for more acute duration exposure studies based on neurodevelopmental windows, particularly during the exposure periods identified in this review. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Windows of sensitivity to toxic chemicals in the motor effects development✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Susan Z.; Pohl, Hana R.

    2017-01-01

    Many chemicals currently used are known to elicit nervous system effects. In addition, approximately 2000 new chemicals introduced annually have not yet undergone neurotoxicity testing. This review concentrated on motor development effects associated with exposure to environmental neurotoxicants to help identify critical windows of exposure and begin to assess data needs based on a subset of chemicals thoroughly reviewed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in Toxicological Profiles and Addenda. Multiple windows of sensitivity were identified that differed based on the maturity level of the neurological system at the time of exposure, as well as dose and exposure duration. Similar but distinct windows were found for both motor activity (GD 8–17 [rats], GD 12–14 and PND 3–10 [mice]) and motor function performance (insufficient data for rats, GD 12–17 [mice]). Identifying specific windows of sensitivity in animal studies was hampered by study designs oriented towards detection of neurotoxicity that occurred at any time throughout the developmental process. In conclusion, while this investigation identified some critical exposure windows for motor development effects, it demonstrates a need for more acute duration exposure studies based on neurodevelopmental windows, particularly during the exposure periods identified in this review. PMID:26686904

  17. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  18. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  19. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised......-value of 0.7 W/m²K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m²K. No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. At a Danish location and North facing, the energy balance...

  20. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  1. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  2. Mastering Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A complete, winning approach to the number one small business solution. Do you have 75 or fewer users or devices on your small-business network? Find out how to integrate everything you need for your mini-enterprise with Microsoft's new Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server, a custom collection of server and management technologies designed to help small operations run smoothly without a giant IT department. This comprehensive guide shows you how to master all SBS components as well as handle integration with other Microsoft technologies.: Focuses on Windows Server 2008 Small Business Serv

  3. Windows Server® 2008 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2009-01-01

    Learn how to conquer Windows Server 2008-from the inside out! Designed for system administrators, this definitive resource features hundreds of timesaving solutions, expert insights, troubleshooting tips, and workarounds for administering Windows Server 2008-all in concise, fast-answer format. You will learn how to perform upgrades and migrations, automate deployments, implement security features, manage software updates and patches, administer users and accounts, manage Active Directory® directory services, and more. With INSIDE OUT, you'll discover the best and fastest ways to perform core a

  4. Vibro-acoustic model of an active aircraft cabin window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents modeling and design of an active structural acoustic control (ASAC) system for controlling the low frequency sound field transmitted through an aircraft cabin window. The system uses stacked piezoelectric elements arranged in a manner to generate out-of-plane actuation point forces acting on the window panel boundaries. A theoretical vibro-acoustic model for an active quadruple-panel system is developed to characterize the dynamic behavior of the system and achieve a good understanding of the active control performance and the physical phenomena of the sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics. The quadruple-panel system represents the passenger window design used in some classes of modern aircraft with an exterior double pane of Plexiglas, an interior dust cover pane and a glazed dimmable pane, all separated by thin air cavities. The STL characteristics of identical pane window configurations with different piezoelectric actuator sets are analyzed. A parametric study describes the influence of important active parameters, such as the input voltage, number and location of the actuator elements, on the STL is investigated. In addition, a mathematical model for obtaining the optimal input voltage is developed to improve the acoustic attenuation capability of the control system. In general, the achieved results indicate that the proposed ASAC design offers a considerable improvement in the passive sound loss performance of cabin window design without significant effects, such as weight increase, on the original design. Also, the results show that the acoustic control of the active model with piezoelectric actuators bonded to the dust cover pane generates high structural vibrations in the radiating panel (dust cover) and an increase in sound power radiation. High active acoustic attenuation can be achieved by designing the ASAC system to apply active control forces on the inner Plexiglas panel or dimmable panel by installing the actuators on the

  5. Stress analysis of CVD diamond window for ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The stress analysis of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) system of fusion reactors is described. It was found that the real size diamond window (φ aper =70mm, t=2.25mm) withstood 14.5 atm. (1.45 MPa). The calculation results of the diamond window by ABAQUS code agree well with the results of the pressure test. The design parameters of the torus diamond window for a vacuum and a safety barrier were also obtained. (author)

  6. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly

  7. Informing Healthcare Waiting Area Design Using Transparency Attributes: A Comparative Preference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Powers, Matthew; Allison, David; Vincent, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore people's visual preference for waiting areas in general hospital environments designed with transparency attributes that fully integrate nature. Waiting can be a tedious and frustrating experience among people seeking healthcare treatments and negatively affect their perception of the quality of care. Positive distractions and supportive designs have gained increasing attraction to improve people's waiting experience. Nature, which has shown therapeutic effects according to a growing amount of evidence, could be a distinguished positive distraction in waiting areas. Additionally, the theory of transparency was operationalized to indicate a spatial continuity between the external nature and the built interiors in general healthcare waiting area design. A survey method was adopted in the study. Twenty-one images of general healthcare waiting areas depicting three design typologies were preselected following a strict procedure, including designs with (a) no window views, (b) limited window views to nature, and (c) transparent spaces with maximum natural views. Ninety-five student participants rated the images based on their visual preference using a Likert-type scale. The results showed that transparent waiting areas were significantly preferred. A significant positive relationship existed between the level of transparency and people's preference scores. The factor analysis indicated additional supportive features that may affect people's preferences, including daylight, perceived warmth, noninstitutional furniture arrangement, visual orientation, and the use of natural materials for interior design. However, these tentative results need to be furthered tested with the real patient population as the next step of this study.

  8. Anti-reflection treatments for JET millimeter wave diagnostic windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.P.; Richards, S.D.; Bartlett, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses low-power windows for millimeter-wave diagnostics on the JET torus. When tritium is used as a fusion fuel in JET repairs will be difficult on the radioactive machine and additional precautions must be taken to avoid vacuum leaks. Double, interpumped vacuum windows will be necessary. Window design is further restricted by the requirement that the bond between the window itself and its supporting ferrule must withstand repeated cycling to a working temperature of about 250 C. The most satisfactory arrangement for low power millimeter waves uses z-cut crystal quartz windows, gold diffusion bonded to stainless steel ferrules, as manufactured by the Special Techniques Group of AEA Technology. Where possible wedged windows are avoided for ease of alignment

  9. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  11. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Postbuckling behavior of windows subjected to synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Sharma, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses performed on two Be windows (250 and 100 μm thick) show that the additional postbuckling strength still exists after initial window buckling and this part can be used by a thin window design in the working stage. However, the load factor to complate failure is not as big as the load factor to failure of a uniformly compressed window (the case for a thick window where buckling stress is larger than yielding stress of the window material). That is, the load factor of a thin window to collapse is not as large as that of a thick window without buckling. Hence, unless there is a special need for a thin window, buckling of the windows in normal working stage should not be recommended. Although shakedown was not considered, a similar conclusion can be expected for that case

  13. Time-window of early detection of response to concurrent chemoradiation in cervical cancer by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Haoran; Bai, Renju; Ye, Zhaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of DWI in evaluating early therapeutic response of uterine cervical cancer to concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) and establish optimal time window for early detection of treatment response. This was a prospective study and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-three patients with uterine cervical cancer who received CCR underwent conventional MRI and DWI examinations prior to therapy (base-line) and at 3 days (postT1), 7 days (postT2), 14 days (postT3), 1 month (postT4) and 2 months (postT5) after the therapy initiated. Tumor response was determined by comparing the base-line and postT5 MRI by using RECIST criterion. Percentage ADC change (γADC) of complete response (CR) group at each follow up time was greater than that of partial response (PR) group, and the differences were significant at postT3 (p = 0.007), postT4 (p = 0.001), and postT5 (p = 0.019). There was positive correlation between γADC at each follow-up time and percentage size reduction at postT5. The day of 14 after the therapy initiated can be considered as the optimal time for monitoring early treatment response of uterine cervical cancer to CCR, and the representative and sensitive index was γADC. With the cut-off value of 35.4 %, the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of CR group were 100 % and 73.1 %, respectively. It is feasible to use DWI to predict and monitor early treatment response in patients with uterine cervical cancer that undergoing CCR, and optimal time window for early detection of tumor response is the day of 14 after therapy initiated

  14. Conceptual Design Studies of Composite AMST

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    TR-74-164 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDIES OF COMPOSITE AMST MCDONNELL DOUGLAS CORPORATION _ DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA 90846 OCTOBER...COVERED Final Technical Report of Work Pet orTied CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDIES OF COMPOSITE AMST between 29 May 1973 and 23 May 1974 4 PERFORMING ORG...bases for the composite design studies , structural analyses, and cost estimating. The latter airplane was initially rusized to meet the basic

  15. TLEP design study forges ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Alain Blondel & Mike Koratzinos

    2013-01-01

    As the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is launched, one of its component parts, TLEP, enjoys a successful workshop at CERN. The FCC study looks at all options for a future circular collider with the emphasis on a hadron machine with TLEP as a possible intermediate step.   The poster of the sixth TLEP workshop that took place at CERN. Japanese artist Kazuya Akimoto kindly agreed to the use of one of his works as the basis for the poster’s backdrop. October 16 to 18 saw a three-day workshop on TLEP, the sixth in the series. The workshop took place at CERN and was well attended, informative and stimulating. To name just one of the influential people present, Herwig Schopper, ex-Director General of CERN and instrumental in the approval, construction and success of LEP, was among the participants. But what exactly is TLEP? The name was, somehow serendipitously, coined from future lepton collider option studies and stands for triple-LEP, a machine three times the size of LEP. But th...

  16. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  17. The simulation of CAMAC system based on Windows API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Song Yushou; Xi Yinyin; Yan Qiang; Liu Huilan; Li Taosheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on Windows API, a kind of design method to simulate the CAMAC System, which is commonly used in nuclear physics experiments, is developed. Using C++ object-oriented programming, the simulation is carried out in the environment of Visual Studio 2010 and the interfaces, the data-way, the control commands and the modules are simulated with the functions either user-defined or from Windows API. Applying this method, the amplifier plug AMP575A produced by ORTEC is simulated and performance experiments are studied for this simulation module. The results indicate that the simulation module can fulfill the function of pole-zero adjustment, which means this method is competent for the simulation of CAMAC System. Compared with the simulation based on LabVIEW, this way is more flexible and closer to the bottom of the system. All the works above have found a path to making the virtual instrument platform based on CAMAC system. (authors)

  18. On the survivability of diagnostic windows in the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1988-11-01

    The problem of radiation induced stresses in CIT diagnostic windows is discussed. Existing data indicate windows of existing design will probably survive if placed on the periphery of the reactor. There is a lack of adequate engineering data upon which the design and survivability of windows can be based. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of the reasoning involved in justifying a decision chain from a given design brief (of an architectural competition on site planning) to a given solution (the winning entry). A logical method of analysis is presented and applied to the case data; the resulting findings include var...

  20. Feasibility Study on Parametric Optimization of Daylighting in Building Shading Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sun Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shading design to optimize daylighting is in many cases achieved through a designer’s sense based on prior knowledge and experience. However, computer-assisted parametric techniques can be utilized for daylighting design in an easy and much more accurate way. If such tools are utilized in the early stages of a project, this can be more effective for sustainable design. This study compares the conventional approach, which depends on a designer’s sense of judgment to create optimal indoor lighting conditions by adjusting louver shapes and window patterns, with the approach of making use of genetic algorithms. Ultimately, this study discusses the advantages and disadvantages of those two approaches. As a starting point, 30 designers were instructed to design a facade by manually adjusting several input parameters of shading. The parameters govern six kinds of louver and window types, with the ratio of analysis grid surface area achieving a daylight factor of 2%–5%. Secondly, input parameters were automatically created by using genetic algorithm optimization methods to find optimal fitness data. As a conclusion, conventional approaches result in a strong disposition toward designing certain shading types represented by linear relationships. Computer-assisted daylight simulation can help influence this, being effective when dealing with a large amount of data and non-linear relationships.

  1. Techniques and Results for Determining Window Placement and Configuration for the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shelby; Litaker, Harry; Howard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A natural component to driving any type of vehicle, be it Earth-based or space-based, is visibility. In its simplest form visibility is a measure of the distance at which an object can be seen. With the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), there are human factors design guidelines for windows. However, for planetary exploration related vehicles, especially land-based vehicles, relatively little has been written on the importance of windows. The goal of the current study was to devise a proper methodology and to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop data on window placement and location for the small pressurized rover (SPR). Nine participants evaluated multiple areas along the vehicle s front "nose", while actively maneuvering through several lunar driving simulations. Subjective data was collected on seven different aspects measuring areas of necessity, frequency of views, and placement/configuration of windows using questionnaires and composite drawings. Results indicated a desire for a large horizontal field-of-view window spanning the front of the vehicle for most driving situations with slightly reduced window areas for the lower front, lower corners, and side views.

  2. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  3. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study

  4. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    . Heat loss through windows represents a considerably part of the total heat loss from houses. However windows provide a unique potential of solar energy gain to the building besides from providing daylight access and view. This results in a need for development of windows with improved energy...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  5. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  6. Ethics in psychiatric research: study design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    To identify and discuss ethical aspects of study design issues in psychiatric research. We conducted a literature review and conceptual analysis of study design in psychiatric research focusing on placebo, medication tapering and withdrawal (washout), and symptom provocation (challenge) designs. While advances in the care and treatment of persons with psychiatric disorders are crucial to the improved well-being of this stigmatized and often forgotten population, past abuses demonstrate the importance of the thoughtful application of ethical principles in the conduct of research. Some ethical issues have particular relevance to psychiatric research arising primarily from the specific vulnerabilities of those with mental illness and the risks posed by some research methodologies. Accordingly, sensitivity is required in the design of psychiatric research. Placebo, challenge, and washout study designs can present particular risks in the population of persons with mental illness. These issues are described and suggestions offered to promote the ethical design of psychiatric research.

  7. The importance of store windows in creating store identity and store attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Renko Sanda; Grgić Inga

    2012-01-01

    While choosing the store, customer first notices the store window and it plays an important role in retailing strategy. Store's window is what customers see first in meeting with the store. Store window design can lead customer to enter the store, and can give a lot of information about store brands and products. Besides the analysis of the way how specific elements of the window design affect customers and their perception, the explanation of their attraction and rejection to customers is gi...

  8. A Rational Approach to Sinus Augmentation: The Low Window Sinus Lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Zaniol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinus augmentation is a well-known approach to treating alveolar bone ridge atrophy in the posterior maxilla. The preparation of the lateral window is crucial. Its size, design, and position in the vestibular sinus wall may affect the intra- and postsurgical complication rates and affect the intrasurgical activity of both surgeons and assistants. The present paper describes a rational technique that also exploits the guided surgery approach for design and preparation of a lateral window for sinus augmentation, the Low Window Sinus Lift. To illustrate the use of this approach, a case is presented in which the 50-year-old patient had the left maxillary first molar extracted, followed two months later by sinus augmentation and placement of three implants. One year after delivery of the definitive prosthesis, all three implants were successful, and the prosthesis was fully functional. Controlled studies should be undertaken to assess whether this technique provides significant advantages compared to other sinus augmentation approaches.

  9. Entrapment of adult fingers between window glass and seal entry of a motor vehicle side door: an experimental study for investigation of the force at the subjective pain threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, B; Weidermann, C; Pollinger, P; Burkhart, K J; Konerding, M A; Prommersberger, K J; Rommens, P M

    2011-07-28

    In modern motor vehicles with automatic power windows, a potential hazard exists for jam events of fingers between the window glass and seal entry. This study determined entrapment forces acting on adult fingers at the subjective maximum pain threshold during entrapment in such windows. The length and the girth of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of the triphalangeal fingers of the right hands of 109 participants (60 men, 49 women) were measured; the diameter was calculated from girth, which was assumed to be circular. The automatic power window system of a motor vehicle side door was changed to a mechanical system. During entrapment the force distributed across the four proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs), and separately on the proximal interphalangeal (iPIP) and then the distal interphalangeal (iDIP) joints of the index finger was measured using a customized force sensor. The maximum bearable entrapment force was 97.2 ± 51.8 N for the PIPs, 43.4 ± 19.9 N for the iPIP, and 36.9 ± 17.8 N for the iDIP. The positive correlation between finger diameter and maximum entrapment force was significant. Particularly with regard to the risk to children's fingers, the 100 N statutory boundary value for closing force of electronic power windows should be reduced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  11. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  12. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  13. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  14. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  15. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  16. Comparative study of various pixel photodiodes for digital radiography: Junction structure, corner shape and noble window opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Uk; Cho, Minsik; Lee, Dae Hee; Yoo, Hyunjun; Kim, Myung Soo; Bae, Jun Hyung; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Kim, Jongyul; Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong

    2012-05-01

    Recently, large-size 3-transistors (3-Tr) active pixel complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) image sensors have been being used for medium-size digital X-ray radiography, such as dental computed tomography (CT), mammography and nondestructive testing (NDT) for consumer products. We designed and fabricated 50 µm × 50 µm 3-Tr test pixels having a pixel photodiode with various structures and shapes by using the TSMC 0.25-m standard CMOS process to compare their optical characteristics. The pixel photodiode output was continuously sampled while a test pixel was continuously illuminated by using 550-nm light at a constant intensity. The measurement was repeated 300 times for each test pixel to obtain reliable results on the mean and the variance of the pixel output at each sampling time. The sampling rate was 50 kHz, and the reset period was 200 msec. To estimate the conversion gain, we used the mean-variance method. From the measured results, the n-well/p-substrate photodiode, among 3 photodiode structures available in a standard CMOS process, showed the best performance at a low illumination equivalent to the typical X-ray signal range. The quantum efficiencies of the n+/p-well, n-well/p-substrate, and n+/p-substrate photodiodes were 18.5%, 62.1%, and 51.5%, respectively. From a comparison of pixels with rounded and rectangular corners, we found that a rounded corner structure could reduce the dark current in large-size pixels. A pixel with four rounded corners showed a reduced dark current of about 200fA compared to a pixel with four rectangular corners in our pixel sample size. Photodiodes with round p-implant openings showed about 5% higher dark current, but about 34% higher sensitivities, than the conventional photodiodes.

  17. Comparative study of various pixel photodiodes for digital radiography: junction structure, corner shape and noble window opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Uk; Cho, Min-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee; Yoo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Myung-Soo; Bae, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Hyoung-Taek; Kim, Jong-Yul; Kim, Hyun-Duk; Cho, Gyu-Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Recently, large-size 3-transistors (3-Tr) active pixel complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) image sensors have been being used for medium-size digital X-ray radiography, such as dental computed tomography (CT), mammography and nondestructive testing (NDT) for consumer products. We designed and fabricated 50 μm x 50 μm 3-Tr test pixels having a pixel photodiode with various structures and shapes by using the TSMC 0.25-m standard CMOS process to compare their optical characteristics. The pixel photodiode output was continuously sampled while a test pixel was continuously illuminated by using 550-nm light at a constant intensity. The measurement was repeated 300 times for each test pixel to obtain reliable results on the mean and the variance of the pixel output at each sampling time. The sampling rate was 50 kHz, and the reset period was 200 msec. To estimate the conversion gain, we used the mean-variance method. From the measured results, the n-well/p-substrate photodiode, among 3 photodiode structures available in a standard CMOS process, showed the best performance at a low illumination equivalent to the typical X-ray signal range. The quantum efficiencies of the n+/p-well, n-well/p-substrate, and n+/p-substrate photodiodes were 18.5%, 62.1%, and 51.5%, respectively. From a comparison of pixels with rounded and rectangular corners, we found that a rounded corner structure could reduce the dark current in large-size pixels. A pixel with four rounded corners showed a reduced dark current of about 200 fA compared to a pixel with four rectangular corners in our pixel sample size. Photodiodes with round p-implant openings showed about 5% higher dark current, but about 34% higher sensitivities, than the conventional photodiodes.

  18. Comparative study of various pixel photodiodes for digital radiography: junction structure, corner shape and noble window opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong-Uk; Cho, Min-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee; Yoo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Myung-Soo; Bae, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Hyoung-Taek; Kim, Jong-Yul; Kim, Hyun-Duk; Cho, Gyu-Seong

    2012-01-01

    Recently, large-size 3-transistors (3-Tr) active pixel complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) image sensors have been being used for medium-size digital X-ray radiography, such as dental computed tomography (CT), mammography and nondestructive testing (NDT) for consumer products. We designed and fabricated 50 μm x 50 μm 3-Tr test pixels having a pixel photodiode with various structures and shapes by using the TSMC 0.25-m standard CMOS process to compare their optical characteristics. The pixel photodiode output was continuously sampled while a test pixel was continuously illuminated by using 550-nm light at a constant intensity. The measurement was repeated 300 times for each test pixel to obtain reliable results on the mean and the variance of the pixel output at each sampling time. The sampling rate was 50 kHz, and the reset period was 200 msec. To estimate the conversion gain, we used the mean-variance method. From the measured results, the n-well/p-substrate photodiode, among 3 photodiode structures available in a standard CMOS process, showed the best performance at a low illumination equivalent to the typical X-ray signal range. The quantum efficiencies of the n+/p-well, n-well/p-substrate, and n+/p-substrate photodiodes were 18.5%, 62.1%, and 51.5%, respectively. From a comparison of pixels with rounded and rectangular corners, we found that a rounded corner structure could reduce the dark current in large-size pixels. A pixel with four rounded corners showed a reduced dark current of about 200 fA compared to a pixel with four rectangular corners in our pixel sample size. Photodiodes with round p-implant openings showed about 5% higher dark current, but about 34% higher sensitivities, than the conventional photodiodes.

  19. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    simulations differed, the agreement in respect of broad flow characteristics, qualitative and quantitative, was good. This study forms a basis for further investigations on the effects of roof and side vents, fans and blowers, window design and setting changes, thermal effects, and passenger loading, as well as less expensive ...

  20. The new null testing method for the special optical window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun

    2009-07-01

    The high speed, high precision and wide range specifications are requirement for the modern aircraft, which the traditional hemispherical dome can't achieve now, and the novel conformal window instead can enhance the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft obviously. To reduce the aerodynamic drag and radar cross-section, the window geometry is generally aspheric in shape. As a result, the involved fabrication and testing processes are much more challenging than that of conventional optics and must be mastered before these windows and systems can be implemented at an acceptable cost and risk. Metrology is one of the critical areas required to advance the conformal window technology. But as the surface of these conformal windows is not the traditional sphere lens, the measurement method for it is infeasible with the conventional optics measurement processes. This paper we express the development of testing technology for the special conformal windows in brief, and emphatically introduces one available novel testing method- a new null testing, and here based on the theory of compensation methods, The principle of Offner's refractive null lens has been extended to test the transmission wavefront through conformal window optics and provide feedback during surface fabrication. a compensator system for the was designed for the conformal window is given which parameters are 100mm for its aperture and two parabolic surface as conformal window, the final residual wavefront error(RMS) of which is less than 1/20λ(λ=632.8nm).

  1. Study for optimizing the design of optical temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panpan; Sun, Zhen; Shi, Ruixin; Liu, Guofeng; Fu, Zuoling; Wei, Yanling

    2017-12-01

    The correlations between temperature sensitivity (relative sensitivity Sr and absolute sensitivity Sa) and thermally coupled level gaps (ΔE) are vital but less-studied for potential applications in scientific research, industrial production, clinical medicine, and so on. We take YbPO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+) up-conversion phosphors as a case to study the relationships between temperature sensitivity (Sr, Sa) and ΔE. The results of various discussions, including the experimental data of temperature sensitivity based on YbPO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+) and theoretical derivation from original formulas, show that Sr and ΔE are linearly positive correlation, which is invalid for Sa. Noticeably, YbPO4:Tm3+ nanoparticles display intense near infrared red emission within the biological window, leading to great potential application in biological sensing and biological imaging. All the research studies would benefit the design of optical temperature sensing.

  2. The Development of 6061-Aluminum Windows for the MICE Liquid Absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Swanson, J.

    2005-01-01

    The thin windows for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) liquid Absorber will be fabricated from 6061-T6-aluminum. The absorber and vacuum vessel thin windows are 300-mm in diameter and are 180 mm thick at the center. The windows are designed for an internal burst pressure of 0.68 MPa (100 psig) when warm. The MICE experiment design calls for changeable windows on the absorber, so a bolted window design was adopted. Welded windows offer some potential advantages over bolted windows when they are on the absorber itself. This report describes the bolted window and its seal. This report also describes an alternate window that is welded directly to the absorber body. The welded window design presented permits the weld to be ground off and re-welded. This report presents a thermal FEA analysis of the window seal-weld, while the window is being welded. Finally, the results of a test of a welded-window are presented

  3. Thermal hydraulic analysis of window target unit for LBE cooled XADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, N.I.; Neitzel, H.J.; Chen, H.Y.; Cheng, X.

    2004-10-01

    A window target unit for a LBE cooled primary core is one of the basic options considered in the framework of the Preliminary Design Study of eXperimental Accelerator Driven System (PDS-XADS). In the present work, thermal hydraulic analysis has been performed for this option focusing on the window cooling. At first system analysis has been performed for the entire target unit using the one-dimensional system code, HERETA. Then Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been carried out for lower part of the target to study the cooling capability of the window. The CFX 5.6 code has been applied using an advanced turbulence model, called Sheer Stress Transport (SST) model, combined with the advanced wall treatment available in the new CFX 5 version. The results of the HERETA calculations show that a stable natural circulation flow, with a steady state flow rate of 192 kg/s, is established. No temperature peak is observed by a start up procedure with beam ramp having a period of 200 s. It is found, however, a start up procedure with beam jump has to be avoided to prevent the overheating of the window. Based on the results of CFX 5.6 calculations, the window thickness is reduced to 2 mm in the center from the initial proposal of 3 mm in order to satisfy the thermal design limit. The maximum temperature change rate of the window under beam trips is predicted as high as 412 C/s after 0.1 s of the beam interrupt. It is judged that beam trips with a beam interrupt duration less than 1 s could also be crucial to the integrity of the window. Finally, three postulated accidents (i.e., beam focusing, loss of heat sink, and unexpected beam jump) have been analyzed to find out the time for the beam to be switched off in order to avoid window failure. The present results show that window failure occurs in 0.1∝0.8 second after the start of the beam focusing and in about 200 seconds after loss of heat sink. However, window failure is not expected for a beam jump scenario

  4. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented

  5. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented.

  6. Design of near-perfect-reconstructed transmultiplexer using different modulation techniques: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vishwakarma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient iterative method for design of near-perfect reconstructed transmultiplexer (NPR TMUX is proposed for the prescribed roll-off factor (RF and stop band attenuation (As. In this method, windowing technique has been used for the design of prototype filter, and different modulation techniques have been exploited for designing multi-channel transmultiplexer (TMUX. In this method, inter-channel interference (ICI is iteratively minimized so that it approximately reduces to ideal value zero. Design example is given to illustrate the superiority of the proposed method over earlier reported work. A comparative study of the performance of different modulation techniques for designing TMUX is also presented.

  7. Processing of gaze direction within the N170/M170 time window: A combined EEG/MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Baker, Sara; George, Nathalie

    2017-06-01

    Gaze direction is an important social signal for human beings. Beside the role of gaze in attention orienting, direct gaze (that is, gaze directed toward an observer) is a highly relevant biological stimulus that elicits attention capture and increases face encoding. Brain imaging studies have emphasized the role of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the coding of gaze direction and in the integration of gaze and head cues of social attention. The dynamics of the processing and integration of these cues remains, however, unclear. In order to address this question, we used deviated and frontal faces with averted and direct gaze in a combined electro- and magneto- encephalography (EEG-MEG) study. We showed distinct effects of gaze direction on the N170 and M170 responses. There was an interaction between gaze direction and head orientation between 134 and 162ms in MEG and a main effect of gaze direction between 171 and 186ms in EEG. These effects involved the posterior and anterior regions of the STS respectively. Both effects also emphasized the sensitivity to direct gaze. These data highlight the central role of the STS in gaze processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The importance of learning when supporting emergent technologies for energy efficiency-A case study on policy intervention for learning for the development of energy efficient windows in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Bernadett; Neij, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The role of policy instruments to promote the development and diffusion of energy efficient technologies has been repeatedly accentuated in the context of climate change and sustainable development. To better understand the impact of policy instruments and to provide insights into technology change, assessments of various kinds are needed. This study analyzes the introduction and development of energy efficient windows in Sweden and the policy incentives applied to support this process. The study focuses on the assessment of technology and market development of energy efficient windows in Sweden; and by applying the concept of learning, it assesses how conditions for learning-by-searching, learning-by-doing, learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting have been supported by different policies. The results show successful progress in technology development and an improvement in best available technology of Swedish windows from 1.8 W/m 2 K in the 1970s to 0.7 W/m 2 K in 2010; in the same time period the market share of energy efficient windows increased from 20% in 1970 (average U-value of 2.0 W/m 2 K) to 80-85% in 2010 (average U-value of 1.3-1.2 W/m 2 K). The assessment shows that various policy instruments have facilitated all four learning processes resulting in the acknowledged slow but successful development of energy efficient windows. - Highlights: → Policy instruments for learning and technology change are assessed. → The development and diffusion of energy efficient windows (EEWs) in Sweden is taken as showcase. → Learning has been supported by various policies resulting in successful development of EEWs. → The thermal performance of EEWs improved with 2/3 and their market share increased by 3/5 in 40 years. → Main policies for learning are RD and D, technology procurement, testing and voluntary initiatives.

  9. Consensus statement on round window vibroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Achille M; Todt, Ingo; Sprinzl, Georg; Profant, Milan; Schwab, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to review current knowledge regarding implantation of the Vibrant Soundbridge floating mass transducer (FMT) at the round window (round window vibroplasty) as well as to form a consensus on steps for a reliable, stable surgical procedure. Review of the literature and experimental observations by the authors. Round window (RW) vibroplasty has been established as a reliable procedure that produces good and stable results for patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss. The experience gained over the past few years of the authors' more than 200 implantations has led to consensus on several key points: (1) a wide and bloodless access to the middle ear with facial nerve monitoring, (2) the careful and correct identification and exposure of the round window membrane, (3) a good setup for efficient energy transition of the FMT, namely, perpendicular placement of the FMT with no contact to bone and the placement of cartilage behind the FMT to create a preloaded "spring" function, and (4) 4 points of FMT fixation: a rim of the round window bony overhang left intact both anterior and posterior to the FMT, conductor link stabilization, and cartilage behind the FMT. In addition, the FMT should be covered with soft tissue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design

  11. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  12. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  13. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...... and processing in design, discusses important issues on the selection of a research strategy and sums up the important variables that need to be controlled for....

  14. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented

  15. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  16. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  17. Comparative study between IMRT planning and RapidArc® sliding window for head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirani, Luiz F.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Lima, Marilia B.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the RapidArc (RA) technique in the treatment of head and neck tumors and compare the results of treatments with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the National Cancer Institute (INCA). Head and neck carcinomas have a natural history with relative expansion to others regions, especially in advanced levels. Faster treatments, with better coverage of the Planning Target Volume (PTV) and sparing more risks organs (ROs) are necessary and bring a better clinical impact. Ten patients with head and neck cancer, planned with IMRT technique were replanned using the RA technique. Some dosimetric indexes were calculated for both techniques, with the intention of verifying which of them, at the same time, would promote greater coverage of the PTV and preserve more healthy tissue. In terms of coverage, both indexes were similar. The RA technique was more efficient for delivered doses to ROs. The number of monitor units (MU), number of fields and treatments time estimated were lower than IMRT technique. Finally, the results have showed that the RA technique clearly reduces the treatment time, reducing the average and maximum dose to ROs and conforming the target as IMRT technique. (author)

  18. Engineering hot-cell windows for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.R.; Courtney, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation protection considerations in the design and construction of hot-cell windows are discussed. The importance of evaluating the potential gamma spectra and neutron source terms is stressed. 11 references

  19. Impact of floating windows on the accuracy of depth perception in games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Brodie; Zerebecki, Christopher; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Collins, Karen

    2013-03-01

    The floating window technique is commonly employed by stereoscopic 3D filmmakers to reduce the effects of window violations by masking out portions of the screen that contain visual information that doesn't exist in one of the views. Although widely adopted in the film industry, and despite its potential benefits, the technique has not been adopted by video game developers to the same extent possibly because of the lack of understanding of how the floating window can be utilized in such an interactive medium. Here, we describe a quantitative study that investigates how the floating window technique affects users' depth perception in a simple game-like environment. Our goal is to determine how various stereoscopic 3D parameters such as the existence, shape, and size of the floating window affect the user experience and to devise a set of guidelines for game developers wishing to develop stereoscopic 3D content. Providing game designers with quantitative knowledge of how these parameters can affect user experience is invaluable when choosing to design interactive stereoscopic 3D content.

  20. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  1. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  2. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  3. The Effect of Round Window vs Cochleostomy Surgical Approaches on Cochlear Implant Electrode Position: A Flat-Panel Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiam, Nicole T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Pearl, Monica S; Limb, Charles J

    2016-09-01

    The round window insertion (RWI) and cochleostomy approaches are the 2 most common surgical techniques used in cochlear implantation (CI). However, there is no consensus on which approach is ideal for electrode array insertion, in part because visualization of intracochlear electrode position is challenging, so postoperative assessment of intracochlear electrode contact is lacking. To measure and compare electrode array position between RWI and cochleostomy approaches for CI insertion. Retrospective case-comparison study of 17 CI users with Med-El standard-length electrode arrays who underwent flat-panel computed tomography scans after CI surgery at a tertiary referral center. The data was analyzed in October 2015. Flat-panel computed tomography scans were collected between January 1 and August 31, 2013, for 22 electrode arrays. The surgical technique was identified by a combination of operative notes and imaging. Eight cochleae underwent RWI and 14 cochleae underwent cochleostomy approaches anterior and inferior to the round window. Interscalar electrode position and electrode centroid distance to the osseous spiral lamina, lateral bony wall, and central axis of the modiolus. Nine participants were men, and 8, women; the mean age was 54.4 (range, 21-64) years. Electrode position was significantly closer to cochlear neural elements with RWI than cochleostomy approaches. Between the 2 surgical approaches, the RWI technique produced shorter distances between the electrode and the modiolus (mean difference, -0.33 [95% CI, -0.29 to -0.39] mm in the apical electrode; -1.42 [95% CI, -1.24 to -1.57] mm in the basal electrode). This difference, which was most prominent in the first third and latter third of the basal turn, decreased after the basal turn. The RWI approach was associated with an increased likelihood of perimodiolar placement. Opting to use RWI over cochleostomy approaches in CI candidates may position electrodes closer to cochlear neural substrates and

  4. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.

  5. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  6. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  7. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  8. Assessment of a new dynamic light regimen in a nuclear power control room without windows on quickly rotating shiftworkers--effects on health, wakefulness, and circadian alignment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, Arne; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a new dynamic light regime would improve alertness, sleep, and adaptation to rotating shiftwork. The illumination level in a control room without windows at a nuclear power station was ~200 lux (straight-forward horizontal gaze) using a weak yellow light of 200 lux, 3000 K (Philips Master TLD 36 W 830). New lighting equipment was installed in one area of the control room above the positions of the reactor operators. The new lights were shielded from the control group by a distance of >6 m, and the other operators worked at desks turned away from the new light. The new lights were designed to give three different light exposures: (i) white/blue strong light of 745 lux, 6000 K; (ii) weak yellow light of 650 lux, 4000 K; and (iii) yellow moderate light of 700 lux, 4000 K. In a crossover design, the normal and new light exposures were given during a sequence of three night shifts, two free days, two morning shifts, and one afternoon shift (NNN + MMA), with 7 wks between sessions. The operators consisted of two groups; seven reactor operators from seven work teams were at one time exposed to the new equipment and 16 other operators were used as controls. The study was conducted during winter with reduced opportunities of daylight exposure during work, after night work, or before morning work. Operators wore actigraphs, filled in a sleep/wake diary, including ratings of sleepiness on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) every 2 h, and provided saliva samples for analysis of melatonin at work (every 2nd h during one night shift and first 3 h during one morning shift). Results from the wake/sleep diary showed the new light treatment increased alertness during the 2nd night shift (interaction group × light × time, p light condition after the 3rd night shift (group × light, p Effects on circadian phase were difficult to establish given the small sample size and infrequent sampling of saliva melatonin. Nonetheless, it seems

  9. Windows of opportunity for synchronization in stochastically coupled maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovneva, Olga; Jeter, Russell; Belykh, Igor; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Several complex systems across science and engineering display on-off intermittent coupling among their units. Most of the current understanding of synchronization in switching networks relies on the fast switching hypothesis, where the network dynamics evolves at a much faster time scale than the individual units. Recent numerical evidence has demonstrated the existence of windows of opportunity, where synchronization may be induced through non-fast switching. Here, we study synchronization of coupled maps whose coupling gains stochastically switch with an arbitrary switching period. We determine the role of the switching period on synchronization through a detailed analytical treatment of the Lyapunov exponent of the stochastic dynamics. Through closed-form expressions and numerical findings, we demonstrate the emergence of windows of opportunity and elucidate their nontrivial relationship with the stability of synchronization under static coupling. Our results are expected to provide a rigorous basis for understanding the dynamic mechanisms underlying the emergence of windows of opportunity and leverage non-fast switching in the design of evolving networks.

  10. The theory of radio windows in the ionosphere and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budden, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Radio waves in a stratified plasma can sometimes penetrate through a region where, according to a simple ray theory, they would be evanescent. They emerge on the far side in a different magnetoionic mode. This occurs when the incident wave normal is within a small cone of angles, called a radio window. The best known example is the Ellis window, used to explain the Z-trace in ionosonde records. Other phenomena where windows may be important have recently been studied. Simple approximate formulae are given for the transmission coefficient of a window and for its angular widths. These show the dependence on frequency, electron concentration gradient and direction of the ambient magnetic field. Comparison with more accurate calcuations shows that these formulae are likely to be reliable in practical applications. The tracing of rays near a window is discussed, and the properties of a second kind of window are described. (author)

  11. High-Reliability Waveguide Vacuum/Pressure Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Hanson, Theodore R.; Long, Ezra M.; Montanez, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) uses commercial waveguide windows on the output waveguide of Ka-band (32 GHz) low-noise amplifiers. Mechanical failure of these windows resulted in an unacceptable loss in tracking time. To address this issue, a new Ka-band WR-28 waveguide window has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The window uses a slab of low-loss, low-dielectric constant foam that is bonded into a 1/2-wave-thick waveguide/flange. The foam is a commercially available, rigid, closed-cell polymethacrylimide. It has excellent electrical properties with a dielectric constant of 1.04, and a loss tangent of 0.01. It is relatively strong with a tensile strength of 1 MPa. The material is virtually impermeable to helium. The finished window exhibits a leak rate of less than 3x10(exp -3)cu cm/s with helium. The material is also chemically resistant and can be cleaned with acetone. The window is constructed by fabricating a window body by brazing a short length of WR-28 copper waveguide into a standard rectangular flange, and machining the resulting part to a thickness of 4.6 mm. The foam is machined to a rectangular shape with a dimension of 7.06x3.53 mm. The foam is bonded into the body with a two-part epoxy. After curing, the excess glue and foam are knife-trimmed by hand. The finished window has a loss of less than 0.08 dB (2%) and a return loss of greater than 25 dB at 32 GHz. This meets the requirements for the DSN application. The window is usable for most applications over the entire 26-to-40-GHz waveguide band. The window return loss can be tuned to a required frequency by var y in g the thickness of the window slightly. Most standard waveguide windows use a thin membrane of material bonded into a recess in a waveguide flange, or sandwiched between two flanges with a polymer seal. Designs using the recessed window are prone to mechanical failure over time due to constraints on the dimensions of the recess that allow the bond to fail. Designs using the

  12. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Stepan

    2017-12-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explanation of economic efficiency of the proposed construction.

  13. A Practical Split-Window Algorithm for Retrieving Land Surface Temperature from Landsat-8 Data and a Case Study of an Urban Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijun Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a practical split-window algorithm (SWA for retrieving land surface temperature (LST from Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS data. This SWA has a universal applicability and a set of parameters that can be applied when retrieving LSTs year-round. The atmospheric transmittance and the land surface emissivity (LSE, the essential SWA input parameters, of the Landsat-8 TIRS data are determined in this paper. We also analysed the error sensitivity of these SWA input parameters. The accuracy evaluation of the proposed SWA in this paper was conducted using the software MODTRAN 4.0. The root mean square error (RMSE of the simulated LST using the mid-latitude summer atmospheric profile is 0.51 K, improving on the result of 0.93 K from Rozenstein (2014. Among the 90 simulated data points, the maximum absolute error is 0.99 °C, and the minimum absolute error is 0.02 °C. Under the Tropical model and 1976 US standard atmospheric conditions, the RMSE of the LST errors are 0.70 K and 0.63 K, respectively. The accuracy results indicate that the SWA provides an LST retrieval method that features not only high accuracy but also a certain universality. Additionally, the SWA was applied to retrieve the LST of an urban area using two Landsat-8 images. The SWA presented in this paper should promote the application of Landsat-8 data in the study of environmental evolution.

  14. A comparative study of hearing aids and round window application of the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) for patients with mixed or conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Roberta; Linton, Nicola; Eikelboom, Robert H; Statham, Elle; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2013-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of the round window (RW) application of the vibrant soundbridge (VSB) in patients with mixed or conductive hearing loss. Speech in quiet and in noise were compared to preoperative data attained with conventional hearing aids so that each subject served as his or her own control in a single test protocol. Eighteen adults implanted monaurally with the VSB in the poorer hearing ear. Experience with the VSB ranged from nine to 25 months. Sixteen of the 18 subjects were successful VSB users, wearing their device all waking hours. There was no significant deterioration in the averaged bone conduction results preoperatively versus post-operatively (p>0.05). Speech recognition in quiet results were not significantly different to performance attained whilst wearing hearing aids (p>0.05). Speech recognition in noise performance was substantially improved with use of the VSB in most test conditions. For the majority of the subjects, the VSB was an effective method of hearing restoration for their mixed and conductive hearing loss.

  15. Nacelle design studies for advanced transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Gunnarson, D. W.; Edwards, P.

    1972-01-01

    Results are given of several analytical studies of nacelles suitable for advanced subsonic commercial transport aircraft. The impact on the nacelle of reduced aircraft noise and increased cruise Mach number is emphasized and initially developed in terms of the individual nacelle components: inlet, fan cowl, nozzle, etc. This is achieved by relating the noise and cruise speed constraints to which the aircraft system must be designed to specific limitations on the individual nacelle components. Performance assessments are then made (separately for each nacelle component) of competitive design concepts. Overall nacelle designs, synthesized on the basis of the individual component studies, are briefly discussed.

  16. Design optimization studies using COSMIC NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Bharatram, G.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create, test and document a procedure to integrate mathematical optimization algorithms with COSMIC NASTRAN. This procedure is very important to structural design engineers who wish to capitalize on optimization methods to ensure that their design is optimized for its intended application. The OPTNAST computer program was created to link NASTRAN and design optimization codes into one package. This implementation was tested using two truss structure models and optimizing their designs for minimum weight, subject to multiple loading conditions and displacement and stress constraints. However, the process is generalized so that an engineer could design other types of elements by adding to or modifying some parts of the code.

  17. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or approved...

  18. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  19. Transparency of 2μ m window of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, P.; Seignovert, B.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maltagliati, L.; Rey, M.; Sotin, C.

    2018-02-01

    Titan's atmosphere is optically thick and hides the surface and the lower layers from the view at almost all wavelengths. However, because gaseous absorptions are spectrally selective, some narrow spectral intervals are relatively transparent and allow to probe the surface. To use these intervals (called windows) a good knowledge of atmospheric absorption is necessary. Once gas spectroscopic linelists are well established, the absorption inside windows depends on the way the far wings of the methane absorption lines are cut-off. We know that the intensity in all the windows can be explained with the same cut-off parameters, except for the window at 2 μm. This discrepancy is generally treated with a workaround which consists in using a different cut-off description for this specific window. This window is relatively transparent and surface may have specific spectral signatures that could be detected. Thus, a good knowledge of atmosphere opacities is essential and our scope is to better understand what causes the difference between the 2 μm window and the other windows. In this work, we used scattered light at the limb and transmissions in occultation observed with VIMS (Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) onboard Cassini, around the 2 μm window. Data shows an absorption feature that participates to the shape of this window. Our atmospheric model fits well the VIMS data at 2 μm with the same cut-off than for the other windows, provided an additional absorption is introduced in the middle of the window around ≃ 2.065 μm. It explains well the discrepency between the cut-off used at 2 μm, and we show that a gas with a fairly constant mixing ratio, possibly ethane, may be the cause of this absorption. Finally, we studied the impact of this absorption on the retrieval of the surface reflectivity and found that it is significant.

  20. Laser induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Hurst, P.A.; Heggins, D.D.; Steele, W.A.; Bumpas, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    Laser-induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large (≤61 cm dia) fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in Nova and Beamlet lasers. If the elastic stored energy in the lens is high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces (implosion). Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: elastic stored energy (tensile stress), ratio of window thickness to flaw depth, and secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments were conducted on 15-cm dia fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. Results, combined with window failure data on Beamlet and Nova, were used to develop design criteria for a ''fail-safe'' lens (that may catastrophically fracture but not implode). Specifically, the window must be made thick enough so that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi (3.4 MPa) and the thickness/critical flaw size is less than 6. The air leak through the window fracture and into the vacuum must be rapid enough to reduce the load on the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments ''lock'' in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase, leading to further (i.e. secondary) crack growth

  1. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  2. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  3. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...

  4. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  5. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  6. Holography through optically active windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By using two orthogonally polarized reference beams, holograms can be recorded through stressed windows and the reconstructed virtual image will show no stress pattern. As shown analytically, the stress-pattern-free hologram is recordable for any polarization state of the object illumination. Hence, the more efficient nondepolarizing diffuser can be used in performing holography through stressed windows if two reference beams are used. Results are presented for a pair of machined polysulfone windows intended for use in a holographic flow-visualization setup in a single-stage-compressor test rig.

  7. Extrap conceptual fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eninger, J.E; Lehnert, B.

    1987-12-01

    A study has recently been initiated to asses the fusion reactor potential of the Extrap concept. A reactor model is defined that fulfills certain economic and environmental criteria. This model is applied to Extrap and a reference reactor is outlined. The design is optimized by varying parameters subject to both physics and engineering constraints. Several design options are examined and key engineering issues are identified and addressed. Some preliminary results and conclusions of this work are summarized. (authors)

  8. Rhetorical Design Studies: The Art of Making Design Choices Explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per L.

    2017-01-01

    . However, these are predominantly concerned with the phases to go through in a design process and the steps to take rather than informing design practitioners of how to explore their arguments of why. Concepts and theories from rhetoric are employed here to explain how designers can develop a process where......Design has the potential to affect the situations we are in, the choices we make and the beliefs we live by. Being such an affective field, one might expect that canonized design thinking models and methods would be much concerned with how designers can discover arguments for their design choices...... choices, which is concerned with not only the making of things but with affecting of situations, actions and systems. In area one, the designers reframe the problem by means of epideictic topoi—meaning that they look for values to celebrate. This leads to deliberation about values to praise...

  9. Development of actively cooled windows for plasma observation during quasi-continuous operation of the W7-X stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konig, R.; Grosser, K.; Hildebrandt, D.; Pasch, E.; Werner, T.; Klinger, T.; Ogorodnikova, O.

    2005-01-01

    With the stellarator W7-X a step to quasi-continuous plasma operation will be made. The cooling system of the machine is designed such that two 30 min discharges can be run per day. Right from the start of operation 10 MW of ECRH heating power will be available for quasi-continuous operation. A working group 'Plasma Facing Optical Components' has been formed which presently concentrates on the development of water cooled windows for UV/VR/IR periscopes which can withstand the expected maximum heat loads of up to 50 kW/m 2 which due to the predominantly short wavelength nature of the radiation emitted by the plasma will be absorbed within the first millimeter of any window. We will report on the detailed Finite Element (ANSYS R ) calculations of the heat and stress distribution across the windows. Calculations have been undertaken for a large number of different window materials which are required for the various spectral regions covered by the miscellaneous diagnostics, so that the most suitable material for each application can easily be identified. Also the dependence of the cooling rate on the window diameter and thickness has been studied. The calculations show that at a power load of 50 kW/m 2 cooled sapphire windows can be used for window sizes up to ∼200 mm diameter but that for many of the other materials like ZnSe, ZnS, CaF 2 , MgF 2 and quartz window sizes need to be limited to considerably smaller sizes. Detailed simulations of the local radiation power load distribution demonstrate that by careful design the load on individual optical components can be considerably reduced. A vacuum test chamber, equipped with a vacuum compatible IR heater has been build. In this chamber a low cost, easily exchangeable window design using Helicoflex gaskets on either side of a 60 mm exposed diameter quartz window have been successfully tested over 70 heat cycles up to a maximum temperature of 450 o C at power loads of 15 kW/m 2 . The design proved to be water and

  10. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  11. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.

  12. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong.

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs

  13. Comparison of the Window-Frame RHIC-abort kicker with C-type Kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; McMahan, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The high intensity proton bunches (~2.5x10 11 p/bunch ) circulating in RHIC increase the temperature of the ferrite-made RHIC-abort-kickers above the Curie point; as a result, the kickers cannot provide the required field to abort the beam at the beam dump. A team of experts in the CAD department worked on modifying the design of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker to minimize the hysteresis losses responsible for the increase of the ferrite's temperature. In this technical note we report some results from the study of two possible modifications of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker, and we compare these results with those of a propose C-type RHIC-abort kicker. We also include an Appendix where we describe a method which may further reduce the hysteresis losses of the window-frame kicker.

  14. Numerical predictions of the discharge coefficient of a window with moveable flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Nielsen, Peter V.; Afshari, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Discharge coefficient and wind-pressure coefficient are the key input parameters for estimating the airflow rates in naturally ventilated building designs. This paper focuses on the study of the discharge coefficient (CD) in case of a moveable (bottom-hinged) window flap. Computational fluid...... the numerical results with existing results of full-scale measurements under a laboratory conditions. The second objective is to find an accurate method to estimate the airflow rate (using orifice plate equation) in the case of a window with a moveable flap. It is done by using CFD predictions together...... with the validated turbulent model. A single value of CD (usually 0.6 to 0.65) is not appropriate for the operable window with moveable flap. The results of the simulation validates that the k-ε turbulent model can predict the airflow rates within an acceptable range, when the pressure difference (across the opening...

  15. Thermal, structural, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Phillips, W.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology have made it possible to produce thin free-standing diamond foils that can be used as the window material in high heat load, synchrotron beamlines. Numerical simulations suggest that these windows can offer an attractive and at times the only altemative to beryllium windows for use in third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, as are the microstructure characteristics bearing on diamond's performance in this role. Analytic and numerical results are also presented to provide a basis for the design and testing of such windows

  16. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150 degrees C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases

  17. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  18. LC/ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of 28 synthetic cannabinoids in neat oral fluid and its application to preliminary studies on their detection windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneisel, Stefan; Speck, Michael; Moosmann, Bjoern; Corneillie, Todd M; Butlin, Nathaniel G; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Serum and urine samples are commonly used for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in biofluids; however, their utilization as analytical matrices for drug abstinence control features some substantial drawbacks. While for blood collection invasive sampling is inevitable, the urinary analysis of synthetic cannabinoids is limited by the lack of available reference standards of the respective major metabolites. Moreover, the long detectability of synthetic cannabinoids in both matrices hampers the identification of a recent synthetic cannabinoid use. This article describes the development, validation and application of an LC/ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of 28 synthetic cannabinoids in neat oral fluid (OF) samples. OF samples were prepared by protein precipitation using ice-cold acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution on a Luna Phenyl Hexyl column (50 × 2 mm, 5 μm), while detection was carried out on a QTrap 4000 instrument in positive ionization mode. The limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.40 ng/mL, whereas the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 ng/mL. The method was applied to authentic samples collected during two preliminary studies in order to obtain insights into the general detectability and detection windows of synthetic cannabinoids in this matrix. The results indicate that synthetic cannabinoids are transferred from the blood stream into OF and vice versa only at a very low rate. Therefore, positive OF samples are due to contamination of the oral cavity during smoking. As these drug-contaminations could be detected up to approximately 2 days, neat oral fluid appears to be well suited for detection of a recent synthetic cannabinoid use.

  19. MRI versus CT-based thrombolysis treatment within and beyond the 3 h time window after stroke onset: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhrmann, Martin; Jüttler, Eric; Fiebach, Jochen B; Huttner, Hagen B; Siebert, Stefan; Schwark, Christian; Ringleb, Peter A; Schellinger, Peter D; Hacke, Werner

    2006-08-01

    Thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is approved for use within 3 h after stroke onset. Thus only a small percentage of patients can benefit. Meta-analyses and more recent studies suggest a benefit for a subset of patients beyond 3 h. We assessed the safety and efficacy of an MRI-based selection protocol for stroke treatment within and beyond 3 h compared with standard CT-based treatment. We assessed clinical outcome and incidence of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in 400 consecutive patients treated with intravenous rtPA. Patients eligible for thrombolysis within 3 h were selected by CT or MRI and beyond 3 h only by MRI. 18 patients were excluded from analysis because of violation of that algorithm. The remaining 382 patients were divided into three groups: CT-based treatment within 3 h (n=209); MRI-based treatment within 3 h (n=103); and MRI-based treatment beyond 3 h (n=70). Patients in group 3 (MRI > 3 h) had a similar 90 day outcome to those in the other two groups (48% were independent in the CT < or = 3 h group, 51% in the MRI < or = 3 h group, and 56% in group 3), but without an increased risk for symptomatic ICH (9%, 1%, 6%) or mortality (21%, 13%, 11%). MRI-selected patients overall had a significantly lower risk than CT-selected patients for symptomatic ICH (3% vs 9%; p=0.013) and mortality (12% vs 21%; p=0.021). Time to treatment did not affect outcomes in univariate and multivariate analyses. Our data suggest that beyond 3 h and maybe even within 3 h, patient selection is more important than time to treatment for a good outcome. Furthermore, MRI-based thrombolysis, irrespective of the time window, shows an improved safety profile while being at least as effective as standard CT-based treatment within 3 h.

  20. Window functions and their applications in signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhu, K M M

    2013-01-01

    Window functions-otherwise known as weighting functions, tapering functions, or apodization functions-are mathematical functions that are zero-valued outside the chosen interval. They are well established as a vital part of digital signal processing. Window Functions and their Applications in Signal Processing presents an exhaustive and detailed account of window functions and their applications in signal processing, focusing on the areas of digital spectral analysis, design of FIR filters, pulse compression radar, and speech signal processing.Comprehensively reviewing previous research and re

  1. Workload of window cleaners using ladders differing in rung separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Looze, M.P. de; Kingma, I.; Reijneveld, K.C.N.; Korte, E.M. de; Grinten, M.P. van der; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare energetic workload, perceived exertion, perceived discomfort, safety, and mechanical load at lower limb joints among window cleaners during usage of extension ladders with 30 and 35 cm rung separation. Eleven healthy male professional window cleaners

  2. Coaxial TW window for power couplers and multipactor considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, X.; Mosnier, A.

    1996-01-01

    A Traveling Wave coaxial window has been studied for power couplers purposes. The main features, a reduced electrical field in the ceramic and its multipacting free shape are presented. Multipacting simulations results for other window geometries, using a conical or a cylindrical ceramic are also showed. (author)

  3. Mastering Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The one book you absolutely need to get up and running with Windows Server 2008 R2. One of the world's leading Windows authorities and top-selling author Mark Minasi explores every nook and cranny of the latest version of Microsoft's flagship network operating system, Windows Server 2008 R2, giving you the most in-depth coverage in any book on the market.: Focuses on Windows Windows Server 2008 R2, the newest version of Microsoft's Windows' server line of operating system, and the ideal server for new Windows 7 clients; Author Mark Minasi is one of the world's leading Windows authorities and h

  4. Daylight Redirecting Window Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command NPV net present value PET polyethylene terephthalate PSA...polyethylene terephthalate [ PET ]) substrate and coated with a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) on the backside. The microstructures are designed to...lasting furnishings within the building and contributes towards overall reduced cost of ownership , and occupant health and comfort improvement

  5. Designs for mechanical circulatory support device studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaton, James D; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Gelijns, Annetine; Starling, Randall C; Mann, Douglas L; Konstam, Marvin A

    2007-02-01

    There is increased interest in mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs), such as implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), as "destination" therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. Because patient availability to evaluate these devices is limited and randomized trials have been slow in enrolling patients, a workshop was convened to consider designs for MCSD development including alternatives to randomized trials. A workshop was jointly planned by the Heart Failure Society of America and the US Food and Drug Administration and was convened in March 2006. One of the panels was asked to review different designs for evaluating new MCSDs. Randomized trials have many advantages over studies with no controls or with nonrandomized concurrent or historical controls. These advantages include the elimination of bias in the assignment of treatments and the balancing, on average, of known and unknown baseline covariates that influence response. These advantages of randomization are particularly important for studies in which the treatments may not differ from one another by a large amount (eg, a head-to-head study of an approved LVAD with a new LVAD). However, researchers have found it difficult to recruit patients to randomized studies because the number of clinical sites that can carry out the studies is not large. Also, there is a reluctance to randomize patients when the control device is considered technologically inferior. Thus ways of improving the design of randomized trials were discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of alternative designs were considered. The panel concluded that designs should include a randomized component. Randomized designs might be improved by allowing the control device to be chosen before randomization, by first conducting smaller vanguard studies, and by allowing crossovers in trials with optimal medical management controls. With use of data from completed trials, other databases, and registries, alternative

  6. Modular Stellarator Reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  7. Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  8. ARTS III/Parallel Processor Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    It was the purpose of this design study to investigate the feasibility, suitability, and cost-effectiveness of augmenting the ARTS III failsafe/failsoft multiprocessor system with a form of parallel processor to accomodate a large growth in air traff...

  9. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  10. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... for the statistical power of studies with a hierarchical structure to guide biomedical researchers designing future studies of this type. Upon model fitting it is important to examine if the model assumptions are met to avoid that spurious conclusions are drawn. While the range of diagnostic methods is extensive...... for models assuming a normal response it is generally more limited for non-normal models. An R package providing diagnostic tools suitable for examining the validity of binomial regression models have been developed. The binom Tools package is publicly available at the CRAN repository....

  11. Design study on metal fuel FBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Ogata, T.

    1991-01-01

    A design approach for metal fuel FBR core to maintain fuel integrity during transient events by limiting eutectic/liquid phase formation is proposed based on the current status of metallic fuel development. Its impact as the limitation on the core outlet temperature is assessed through its application to two of CRIEPI's core concepts, high linear power 1000 MWe homogeneous design and medium linear power 300 MWe radially heterogeneous design. SESAME/SALT code is used in this study to analyze steady state and transient fuel behavior. SE2-FA code is developed based on SUPERENERGY-2 and used to analyze core thermal-hydraulics with uncertainties. As the result, the core outlet temperatures of both designs are found to be limited to ≤500degC if it is required to prevent eutectic/liquid phase formation during operational transients in order to guarantee the fuel integrity. Additional assessment is made assuming an advanced limiting condition that allows small liquid phase formation based on the liquid phase penetration rate derived from existing experimental results. The result indicates possibility of raising core outlet temperature to ∼ 530degC. Also, it is found that core design technology improvements such as hot spot factors reduction can contribute to the core outlet temperature extension by 10 ∼ 20degC. (author)

  12. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  13. Thermodynamic studies for drug design and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2012-04-01

    A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 - 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development toward an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in the design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  14. Light transfer through windows with external condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Keyong; Li, Shaoling; Pilon, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates systematically light transfer through windows supporting cap-shaped droplets on their external face. The presence of such droplets may have negative effects on the conversion efficiency of solar cells, distorts image quality of lenses, or hinders visibility through windows and windshields. Here, the directional-hemispherical transmittance was predicted by the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. The droplets were monodisperse or polydisperse randomly distributed on the outside face of optically smooth windows. For nonabsorbing droplets, the diameter and size distribution did not have a significant effect on the window directional-hemispherical transmittance. The latter was nearly independent of contact angle for incident angle θi ≤ 30°. However, the directional-hemispherical transmittance decreased monotonously with increasing incident angle and droplet contact angle for contact angle θc ≤ 70° to reach a minimum at a contact angle θc,min beyond which it increased with increasing contact angle before reaching a plateau at large contact angles. This was attributed to total internal reflection at the back window/air and droplet/air interfaces. For absorbing droplets, the normal-hemispherical transmittance decreased significantly with increasing droplet contact angle, mean diameter, polydispersity, and projected surface area coverage due to strong absorption within the droplets. Moreover, the normal-hemispherical transmittance decreased with increasing contact angle for θcmean diameter, and contact angle for θc ≥ 90°. Finally, Analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the normal-hemispherical transmittance as a function of droplet contact angle, optical properties, and projected surface area coverage were derived.

  15. Screening design for model sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James P.; Koenig, George G.; Bruce, Dorothy

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes a different approach to sensitivity studies for environmental, including atmospheric, physics models. The sensitivity studies were performed on a multispectral environmental data and scene generation capability. The capability includes environmental physics models that are used to generate data and scenes for simulation of environmental materials, features, and conditions, such as trees, clouds, soils, and snow. These studies were performed because it is difficult to obtain input data for many of the environmental variables. The problem to solve is to determine which of the 100 or so input variables, used by the generation capability, are the most important. These sensitivity studies focused on the generation capabilities needed to predict and evaluate the performance of sensor systems operating in the infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensitivity study approach described uses a screening design. Screening designs are analytical techniques that use a fraction of all of the combinations of the potential input variables and conditions to determine which are the most important. Specifically a 20-run Plackett-Burman screening design was used to study the sensitivity of eight data and scene generation capability computed response variables to 11 selected input variables. This is a two-level design, meaning that the range of conditions is represented by two different values for each of the 11 selected variables. The eight response variables used were maximum, minimum, range, and mode of the model-generated temperature and radiance values. The result is that six of the 11 input variables (soil moisture, solar loading, roughness length, relative humidity, surface albedo, and surface emissivity) had a statistically significant effect on the response variables.

  16. climwin: An R Toolbox for Climate Window Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    When studying the impacts of climate change, there is a tendency to select climate data from a small set of arbitrary time periods or climate windows (e.g., spring temperature). However, these arbitrary windows may not encompass the strongest periods of climatic sensitivity and may lead to erroneous biological interpretations. Therefore, there is a need to consider a wider range of climate windows to better predict the impacts of future climate change. We introduce the R package climwin that provides a number of methods to test the effect of different climate windows on a chosen response variable and compare these windows to identify potential climate signals. climwin extracts the relevant data for each possible climate window and uses this data to fit a statistical model, the structure of which is chosen by the user. Models are then compared using an information criteria approach. This allows users to determine how well each window explains variation in the response variable and compare model support between windows. climwin also contains methods to detect type I and II errors, which are often a problem with this type of exploratory analysis. This article presents the statistical framework and technical details behind the climwin package and demonstrates the applicability of the method with a number of worked examples. PMID:27973534

  17. Imaging windows for long-term intravital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Maria; Ritsma, Laila; Giedt, Randy J; Weissleder, Ralph; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is increasingly used to visualize and quantitate dynamic biological processes at the (sub)cellular level in live animals. By visualizing tissues through imaging windows, individual cells (e.g., cancer, host, or stem cells) can be tracked and studied over a time-span of days to months. Several imaging windows have been developed to access tissues including the brain, superficial fascia, mammary glands, liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine among others. Here, we review the development of imaging windows and compare the most commonly used long-term imaging windows for cancer biology: the cranial imaging window, the dorsal skin fold chamber, the mammary imaging window, and the abdominal imaging window. Moreover, we provide technical details, considerations, and trouble-shooting tips on the surgical procedures and microscopy setups for each imaging window and explain different strategies to assure imaging of the same area over multiple imaging sessions. This review aims to be a useful resource for establishing the long-term intravital imaging procedure. PMID:28243510

  18. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  19. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  20. Service Design, insights from nine case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gijbels; C. van Gessel; Dr. Ir. Remko van der Lugt; Tanja Enninga; Sjoukje Sleeswijk Visser; Fenne Verhoeven; Berit Godfroij; M.M. Manschot

    2013-01-01

    Service design is literally the design of services. Service designers improve existing services or design completely new ones. Nothing new so far. Services have been around for centuries, and every service was conceived and designed by someone. However, service design takes a different angle; a

  1. Anatomic measurements of the posterior tympanum related to the round window vibroplasty in congenital aural atresia and stenosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keguang; Yin, Dongming; Lyu, Huiying; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Tianyu; Dai, Peidong

    2016-01-01

    With the aggravation of the external auditory canal malformation, the size of extra-niche fossa became smaller, providing concrete data and valuable information for the better design, selecting and safer implantation of the transducer in the area of round window niche. Three-dimensional measurements and assessments before surgery might be helpful for a safer surgical approach and implantation of a vibrant soundbridge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the morphology of the posterior tympanum related to the round window vibroplasty among congenital aural atresia (CAA), congenital aural stenosis (CAS), and a normal control group, and to analyze its effect on the round window implantation of vibrant soundbridge. CT images of 10 normal subjects (20 ears), 27 CAS patients (30 ears), and 25 CAA patients (30 ears) were analyzed. The depth and the size of outside fossa of round window niche related to the round window vibroplasty (extra-niche fossa)and the distances between the center of round window niche and extra-niche fossa were calculated based on three-dimensional reconstruction using mimics software. Finally, the data were analyzed statistically. The size of extra-niche fossa in the atresia group was smaller than in the stenosis group (p < 0.05); furthermore, the size of extra-niche fossa in the stenosis group was smaller than that of the control group (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference of the depth of extra-niche fossa among different groups.

  2. Development of dielectric window to conductor assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikinheimo, L.; Nuutinen, S.; Taehtinen, S.

    1998-01-01

    The report summarises the work done by Association Euratom-Tekes in developing manufacturing procedures for vacuum tight ceramic to metal joints and in manufacturing full scale components for the ICRF vacuum window construction. The development started at VTT Manufacturing Technology in 1996 under the Task T238.2 and continued in 1997 under the Underlying Technology tasks. In the design of the components, the following issues were addressed and resolved: (1) The choice of dielectric material; The choice is made as the best compromise among nuclear, mechanical, and thermal properties, but in due consideration of material availability, fabrication issues and response to cyclic loads, (2) Layout and detailed design. The shape of the dielectric window is optimized to minimize electric fields in the dielectric materials; The optimised field distribution is computed in a 2D geometry; The design includes thermal calculation and the cooling layout and includes provision for remote handling replacement in one block, (3) Metal/dielectric joining. The joining technology is selected and justified. Joining tests on material selections to verify the applicability has been done, the validation of the design pre-prototype tests have been carried out selectively. The steps for the manufacture of these full scale components are described in the report with the appropriate concluding remarks and suggestions for the further actions. (orig.)

  3. Comparative study between IMRT planning and RapidArc® sliding window for head and neck tumors; Estudo comparativo de planejamento entre IMRT sliding window e RapidArc® para tumores de cabeca e pescoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirani, Luiz F.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Lima, Marilia B.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: nando_lfp@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This study aims to evaluate the RapidArc (RA) technique in the treatment of head and neck tumors and compare the results of treatments with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the National Cancer Institute (INCA). Head and neck carcinomas have a natural history with relative expansion to others regions, especially in advanced levels. Faster treatments, with better coverage of the Planning Target Volume (PTV) and sparing more risks organs (ROs) are necessary and bring a better clinical impact. Ten patients with head and neck cancer, planned with IMRT technique were replanned using the RA technique. Some dosimetric indexes were calculated for both techniques, with the intention of verifying which of them, at the same time, would promote greater coverage of the PTV and preserve more healthy tissue. In terms of coverage, both indexes were similar. The RA technique was more efficient for delivered doses to ROs. The number of monitor units (MU), number of fields and treatments time estimated were lower than IMRT technique. Finally, the results have showed that the RA technique clearly reduces the treatment time, reducing the average and maximum dose to ROs and conforming the target as IMRT technique. (author)

  4. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  5. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  6. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  7. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  8. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  9. Parametric study for design of thermal sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.B.; Mehra, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal sleeves are used inside nozzle in many reactor components. Basic aim in design of thermal sleeve is to arrive at a set of dimensions for gap and annulus length, which will give rise to minimum thermal gradient in the base metal of the associated nozzle. Study includes the minimisation of the thermal gradient in the crotch zone by suitable choice of gap and annulus length. Three different geometries of nozzle radii 50.00 mm., 100 mm. and 200.0 mm. are studied for single and two concentric thermal sleeves model. The paper also presents effect of parameters like velocity of flow, temperature of fluid, materials etc. on the design of thermal sleeves. (orig.)

  10. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  11. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  12. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II

    1986-01-01

    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  13. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  14. IFMIF - Design Study for in Situ Creep Fatigue Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Simakov, St.; Stratmanns, E.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.

    2006-01-01

    While the high flux volume (20-50 dpa/fpy) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is dedicated to the irradiation of ∼ 1100 qualified specimens that will be post irradiation examined after disassembling in dedicated Hot Cells, various in situ experiments are foreseen in the medium flux volume (1-20 dpa/fpy). Of specific importance for structural lifetime assessments of fusion power reactors are instrumented in situ creep-fatigue experiments, as they can simulate realistically a superposition of thermal fatigue or creep fatigue and irradiation with fusion relevant neutrons. Based on former experience with in situ fatigue tests under high energy light ion irradiation, a design study has been performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ creep fatigue tests in the IFMIF medium flux position. The vertically arranged test module for such experiments consists basically of a frame similar to a universal testing machine, but equipped with three pulling rods, driven by independent step motors, instrumentation systems and specimen cooling systems. Therefore, three creep fatigue specimens may be tested at one time in this apparatus. Each specimen is a hollow tube with coolant flow in the specimen interior to maintain individual specimen temperatures. The recently established IFMIF global 3D geometry model was used together the latest McDeLicious code for the neutral and charged particle transport calculations. These comprehensive neutronics calculations have been performed with a fine special resolution of 0.25 cm 3 , showing among others that the specimens will be irradiated with a homogeneous damage rate of up to 13(∼ 9%) dpa/fpy and a fusion relevant damage to helium ratio of 10-12 appm He/dpa. In addition, damage and gas production rates as well as the heat deposition in structural parts of the test module have been calculated. Despite of the vertical gradients in the nuclear heating, CFD code calculations with STAR-CD revealed very

  15. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Joni

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  16. Potential and challenges of interdisciplinary research on historical window glass, stained glass and reverse glass paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümpler, Stefan; Wolf, Sophie; Kessler, Cordula; Goll, Jürg

    The interdisciplinary study of ancient materials has become an increasingly common strategy, mainly because it has proved to be a highly rewarding approach to studying the age, provenance and production of archaeological objects. The results of such an approach sometimes also provide answers to questions relating not only to socio-cultural, economic or technological developments in a particular region or period (trade, innovation, production etc.), but also the conservation of the materials or artefacts in question. A number of analytical methods, ranging from microscopic to elementary analyses, have been successfully applied to determine the nature of materials and technologies used in the production, as well as to identify the provenance of ancient glass. As far as window glass and stained glass is concerned, the study of architectural context and art history - as well as the technological characteristics of materials - has proved to be most helpful in determining history, production and artistic importance of the objects under study. This paper discusses some of the multidisciplinary studies that the Vitrocentre Romont has conducted on early medieval window glass, stained glass and reverse glass paintings and illustrates the potential of a holistic approach in solving questions about materials, techniques, window design and conservation. It also addresses the limitations of the approach, which are often related to finding appropriate (i.e. non-destructive and possibly portable) methods for the analysis of sometimes extremely fragile stained glass windows.

  17. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  18. Optically transmissive window on ITER port cell door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Kunal; Walsh, Mike; Phillips, Guy; Parsons, Phil; Balshaw, Nick; Hank, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In the ITER Thomson Scattering Core LIDAR system there are currently three concepts for collecting scattered light from the plasma and delivering it to the diagnostic room. An option to use a broadband mirror in Cassegrain configuration has been explored. In this concept a large optical window, 1.5 m in diameter, is required in the port cell door. This could be manufactured in a number of ways, including using a single thick window or mosaic arrangement with a supporting structure. Challenges associated with this design include maintaining the secondary confinement barrier, withstanding a pressure differential of 0.5 bar across the window in foreseeable fault conditions, and maintaining the optical properties of the window. It must also be possible to protect the window when work is being carried out in the area. Fracture analysis for brittle material was carried out, for a flaw size with a length to depth ratio of 80/20, which gave a safety reserve factor of 4. The flaw size was based on a standard optical transmissive lens for collection light. A static analysis was carried out on both options of having a single thick glass window or a mosaic arrangement. The principal stress for a single window arrangement is 12 MPa and for a proposed mosaic arrangement is 12.5 MPa. The analyses have demonstrated that a single glass window with a thickness of 42 mm would be mechanically acceptable but expensive to manufacture and it would be difficult to polish glass of that size to lens quality. By comparison in the proposed mosaic window arrangement, the glass thickness is reduced by 50% with the aid of the supporting structure. As a result of the supporting structure the geometrical optical losses are 4%, which are mechanically and optically acceptable, whilst significantly reducing the cost of manufacturing.

  19. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  20. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  1. Advanced Control of Electrochromic Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Zarkadis, Nikos; Morel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In our research we use the technology of electrochromic (EC) glazing to maximize the use of daylight and minimize the energy consumption in buildings while preserving visual and thermal comfort of the users. We propose an advanced automatic control of EC windows coupled with an anidolic daylighting system (ADS), blinds and dimmable fluorescent lights. EC windows with a visible transmittance range (Tv) of 0.15 – 0.50 were installed on the southern façade of an office room of the LESO experimen...

  2. What's New in Windows Vista?

    CERN Document Server

    Culp, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Get ready for a quick blast through this significant change to Windows! This guide will give you a quick look at many of the most significant new features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in nearly six years. Starting with the changes to the interface, introducing Aero, and showing you some visuals, we then move on to the completely revamped search options. The new task scheduler and printing gadgets, are next with some cool new changes. Probably the most significant changes, however, come in the area of security and this guide takes a look at them from user priveleges, to

  3. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  4. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  5. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  6. Window to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kama

    2018-01-01

    Although formal papers are typical, sometimes posters or other visual presentations are more useful tools for sharing visual-spatial information. By incorporating creativity and technology into the study of geographical science, STEM (the study of Science, Technology Engineering, and Mathematics) is changed to STEAM (the A stands for ART)! The…

  7. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  8. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathav...

  9. Design study of a flexible diaphragm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whatley, M E; Morgan, J G

    1982-10-01

    A design study was made to meet the requirements for a diaphragm for a rotary seal at the discharge end of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program`s prototypic voloxidizer. Using a computer program called NEPSAP, the study examined thickness, outer radius, corrugation wavelength and corrugation amplitude as variables, and established the general effect of each on stiffness and stresses. The result comprises a basis for the selection of diaphragms for similar applications. Limited experimental measurements of stress validate the stress values calculated by NEPSAP.

  10. Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R.; Ellis, R.; Johnson, D.; Park, H.; Lee, H. G.

    2005-09-26

    A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics.

  11. Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, R.; Ellis, R.; Johnson, D.; Park, H.; Lee, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics

  12. Quantitative methods for studying design protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Jeff WT

    2017-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers and students who would like to engage in and deepen their understanding of design cognition research. The book presents new approaches for analyzing design thinking and proposes methods of measuring design processes. These methods seek to quantify design issues and design processes that are defined based on notions from the Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) design ontology and from linkography. A linkograph is a network of linked design moves or segments. FBS ontology concepts have been used in both design theory and design thinking research and have yielded numerous results. Linkography is one of the most influential and elegant design cognition research methods. In this book Kan and Gero provide novel and state-of-the-art methods of analyzing design protocols that offer insights into design cognition by integrating segmentation with linkography by assigning FBS-based codes to design moves or segments and treating links as FBS transformation processes. They propose and test ...

  13. New York City's window guard policy: four decades of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprani, Amita; Robinson, Martha; Middleton Iii, James K; Hamade, Ali; Merrill, Thomas

    2018-04-06

    Preventing child falls from windows is easily accomplished by installing inexpensive window-limiting devices but window falls remain a common cause of child injuries. This article describes the history and evolution of the New York City (NYC) window guard rule,which requires building owners to install window guards in apartments housing children aged ≤10 years. The NYC window guard rule was the first directive of its kind in the USA when it was adopted in 1976, and it has led to a dramatic and long-lasting reduction in child window fall-related injuries and deaths. Data about the history of the window guard rule were obtained by reviewing programmatic records, correspondence, legal decisions and the published literature. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted with programme staff. This article describes each stage of policy development, starting with epidemiological studies defining the scope of the problem in the 1960s and pilot-testing of the window guard intervention. We describe the adoption, implementation and enforcement of the rule. In addition, we show how the rule was modified over time and document the rule's impact on window fall incidence in NYC. We describe litigation that challenged the rule's constitutionality and discuss the legal arguments used by opponents of the rule. Finally, we discuss criminal and tort liability as drivers of compliance and summarise lessons learnt. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  15. Study designs in dermatology: Practical applications of study designs and their statistics in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of study designs and related statistical methodology is necessary for clinical dermatologists to critically read scientific literature and incorporate this information into clinical practice. This review focuses on how to identify the appropriate use of study designs and the statistical methodology used therein. Topics covered include population sampling and generalizability, power and sample size calculations, correction for multiple statistical testing, and how to identify the appropriate use of statistics. The impact of improved study designs in previously controversial topics in dermatology will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis

  17. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  18. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are interesting to study as they reflect the subject’s ability to predict movement of external targets, keep focus and move the eyes appropriately. The process of smooth pursuit requires collaboration between several systems in the brain and the resulting action may p...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  19. Developing an intelligent control system of automatic window motor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With embedded system design, these sensors are capable of delivering WSN signal packets based on ZigBee protocol that follows the IEEE 802.14.4 standards. The primary hardware of the system is the window motor with circuit design by integrating micro control unit (MCU), radio frequency (RF) and WSN antenna to ...

  20. Implementasi Filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR Window Hamming dan Blackman menggunakan DSK TMS320C6713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LITA LIDYAWATI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Filter didefinisikan sebagai proses atau rangkaian yang melewatkan pita frekuensi tertentu yang diinginkan dan meredam pita frekuensi lainnya. Salah satu metode perancangan filter digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR adalah metode windowing. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan jenis window Hamming dan Blackman. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan software Matlab dengan memasukan frekuensi passband, frekuensi stopband, ripple passband, dan stopband attenuation. Dengan frekuensi sampling sebesar 15000 Hz, frekuensi passband sebesar 3000 Hz, frekuensi stopband sebesar 5000 Hz. Setelah simulasi dilakukan implementasi filter dengan parameter yang sama menggunakan DSK TMS 320C6713 dengan bantuan software CCS. Simulasi dan implementasi dilakukan pada semua band frekuensi. Hasil pengujian terhadap implementasi filter adalah respon magnitude, frekuensi cut-off, bandwidth, dan faktor kualitas dengan hasil simulasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: filter digital, windowing, Hamming, Blackman, frekuensi cut-off . ABSTRACT Filter is defined as a process or series that skip certain desired frequency band and other frequency bands drown. One method of designing a digital filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR is a windowing method. This study used the type of window Hamming and Blackman. Simulations performed using Matlab software by inserting a frequency passband, stopband frequency, passband ripple, and stopband attenuation. With a sampling frequency of 15,000 Hz, a frequency of 3000 Hz passband, stopband frequency of 5000 Hz. After the simulation is completed, implementation of the filter with the same parameters using TMS 320C6713 DSK with the help of software CCS. Simulation and implmentasi performed on all frequency bands. The test results of the implementation of the filter is the Magnitude response, the cut-off frequency, bandwidth, and quality factor with simulation results showed no significant difference. Keywords: digital