WorldWideScience

Sample records for windfall profit taxes

  1. Imperfect tax competition for profits, asymmetric equilibrium and beneficial tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of tax competition for real investment and profits and show that the presence of tax havens in some cases increases the tax revenue of countries. In the first part of the paper, we argue that tax competition for profits is likely to be imperfect in the sense that the jurisdiction......-tax countries. In the second part of the paper, we introduce tax havens. Starting from a symmetric equilibrium, tax havens unambiguously reduce the tax revenue of countries due to a ‘leakage effect' - tax havens attract tax base from countries - and a 'competition effect' - the optimal response to the increased...... tax sensitivity of tax bases involves a reduction of tax rates. Starting from an asymmetric equilibrium, however, tax havens also raise the tax revenue of countries through a 'crowding effect' - tax havens make it less attractive to compete for profits and thus induce low-tax countries to become high...

  2. 26 CFR 1.884-1 - Branch profits tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., even if A invests the proceeds from the dividend in additional stock of the REIT. (Stock in a REIT that... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch profits tax. 1.884-1 Section 1.884-1...) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.884-1 Branch profits tax. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation...

  3. Taxes, bankruptcy costs, and capital structure in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean S; Yang, Jie; Carroll, Nathan

    2018-02-01

    About 60% of the US hospitals are not-for-profit and it is not clear how traditional theories of capital structure should be adapted to understand the borrowing behavior of not-for-profit hospitals. This paper identifies important determinants of capital structure taken from theories describing for-profit firms as well as prior literature on not-for-profit hospitals. We examine the differential effects these factors have on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, we use a difference-in-differences regression framework to study how differences in leverage between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals change in response to key explanatory variables (i.e. tax rates and bankruptcy costs). The sample in this study includes most US short-term general acute hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We find that personal and corporate income taxes and bankruptcy costs have significant and distinct effects on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, relative to not-for-profit hospitals: (1) higher corporate income tax encourages for-profit hospitals to increase their debt usage; (2) higher personal income tax discourages for-profit hospitals to use debt; and (3) higher expected bankruptcy costs lead for-profit hospitals to use less debt. Over the past decade, the capital structure of for-profit hospitals has been more flexible as compared to that of not-for-profit hospitals. This may suggest that not-for-profit hospitals are more constrained by external financing resources. Particularly, our analysis suggests that not-for-profit hospitals operating in states with high corporate taxes but low personal income taxes may face particular challenges of borrowing funds relative to their for-profit competitors.

  4. Deferred Tax Assets and Deferred Tax Expense Against Tax Planning Profit Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the probability of earnings management performed by Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in the period 2011-2015. How to do the management to influence the accounting numbers can be either profit management through deferred tax assets, deferred tax expense and tax planning in the financial statements. This paper examines the effect of deferred tax assets deferred tax burden, and tax planning to earnings management conducted by the company. Data of the research is to use secondary data from company financial statements that were downloaded from the official website of Indonesia Stock Exchange. Using sampling technique is performed by purposive sampling. The study population is the Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period 2011-2015. The study take sample as many as 34 companies Property and Real Estate in the Stock Exchange in 2011-2015. Hypothesis testing uses multiple regressions with SPSS software version 22. The result shows that the Deferred Tax Assets positive and significant effect on earnings management; while deferred tax expense and tax planning significant negative effect on earnings management.

  5. The Relation between Accounting Result and Tax Result in the Case of the Profit Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Băcanu Mihaela-Nicoleta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting and taxation are two connected domains in Romania. The proof that these areconnected is the computation of the profit tax, for which the tax result is computed based on theaccounting result. The scope of the paper is to present what is the relation between accountingresult and tax result. There is a direct relation but also an indirect relation between the two results,taking into consideration the way of computing the tax result, but also the professional judgment,when the revenues and the expenses are recorded in the accounting register. The paper alsoanalyzes which one of the two results influences the other result.

  6. Estimating profit shifting in South Africa using firm-level tax returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wier, Ludvig

    2016-01-01

    Using the universe of South African corporate tax returns for 2009–14, we estimate profit- and debt-shifting responses in South Africa. We find evidence that South African subsidiaries engage in profit shifting and that profit-shifting responses to tax incentives across all channels...

  7. 26 CFR 1.960-1 - Foreign tax credit with respect to taxes paid on earnings and profits of controlled foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation. (5) Foreign income taxes. The term “foreign income taxes” means income, war profits, and excess profits taxes, and taxes included in the term “income, war profits, and excess profits taxes” by reason of... functional currency is the u. In 1998 CFC earns 100u of general limitation income described in section 904(d...

  8. 26 CFR 1.901-2 - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income from Sources Without the United States § 1... pursuant to a foreign country's authority to levy taxes is determined by principles of U.S. law and not by... pursuant to the foreign country's authority to levy taxes is not determinative that, under U.S. principles...

  9. Study of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labyntsev Mykola T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the degree of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and some foreign countries – USA, France and Germany. The legal principle – common law or unified law – is taken as a criterion. The article shows that existence of the system of tax accounting by one tax (organisation profit tax separately from the financial accounting in Russia from 2002 is not rational. At present Russia actively develops a variant of making financial accounting and tax accounting closer without a principal reconstruction of norms of tax legislation. Low level of interconnection of tax accounting and financial accounting is characteristic for the USA, which is one of the founders of the British-American (British-American-Dutch in interpretation of some authors accounting model. The level of interconnection of norms of financial and tax accounting is rather high in France and Germany and the taxation policy of the theoretical base of the accounting system, which allows speaking about the French-German accounting model.

  10. The determinants of opting for the German group taxation regime with regard to taxes on corporate profits

    OpenAIRE

    Oestreicher, Andreas; Koch, Reinald

    2009-01-01

    Forming a tax group for corporate and trade tax purposes in Germany has its advantages in terms of tax savings for the companies concerned. Depending on the profit situation, for certain companies these benefits were extended by the 2001 German corporate tax reform. However, setting up a tax group in Germany is also accompanied by certain disadvantages for the consolidated companies, resulting especially from the assumption of increased liability for subsidiaries’ losses. The objective of thi...

  11. Profit-shifting from Czech multinational companies to European tax havens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Kokeš, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 16 (2016), s. 1130-1133 ISSN 1350-4851 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020039; GA ČR GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : corporate tax * base erosion * profit-shifting Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.478, year: 2016

  12. Corporate tax base erosion and profit shifting out of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Kokeš, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2015), s. 537-546 ISSN 1463-1377 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020039; GA ČR GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : corporate tax base erosion * Czech Republic * profit shifting Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2015

  13. Health care joint ventures between tax-exempt organizations and for-profit entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    Health care exempt organizations have many options regarding their structure and affiliations with for-profit entities. As long as any joint ventures are carefully structured and the nonprofit retains control over the exempt health care activities, the Internal Revenue Service should not question the structure. However, as outlined above, if the for-profit entity effectively gains control over the activities of the venture, the structure is not likely to be upheld by the IRS or the courts, and either the exempt status of the nonprofit will be denied or revoked, or health care income will be subject to the unrelated business income tax. In summary, the health care industry has been severely impacted by many economic forces, including uncertainty in the area of joint ventures between nonprofits and for-profit health care systems. The uncertainty as to whether the joint venture would negatively impact the nonprofit's tax-exempt status undoubtedly caused many nonprofits to form for-profit subsidiaries and otherwise expanded operations in a for-profit marketplace. Fortunately, with the guidance that is currently available in the form of Revenue Ruling 98-15, Redlands, St. David's, and now Revenue Ruling 2004-51, health care institutions can move forward with properly structured joint ventures with greater confidence that the joint venture will not endanger the tax-exempt status of the nonprofit.

  14. Profit shifting in the Norwegian and British petroleum industry: Differentiating between the real and shifting response to tax changes

    OpenAIRE

    Vada, Helene

    2016-01-01

    In this master’s thesis, I explain the concept of profit shifting within multinational enterprises and investigate whether petroleum companies on the Norwegian and British continental shelves engage in tax motivated profit shifting, by applying ordinary least squares and company fixed effects estimation. To be able to distinguish between traditional tax distortions and profit shifting, I extend the model developed by James R. Hines and Eric M. Rice in their 1994 article “Fiscal Paradise: Fore...

  15. PROFIT TAX OR INCOME TAX? OPTIONS FOR FISCAL OPTIMIZATION OF ROMANIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs usually seek for solutions to reduce their tax burden. We can speak about tax optimization as long as these solutions are in accordance with the law; if they are not, they obviously fall into the area of fiscal fraud. This paper addresses the issue of taxation applicable to the Romanian micro-enterprises. These are small entities that fulfil certain conditions regarding total turnover, equity and domain of activity. Although the provisions applying to micro-enterprise taxation were elaborated, among others, with the intention to reduce tax evasion, they also allow the micro-enterprises with losses to avoid tax payment. In a country with low purchasing power and a great number of taxes and fees like Romania, the entrepreneurs are tempted to use any kind of method to reduce the payments due to the state budget. The micro-enterprise owners make no exception in this matter.

  16. STUDY CONCERNING THE IMPACT OF PROFIT TAX ON THE COMPANIES’ ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the fiscal reform in Romania, the harmonization of the law regarding the profit tax with the community one prompted deep alterations aimed namely at: the scope (the taxation of the foreign legal people and of the incomes from external sources, the non-deductible and fiscally deductible amounts, the facilities granted to the taxpayers, the way of covering the fiscal losses etc. This harmonization was intended to avoid the double taxation of the incomes made from activities carried out by economical agents in several states of the European Union space. This means finding encouraging solutions to the cross border activities by renouncing the discriminatory fiscal rules by which the incomes are taxed twice, with the later return of the taxes in one of the states.

  17. A comparison of fuel savings in the residential and commercial sectors generated by the installation of solar heating and cooling systems under three tax credit scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moden, R.

    An analysis of expected energy savings between 1977 and 1980 under three different solar tax credit scenarios is presented. The results were obtained through the solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB) commercialization model. This simulation provides projected savings of conventional fuels through the installation of solar heating and cooling systems on buildings in the residential and commercial sectors. The three scenarios analyzed considered the tax credits contained in the Windfall Profits Tax of April 1980, the National Tax Act of November 1978, and a case where no tax credit is in effect.

  18. An empirical investigation of for-profit and tax-exempt nonprofit hospitals engaged in joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela C

    2004-01-01

    Joint ventures between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals offer opportunities for collaboration to increase efficiency. These transactions have attracted the attention of the Internal Revenue Service, which may threaten tax-exempt status. This article analyzes inherent financial characteristics of nonprofit hospitals that joint venture with for-profit hospitals and those that choose not to joint venture.

  19. 26 CFR 1.901-2T - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of tax paid. (3) Direct investment. The U.S. party's proportionate share of the foreign payment or... controlled for U.S. tax purposes: (i) The classification of the SPV (or an entity that has a direct or... of the SPV for one or more tax years during which the arrangement is in effect. (C) Definitions. The...

  20. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  1. 26 CFR 1.960-4 - Additional foreign tax credit in year of receipt of previously taxed earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional foreign tax credit in year of... Foreign Corporations § 1.960-4 Additional foreign tax credit in year of receipt of previously taxed... inclusion either chose to claim a foreign tax credit as provided in section 901 or did not pay or accrue any...

  2. Non-conventional fuel tax credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeoet, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Coal-seam methane, along with certain other non-conventional fuels, is eligible for a tax credit. This production tax credit allowed coal-seam methane producers to receive $0.7526 per million Btu of gas sold during 1986. In 1987, this credit rose to $0.78 per million Btu. The tax credit is a very significant element of the economic analysis of current coal-seam methane projects. In today's spot market, gas prices are around $1.50 per million Btu. Allowing for costs of production, the gas producer will net more income from the tax credit than from the sale of the gas. The Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 is the source of this tax credit. There were some minor changes made by subsequent legislation, but most of the tax credit has remained intact. Wells must be drilled by 1990 to qualify for the tax credit but the production from such wells is eligible for the tax credit until 2001. Projections have been made, showing that the tax credit should increase to $0.91 per million Btu for production in 1990 and $1.34 per million Btu in 2000. Variables which may decrease the tax credit from these projections are dramatically lower oil prices or general economic price deflation

  3. The influence of temporary differences between accounting and tax revenues, proprietary costs and liquidity on profit growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURAMALIA HASANAH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the influence of temporary differences between accounting profit and tax, proprietary costs, and Liquidity toward earnings growth of the companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX 2011-2012. The factors examined in this study are temporary differences between accounting profit and tax, proprietary costs, and liquidity as an independent variable, while earnings growth has the dependent variable. This study used a descriptive quantitative method using secondary data and the number of samples collected was thirty- eight (38 that have met the criteria the researchers used purposive sampling. From the data that has been collected and then processed and analyzed using multiple regression analysis with a significance level of 0.05. This research proves temporary differences between accounting profit and tax has no significant influence on earnings growth, proprietary cost has no significant influence on earnings growth, and liquidity has negatively significant influence earnings growth. Temporary differences between accounting profit and tax, proprietary costs, and liquidity together or simultaneously significant influence toward the earnings growth.

  4. Impact of payroll taxes for small shoe manufacturing enterprises profit generation in Bogota city 15th district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we illustrate the financial difficulties that payroll taxes would impose on small shoe manufacturing enterprises in Bogota City 15th district and how this would impose some restrictions for firms profit generation, when such contributions turns out to be a fixed cost. We present a brief on the legal framework as well as an econometric exercise that shows the relations between labor costs and profit generation for the footwear industry in the 15th urban district of Bogotá city.

  5. Correlation Assessment of Tax System Risk and Profitability in the Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yuryevna Malkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the risk, returnm and efficiency of the tax systems in the regions of the Russian Federation. Research methods: deflating GRP and tax revenues at regional level; calculating the standard deviations; G. Markowitz portfolio approach; W. Sharpe ratio calculating; correlation and regression analysis. Results obtained: 1 comparative risk profile of various taxes and their groups in the Russian Federation; 2 clustering the Russian regions in terms of risk and return of tax systems; 3 regression between the risk of regional tax systems, relative scale of regional economics and tax return based on panel data of the Russian regions in 2006-2012; 4 ranking of the RF regions on the effectiveness of their tax systems, estimated by W. Sharpe ratio. In the paper, the authors have concluded: 1 all taxes (tax group collected in the Russian regions demonstrate a positive statistical relationship between return and risk, but with different correlation; 2 the risk of regional tax system depends on the structure of tax revenues in given region, the risks of collected taxes and the covariance of different taxes revenues to each other, and joint effect of these factors is estimated by means of portfolio approach by G. Markowitz; 3 the correlation between return and risk of the tax systems of the subjects of Russian Federation considering the scale of regional economics accounts for 75 %; 4 the risk of the Russian tax system is significantly provided by 19 major high-risk regions with more than 65 share in the total state tax revenues; 5 the effectiveness of regional tax systems estimated by the Sharpe ratio depends on both the objective and subjective factors affecting the yield and volatility of tax revenues in a region. Obtained results can be used by researchers in further dynamic and comparative analysis of regional tax systems’ risk and return, as well as in identifying the reserves for increasing the regional tax policy

  6. Resource windfalls: how to use them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannesson, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers how a windfall gain in unextracted mineral wealth should be allocated between immediate consumption and capital accumulation. This is investigated in both a neoclassical growth model with diminishing returns to capital and a model with constant returns, as in the theory of endogenous growth. The highest investment share occurs in the endogenous growth model. The investment share is found to be sensitive to the productivity of capital and the rate of utility discount. The model abstracts from price increases and technological progress in the mineral industry, and also ignores investment costs in extraction. (Author)

  7. The effect of fossil energy and other environmental taxes on profit incentives for change in an open economy: Evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Allan; Ayatakshi, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the underlying supply and demand analysis of fossil energy and other environmental taxes needs further elaboration when a country (a) introduces national fossil energy or environmental taxes and (b) is open to international trade at given world prices. We provide evidence that such conditions are plausible for many sectors in the UK. A key implication is that the short run effects of such taxes should not be felt in final good prices, since these are determined in world markets, but in terms of underlying profitability. These changes in underlying profits provide two key incentives for producers—to change to more environmentally friendly production techniques and to switch resources to production of less environmentally harmful goods. Using input—output techniques we provide evidence for the UK to show how existing fossil energy and other “green” taxes have affected underlying profitability. The evidence shows quite strong profit incentives to shift resources from a small number of energy intensive industries to others. - Highlights: • Energy taxes affect profits more than prices for sectors trading at world prices. • This study suggests that many sectors in the UK satisfy these conditions. • Our evidence suggests that few sectors are strongly affected by energy taxes. • Energy taxes have a strong effect relative to other possible environmental taxes

  8. Costs and Benefits of Stopping the Clock. How Airlines Profit from Changes in the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelissen, D.; Faber, J.

    2012-12-15

    All flights arriving at or departing from EU airports have been included in the EU ETS from the beginning of 2012. Airlines have to surrender allowances for emissions on flights to and from EU airports. A share of the allowances has been issued to the airlines for free, the remainder needs to be acquired at an auction or from the market. In November 2012, the European Commission proposed to exempt intercontinental flights from the EU ETS for 2012, an initiative branded as 'Stopping the Clock'. As a result of this change, airlines on intercontinental routes are likely to experience additional windfall profit, since they have probably anticipated ETS-related expenditures on these routes, which they will now not incur. In addition, all airlines have a windfall profit since they are likely to pass on the value of the free allowances, as has been demonstrated to happen in all other sectors that have received free allowances. This note estimates the windfall profits. The report distinguishes two types of windfall profits: (1) Profits that occur because the opportunity costs of free allowances received for intercontinental flights have been passed on. These windfall profits would also have occurred without the 'stop the clock' exemption. We call them ETS Windfall. (2) Profits that occur because airlines have raised their revenues on intercontinental flights, but will not need to buy allowances either at the auction or from other actors because of the exemption. We call them Stopping the Clock Windfall. Depending on the cost pass through, the total windfall profits range from euro 679 million to euro 1,358 million. About a third of these windfall profits arise from the exemption of intercontinental flights. EU airlines are expected to reap the largest share of the windfall due to the change in regulation (55%), followed by US airlines (13%).

  9. Introduction of a Uranium tax in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In Finland, it is possible to create a tax model on uranium that will not compromise the profitability of future power plant investments or decisively reduce climate policy incentives for carbon-free energy production. The rise in energy costs caused by the tax could be compensated by lowering the electricity tax imposed on industry. The estimates above were made by Managing Director Pasi Holm and Professor Markku Ollikainen, who, on 4 February 2011, handed over their report concerning introduction of uranium tax to Minister of Economic Affairs Mauri Pekkarinen. According to the administrators, one can deem nuclear power to include specific grounds for imposing a tax via the fact that storage of used nuclear fuel involves a (infinitesimally small) risk of accidents with irreversible effects, and that, through the EU climate policy, nuclear power companies gain extra profit 'for nothing', i.e. windfall profit. The EU Energy Tax Directive facilitates collection of uranium tax. Uranium tax, imposed as an excise tax, would target the nuclear power plants in operation as well as the Olkiluoto 3 plant, presently under construction. The amount of uranium fuel used would serve as the basis of taxation. Holm and Ollikainen introduce two tax models, adjustable in a manner that the uranium tax would yield revenues of approximately EUR 100 million a year. The companies would still keep more than half of the profit and the state, depending on the model used, would collect 43 to 45 per cent of it via the tax. In the minimum tax model, the uranium tax is 44.5 of the difference between the market price of emission allowance and the average price of 2010 (EUR 15/tonne of CO 2 ), used as the comparison price, the minimum being EUR 2/MWh. The tax would yield a minimum of EUR 67 million to the state a year. When the emission allowance price rises to EUR 30, the tax would be EUR 6.7/MWh and the state would earn revenues of EUR 223 million. In a flexible tax model, the fixed part of the

  10. Brazil's COFINS Tax: An Empirical Study of the Change in the Calculation Rules on the Profits of Companies Listed on the BOVESPA and its Impact on Federal Tax Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Fernando Alberto Dutra; Teixeira, Arilton; Baptista, Ézio C. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates whether the alteration in the rules for calculating the COFINS tax has affected the profits of companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA), subdivided into 18 economic sectors. We have also studied the effects of this change on the revenue raised by COFINS and on overall federal tax revenues. The study has an explanatory nature and instrumental experimentation is theoretical and empirical, it makes use of regression analysis of time series and p...

  11. The impact of Production Tax Credits on the profitable production of electricity from wind in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Lu; Tchou, Jeremy; McElroy, Michael B.; Nielsen, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    A spatial financial model using wind data derived from assimilated meteorological condition was developed to investigate the profitability and competitiveness of onshore wind power in the contiguous U.S. It considers not only the resulting estimated capacity factors for hypothetical wind farms but also the geographically differentiated costs of local grid connection. The levelized cost of wind-generated electricity for the contiguous U.S. is evaluated assuming subsidy levels from the Production Tax Credit (PTC) varying from 0 to 4 cents /kWh under three cost scenarios: a reference case, a high cost case, and a low cost case. The analysis indicates that in the reference scenario, current PTC subsidies of 2.1 cents /kWh are at a critical level in determining the competitiveness of wind-generated electricity compared to conventional power generation in local power market. Results from this study suggest that the potential for profitable wind power with the current PTC subsidy amounts to more than seven times existing demand for electricity in the entire U.S. Understanding the challenges involved in scaling up wind energy requires further study of the external costs associated with improvement of the backbone transmission network and integration into the power grid of the variable electricity generated from wind. - Highlights: → Wind power competitiveness is driven by meteorology and proximity to the grid. → We spatially model U.S. onshore wind under ranges of subsidies and costs. → Wind power is competitive at a PTC subsidy of 2.1 cents/kWh. → Under current PTC levels, profitable wind potential far exceeds U.S. power demand.

  12. Absorbing a windfall of foreign exchange: Dutch disease dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.; Venables, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The permanent income rule is seldom the optimal response to a windfall of foreign exchange, such as that from a resource discovery. Absorptive capacity constraints require domestic investment, and investment in structures requires non-traded inputs the supply of which is constrained by the initial

  13. The effect of acquisition moves on income, pre-tax profits and future strategy of logistics firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Oláh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our research deals with a comprehensive study of the management success factors of logistics service providers using a new approach, and examines the life of logistics service companies. The data were collected from 51 logistics service providers in Hungary. We searched for the proper enterprise scale – acquisitions – strategies (including the method of looking for the economies of scale in the LSP segment to be examined, and the role of strategy choice. Our research has found that among logistics companies those firms which followed the growth pattern has significantly higher sales revenue than the companies growing organically. Additionally, logistics companies – considering their pre-tax profits - work more efficiently when they have a growth strategy (regardless of its time lag. However, this claim is true only for those companies that did not have any (revenue growth over the previous period. The results of our research can effectively help logistics service providers find their business success factors, which will enable them fulfil the expectations of their customers in the supply chain better.

  14. NEW APPROACH IN THE ATTRIBUTION OF PROFITS TO PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENTS – THE AUTHORISED OECD APPROACH AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CROATIAN TAX LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Čičin-Šain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, hereinafter: OECD, is the leading organization in the field of taxation. It is the successor to the League of Nations’ work in the field of taxation. This organization, in its long history of work has been trying to solve the problem of attribution of profits of companies that do business across borders, without founding an individual company to carry out such work. This topic has been preoccupying the international tax community for many years. Recently, an entirely different approach in attributing the profits to the so-called permanent establishment has been adopted. Since this topic has never been discussed in the national academic literature, the author considered it important to handle this issue and see in which way the domestic law determines the profits of a permanent establishment and what are the implications of the work of the OECD on national legislation. This article consists of several chapters. The first one discusses the concept of a permanent establishment. The second part is devoted to a historical review of the methods for determining the profits of a permanent establishment. In the third part different theoretical models for determining the profits of a permanent establishment are being discussed. The fourth part is devoted to the new approach called the Authorised OECD Approach (AOA. The fifth part is devoted to domestic law and the implications of the work of the OECD on it. Finally, the author presents certain conclusions.

  15. ANALYSIS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROFIT TAX AND INVESTMENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF A GLOBALISED WORLD. CASE STUDY – ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Cristian Oanea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a relative old concept, having ruts in the writings of the late „60s, globalization has become in current times a cliché, being used in many parts of the world and in many languages but not having a specific definition. Financial globalization is considered to be the core element of the process of globalization and consists in a complex integration of financial markets through exchange and financial flows. In this context, the economic agents are considered to be important players, given the fact that fortheir investments they appeal to financial recourses wherever they may be. However there investment behavior is greatly influenced by the state, through the fiscal policy, especially through a very important instrument at its disposal, the profit tax rate.The aim of this paper is to emphasize the evolution of the relationship between the profit tax and investments, in the case of Romania from 1990 until 2008, trying to show particular developments of each of this two variables studied and the relations between them, the amplitude of influence exercised by them. The paper also focuses upon a better understanding of how the variables analyzed influence the real economy in this globalized environment.

  16. Tax Overpayments, Tax Evasion, and Book-Tax Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke

    2008-01-01

    A strictly risk-averse manager makes joint decisions on a firm's tax payments and book profit declarations according to accounting standards. It is analysed how the incentives to overpay or evade taxes and to inflate book profits are influenced by (1) the composition of the manager's remuneration, (2) the ability to control the manager's actions, (3) the costs of making untruthful profit declarations, and (4) the tax rate. If the firm's owner or the government takes into account these effects...

  17. Natural resource windfalls and efficiency of local government expenditures: evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanaz, Martin; Maldonado, Stanislao

    2013-01-01

    We study the role of natural resource windfalls in explaining the efficiency of public expenditures. Using a rich dataset of expenditures and public good provision for 1,836 municipalities in Peru for period 2001-2010, we estimate a non-monotonic relationship between the efficiency of public good provision and the level of natural resource transfers. Local governments that were extremely favored by the boom of mineral prices were more efficient in using fiscal windfalls whereas those benefite...

  18. No. 3063. Proposal of law aiming at establishing an exceptional tax on the excessive profits of petroleum groups; N. 3063. Proposition de loi visant a instituer une contribution exceptionnelle sur les surprofits des groupes petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzenberg, R.G

    2006-05-15

    The profits made by the six main oil companies (ExxonMobil, Shell, BP, Chevron, Philips and Total) reached 121 billion US$ in 2005, i.e. two times the gross domestic product of a country like Bulgaria. The beneficiaries of these profits are mainly the shareholders while a small part only is reinvested by oil companies in production capacities (the lack of refining capacities would be responsible for a third of the rise of petroleum products price). Considering the recent increase of automotive and space heating fuels price, this situation appears as neither legitimate, nor conformable with the general interest. The aim of this proposal of law is the establishment of a tax on excessive profits of oil companies. This tax would contribute to reduce the petroleum dependence of France and to prepare the French economy and society to the 'after-petroleum' era (development of collective transport systems, financing of research on alternate energy sources). (J.S.)

  19. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  20. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDUCED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WINDFALLS IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF MOLDOVA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINEA V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Windfalls are caused by the interaction of several factors and occur in a meteorological context characterized mainly by high wind speeds. In the present study we tried to develop a method for predicting windfalls in a test region, determining areas of high susceptibility of this climatic risk. For this purpose we evaluated parameters regarding the morphometric (slope, exposition, altitude and morphological (mountain side concavity/convexity, slope break properties of the relief, the types of forest and the soil on which these grow. We gave susceptibility scores for each parameter considered, resulting in a series of classified layers. These were subsequently added up to form the final cartographic material which highlights the vulnerable areas. For validating the results we utilised LandSat images from different time periods. The existence of a major windfalls event in the studied region (March 2002 allowed us to compare the situation before and after the event, and to check if there is a correlation with the model developed in this analysis. On the basis of this study it may be possible to predict the future evolution of trees susceptibility to windfall which could be helpful in establishing silvic measures to be implemented in order to minimize the damage caused by these phenomena.

  1. From tax evasion to tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze within a simple model how a re- moval of bank secrecy can impact tax revenues and banks' profitability assuming that offshore centers are able to offer sophisticated but legal or not easily detectable tax planning. Two alternative regimes are considered. A first in which there is strict bank secrecy and a second where there is international information exchange for tax purposes. We show in particular that sharing tax information with onshore coun- tries can...

  2. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  3. Will the energy-intensive industry profit from EU ETS under Phase 3? Impacts of EU ETS on profits, competitiveness and innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.; Markowska, A.; Nelissen, D.

    2010-10-15

    This study addresses the question whether the new EU ETS allocation mechanism to be introduced in 2013 will alter the scope for energy-intensive companies to pass through the costs of freely obtained allowances and obtain additional profits. Recent empirical research by CE Delft has indicated that it is not only power generators but also energy-intensive industries that have passed through the costs of their EU emission allowances in product prices. As they obtained these emission rights for free, they may have made a windfall profit during the first two phases of the EU ETS. In the third phase, starting in 2013, more rights are to be auctioned, however, and benchmarks introduced. This study establishes that under this new system firms will have even more incentives to obtain windfall profits. For the marginal firm, energy costs will rise substantial owing to the auctioning of emission rights in excess of the benchmarks. This will put upward pressure on price levels in EU product markets. Cost pass-through and windfall profits are therefore likely to continue even after 2013.

  4. Constitutional amendment 42/2003: possible impact on tax burden on oil and natural gas drilling production and exploration; Emenda constitucional 42/2003: possiveis impactos sobre a carga tributaria dos segmentos de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolim, Joao Dacio [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (FGV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]|[Gaia, Silva, Rolim e Associados Advocacia e Consultoria Juridica, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins, Daniela Couto [Gaia, Silva, Rolim e Associados Advocacia e Consultoria Juridica, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Constitution Amendment 42 inserted in the Brazilian Constitution the Section 146 that allows for the implementation of complementary laws (statutes) that may promote 'special taxation criteria' with the objective of 'avoiding competitive imbalance', assuring a 'level playing field'. It is worth analyzing that Article since it may either increase or decrease the tax burden for economic agents pursuant to competition regime. The aim of this study is to analyze the possible impact of article 146-A on taxation regarding companies involved with oil and gas industry, considering that this industry is on a transition to a competitive market. The issues raised are whether or not the Section 1 allows the creation of a new tax, when the competitive imbalance is caused by an illegal act; allows the creation of a windfall profit tax, due to excessive or unexpected profits; allows the creation of a tax based on the need to prevent competitive imbalance caused bu typical conducts of transition markets; can be used for questioning state aids; can be used either to restrict the access to Judiciary or to settle countervailing measures, avoiding the competitive imbalance caused by judicial decisions granted only to certain companies. (author)

  5. Profit Taxation and Finance Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of financing frictions, profit taxes reduce investment by their effect on the user cost of capital. With finance constraints due to moral hazard, investment becomes sensitive to cash-flow and own equity of firms. The impact of taxes changes fundamentally. Taxes reduce investment because they erode cash flow and, thereby, a firm's pledgeable income available for repayment to outside investors, and not because they reduce the user cost of capital. We propose a corporate finance m...

  6. Oil windfalls in a small parliamentary democracy: their impact on Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auty, R.; Gelb, A.

    1986-09-01

    As did other oil exporters, Trinidad and Tobago reaped large windfall gains after 1973. The diversion of oil income to subsidies and increased consumption was heavily influenced by the distinctive political economy, and has resulted in substantial weakening of the non-oil traded sectors (The Dutch Disease), despite concern to use oil revenues to strengthen them and a cautious spending policy. Attempts to diversify through gas-based industrialization are not likely to replace shrinking oil income. 65 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Can parked cars and carbon taxes create a profit? The economics of vehicle-to-grid energy storage for peak reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Gerad M.; Drennen, Thomas E.; White, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses a five-year, hourly economic model of vehicle-to-grid energy storage for peak reduction. Several scenarios are modeled for a participant using a 60 kW-h capacity battery electric vehicle, such as the Tesla Model S or Chevrolet Bolt, in the New York City area using pricing data for the years 2010 through 2014. Sensitivity analysis identifies that variables such as one-way power efficiency and battery lifetime are the major factors influencing the economics of selling electricity back to the grid. Although it is shown that vehicle-to-grid electricity sales can create positive economic benefits, the magnitudes are small due to the cost of added degradation to the vehicle's battery and are not likely to entice the average electric vehicle owner to participate. However, over the five-year period, the potential economic benefits of this technology have shown a promising trend. A carbon dioxide tax is examined as a potential policy measure to encourage vehicle-to-grid adoption. The implementation of a carbon dioxide tax is shown to create additional opportunities for economic gain but, these benefits are dependent on the grid's electricity generation portfolio. Added benefits from the tax are also small in magnitude considering current international carbon prices. - Highlights: • Three scenarios of vehicle-to-grid storage for peak reduction are proposed. • Average annual savings generated by vehicle-to-grid are small but positive. • Savings have remained positive or increased during 2010–2014. • Moderate carbon tax policies can generate extra savings, but they are small.

  8. Taxation of Controlled Foreign Companies in Context of the OECD/G20 Project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting as well as the EU Proposal for the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive – An Interim Nordic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Peter Koerver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the controlled foreign company (CFC rules have gained increased attention; as such, rules play an important role in the ongoing efforts of the OECD/G20 and the European Commission with respect to addressing base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS. In this context, the article revisits the CFC regimes of the Nordic countries in order to assess whether these regimes are in line with the recommendations from the OECD/G20 and to determine whether Sweden, Finland, and Denmark, as EU member states, will have to make amendments if the commission’s proposal for an Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive is adopted in its current form. It is concluded that the Nordic CFC regimes in many ways already are in line with the recommendations as well as the directive, but also that certain amendments have to be made.

  9. 26 CFR 1.9001-4 - Adjustments required in computing excess-profits credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9001-4... Profits Tax Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 975) or under the Excess Profits Tax Act of 1950 (64 Stat. 1137). These... terms-letter. (b) Equity invested capital. (1) Pursuant to subsection (f)(1) of the Act, in determining...

  10. 48 CFR 52.229-6 - Taxes-Foreign Fixed-Price Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and taxes include fees and charges for doing business that are levied by the government of the country... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital...

  11. Income and employment effects of shale gas extraction windfalls: Evidence from the Marcellus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Dusan; Komarek, Timothy; Loveridge, Scott

    2015-01-01

    New technologies combining hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling in oil and gas extraction are creating a sudden expansion of production. Residents of places where deep underground oil and gas deposits are found want to know about the broader economic, social, and environmental impacts of these activities that generate windfall income for some residents. We first review the literature on windfall spending patterns. Then, using the Marcellus region, the earliest area to be tapped using the new techniques, we estimate county-level employment and income effects. For robustness, we employ two methods. Using a propensity score matching approach we find no effect of fracking on income or employment. A panel-fixed effect regression approach suggests statistically significant employment effects in six out of seven alternative specifications, but significant income effects in only one out of seven specifications. In short, the income spillover effects in the Marcellus region appear to be minimal, meaning there's little incentive at the county level to incur current or potential future costs that may be associated with this activity. We conclude with some ideas on how localities might employ policies that would allow natural gas extraction to move forward, benefitting landowners, while establishing some financial safeguards for the broader community. - Highlights: • We examine the effect of fracking on local employment and income. • The differing policies in the Marcellus region provide a natural policy experiment. • Propensity score matching shows no income or employment growth from fracking. • Panel data estimates show weak impacts on employment and income. • We suggest ways to address possible future environmental consequences

  12. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  13. Overcoming challenges to tax-exempt status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, J

    1996-04-01

    The tax-exempt status of not-for-profit healthcare organizations increasingly is being challenged by private, for-profit, investor-owned organizations. Often, the business practices of not-for-profit organizations are virtually indistinguishable from those of for-profit organizations, and not-for-profit organizations sometimes provide less charity and unfunded care than their for-profit competitors. Moreover, the tax subsidies not-for-profit organizations sometimes are used to support activities that compete with those of for-profit organizations. To withstand challenges to their tax status, financial managers in not-for-profit organizations should assume an active role in developing clearly articulated, empirically based information about the extent of community benefit their organizations provide and its value.

  14. Bank profitability and GDP growth in China: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Aaron Yong; Floros, Christos

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the effect of GDP growth on bank profitability in China over the period 2003-2009. The one-step system GMM estimator is used to test the persistence of profitability in Chinese banking industry. The empirical findings suggest that cost efficiency is positively related to bank profitability, while lower profitability can also be explained by higher taxes paid by banks. In addition, there is a negative relationship between GDP growth and bank profitability. Furthermore, th...

  15. Profit U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…

  16. Refinery profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)

  17. Optimal Tax Routing : Network Analysis of FDI Diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Riet, Maarten; Lejour, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    The international corporate tax system is considered as a network and, just like for transportation, ‘shortest’ paths are computed, minimizing tax payments for multinational enterprises when repatriating profits. We include corporate income tax rates, withholding taxes on dividends, double tax

  18. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1 the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2 case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3 the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits of the company and the host country. We will try to summarize here the three areas of study and come to some conclusions on how to deal with fiscal policy in Kosovo. In addition, we will offer our opinion on some interesting and important questions for future research.

  19. There's no profiting from a joint venture misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Gary W

    2004-10-01

    In St. David's vs. IRS, a not-for-profit health system effectively challenged the IRS's determination that the system should be disqualified from tax exemption because it had entered a 50/50 joint venture with a for-profit system. The court decisions in St. David's, coupled with a recent IRS ruling, Revenue Ruling 2004-51, provide insight into how a not-for-profit hospital can structure such a joint venture to avoid jeopardizing its tax-exempt status.

  20. 26 CFR 509.105 - Industrial and commercial profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... it is so engaged, it is subject to United States tax upon its entire income from sources within the...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.105 Industrial and commercial profits. (a) General. (1) Article III of the convention adopts the principle that an enterprise of one of the...

  1. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wide variety of potential determinants of voluntary compliance with individual income/profit tax filing and reporting obligations. The most important determinants identified are: economic factors as the level of income, audit probabilities, tax audit, tax rate, tax benefits, penalties, fines and other non-economic factors as attitudes toward taxes, personal, social and national norms, perceived fairness etc.

  2. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its juris...

  3. Optimal Tax Routing: Network Analysis of FDI Diversion

    OpenAIRE

    van 't Riet, Maarten; Lejour, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    The international corporate tax system is considered as a network and, just like for transportation, ‘shortest’ paths are computed, minimizing tax payments for multinational enterprises when repatriating profits. We include corporate income tax rates, withholding taxes on dividends, double tax treaties and the double taxation relief methods. We find that treaty shopping leads to an average potential reduction of the tax burden on repatriated dividends of about 6 percentage points. Moreover, a...

  4. Corporate income tax and its impact on financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Krajčová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Thesis called "Corporate income tax and its impact on financial reporting" focuses on the problem of calculating the tax on corporate income of legal entity established for business purposes. The thesis deals with the issue of adjustment of profit in order to create the tax base and displays impact of this adjustment on due tax.

  5. Evolution of tax revenue in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the dynamics of tax revenues in Romania in the period 2008 - 2013, following the installation of austerity caused by the global economic crisis. There are highlighted the earned revenues at the general consolidated budget by revenue category, according to the annual budget execution. The article deals mainly with the evolution of profit tax, income and salaries tax, value added tax and excise. .

  6. BEPS Action Plan: Global Tax Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Shelepov

    2016-01-01

    Given the dynamics of economic and financial globalization, national tax authorities often do not have adequate tools to effectively combat tax avoidance practices that exploit gaps in the existing tax rules. To address the global problem of tax base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of 20 (G20) have consolidated their efforts on an equal footing. Their joint BEPS Action Plan allowed to involve more than 100 cou...

  7. TAX REFORM AND BEEF COW REPLACEMENT STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Robert; Carman, Hoy F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper models optimal beef cow replacement strategy in a stochastic environment under U.S. income tax rules effective before and after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Under each tax regime, the producer's buy versus raise decision and optimal culling age choice are analyzed. Per-cow profit levels are also calculated. Results of the numerical analysis indicate that tax law changes, particularly the loss of the capital gains exclusion and restrictions on preproduction expensing, will have signi...

  8. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY: Internal... foreign tax credit results. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Cowan, (202) 622-3850 (not a toll... profits tax paid or accrued. * * * * * (e) * * * (5) * * * (iv) * * * (B) * * * (1) * * * (iii) [The text...

  9. Energy taxes and subsidies downstream: transparency and dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissaour, A.

    2001-01-01

    The reasons why governments levy taxes are discussed with special reference to the energy sector. The article focuses on the quantitative aspect of policies and gives a guide to the relevant statistical sources. It summarises the basis of taxes and subsidies and discusses the incidence of energy taxation together with the structure of taxes and subsidies in energy downstream. It reviews the main sources of data and issues highlighted by published statistics and the impact of taxes levied on the consumption of energy products and other taxes (e.g. VAT) which directly affect end-user prices. Production-based levies such as royalties, petroleum revenue taxes, windfall taxes and import and export taxes on fuels are not discussed. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) theoretical foundations in a nutshell; (ii) the incidence of taxation; (iii) the structure and main features of energy taxation (iv) base rate and level of taxation (v) sources of data and methods and (vi) observability and comparability

  10. Corporate hedging under a resource rent tax regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frestad, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the ordinary corporate income tax, special purpose taxes are sometimes levied to extract abnormal profits arising from the use of natural resources. Such dual tax regimes exist in Norway for oil and hydropower, where the corresponding special purpose tax bases are unaffected by any derivatives payments. Dual tax firms with hedging programs therefore face the risk of potentially large discrepancies between the tax bases for corporate income tax and special purpose tax. I investigate how this tax base asymmetry influences the extent of hedging of value-maximizing firms facing hedgeable as well as unhedgeable risk. Dual tax firms facing deadweight costs in low-profit events generally demand less hedging than ordinary firms, but otherwise respond similarly to characteristics of the underlying risk exposures. The special purpose tax does not influence firms' hedge portfolios in the absence of deadweight cost. (author)

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(r)-1 - Withholding on distributions of Indian gaming profits to tribal members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... profits to tribal members. 31.3402(r)-1 Section 31.3402(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(r)-1 Withholding on distributions of Indian gaming profits to tribal members. (a) (1) General rule. Section 3402(r...

  12. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  13. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get to tax those profits. This situation may affect the global budget of the multinational enterprises and the tax reve­nues of the jurisdictions. This paper is focused on the transfer pricing rules used in the Czech Republic and makes recommendations for the Czech tax policy in this area based on the analysis of the transfer pricing rules in the EU Member States.

  14. 75 FR 17976 - WNC Tax Credits 38, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 39, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager, LLC and WNC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... placement. The minimum investment per Accredited Investor will be determined prior to commencement of the... issuer should be sold only to persons for whom investments in limited profit, essentially tax-shelter... in limited profit, essentially tax shelter, investments would be suitable. Applicants further state...

  15. 26 CFR 1.904-6 - Allocation and apportionment of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income from Sources Without the United States § 1.904-6 Allocation and... applies such principles in determining the income or earnings and profits for United States tax purposes... income that does not constitute income under United States tax principles, that tax shall be treated as...

  16. 26 CFR 1.312-15 - Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-15 Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits. (a) Depreciation for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972—(1) In general...

  17. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. 1.857-7 Section 1.857-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits...

  18. 26 CFR 1.857-11 - Non-REIT earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-REIT earnings and profits. 1.857-11 Section 1.857-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-11 Non-REIT earnings and profits...

  19. INTERPRETATION OF TAX TREATIES

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeltürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Nations benefit economically when their companies work abroad and develop their strength in international markets. Economic power also brings international political power and prestige. When dealing with international business, taxation is one o f the most important problems. Double taxation, which is to tax the same profit by two or more countries, is a serious obstacle that confronts international enterprises. Unless double taxation is avoided it will be difficult for enterprises to conduct...

  20. A Survey on the Tax Policy in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mihai INCEU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we make an analysis of the major aspects concerning the tax policy in the EU countries. For revealing a global image on tax policy within the EU we have to consider in our analysis the overall tax burden, the structure of tax revenues (direct taxation, indirect taxation, social contributions and the main types of taxes: corporate tax, personal tax, consumption tax. This article is based on a dynamic analysis of taxation using as a main tools descriptive and empirical analysis. The empirical study tries to determinate the correlation between tax burden and the implicit tax rate on capital and business income, consumption and labor through the panel methodology. This analysis is based the data delivered by the EUROSTAT. The main results obtained from the empirical study is that there are major differences concerning the correlation between total taxes as percentage of GDP and the implicit tax rate of profit, consumption and labor.

  1. Taxation of Controlled Foreign Companies in Context of the OECD/G20 Project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting as well as the EU Proposal for the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter Koerver

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the controlled foreign company (CFC) rules have gained increased attention; as such, rules play an important role in the ongoing efforts of the OECD/G20 and the European Commission with respect to addressing base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). In this context, the article revisits...

  2. Examination of Sustainability Status of Company Profits: A Sectoral Rese arch for BIST Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Vecdi Can

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether companies traded on the İ stanbul Stock Exchange (BIST are economically sustainable by examining profitability indicators. For this purpose, return on assets and equity, and gross profit, operating profit, pre-tax profit and net profit margin data of 201 companies’ interim reports that can be reached within 2007 -2013 period analyzed by unit root analysis. According to the results of the analysis, 51 of 201 company’s profits can be maintained in the long term. Furthermore, approximately 29% for return of assets, 28% for return of equity, 35% of gross profit margin, 28% of operating margin, 24% of pre-tax profit margin and 24% of net profit margin are determined that can be maintained in the long term.

  3. Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens and American Business

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Hines, Jr.; Eric M. Rice

    1990-01-01

    The offshore tax haven affiliates of American corporations account for more than a quarter of US foreign investment, an nearly a third of the foreign profits of US firms. This paper analyzes the origins of this tax haven activity and its implications for the US and foreign governments. Based on the behavior of US fins in 1982, it appears that American companies report extraordinarily high profit rates on both their real and their financial investments in tax havens. We calculate from this beh...

  4. Optimal fiscal barriers to international economic integration in the presence of tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model where firms can shift profits to tax havens by means of intra-firm loans and countries can protect themselves against profit shifting by taxing cross-border interest flows. The model considers two countries with a scope for welfare improving economic integration....... The first-best tax system has two important characteristics: (i) the tax rate on interest flows to the other country is zero to ensure the optimal level of economic integration; (ii) the tax rate on interest flows to tax havens is high enough to deter profit shifting to tax havens. In second......-best environments, countries face a trade-off between economic integration and protection against tax havens, which causes protection to be suboptimally low. The key to the result is that economic integration makes it easier for multinational firms to circumvent taxes on interest payments to tax havens with conduit...

  5. Bank profitability during recessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; de Haan, Leo; Hoeberichts, Marco; van Oordt, Maarten R C; Swank, Job

    This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between bank profitability and economic activity. When allowing for stronger co-movement of bank profit with economic activity during deep recessions, we find a much larger impact of output growth on bank profitability than commonly found in

  6. The taxation of UK oil and gas production: Why the windfalls got away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Hafez

    2010-01-01

    Starting with evidence that United Kingdom Continental Shelf oil and gas companies have benefitted very disproportionately from the recent period of extraordinarily high oil prices, this paper traces the history of this weakness in the UK's petroleum fiscal regime. Evidence is provided that the progressive relaxations in the UK's petroleum fiscal regime in 1983, 1987-1988 and 1993 were: largely unnecessary to stimulate the development of new, smaller, 'marginal' fields; misguided in their assumption that such fields were more costly to develop than earlier counterparts or larger contemporary fields; and impotent compared with the effects of oil price movements. The paper concludes with a conceptualisation which illuminates why these failures of policy were not just random: they emerged from the UK's 'non-proprietorial' stance with respect to the country's oil and gas resources, a stance which assumes responsibility for oil company profitability and vainly tries to counter market forces at the expense of government revenues.

  7. Post-BEPS Tax Advisory and Tax Structuring from a Tax Practitioner’s View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Lankhorst (Paul); H. van Dam (Harmen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe international tax landscape is changing and it is changing fast. The political perception is that taxation of multinational enterprises is not aligned with the ‘economic activity’ that produces their profits (i.e. not aligned with ‘value creation’). The perception links ‘value

  8. Tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on the effects of additional tax incentives for the petroleum production industry. It considers the effects of additional incentives on petroleum production and federal revenues, the federal tax burden on new domestic petroleum production investments under current law, and the comparative tax treatment of petroleum production investments in the United States and other nations

  9. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; Ruud A. de Mooij; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries and a...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(c)-5 - Certain tax-exempt organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(c)-5 Certain... history of regular coordination of day-to-day activities between M and N, including periodic transfers of...

  11. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    are financed by taxes on savingand investment. There is international cross-ownership of firms, and countries areassumed to be unable to tax away pure profits. Countries then face an incentiveto impose a rather high investment tax also borne by foreigners. In this setting,the loss of the saving tax instrument...... on account of international tax evasion mayprevent the overall saving-investment tax wedge from becoming too high, and hencemay be beneficial for moderate preferences for public goods. A world with 'high-spending' governments, in contrast, is made worse off by the loss of saving taxes,and hence stands...... to gain from international cooperation to restore saving taxation.JEL-Classifcation: H87, H21Keywords: Capital income taxation, cross-ownership, coordination...

  12. Reforming the Tax Mix in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodically, tax systems need major reforms to remove the “barnacles” that accumulate under the short-term pressures of political expediency and to adapt to the long-term forces of technological and economic change. The current fiscal and economic problems that confront the provinces require an assessment of much-needed reforms. Raising tax revenue imposes large costs on our society, not only because of the administration and compliance costs of collecting taxes, but because taxes distort economic decisions in the private sector. This is especially true of provincial corporate income taxes. Taxing highly mobile corporate capital and corporate profits encourages firms to shift their investments and profits across provincial and international boundaries. The provinces would enjoy significant boosts to economic growth and efficiency gains by enacting a revenue-neutral switch from corporate to sales or personal income taxes. For Alberta, such a shift would yield up to $40 per dollar of tax revenue shifted from corporate to personal income taxes; for fiscal year 2011-12, this would amount to a percapita welfare gain of roughly $19,000. Other options for tax reform are also discussed in this paper, including the adoption of a penny tax to the GST to fund infrastructure spending by municipalities. However, we think this would saddle the private sector with significant compliance costs and create major economic distortions between neighbouring municipalities by creating an incentive to shop where the penny tax proposal was not adopted. In surveying the most pressing tax reform issues facing Canada, we offer policymakers a firm basis for coming to grips with them, so they can treat tax dollars with the care and foresight Canadians expect.

  13. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumiter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its jurisdiction. Tax treaties do not impose limits on these types of taxing rights, other than those stemming from the obligation to impose profits, since the issue of taxation is “satisfied”. Moreover, the source of tax revenue belongs to the source state. Thus, we can see that it is unlikely that the state of residence of a non-resident taxpayer should want to “share” such tax revenue. It can be observed that the state of residence also has the right to tax the profits, but in general it gives credit in respect of taxes of the source state or deducts them for the purpose of preventing the occurrence of double taxation. If the state of residence provides a credit for taxes paid within the source state, taxes which have not been collected and owed to the source state will constitute a tax transfer to the state of residence, from which the taxpayer will not have any benefit. As regards Romania, in terms of the treatment of enterprises, this article represents a real quid pro quo, as it tackles both the international and national taxation of corporate profits, through the provisions found in the new Fiscal Code and the Code of Fiscal Procedure, as well as the new proposals on the taxation of turnover in companies, all of this extrapolated with the new proposals for turnover tax from IT giants. The article ends with the presentation, comment and analysis of a case of international double taxation, more specifically the taxation of corporate profits, a topic of

  14. Transfer Pricing Profit Split Methods : A Practical Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Quttineh, Yousef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to explain and analyze whether today’s existing regulations provide sufficient guidance on how to apply the Profit Split Method (PSM) in practice. Since the enterprises’ profits arising from intra-group transactions increases, the tax base for any government also becomes larger and more important. This issue will likely become even more problematic as the globalization branches out and the majority of the global trade is undertaken between associated ent...

  15. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...

  16. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Not all of these schools are for profit – however a significant number of them are. Whilst the world is undoubtedly short of healthcare professionals and so any new investments in medical education are welcome, opening new schools for profit raise questions about the purpose of medical education, about the quality.

  17. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  18. A New Tax System For Romanian Tourism Industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian-Ovidiu Calotă

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The enterprises from tourism industry may apply till the end of 2014 year one of two tax systems as follow: (i either tax on income system – quota of 3% applied to taxable income if the income’s value is less than 65.000 euro; (ii either tax on profit system for all other enterprises. The tax authorities intend to apply a 3rd system named “specific tax on certain activities”. We chose to analyze this new tax system for the listed bellow three main reasons: (i any enterprise – subject of paying tax on income or tax on profit – must analyze at the end of 2014 the new conditions mentioned by law in order to decide which tax system would be applied for the future period; (ii for the activities distinctly mentioned in CAEN Code, e.g. hotels restaurant’ and bar’s activities, the tax amount is no longer computed based on profit or income , but – instead – tax amount is computed based on several factors such as: the number of beds from hotel or the surface of restaurant.

  19. Corporate income tax and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folkvord Benn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although globalization has contributed immensely to growth and prosperity around the world, it is a growing challenge for tax policy makers. Globalization and greater mobility of tax bases increase the relative importance of taxes in corporations’ investment decisions. The combination of highly mobile capital, inadequacies in existing tax laws and a total change of international business environment have led to the fundamental problem in international tax law labeled by the OECD as the problem of BEPS (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, along with severe competition among countries to attract investments and business activities. These challenges are the topic for the 2014 seminar of the Nordic Tax Research Council. Based on the Nordic national reports we discuss these challenges

  20. Tax and statement matters of the income tax for the year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busuioceanu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous legislative changes that occur from one financial year to another are not always able to clarify points of divergence existent between establishing the tax profit and the accounting one. Thus, accountants are sometimes put in difficulty, regarding the obligation to present the accounts respecting the principle of a true and fair view and the desire to optimize the tax cost of their business. The fact is that in the absence of specific accounting rules, the tax normative is set as a practical normative. In the fiscal side, there are clear law provisions governing each type of tax which must be respected. The tax base is the tax result and taxation,, by imposing strict rules, is trying to balance the general tendency of the taxpayers to minimize the tax due.

  1. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    include those on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in Sweden, on toxic waste in Germany, on water pollution in The Netherlands, and the tax differentials on leaded fuel and 'cleaner' diesel fuel in Sweden.3.Taxes as such have potential negative impacts on competitiveness and on employment, Most barriers...

  2. Taxing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, R.; DeCanio, S.; Frech, H.E. III; Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    In this book, the authors have produced an analysis of state energy taxation. Their factual findings are of particular relevance to California and other states in their consideration of severance taxes on oil production. It turns out, for example, that while California's tax burden on oil producers is slightly below average among the states, the combined revenues from taxes and royalties (expressed as a percent of the value of production) indicate that California is not easy on oil producers. In fact, California's oil tax system appears to be particularly well suited to its oil industry. Much of the production in the state is relatively high-cost and economically marginal. The state must tread carefully in taxing this production, lest it force it to be curtailed

  3. Range data reported to the requirements of the IAS 12 and impact of the IFRS adoption for tax purposes in the tax collection of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Jirásková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An issue of relationship between corporate income tax and accounting is one of the most discussed at present. Until recently the tax base was derived from the accounting profit defined in the Czech accounting law. But from 2004 there are companies which have to use IFRS in bookkeeping and financial reporting and from the perspective of the Czech accounting law they do not care about Czech accounting regulation. On the other hand Czech tax regulation has not accepted this change in the field of European accounting harmonization and still directs to pay tax on the basis of Czech accounting regulation for all entities. Fear of adverse change in tax collection is one of the main reasons why the Czech Tax Administration does not allow to pay income tax under profit or loss patterned on IFRS. The most important goal of this work is to characterize the relationship between accounting profit or loss under IFRS and the tax base of income and to find out the impact of taxation under profit in accordance with IFRS in total tax collection. Basic sample of all analyses consists of 35 accounting entities which mandatorily use IFRS and this sample was also confronted with a list of 106 major payers of income tax published yearly by the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic for the needs characterization of the relationship of profit under IFRS and the tax base of income.

  4. Tax asymmetries and corporate income tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Stewart C.; Majd, Saman.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tax asymmetries (the lack of full loss offsets) under current corporate income tax law and a stylized tax reform proposal. The government's tax claim on the firm's pretax cash flows is modelled as a series of path-dependent call options and valued by option pricing procedures and Monte Carlo simulation.The tax reform investigated reduces the statutory tax rate, eliminates the investment tax credit and sets tax depreciation approximately equal to economic ...

  5. Tax Culture as Tax Administration Staff Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Synchak

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the tax culture has been grounded. Various approaches to the tax culture have been highlighted. The ambiguous aspects of the tax culture approaches and interpretation have been pointed out. The authors have also given the definition of the tax body officials' culture. The tax culture has been defined as a special kind of tax service employee's culture. The necessity of the tax culture phenomenon to be familiarized with by every tax official prior to their employment has been pr...

  6. Profitables Food & Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...

  7. 76 FR 40946 - WNC Tax Credits 40, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 41, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager 2, LLC, WNC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... of the Fund's placement. The minimum investment per Accredited Investor will be determined prior to... only to persons for whom investments in limited profit, essentially tax shelter, investments would not.... Applicants represent that Units will be sold only to persons for whom investment in limited profit...

  8. ROLE OF TAX PENALTIES IN TAXPAYERS EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia CAPRIAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal control is a form of state financial control bodies from the Ministry of Finance, the instrument we have available to public authorities for monitoring and determining the methods and techniques to ensure the financial resources of the state constitution, in this case, tax revenue is the overwhelming them. Businesses, regardless of its ownership, which profit from their activity, are required by law to calculate and pay taxes to the budget in the amount and terms provided by the regulations.

  9. The Analysis of Corporate Tax and Personal Income Tax in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telnova Hanna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the relationship between the rates of corporate tax and personal income tax and the pace of economic development. The existence of the open financial market under conditions of globalization leaves its imprint on forming the vectors of development of the tax systems in the countries. Thus, the optimal corporate taxation creates a competitive and investment-attractive climate, facilitates encouraging foreign investments and locating economic activities. The study made it possible to establish the absence of a direct link between the tax rates and economic growth. At the same time, a linear relationship between the tax rates and the tax burden is revealed. On the basis of the presented mathematical expression, it can be concluded that an increase in the personal income tax causes an increase in the tax burden, and an increase in the corporate tax — its reduction. The cluster analysis of the corporate tax and the personal income tax in European countries allowed to justify the determinants of successful economic development presenting the formation of the vector of the tax policy in the aspect of moderate taxation of individuals and the need for low taxation of corporate profits.

  10. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  11. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles.......A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  12. Evaluating Banking Profit Performance in Ghana during and post Profit Decline: A five Step Du-Pont Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baah Aye Kusi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed at three objectives. First, identify and rank banks based on a composite score comprising of all five du-pont variables. Second, we identify variables in the five step du-pont set up that are most likely to influence bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. And third, we estimate a model to capture the variables that drive bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. We first establish from our rankings that, foreign banks in Ghana performed better during profit declining periods while the local banks performed better in post profit decline periods using the top ten banks as a benchmark in both periods. Employing Pearson correlation coefficients matrix, we recognized that operating profit margin, asset turnover and leverage were most likely to influence bank ROE in both time periods. We further employ OLS regression and find that bank ROE was impacted by operating profit margin and leverage during profit declining periods and post profit decline while tax effect added up in post profit declining periods.

  13. Willow growing - Methods of calculation and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, H.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation method presented here makes it possible to conduct profitability comparisons between annual and perennial crops and in addition take the planning situation into account. The method applied is a modified total step calculation. The difference between a traditional total step calculation and the modified version is the way in which payments and disbursements are taken into account over a period of several years. This is achieved by combining the present value method and the annuity method. The choice of interest rate has great bearing on the result in perennial calculations. The various components influencing the interest rate are analysed and factors relating to the establishment of the interest rate in different situations are described. The risk factor can be an important variable component of the interest rate calculation. Risk is also addressed from an approach in accordance with portfolio theory. The application of the methods sheds light on the profitability of Salix cultivation from the viewpoint of business economics, and also how different factors influence the profitability of Salix cultivation. Aspects studied are harvesting intervals, the importance of yield level, the competitiveness of Salix versus grain cultivation, the influence of income taxes on profitability etc. Methods for evaluation of activities concerning cultivation of a perennial crop are described and also involve the application of nitrogen fertilization to Salix cultivation. Studies have been performed using these methods to look into nitrogen fertilizer profitability in Salix cultivation during the first rotation period. Nitrogen fertilizer profitability has been investigated involving both production functions and cost calculations, taking the year fertilization into consideration. 72 refs., 2 figs., 52 tabs

  14. 26 CFR 1.852-12 - Non-RIC earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-RIC earnings and profits. 1.852-12 Section 1.852-12 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-12 Non-RIC...

  15. 26 CFR 1.852-5 - Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company. 1.852-5 Section 1.852-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment...

  16. 26 CFR 1.996-3 - Divisions of earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divisions of earnings and profits. 1.996-3 Section 1.996-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.996-3 Divisions of earnings...

  17. The Coordination of Capital Income and Profit Taxation with Cross-Ownership of Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the scope for international coordination of capital income and profit taxation.The paper considers a world of many symmetric countries where public goods are financed by taxes on capital income and on profits.In the open economy, the authorities have at their disposal a

  18. AN APPROACH ON LINKS BETWEEN TRANSFER PRICING AND TAX HAVENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA LAVINIA CAZACU (NEAMŢU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transfer pricing are the prices at which a company transfers physical goods and intangible property or provides services to affiliated companies. Transfer pricing mechanism is the most frequently used instrument for the transfer of the tax base from countries with high tax to low tax countries. In the context of transfer pricing, all transactions should be made only respecting the principle of market value (Arm’s length principle. Under current conditions, we can say that globalization influences the transfer pricing, because it makes possible to transfer profits from one country to another, by removing state barriers. The expression "transfer pricing" is used as shorthand for multinational corporations to store profits in tax havens and to avoid tax evasion in developed countries. These two terms (transfer pricing and tax havens combined, make the benefits of affiliated groups to grow impressively.

  19. Does reporting timeliness affect book-tax differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, a number of countries align tax accounts and parent-only accounts, while allowing companies to characterize consolidated profits to capital markets in a different way. Using parent-only (consolidated) accounts as a proxy for tax (book) accounts, this paper analyzes the role of reporting

  20. Tax Incentives for Industry Synergy in Nigeria: A Pragmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leveraging on the outcomes, therefore, a Tax Incentive – Corporate Profitability Impact Model (TICPIM) is conceptualized and presented herein, to accord meaningful impetus to a pragmatic proprietary system advocacy (PPSA), which is expedient for the Nigerian economy. It is expected that these tax appeals and ideals ...

  1. RFM customer profitability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Veljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the customer profitability is a very important activity for each and every modern marketing oriented firm. By identifying profitable customer segments, the efficiency and the effectiveness of the marketing strategies can be significantly improved. One of the best-known methods for identifying the most valuable customers is the RFM method. The application of this method is particularly important in the decision-making process related to justification of the application of the various direct marketing strategies, and especially when the introduction of the new product into the market is the key issue.

  2. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  3. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of large differences in worker turnover and pay between firms. However, there is little knowledge about the effects of this on firm performance. This paper describes how personnel policies with respect to pay, tenure and worker flows are related to economic performance...... personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...

  4. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ..., section 641(c)(1) provides that (A) the portion of any ESBT which consists of stock in one or more S... preamble, substitute dividends, distributions from previously taxed earnings and profits (within the... controlled foreign corporation or a United States person who owns stock in a passive foreign investment...

  5. EFFECTIVE CORPORATE INCOME TAX RATE IN ROMANIA: A MICRO-BACKWARD LOOKING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lazar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of micro-backward looking methodology, the paper computes the effective corporate income tax rate for Bucharest Stock Exchange non-financial companies for 2000 - 2009 period, using data from companies financial reports. We find that effective tax rate computed as profit tax/pre-tax income ratio was below the statutory tax rate, throughout the period, except for the year 2009 (when an alternative minimum tax was introduced and the differences have diminished since the flat tax was adopted (2005. When applying a correlation analysis, we find that the difference between this effective tax rate and the statutory tax rate presents a strong negative correlation with the return on assets ratio (ROA. Also, we have find that commerce is enjoying the most favourable tax regime, while energy is the most heavily taxed.

  6. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  7. From People to Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.

    An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…

  8. Notoriety for Profit Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    this study is a relatively new and important area in victimology known as "Notoriety For Profit Legislation". The study contains descrip- tions...in the area of victimology require further study. I BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bard, Morton, and Dawn Sangrey. The Crime Victims Book. New York: Basic Books

  9. TAX POLICY OF SERBIA IN THE FUNCTION OF DEVELOPING THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Anicic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Global mobility of capital and labour impose the issue of optimal tax structure of all countries. In some countries, direct taxes on income and profits are still dominant, while in other the main source of tax incomes are indirect taxes, primarily value added tax (VAT. Tax system of Serbia is specific for its big burdens for work, and smaller burden of profits and property in relation to EU countries. For long-term sustainable economic growth, among other things, more efficient tax system is required. Tax policy should contribute to elimination of essential macroeconomic imbalances of Serbian economy – high unemployment rate and high foreign trade deficit, without endangering international competitiveness of a company and favourable economic environment.

  10. Profitability of Serbian banking sector during global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko M Miljković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify the main factors which contributed to decline of profitability in Serbian banking sector during the period of global economic crisis. There are presented different theories of banking sector profitability and results of scientifically significant empirical researches from economic literature. Following ratios were used as measure of profitability: return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE, net interest gain to total revenue, net fees and commissions gain to total revenue, and net pre-tax profit/loss to total revenue ratio. The profitability was analyzed for the whole Serbian banking sector in the period 2008-2012 and particularly for the 15 largest banks according to total assets value in 2012. The empirical analysis indicated that one of the most important factors contributing to high amounts of losses of commercial banks in the previous period includes an increase of net operating expenses, especially expenses on account of a write-off of non-performing loans (NPL. Furthermore, there were analyzed the dynamics of interest rates and interest spread as a factor with certain impact on profitability of banks. Finally, it is estimated that the prospects for intensive growth of profitability in the banking sector of Serbia in the mid-term are poor.

  11. 26 CFR 1.902-3 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes” means income, war profits, and excess profits taxes, and taxes included in the term “income, war... a foreign corporation for any taxable year shall be determined after reduction by any income, war... amounts so determined into United States dollars or other foreign currency shall be made at the proper...

  12. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? 670.945 Section 670.945 Employees' Benefits... providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? (a) A private for-profit or a nonprofit... provider to pay such taxes, the center operator or service provider may pay the taxes with Federal funds...

  13. The tax system and the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sanelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of the tax system on the economic factors that triggered the financial crisis. We examine three cases in which the tax regime interacted with these factors, reinforcing them. First, we focus on the taxation of residential building: while the importance of capital gains taxes is disputed, the deductibility of mortgage interest may have contributed to the financial crisis by creating some of the raw materials for the securitization industry. Second, a narrow perspective on the tax treatment, together with specific provisions, may have fostered performance-based remuneration of managers, resulting in overemphasis of short-term profitability and incentive to excessive risk-taking. Third, the securitization process, which played a key role in the outbreak of the financial crisis, was accompanied by opportunities for tax arbitrage and reduction of the overall tax wedge paid by investors, through offset of incomes that are ordinarily taxed at different rates; a de facto exemption of CDS premiums received by non-residents supplemented the tax arbitrage.

  14. Profit and place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.

  15. Investment Incentives and Effective Tax Rates in the Philippines; A Comparison With Neighboring Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander D Klemm; Dennis P Botman; Reza Baqir

    2008-01-01

    We compare the general tax provisions and investment incentives in the Philippines to six other east-Asian economies-Malaysia, Indonesia, Lao, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand. We calculate effective tax rates and find that general effective tax rates are relatively high in the Philippines, while investment incentives are comparable to those in neighboring countries. Tax holidays are most attractive for very profitable firms, creating redundancy, and for investment in short-lived assets. We al...

  16. Tax compliance under tax regime changes

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Kocher, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the compliance effects of tax regime changes. According to the economic model of tax evasion, a tax reform should affect compliance through its impact on tax rates and incentives. Our findings demonstrate the importance of at least two further effects not covered by the traditional model: First, reform losers tend to evade more taxes after the reform. Second, a reform from a proportionate to a progressive system decreases compliance compared to a switch in the revers...

  17. Tax Policy, Venture Capital, and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    The paper studies the effects of tax policy on venture capital activity. Entrepreneurs pursue a single high risk project each but have no own resources. Financiers provide equity finance. They must structure the entrepreneur's profit share and base salary to assure their incentives for full effort....... In addition to providing equity finance, venture capitalists assist with valuable business advice to enhance survival rates. Within a general equilibrium framework with a traditional and an entrepreneurial sector, the paper investigates the effects of taxes on the equilibrium level of entrepreneurship...... and managerial advice. It considers differential wage and capital income taxes, a comprehensive income tax, incomplete loss offset, progressive taxation as well as investment and output subsidies to the entrepreneurial sector...

  18. Debt, investment and endowment accumulation: the case of not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, William M

    2002-09-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals benefit from special tax rules that allow state authorities to issue tax-exempt bonds on their behalf, which may affect their investment and financing choices. Hospitals may respond by increasing their investment in physical assets; however, they may also engage in tax arbitrage by using the tax-exempt debt while maintaining endowment assets. The paper combines data from tax (information) returns and the annual survey of hospitals by the American Hospital Association for 1993-1996. Overall, the results are consistent with substantial tax planning by not-for-profit hospitals. Of the US$ 55.9 billion in tax-exempt liabilities of hospitals in 1996, as much as US$ 32.6 billion could have been eliminated if hospitals spent their endowments instead of borrowing. Furthermore, controlling for hospital size (in terms of revenues and operating assets), endowment assets are associated with a higher ratio of tax-exempt (or total) debt to operating assets. In contrast, endowment assets are not related to taxable debt suggesting that the effects of the endowment on borrowing are motivated by tax incentives. Investment and endowment accumulation regressions suggest that increases in debt increase both physical investment and endowment accumulation but these effects are concentrated among cash-rich hospitals for which the effects on endowment accumulation effects are larger than the effects on physical investment.

  19. Influence of the Introduction of Tax Assignations on the Amount of Donations and Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax assignations give tax‑paying citizens an opportunity to make decisions about a portion of their income tax paid and determine its recipient. Tax assignations are an additional source of income for non‑governmental non‑profit organizations. The Czech Republic has not introduced them yet, however, the other Visegrád Group countries have embodied this concept in their tax systems. The aim of the paper is to confirm or possibly refute the benefits of the concept of tax assignations for the current tax system of the Czech Republic. The influence of the possible introduction of tax assignations is being investigated in connection with the amount of government subsidies and in relation to motivation for philanthropic giving. In this context, the paper presents current conditions for the introduction of tax assignations. It also discusses the pros and cons of tax assignations that may serve as main arguments for or against the introduction of tax assignations in the Czech Republic. The focus of this paper is on the application of tax assignations in Slovakia as Slovakia with its historical development and structure is very close to the Czech Republic. If tax assignations are introduced in the Czech Republic, a similar development can be expected. Analysis of statistical data for Slovakia was used to explore whether tax assignations affected the amount of transfers to non‑governmental organizations and whether tax assignations could be a good additional source of funding for non‑profit organizations in the Czech Republic.

  20. BEPS Action Plan: Global Tax Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the dynamics of economic and financial globalization, national tax authorities often do not have adequate tools to effectively combat tax avoidance practices that exploit gaps in the existing tax rules. To address the global problem of tax base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Group of 20 (G20 have consolidated their efforts on an equal footing. Their joint BEPS Action Plan allowed to involve more than 100 countries, both developing and advanced, in designing and implementing rules aimed at aligning the generation of profits and their taxation and increasing the predictability, transparency and flexibility of the international tax environment for business. This article examines the history of the BEPS project, emphasizing the mode of OECD-G20 engagement in global tax governance, describes the key recommendations made by international institutions to tackle BEPS and forecasts further developments in the area. The author pays special attention to the mechanisms designed to stimulate participation by non-OECD and non-G20 members in the BEPS project and the stance of business on the proposed reforms. He concludes that the work on BEPS is far from finished. Different interpretations of standards, risks of strengthening tax competition between countries and potentially excessive tax burdens on businesses should be addressed. In this regard, OECD and G20 should strengthen their efforts to ensure the participation of developing countries and the private sector, which would stimulate other reforms in international taxation to support global growth and development.

  1. Are we taxing ourselves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2011-01-01

    We let consumers vote on tax regimes in experimental markets. We test if taxes on sellers are more popular than taxes on consumers, i.e. on voters themselves, even if taxes on sellers are inefficiently high. Taxes on sellers are more popular if voters underestimate the extent of tax......-shifting in the market. We show that inexperienced voters are prone to such a tax-shifting bias, that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism, but that pre-vote deliberation about tax regimes makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct. Our results suggest that voting on taxes is prone to bias...

  2. 26 CFR 1.902-1 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Tax Reform Act of 1986. See §§ 1.902-3, 1.902-4 and 1.964-1. (iii) Foreign income taxes... of the Tax Reform Act of 1986. See paragraphs (a) (10) and (13) of this section and §§ 1.902-3 and 1... connection with the purchase or sale of certain oil and gas. Certain income, war profits, or excess profits...

  3. Some distinctive features of tax control in the contemporary business environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional tax control has proven to be an insufficiently effective means of verifying the overall real economic power of large taxpayers (multinational corporations and wealthy individuals. As compared to the increasing mobility of taxpayers, tax administration activities are limited by the territorial jurisdiction of the fiscal sovereignty. The crisis of public finances has forced many countries to focus on the prevention of tax evasion and aggressive tax planning, particularly in international tax matters. In this sense, the traditional forms of tax control are supplemented by some additional strategies which are to provide tax authorities with more data on tax payers' business operations, profit, income, expenses and property. In practice, some developed tax administrations already apply a number of specific measures: the disclosure of information about aggressive tax planning schemes, advance pricing agreement, advance tax rulings, the use of financial intermediaries in data exchange processes, improved taxation relations, automatic exchange of tax information, etc. These specific measures are intended to help tax administrations to overcome the discrepancy between the information at their disposal and the information held by the taxpayers, which facilitates a more realistic assessment of tax liabilities. This will ensure a better management of tax risk and better tax compliance, which will ultimately contribute to a more efficient development of tax systems in the contemporary global business environment.

  4. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  5. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function economic development. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc.

  6. 26 CFR 1.611-4 - Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.611-4 Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes. For rules with... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and...

  7. Capital Structure and Profitability of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMOS O. AROWOSHEGBE. Ph.D; ACA.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship of capital structure to profitability of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study was based on a panel data set from 1996 to 2010 comprising sixty non – financial companies. The study specified two panel regression models. Two profitability measures: Net Profit Margin (NPM and Operating Profit Margin (OPM were taken as the dependent variables respectively. The principal explanatory variable for each of the models was Debt Ratio (DR. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between capital structure and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria. Indeed, the results the Pecking order theory that profitable firms do not target an optimal level of leverage to balance the benefits and costs of debt financing. Rather, firms use retained earnings first, then debts and finally equity. Such firms would actually be paying high tax charges and also high operating costs arising from over dependence on the money market for their funds requirements. It was recommended that appropriate fiscal policies, relevant capital market institutional and legal framework should be put in place. These measures, we believe, will ensure better access to funds and reduce the cost of doing business.

  8. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  9. Measuring Tax Efficiency: A Tax Optimality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality that measures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal tax structure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1] number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configuration is from the optimal one and, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a tax system. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show how the basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivale...

  10. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the expe...

  11. The Proposal of the Changes in the Taxation of Income of the Non-profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of the taxation of incomes of the non-governmental non-profit organizations, especially the civic associations in the conditions of the Czech Republic and in the selected countries of the European Union (Austria, Slovakia, Germany. The main emphasis is put on the comparison of the corporate income tax of the studied countries. Particularly the tax benefits that are provided to the non-profit organizations in the individual countries are compared here. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic, where there is no clear legislation that would regulate the activities by the studied organizations. Changes in the taxation of the incomes of non-profit organizations are designed to eliminate absences with regard to the simplicity and clarity of the individual provisions, and also to prevent misuse of the benefits and to the speculative behavior of tax entities.

  12. Methanization - how to better figure out profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschaseaux, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the content of a study to be published on the conditions of profitability for methanization installations, in order to enable the assessment of the influence of the modifications of different parameters such as purchase tariffs, subsidies, taxes, investment management and exploitation costs. An analysis has been performed on different categories of projects: farm projects (80 to 250 kW), collective farm projects with a small collective dwelling (350 kW) and local projects (1 to 2,5 MW), hybrid farm-industrial projects, and projects based only on industrial wastes. The analysis has been made with respect to final use: co-generation or bio-methane production. It appears that most of projects still need subsidies but that there is no correlation between installed power and production cost

  13. Book Tax Differences dan Kualitas Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain emprical evidence about differences in accounting profit and taxable income (book tax differencesis proxied by permanent differences and temporary differences on earnings quality proxied by earnings response coefficients (ERC.The method used is descriptive analysis with multiple regression analysis. The population in this study are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010-2012. The results showed that the book tax differences has significantly affect on earnings quality, with contribution influence 17,2%.

  14. Review of the sanitary state of coniferous forests in windfall places in the Ile-Alatau National park (Kazakhstan in 2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Kazenas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study on the species composition of stem pests- insects and limitation of their number, carried out in the Ile-Alatau State National Park (Kazakhstan in 2011–2015. The reason for this study was a windfall, which occurred in 2011 in the National Park and followed a few years later by forest fires. These emergencies created a favourable environment for the reproduction of stem pests. The management of the Ile-Alatau National Park, together with the Institute of Zoology of the MES, has taken the necessary measures to investigate the species composition of the pests, their natural regulators and to conduct protective measures in the hotbeds of xylophages mass production. At the same time consultations and joint research with scientists from Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and the Czech Republic were held. The monitoring of the state of forests started in 2011. The composition of species and number of xylophagous pests has been carried out. In the 2011–2015-surveys 48 species of stem pests, belonging to three orders of the class of insects, were found: Hemiptera, or Bugs (1 species, 1 family, Coleoptera, or Beetles (42 species, 5 families, Hymenoptera (5 species, 1 family. During all the years of research the Hauzer bark beetle Ips hauseri and the longhorn beetle ribbed ragy Rhagium inquisitor dominated numerically. Slightly less Orthotomicus suturalis and the kyrgyzstan micrograph Pityophthorus kirgisicus were found. Besides, the study of diseases of stem pests and their entomophages (predators and parasites was carried out, which is a prerequisite for carrying out forest-pathological examinations. In total 53 species, from five classes, eleven orders and 27 families of invertebrates have been revealed. Most of them belong to the class of insects, others to spiders and centipedes. On several species of bark beetles and longhorn beetles an entomopathogenic fungus – white muscardine Beauveria bassiana was

  15. ANALYSIS OF PROVIDING A FAIR TAX TREATMENT IN THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE NEW TAX SPECIFIC TO THE ACTIVITIES IN TOURISM SINCE 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE ECOBICI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is in the applied research line and aims to analyze the legal provisions on specific tax regarding the measure in which this tax would ensure an equal tax treatment in the economic environment that would comply with the principle of proportionality. The specific tax will take effect from January 1st, 2017 in Romania for the activities in tourism and hotels field, restaurants, bars and public food services. The research methods are based on analysis and comparison. The paper specifically follows the way in which the specific tax will influence the taxpayers, corporate tax payers currently operating in the areas listed above, as they are obliged to replace the corporate tax with a fixed tax until 2017. This tax influenced only by the entity's ability to produce income (useful surface of the location, commercial venue (area and location, category and seasonality of activities, it no longer takes into account the actual obtained profit. We believe that in those areas was rather necessary to establish a minimum tax, not a fixed tax. We welcome the calculation and substantiation mode of the specific tax depending on the national average set at the level of 2014 based on the tax data from NAFA and other institutes and business organizations in these areas, however, after the analysis, we believe that this tax, although is going to ensure more efficient collection of tax claims from a larger number of taxpayers and is going to facilitate the reduction of tax evasion level from certain taxpayers and it will also facilitate the large taxpayers who usually due a lower tax than the performed profit.

  16. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  17. 2013 Annual Global Tax Competitiveness Ranking: Corporate Tax Policy at a Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Canada is losing its appeal as a destination for business investment. Its ability to compete against other countries for investment slipped considerably this year in our global tax competitiveness ranking, down six spots among OECD countries, and down 11 spots among the 90 countries. While many governments around the world responded to the fallout of the global recession by significantly reducing corporate tax rates, certain policy moves in Canada have us headed in the opposite direction. Canada is in danger of repelling business investment, which can only worsen current economic and fiscal challenges. Canada’s fading advantage is the result of recent anti-competitive provincial tax policies that increased the cost of investment. This includes, most notably, British Columbia’s decision to reverse the harmonization of its provincial sales tax with the federal GST, as well as recent corporate income tax rate hikes in B.C. and New Brunswick. When economic calamity strikes, and workers and their families feel the pain of lost jobs and lost wealth, politicians know they can score populist points by targeting the corporate sector. After all, corporations do not vote and they do not have a human face. News stories about major multinational corporations using tax-avoidance techniques to minimize their tax bills, only feed the populism, leaving voters believing that companies are getting away without paying a “fair share” of taxes. But when the corporate sector is targeted, it is not only supposedly wealthy capitalists who pay, but also employees, through lost wages and jobs, and working-class people who have a stake in companies through pension plans and mutual funds. On a larger scale, it is the economy that suffers. The same profit-maximizing imperative that leads companies to seek ways to reduce their tax liabilities also motivates firms to redirect investment to competing, lower-tax jurisdictions. Populist policies aimed at squeezing

  18. The Russian petroleum tax system: evolution, effects and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The investment climate in the Russian petroleum industry was the subject of this discourse. Legal uncertainties, particularly in taxation, have been identified as having had an inhibiting effect on investment incentives for all enterprises, domestic and foreign. For example, until recently taxes have been based on gross production revenues rather than on profits. Extensive and frequent changes in recent years have been moving towards a more profit related structure, with marked effect on investment incentives for both domestic and foreign companies. Passing of the Law on Production Sharing, and amendments to the Tax Code proposed in 1996, which are aimed at encouraging investment, were described. Further changes to make the Law on Production Sharing and the Tax Code more consistent with each other, and most of all, greater tax stability, were suggested as the most effective incentives to creating an improved investment climate. 1 ref., 1 tab., 30 figs

  19. Why public health services? Experiences from profit-driven health care reforms in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Market-oriented health care reforms have been implemented in the tax-financed Swedish health care system from 1990 to 2013. The first phase of these reforms was the introduction of new public management systems, where public health centers and public hospitals were to act as private firms in an internal health care market. A second phase saw an increase of tax-financed private for-profit providers. A third phase can now be envisaged with increased private financing of essential health services. The main evidence-based effects of these markets and profit-driven reforms can be summarized as follows: efficiency is typically reduced but rarely increased; profit and tax evasion are a drain on resources for health care; geographical and social inequities are widened while the number of tax-financed providers increases; patients with major multi-health problems are often given lower priority than patients with minor health problems; opportunities to control the quality of care are reduced; tax-financed private for-profit providers facilitate increased private financing; and market forces and commercial interests undermine the power of democratic institutions. Policy options to promote further development of a nonprofit health care system are highlighted.

  20. The effect of debt on corporate profitability : Evidence from French service sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kebewar, Mazen

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Current study aims to provide new and first empirical evidence on the impact of debt oncorporate profitability of French service sector. This impact can be explained by three essentialtheories: signaling theory, tax theory and the agency cost theory. Using panel data sample of2240 French non listed companies of service sector during 1999-2006. By utilizing generalizedmethod of moments (GMM) econometric technique on three measures of profitability ratio(PROF1, PROF2 and ROA), we show ...

  1. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  2. Do sales tax credits stimulate the automobile market?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiawei; Esteban, Susanna; Shum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the effectiveness of a sales tax reduction in stimulating sales and profits of durable goods manufacturers. Our question is motivated by policy makers' recent interest in helping ailing automobile manufacturers and in replacing a fleet of highly polluting vehicles. President Obama's economic stimulus plan, for instance, has directly targeted the primary market by including a sales tax credit on purchases of new cars and trucks. In this paper, we sh...

  3. Dynamic Tax Depreciation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the prof- itability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  4. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  5. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  6. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    Mange erhvervsledere har store forventninger til at bruge data til at tjene penge i deres virksomheder. Dog viser det sig, at det ikke er så ligetil – mange forventninger bliver simpelthen ikke indfriet. Derfor har vi igennem de seneste to år kortlagt de kompetencer, som er nødvendige for at real......Mange erhvervsledere har store forventninger til at bruge data til at tjene penge i deres virksomheder. Dog viser det sig, at det ikke er så ligetil – mange forventninger bliver simpelthen ikke indfriet. Derfor har vi igennem de seneste to år kortlagt de kompetencer, som er nødvendige...... sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...

  7. Analisis Pengaruh Tax Avoidance Terhadap Cost of Debt Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Terdaftar Di Bei Selama Periode 2010–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Janice Ekasanti; Kurniawan, Heni

    2016-01-01

    Cost of debt borne by the company set by creditors based on how managementmanages the company. Effective and efficient management related to the way themanagement to increase revenue and suppress the load to obtain the maximum profit. Oneof the expense to be managed is the tax expense. Tax savings that they comply with the provisions of taxation known as tax avoidance. This study aims to reexamine the influenceof tax avoidance on the cost of debt on companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exc...

  8. Transfer Pricing – Between Optimization and International Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin SAVA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Each enterprise in the private sector aims to increase financial return, which is achieved by obtaining the higher net profit by increasing revenue and reducing expenditure. In this endeavor, compliance with tax obligations occupy a very important role because handling taxes may lead to an increase in revenue and / or a reduction of spending, and this action is called tax optimization. In the case of multinational companies, the main tool that can be used to lower the tax burden and increasing, sometimes in sizeable benefits in net, is the transfer prices or the prices they registered entities in the group transactions between them, along with another instrument with great impact, ie tax havens. Tax evasion, designating evading payment obligations of a company according to the national tax system, may be legal in the sense that tax optimization does not violate the rules, but exploiting loopholes that are in them. But when legal tax rules are violated, we deal with tax fraud, which will be subject to punitive measures by public authorities as it affects the whole population.

  9. Transfer Pricing - between Optimization and International Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin SAVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Each enterprise in the private sector aims to increase financial return, which is achieved by obtaining a the higher net profit by increasing revenue and reducing expenditure. In this endeavor, compliance with tax obligations occupy a very important role because handling taxes may lead to an increase in revenue and / or a reduction of spending, and this action is called tax optimization. In the case of multinational companies, the main tool that can be used to lower the tax burden and increasing, sometimes in sizeable benefits in net, is the transfer prices or the prices they registered entities in the group transactions between them, along with another instrument with great impact, ie tax havens. Tax evasion, designating evading payment obligations of a company according to the national tax system, may be legal in the sense that tax optimization does not violate the rules, but exploiting loopholes that are in them. But when legal tax rules are violated, we deal with tax fraud, which will be subject to punitive measures by public authorities as it affects the whole population.

  10. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    of only 31%. We use 2007 municipal reform in Denmark in which 256 municipalities changed tax rates, as an exogenous shock to taxes. The exogeneity of the shock to taxes and the size of the data set is an improvement over earlier studies. Our findings significantly downward adjust the degree of tax......This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  11. The 2014 Global Tax Competitiveness Report: A Proposed Business Tax Reform Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Canada is losing its edge in the competition for global capital. After a decade of remarkable progress in reducing the tax burden on business investment — moving from one of the least tax-competitive jurisdictions among its industrialized peers in 2000, to ranking in the middle of the pack by 2011 — Canada has slipped by largely standing still. As other countries in our peer group have continued to reform their business-tax regimes, they have surpassed Canada, which has slid from having the 19th-highest tax burden on investments by medium-sized and large corporations in 2012, to the 14th-highest among 34 OECD countries in 2014. Even more worrying is that Canada’s political currents are running the wrong way, with a few provinces having increased taxes on capital in recent years and a number of politicians today floating the possibility of even higher business taxes to help address budgetary strains. But the right approach to raising tax revenue and improving the economy is quite the opposite: lowering rates and broadening the tax base by making Canadian jurisdictions even more attractive to corporate investment. An important step towards that would be for federal and provincial governments to reduce targeted tax assistance and to level the tax field for all industries and sizes of businesses, ending the preferential treatment of favoured industries and small enterprises. In addition, those provinces that have yet to harmonize their sales tax with the federal GST should do so, or at least consider adopting a quasi-refund system that would relieve the provincial sales tax on capital inputs. Alberta, with no sales tax, could become more competitive by adopting an HST and using the proceeds to reduce personal and corporate taxes. Finally, Canada would do much better to mandate a uniform corporate tax rate, with an 11 per cent federal rate and a nine per cent average provincial rate. This would encourage capital investment and attract corporate

  12. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  13. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  14. Implications of new accounting rules for income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Carmichael, B J; Spaulding, A D

    1994-02-01

    The provisions of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statement No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes, require all organizations that issue financial statements to shift the focus of their accounting for income taxes from the income statement to the balance sheet. This change can alter significantly a healthcare organization's financial position. The change also may affect the way in which investors, lenders, regulators, and other users of financial statements evaluate corporations in the healthcare industry. Hospitals and other healthcare organizations, particularly for-profit organizations, therefore, should review carefully their methods of accounting for such items as deferred tax assets and loss and expense reserves.

  15. Ranking the Stars: Network Analysis of Bilateral Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten van 't Riet; Arjan Lejour

    2014-01-01

    With a novel approach this paper sheds light on the international tax planning possibilities of multinationals. The international corporate tax system is considered a network, just like for transportation, and ‘shortest’ paths are computed, minimizing tax payments for the multinationals when repatriating profits. Read the accompanying press release and background document A and B . The network consists of 108 jurisdictions, and the ‘shortest’ paths are constructed from the rates of co...

  16. Corporation taxes in the European Union: Slowly moving toward comprehensive business income taxation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cnossen (Sijbren)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper surveys and evaluates the corporation tax systems of the Member States of the European Union on the basis of a comprehensive taxonomy of actual and potential regimes, which have as their base either profits; profits, interest and royalties; or economic rents. The current

  17. 76 FR 32880 - Encouraging New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... proceeds is affiliated with the primary CDE or the qualified equity investment investors; and (iii) the... be a non-profit entity or the affiliate of a non-profit entity? B. Encouraging Equity Investments in... Encouraging New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  18. A Model of Aggressive Tax Optimization with the Use of Royalties

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Kutera

    2017-01-01

    Aim/purpose - Today, international capital flows play a leading role in shaping global economic relations and directly impact the budgets of many states. What is of major importance in this process are the differences and legal loopholes in tax systems of individual states, which allow profits to be taxed at the minimum percentage rate. Tax avoidance is particularly popular among corporations operating in global markets, which use various mechanisms for this purpose. The main aim of this arti...

  19. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design....

  20. Integrating ICT Skills and Tax Software in Tax Education: A Survey of Malaysian Tax Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Ming; Nawawi, Nurul Hidayah Ahamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e-tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e-tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding…

  1. Tax-exempt/proprietary partnerships: how the deal gets done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, M F

    1997-01-01

    Joint venture partnerships between tax-exempt healthcare providers and proprietary companies represent a type of provider-sponsored network. Tax-exempt /proprietary partnerships can help tax-exempt providers attain their strategic objectives and, at the same time, retain some governance involvement and healthcare decision-making authority. Proprietary companies that enter into such partnerships are able to expand their market presence and revenue potential without spending capital on an acquisition. Proprietary companies also gain the tax-exempt partners' goodwill, which could take them years to develop on their own. Before negotiating a partnership agreement, potential partners must assess their respective financial, cultural, organizational, and strategic strengths and weaknesses as well as their overall compatibility. Then they must develop contract terms to bring into the partnership negotiations. These terms include purpose, legal structure, assets/liabilities, governance, management, valuation, profit/loss sharing, capitalization/working capital, human resources, withdrawal from the partnership, noncompete covernants, and tax exemption issues.

  2. Hospitals face loss of federal tax-exempt status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauert, R C; Sanborn, A B; MacKelvie, C F; Harvitt, J L

    1988-09-01

    Because of governmental challenges, not-for-profit hospitals can no longer take for granted their right to be tax exempt. The Internal Revenue Service is auditing nearly 1,500 tax-exempt healthcare organizations to determine how accurately they are reporting unrelated business income. At greatest risk are those hospital systems that have become overly acquisitive or have strayed from the charitable mission that originally entitled them to tax exemption. To protect their tax-exempt status, currently exempt healthcare institutions must be careful that any activities, such as joint ventures and affiliate corporations, conform to their charitable mission. In the face of tougher legislation and Federal scrutiny, hospitals must make sure they are devoted to and performing a charitable purpose if they want to keep their tax-exempt status.

  3. Tax Morality and Progressive Wage Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Simonovits

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of tax morality on progressive income (wage) taxation. We assume that transfers (cash-back) and public expenditures are financed from linear wage taxes. We derive the reported wages from individual utility maximization, when individuals obtain partial satisfaction from reporting wages (depending on their tax morality), and cannot be excluded from the use of public services. The government maximizes a utilitarian social welfare function, also taking into account the utili...

  4. 26 CFR 302.1-4 - Computation of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the managing and renting of real estate in the United States by an agent of the Attorney General or of... the collection or operation thereof and any investment, sale, or other disposition and any payment or... property. In making any such tentative computation of income, profits, or estate tax, the gross income or...

  5. Issues - III. Renewable energies and financial issues - The organisation of a renewable energy sector: the supply in wood-fuel in Auvergne; profitable ecology: which incentive financial and tax tools in favour of renewable energies?; the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production: a precarious support mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, Laurence; Taverne, Marie; Guerra, Fabien; Rouge, Sandra; Gelas, Helene

    2012-01-01

    A first article reports the results of an investigation of the organisation of wood-fuel supply in the French region of Auvergne (presentation of the supply chain analysis, use of the transaction cost theory, factors affecting organisational choices within supply chains). The second article presents and comments the various incentive financial and tax measures in favour of renewable energies (State tax incentives for companies and for individuals, local incentives, and financial incentives). The third article outlines the precarious legal character of the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production, as well as the precarious will of the Government regarding this mandatory purchase

  6. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  7. Adaptation to carbon dioxide tax in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This note discusses the consequences for the sea transport sector between Norway and continental Europe of levying a carbon dioxide tax on international bunker. The influence of such a tax on the operational costs of various types of ship and various transport routes is calculated. The profit obtainable from the following ways of adapting to an increased tax level is assessed: (1) Reducing the speed, (2) Rebuilding the engine to decrease fuel consumption, (3) Changing the design speed for new ships. It is found that a carbon dioxide tax of NOK 200 per tonne of CO 2 will increase the transport costs by 3 - 15 percent. In the long run much of this may be transferred to the freight rates since so much of the sea transport are in segments in which the demand for the service is not sensitive to the prices. Even if the freight rates are not changed, a tax this size will not make it necessary to reduce the speed of the existing fleet. The income lost by taking fewer trips will exceed the costs saved in reducing the speed. However, the optimum design speed for new ships may be somewhat reduced (0.5 knots). Rebuilding engines to reduce the fuel consumption would pay off were it not for the fact that the remaining life of the present fleet is probably too short for this to be interesting

  8. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  9. Environmental taxes in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report briefly presents and comments the amount of environmental taxes which have been collected in France in 2008. These taxes comprise energy taxes (nearly 68 per cent), transport taxes (nearly 28 per cent) and pollution and resource taxes (less than 5 per cent), and represent 2 per cent of the French GDP and 5 per cent of mandatory contributions. The share of environmental taxes is compared among the European Union countries. This shows that France is close to the average. It also appears that these taxes evolve slower than the GDP. An indicator is built up and commented: it relates the rate between energy taxes and the GDP on the one hand, and energy consumption on the other hand. This indicator displays a slow but significant decrease since the end of the last century

  10. Refunded emission taxes: A resolution to the cap-versus-tax dilemma for greenhouse gas regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory instruments for greenhouse gas control present a policy dilemma: Market-based instruments such as cap and trade function to reduce regulatory costs; but because they provide no guarantee that costs will be reduced to acceptable levels it is infeasible to set caps at sustainable levels. Emission taxes provide cost certainty, but their comparatively high cost makes it infeasible to set tax rates at levels commensurate with sustainability goals. However, there is a straightforward solution to this dilemma: Just as cap and trade uses free allowance allocation to minimize regulatory costs, an emission tax's cost can be mitigated by refunding tax revenue in such a way that emission reduction becomes profitable. A refunded tax, like cap and trade with free allocation, would be revenue-neutral within the regulated industry. Marginal competitive incentives for commercializing emission-reducing technologies would not be diminished by the refund, and the refund could actually make it politically and economically feasible to increase the incentives by an order of magnitude. Whereas cap and trade merely caps emissions at an unsustainable level while subjecting the economy to extreme price volatility, refunded emission taxes could create a stable investment environment with sustained incentives for emission reduction over a long-term investment horizon

  11. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  12. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  13. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan-Sarrazin Mary S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP, for-profit (FP and government owned hospitals. Methods We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Results Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals. The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P Conclusions For the three conditions studied NFP and FP hospitals appear to provide a similar amount of uncompensated care while government hospitals provide significantly more. Concerns about the amount of uncompensated care provided by NFP hospitals appear warranted.

  14. Tax Evasion and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    markedly, highlighting the need to move beyond tax data to capture income and wealth at the top, even in countries where tax compliance is generally high. We also find that after reducing tax evasion—by using tax amnesties—tax evaders do not legally avoid taxes more. This result suggests that fighting tax......This paper attempts to estimate the size and distribution of tax evasion in rich countries. We combine random audits—the key source used to study tax evasion so far—with new micro-data leaked from large offshore financial institutions—HSBC Switzerland (“Swiss leaks”) and Mossack Fonseca (“Panama.......01% of the wealth distribution, a group that includes households with more than $45 million in net wealth. A simple model of the supply of tax evasion services can explain why evasion rises steeply with wealth. Taking tax evasion into account increases the rise in inequality seen in tax data since the 1970s...

  15. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  16. Small Business Tax Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Fatih; Coolidge, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any book...

  17. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  18. Tax Luxury or Necessity

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hui Lu

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal taxation between luxury and necessity goods. We set up a three-production-sector neoclassical growth model with inelastic labor supply, and analyze the tax incidence. We find that the two consumption taxes are neutral to economic growth and that the welfare maximization optimal tax mix involves levying the same rate on those two goods. In reality, the tax rate levied on the luxury good is usually higher, so that the government should reduce the tax rate on the l...

  19. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system......This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...

  20. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do...... not just administer the laws; they also enact a policy of fair-mindedness. Doing this they are constrained by time and man-powers, but also enabled by various organizational devices. Research limitations/implications – The tax inspectors that the author followed were carefully chosen and acted...

  1. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... their customer bases decline to commercially non-viable levels. The analysis is framed by public governance literature and argues that the regulation is an example of collaborative or interactive governance, because the tax administrators do not regulate non-compliance directly, but activate external...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  2. Meet the New For-Profit: The Low-Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    "Doing well by doing good" is the business mantra of the for-profit-college industry. But one does not have to look far to find people who question the slogan's sincerity or the very legitimacy of that model. And that was even before reports of some companies' abusive student-recruiting practices and questionable educational standards fed a public…

  3. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX ONE NATION ONE TAX IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuchi Sharma; Rupendra Prakash Yadav.

    2018-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax is a significant and logical step towards a comprehensive Indirect tax reform in India. This paper analyses the concept of Goods Service Tax and further discusses their impact on the various sectors in India. Brief description is given on Goods Service Tax background and Goods and Service Tax models helps to reduce tax burden. It aims at creating a single and unified market benefiting both corporate and economy because this is the only Indirect tax that directly affects ...

  4. Tax Structure and Government Expenditures under Tax Equity Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Koenig; Andreas Wagener

    2010-01-01

    We augment a standard tax model by concerns about tax equity: people get upset when labour is taxed more heavily than capital. Even the slightest concern for tax equity invalidates the common recommendation for small open economies that capital should remain tax-exempt. This holds for exogenous as well as for endogenous government expenditures and irrespective of whether concerns with tax equity only cause emotional discomfort or also impact on work incentives. If concerns with tax equity get...

  5. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  6. Complex profitability analysis of fixed tangible assets

    OpenAIRE

    Mackevičius, J.; Subačienė, R.; Senkus, K.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis is the main tool for evaluation of an enterprise state and for decision making process according to the results of analysis. The article presents analysis of the level of fixed assets profitability; evaluation of factors, which influence the profit-ability of fixed tangible assets; analysis of relationship between profitability and other ratios. Authors of the article propose com-plex profitability analysis of fixed tangible assets approach, which would enable managers to use more ef...

  7. Green gold. 15 tax proposals for a green and innovative economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Engelen, D.; Wit, R.; Blaauw, K.; Winckers, J.

    2010-06-01

    This publication contains 15 proposals for green taxes in the Dutch economy. The benefit of these 15 proposals is over 11 billion euros per year and leads to a reduction of CO2 emissions of at least 12.5 megatons per year. Greening taxes involves a budget neutral shift from taxing labor and profits to taxing environmental pollution and the depletion of natural resources. The proposals reward businesses and citizens which invest in the development and application of innovative green solutions. This leads to an improvement of climate, environment and nature as well as the competitiveness of the Dutch economy. [nl

  8. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  9. Slovnaft distributes its entire profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    At the General Meeting, shareholders of Slovnaft, a.s. decided to pay out dividends with a total value of almost 2.7 bn. Sk (67.51 million Eur). This amount represents the entire net profit the company made last year (minus the mandatory contribution to reserve funds of 10% of profit and 122.5 million Sk (3.06 million Eur) used to settle losses from previous years). The total amount of dividends to be paid will be further increased by retained profits from previous years of almost 390 million Sk (9.75 million Eur). Over 25% of all the investments planned for this year will be in the retail network. Despite the profit distribution, the situation within the company is so positive that, according to information provided by the General Manager, Vratko Kassovis, nearly all the investments planned for this year will be financed from the company's own funds. The remaining investments will be financed by loans and no bond issues will be required

  10. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  11. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  12. THE TAX CONTROL AS A COMPONENT OF TAX ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the features of tax control in the system of taxes administration were investigated. The basic approaches to the determination of tax control were defined. Principles of tax control that must be kept were defined and it will ensure efficiency and effectiveness of tax control. Basic forms of tax control were characterized. An advantages of horizontal monitoring that is one of the form of tax controls were directed. Key words: tax control, tax control forms, horizontal monitoring, documentaries, desk and actual checks.

  13. 2012 Annual Global Tax Competitiveness Ranking – A Canadian Good News Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Canada has been remarkably successful in building a more competitive corporate tax system, principally by lowering tax rates and broadening the tax base. Canada’s marginal effective tax rate (METR is now the lowest, and hence the most tax-competitive among the G-7, the 20th most tax-competitive in the 34-member OECD, and 57th among the 90 countries surveyed in this paper. The result has been greater investment and improved economic growth despite recessionary pressures. In particular, provincial sales tax harmonization with the GST has heightened Ontario’s competitiveness and promises to do the same for PEI, the latest convert to the cause. However, progress has not been uniform. Some provincial governments have lost focus by raising rates or introducing tax preferences that narrow the base, inevitably harming business efficiency. British Columbia’s decision to replace the new Harmonized Sales Tax with the old retail sales tax will cost it dearly, especially when it comes to public spending. On the other hand, corporate tax rate reductions of more than 30 percent (since 2000 have, contrary to the critics’ cries, failed to make an appreciable dent in tax revenues thanks to multinationals’ habit of shifting profits to Canada to take advantage of lower rates. This paper, in providing a candid snapshot of Canadian taxation measured against 89 other nations, serves as an invaluable foundation for understanding how far this country has come, and what its next steps should be.

  14. BOOK-KEEPING AND DIVIDENDS TAX FISCALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIN CIUMAG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dividends represent a distribution in cash or in kind, made by a legal person to a participating in legal person as a result of ownership equity in that person. The incidence of taxation on dividend policy involves targeting the optimal dividend policy, subject to ongoing changes and effect of customer ownership. Generally, into the current tax system, dividends are taxed more heavily than capital gains from the rising value of the shares.Dividends are distributed to shareholders in proportion to participation in paid up share capital, if the constitutive act don't provides otherwise. Distribution of dividends will not be able to made then from profits arising under the law.

  15. THE ROLE OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM: WORLD PRACTICE AND GEORGIA (REVIEW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verulava, T; Jorbenadze, R; Dangadze, B

    2018-01-01

    The health care market is substantially different from other areas of the economy and therefore the behavior of health care providers operating in the health care market is different, which is mainly related to the form of ownership. If the market is mainly characterized by the pursuit of maximum profit, medical services market has for some public good features. Because of this, non-profit hospitals in western countries are considered as an alternative form of commercial hospitals. The purpose of the research was to study the role of not-for-profit hospitals, and in this regard examine the situation of the medical market in Georgia. The existing literature about non-profit hospitals, relevant legislation and statistical data, scientific articles, and other related works. The majority of the hospitals in Georgia represent profitable (commercial) organizations. 41,1% of the hospitals owned by private insurance companies, 29,1% by individuals, 18,4% by other types of companies, 3,2% by other forms and 8% is state-owned. In contrast to this, more than 50% of the healthcare system of West Europe as well as USA is composed of non-profit (commercial) hospitals. In Georgia there is no sufficient motivation for operating of hospitals as non-profit organizations. It is necessary to further adjust tax benefit in the Tax Code of Georgia and share European experiences. It is reasonable to increase the role of non-profit hospitals on the health care market that will increase accessibility to healthcare services for population and moreover. It will bring Georgian healthcare system close to the experience of civilized world.

  16. TAX HAVENS AND THE MONEY LAUNDERING PHENOMENON

    OpenAIRE

    STEFAN MIHU

    2011-01-01

    By using tax havens, the multinational companies are able to exercise an efficient fiscal management that covers also the area of the repatriation of the dividends in foreign currency. The choice of whether or not to use a fiscal paradise resides in the desire of the maximum avoidance of the fiscal burden. The option of investing in a fiscal paradise is based on an economic efficiency calculus named in the speciality literature “option pricing”. It refers to the total material profit obtained...

  17. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  18. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words......, the choice of a specific tax base is not totally instrumental, it has some intrinsic moral value too. In this respect, the chapter ends with a comparison between taxing income and taxing consumption. It is shown that a tax on consumption raises questions that should be answered by political philosophers.......Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...

  19. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  20. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    , thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  1. Whither the Marriage Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; J. Sebastian Leguizamon

    2015-01-01

    We use household data from the Current Population Survey to calculate how the real value of the so-called "marriage tax" or "marriage subsidy" in the federal individual income tax has changed over the period 1969 to 2009. We examine three issues: the magnitude of the marriage tax/subsidy and its evolution over time, its effects on the distribution of income (including the effects of different demographic characteristics on the magnitudes and trends), and the causal factors in its evolution (e...

  2. Profitability analysis of KINGLONG nearly 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua

    2017-08-01

    Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)

  3. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of

  4. MODELING COMBINING TAX REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prishchenko E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the combination of tax regimes as a result of separation from the operating business of the revenues and costs for system of a united tax on imputed income (UTII with the analysis of the tax consequences of such allocation. Three models of taxation were built: both variants of the simplified system of taxation from UTII and common system of taxation with UTII. We propose a rapid method of the most preferred system of taxation for small businesses’ selection depending material to labor costs ratio. All these results could be implemented in the case when the company starts a new type of activity under the rules UTII, and solves the problem in the framework of the tax regime to conduct this activity - UTII applied or not, based on the criterion of tax savings. Using the relations describing the tax burden when combined tax regimes, we can determine what the yield should have a new business line and what cost structure should it have to reduce the tax burden. The main result is proposed approach that can be used as a tool of tax planning activities of small businesses.

  5. PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT – SYNTHETIC EXPRESSION OF ABSOLUTE RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE CRISTIAN IOACHIM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has as main objective the presentation of the current state of knowledge regarding the profit and loss account as part of the financial statements which express in absolute value the profitability of companies and the empirical analysis of these concepts based on the information submitted by OMV Petrom between 2011 and 2015. Thus, in the first part we present several approaches from the specialized literature regarding the aspects mentioned above. The second part follows a vertical and horizontal analysis of key indicators used for measuring the absolute return. For the horizontal analysis we pursued the evolution in time of the following indicators: Gross Margin, Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT, Financial Result, Gross and Net Result. The vertical analysis aimed to explain the formation of the Gross Result via EBIT (which was also analyzed through the Gross Margin and other specific elements and of the Financial Result (which was also analyzed through the different types of financial income and expenses. The results of the study revealed problems of profitability in the years 2014 and 2015 which, in our opinion, can be attributed to poor management of the commercial activity, exploration activity (research and development, distribution and financial activity.

  6. Time to settle the tax issue for the resource industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presented a brief comment on policy issues concerning taxes imposed on the resource industry. It was suggested that if the resource industry in Canada is to remain competitive beyond the current boom, the federal government should provide a more stable tax environment for investment in the longer run. With the current internationally competitive tax rates and high neutrality among energy sectors, there is presently a unique opportunity to settle this issue and to improve the tax system as a whole. It was suggested that the federal corporate income tax rate on resource profits should be reduced from 28 per cent to 21 per cent as it is in other sectors. It was also suggested that the resource allowance should be replaced with deductibility for resource royalties as payment for the cost of using provincially owned resources. This report also described other changes that could be implemented to improve the tax system and to enhance the competitiveness of the resource sector. It was noted that the changes could result in a single corporate income tax rate on all industrial activities by 2005

  7. Measuring Effective Tax Rates for Oil and Gas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to provide cost of capital formulae for assessing the effects of taxation on the incentive to invest in oil and gas industries in Canada. The analysis is based on the assumption that businesses invest in capital until the after-tax rate of return on capital is equal to the tax-adjusted cost of capital. The cost of capital in absence of taxation is the inflation-adjusted cost of finance. The after-tax rate of return on capital is the annualized profit earned on a project net of the taxes paid by the businesses. For this purpose, we include corporate income, sales and other capital-related taxes as applied to oil and gas investments. For oil and gas taxation, it is necessary to account for royalties in a special way. Royalties are payment made by businesses for the right to extract oil and gas from land owned by the property holder. The land is owned by the province so the royalties are a rental payment for the benefit received from extracting the product from provincial lands. Thus, provincial royalty payments are a cost to oil and gas companies for using public property. However, since the provincial government is responsible for the royalty regime and could use taxes like the corporate income tax to extract revenue, one might think of royalties as part of the overall fiscal regime to raise revenue. In principle, one should subtract the rental benefit received from oil and gas businesses from taxes and royalty payments to assess the overall fiscal impact. This is impossible to do without measuring some explicit rental rate for use of provincial property. Further, royalty payments may distort economic decisions unlike a payment based on the economic rents earned on oil and gas projects. Instead, for comparability across jurisdictions, one might calculate the aggregate tax and royalty effective tax rates (such as between Alberta and Texas.

  8. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  9. Is merging and acquisition profitable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjeret, Frode; Soergard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector in Norway. The background is the fact that the profitability of these activities proves to be low. In buying, it is typically the selling shareholder who profits from the transaction, while the buying company does not really earn much. This result appears to be a robust result both in different countries, between sectors and independent of methodology. The report provides theoretical justification for merging and buying up and empirical evaluations of the effects of company integration. It is asserted that what can be learned in general from the literature may also occur in the European power sector. Furthermore, the report discusses the challenges faced by the companies if they want to expand through mergers and acquisitions

  10. Capital Budgeting: a Tax Shields’ “Mirage”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor DRAGOTĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The mainstream in Finance studies recognizes the impact of tax shields on capital budgeting. This study offers some evidences regarding a bias in direct investment projects valuation in the case of taking into account of the allowance of recovery of the losses recorded in the past financial exercises from future profits as long as the classical indicators (e.g., Net Present Value are used. Also, this tax regime seems to favour the adoption of less-performer projects by lessperformer companies, as long as these projects should be otherwise rejected by a performer company.

  11. Tax incentives to promote green electricity. An overview of EU-27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansino, Jose M.; Pablo-Romero, Maria del P.; Roman, Rocio; Yniguez, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main tax incentives used in the EU-27 member states (MSs) to promote green electricity. Sixteen MSs use tax incentives to promote green electricity simultaneously with other promotion measures, especially quota obligations and price regulation. However, not all available technologies are promoted. For example, six MSs (Germany, Romania, Slovak Republic, Denmark, Sweden and Poland) have included an exemption on the payments of excise duties for electricity when the electricity is generated from renewable energy sources (RES). This tax incentive is the most widely used. Limited tax incentives in personal income tax are available in Belgium, France, Czech Republic and Luxembourg. In corporate tax, tax incentives consist mainly of a deduction in the taxable profit (Belgium, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain). Lower tax rates in VAT are applied in three MSs, France, Italy and Portugal. Only Spain and Italy use effective tax incentives in property tax. As a great diversity of tax incentives has been used to promote green electricity, this adds another difficulty to the EU objective of providing a renewable energy policy framework, but also it offers a useful set of case studies which can be used to inform EU policy development. (author)

  12. TAX EVASION, LEVEL OF INTERNET CORPORATE REPORTING AND FIRM VALUE: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmoro P.S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country that accumulates its source of revenue to taxes, Indonesia is not spared from tax compliance issues. The low level of tax compliance indicates a different point of view between the government and the Taxpayer. The low level of tax compliance indicates a different point of view between the government and the Taxpayer. Taxpayers still consider the obligation to pay taxes as an expense that can reduce their income or profits. Therefore, the rational Taxpayer will try to minimize the tax burden. One of them is by doing Tax Evasion. Taxation management is more often done by the Taxpayer Agency, especially the Manufacturing company. This is because the company has a very high business risk. Tax Evasion can increase organizational complexity which in turn can reduce financial transparency. Therefore, companies are required to disclose more information and provide flexible reporting systems that facilitate stakeholders. This encourages companies in the world to take advantage of the development of information technology and interconnection networking through internet corporate reporting. Utilization of internet corporate reporting is expected to increase the value of the company. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the concept of Tax Evasion, the level of internet corporate reporting disclosure, and the firm value. The results showed that the three hypotheses in this study were accepted. Tax Evasion affects the level of internet corporate reporting disclosure. In addition, Tax Evasion also directly or indirectly influence the firm value through the level disclosure of internet corporate reporting.

  13. Tax incentives to promote green electricity: An overview of EU-27 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansino, Jose M., E-mail: jmcansino@us.e [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Pablo-Romero, Maria del P.; Roman, Rocio; Yniguez, Rocio [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no 1, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main tax incentives used in the EU-27 member states (MSs) to promote green electricity. Sixteen MSs use tax incentives to promote green electricity simultaneously with other promotion measures, especially quota obligations and price regulation. However, not all available technologies are promoted. For example, six MSs (Germany, Romania, Slovak Republic, Denmark, Sweden and Poland) have included an exemption on the payments of excise duties for electricity when the electricity is generated from renewable energy sources (RES). This tax incentive is the most widely used. Limited tax incentives in personal income tax are available in Belgium, France, Czech Republic and Luxembourg. In corporate tax, tax incentives consist mainly of a deduction in the taxable profit (Belgium, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain). Lower tax rates in VAT are applied in three MSs, France, Italy and Portugal. Only Spain and Italy use effective tax incentives in property tax. As a great diversity of tax incentives has been used to promote green electricity, this adds another difficulty to the EU objective of providing a renewable energy policy framework, but also it offers a useful set of case studies which can be used to inform EU policy development.

  14. Tax incentives to promote green electricity. An overview of EU-27 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansino, Jose M.; Pablo-Romero, Maria del P.; Roman, Rocio; Yniguez, Rocio [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no 1, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main tax incentives used in the EU-27 member states (MSs) to promote green electricity. Sixteen MSs use tax incentives to promote green electricity simultaneously with other promotion measures, especially quota obligations and price regulation. However, not all available technologies are promoted. For example, six MSs (Germany, Romania, Slovak Republic, Denmark, Sweden and Poland) have included an exemption on the payments of excise duties for electricity when the electricity is generated from renewable energy sources (RES). This tax incentive is the most widely used. Limited tax incentives in personal income tax are available in Belgium, France, Czech Republic and Luxembourg. In corporate tax, tax incentives consist mainly of a deduction in the taxable profit (Belgium, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain). Lower tax rates in VAT are applied in three MSs, France, Italy and Portugal. Only Spain and Italy use effective tax incentives in property tax. As a great diversity of tax incentives has been used to promote green electricity, this adds another difficulty to the EU objective of providing a renewable energy policy framework, but also it offers a useful set of case studies which can be used to inform EU policy development. (author)

  15. Efficiency of tax bodies' performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorovskaya, M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of assessment of tax bodies' activities efficiency which tax administration faces are touched upon. Suggestions made provide an opportunity for bodies of legislative and executive power to take specific measures aimed at enhancing the system of tax administration in the country. Suggested criteria for assessing tax bodies' performance can be put into practice by tax authorities. A new approach to aspects of solving tasks of control over tax compliance, preventing and excluding ta...

  16. Taxation and distribution of income in Brazil: new evidence from personal income tax data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉRGIO WULFF GOBETTI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT able This paper presents a critical analysis of income and profit taxes in Brazil, arguing that measures adopted in the 1980s and 1990s, as a result of mainstream recommendations, hindered the redistributive role of taxes. An examination of tax data reveals a high degree of top income concentration, low tax progressivity and violations of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity. The main reason for these distortions is the complete tax exemption of dividends, a benefit that is very rarely seen in developed countries. We propose a return to a progressivity-focused tax reform plan, a theme that has returned as a focus of debates with (Piketty, 2014.

  17. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  18. Taxes and gender equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brenda Battisti

    questions through an analysis of personal income and consumption taxes in eight countries at different levels of ... Implicit gender biases are also found in consumption taxes, given that males and females have different expenditure patterns. ... and Social Protection in Developing Countries.” The project profile is available at.

  19. Tax Reform & University Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Holt

    This brochure discusses the implications of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 for university and college development officers charged with the responsibility for solicitation of gifts, bequests and grants from foundations. The solicitation of deferred gifts, bequests and grants from foundations is discussed in chapter one in relation to tax reform and…

  20. Life After Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on higher education is discussed. Background on the tax reform movement and the specific provisions of the 1986 law are examined. The law will reduce private donations, raise the cost of college, and raise the cost of operating institutions. (MLW)

  1. Waiting for tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of tax credits and related legislation under consideration by Congress on the economics of the renewable energy industry. The topics discussed in the article include conflicting industry opinion on financial incentives, the effectiveness of current incentives, and alternative approaches. The article also includes a sidebar on tax incentives offered by state programs

  2. Income Tax Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Darryl Lee

    2006-01-01

    Every year at this time millions of Americans scramble to file or extend their income tax returns. This article explores some of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) sections that might affect (or relate to) the taxation of parents of disabled or special healthcare needs children. Many of these tax provisions also apply to parents with adult children…

  3. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Ioana; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cai, Xueya; Rosenthal, Gary E

    2010-04-07

    There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP), for-profit (FP) and government owned hospitals. We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID) for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals) hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals) for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals). The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P NFP; 3.3% FP; 7.0% government; P NFP; 4.2% FP; 11.8% government; P NFP and FP hospitals (4.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.71), and higher for government hospitals (6.0%; P NFP vs. government). Likewise, results demonstrated similar proportions of uninsured patients in NFP and FP hospitals and higher levels of uninsured in government hospitals for both CABG and childbirth. For the three conditions studied NFP and FP hospitals appear to provide a similar amount of uncompensated care while government hospitals provide significantly more. Concerns about the amount of

  4. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...... in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...

  5. THE WORLD OF TAx DEDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dujov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study and methodological foundations of the structure of taxes and fees. Disclosed the concept of elements of tax and duty. Focuses on the nature of the concept of «tax deduction». Provides legal and the author’s interpretation of the term «tax deduction». Examples of application of a tax deduction in the value-added tax and the tax to incomes of physical persons. the conclusions about the multilateral nature of the tax deduction.

  6. Tax Morale and Optimal Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Güth, Werner; Sausgruber, Rupert

    2004-01-01

    We study experimentally how taxpayers choose between two tax regimes to fund a public good. The first-best tax regime imposes a general, distortion-free income tax. However, this tax cannot be enforced. The second-best alternative supplements the income tax by a specific commodity tax. This tax cannot be evaded but distorts optimal consumption choices, instead. The result is that a large majority of subjects prefer the general income tax regime. The bulk of votes is consistent with actual pay...

  7. Choice of For-Profit College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I investigate whether students self-select into the U.S. for-profit colleges or whether the choice of for-profit sector is accidental or due to the reasons external to the students (geographic exposure to for-profit providers, tuition pricing, or random circumstances). The main student-level data samples come from the National…

  8. IMPLICATIONS OF THE APPLICATION OF IFRS FOR SMES IN ROMANIA ON TAXABLE AND DISTRIBUTABLE PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girbina Madalina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 9 July 2009, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB issued the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium Sized Entities (IFRS for SMEs which aims to provide a financial reporting framework for SMEs falling within its scope. It is a matter for authorities in each jurisdiction to decide which entities are permitted or required to apply IFRS for SMEs. Because of the connection between accounting and taxation certain european countries had a reluctant position related to the application of IFRS for SMEs. Opponents focused on the incompatibility between IFRS for SMEs framework and the principles commonly accepted for tax purposes. As the individual financial statements drown up in compliance with IFRS for SMEs will serve for profit distribution under the 2nd European Directive the question arises weather the profits determined under these accounting rules can be considered as realized for distribution purposes. In order to mitigate the mismatch between accounting and distributable profits, Member States will need to reconsider the circumstances in which gains and losses arising from re-measurement at fair value through profit and loss should be considered as realized. In this scenario, two important questions arise: What are the potential tax effects of the application of IFRS for SMEs? Is the profit determined under IFRS for SMEs available for distribution or some adjustments are necessary? The paper addresses these issues in the context of the Romanian accounting and taxation systems. Romania represents a relevant case study, as it is one of the European countries with a close linkage between financial and tax, where the fiscal profit is dependent on the accounting profit (currently determined under domestic regulations. The methodology consists in a comparative analysis of the recognition and measurement rules between national accounting regulations and IFRS for SMEs in order to identify the differences with

  9. IS THE VALUE ADDED TAX A SUPERIOR SALES TAX IN ALL SALES TAXES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ALİ SARILI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is a tax imposed on the value added to a product at each stage of the production and distribution process. Value added is never taxed twice under VAT and thus cascading (tax on tax effects do not occur. It is a single tax on goods and services but the tax is collected multiple stages. At each of these stages, the amount of tax payable is computed by subtracting the tax previously paid on purchases from the tax charged on sales by the traders for each taxation period. In last three decades, VAT, a relatively new and better commodity taxation, has been introduced in many countries. It has replaced different types of sales taxes in such countries. This article attempts to evaluate VAT by comparing with other sales taxes.

  10. Cost efficient climatic policy with double profits; Kostnadseffektiv klimapolitikk med doble gevinster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart

    1999-06-18

    The article discusses the choice and implementation of climatic policy measures in a country which has a commitment with respect to the Kyoto agreement but must consider an official budget requirement at the same time. The assumption that a climatic tax should be equal to the international quota price must be moderated. It is shown that a correctly designed taxation system and a system with marketable quotas which is integrated in an international rate market, principally does give the same cost efficient solution. This postulates however, that the climatic gas tax follows the variations in the international quota price. It is also concluded that the climatic policy may generate double profits but that allotting of free quotas gives less profits of this kind. The allocations of free quotas when connected to maintained production contribute to limiting the number of business closings. Such a system would not be cost efficient. 16 refs.

  11. Effective Tax Rate of Corporate Income Tax in the Post-Crisis Period: The Case of Non-Financial Companies Listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorescu Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents the main causes for the divergence between the statutory and effective rate of the corporate income tax, based on the provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code. The differences between the gross income and the taxable profit, which form the basis for calculating the income tax, are highlighted. The second part is devoted to the methodology for calculating the effective income tax rate and its analysis, based on data from the financial statements published in the post-crisis period by Romanian companies listed on BVB.

  12. China’s Emerging Tax Regime: Local Tax Farming and Central Tax Bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.; Krug, B.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChina like other transition economies needs to establish a tax system compatible with a market economy, in particular, an efficient tax administration system with capable tax bureaucrats. The paper singles out the general and China-specific features by which central government attempts to accompany economic transformation via tax farming to tax bureaucratisation in tax administration. Based on empirical study in two provinces this paper shows that without including local governmen...

  13. Energy taxes and industrial competitiveness: the case of Italian carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardazzi, Rossella; Pazienza, Maria Grazia

    2005-01-01

    An international debate on which economic instrument should be used to reduce pollutant emissions has begun since the nineties when the awareness of climatic risks aroused and first attempts to introduce a European carbon tax were made. Although this project failed, several national programmes of carbon/energy taxes have been developed with a common concern for industrial competitiveness of energy and/or carbon-intensive firms. Therefore, double dividend schemes have been applied to reduce existing distorsive taxes while introducing a higher burden on energy products. This paper reviews the most important European case studies and analyses the effects of the introduction of a carbon tax in Italy on energy expenditure and economic profitability of Italian manufacturing enterprises. This tax has been introduced in 1998 and should have progressively increased up to the final tax rates in 2005. However, this process halted in the year 2000 - as the world energy prices increased - and the ultimate rates have never been applied. Nonetheless, our analysis offers relevant insights both because energy excises are a major instrument in environmental policy and because industrial activities affected by energy taxes will also be affected by the tradable permits scheme recently adopted by the European Union. The study is performed with a micro simulation model to simulate changes, in energy excises and the associated reduction of social contributions to achieve the double dividends. Existing empirical analyses have usually been carried out at aggregate or sectoral level, but the effects on costs both of carbon tax and of compensative measures differ at the firm level, thus it is significant to study the impact on economic profitability on individual units of analysis. The data show that energy expenditure as a component of intermediate costs varies by economic activity as well as the energy mix used in the production process, thus suggesting possible competitiveness problems

  14. Energy taxes -- Some critical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar concept of Pigouvian taxes has finally caught the interest of politicians as the various proposals for a pollution tax, often simplified to an energy tax, document. This paper reviews these proposals critically and points at some wrong presumptions. The suggestion to make the polluter liable for all damages is in general inefficient. In order to sell new taxes, politicians argue that Pigouvian taxes would not lower disposable income, because the associated revenues allow one to reduce other taxes (in particular, income taxes) correspondingly. However, strategic, noncompetitive energy producers may themselves attempt to internalize the external costs rather than to leave these tax revenues to the treasuries of the consuming countries. Moreover, the revenues from a commodity tax are potentially volatile. Finally, the conservation impact from Pigouvian energy taxes may fall short of expectations, in particular, if the tax is too low

  15. The effect of energy market liberalization on the profitability of sustainable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisse, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes to energy prices can have a major impact on the profitability of energy-saving measures. It appears that the introduction of the Commodity Services System (CDS) - the Gasunie's (Dutch natural gas trading company) new tariff system - may result in shorter cost-recovery times for a number of innovative options as well as higher gas prices for peak boilers. Further Regulatory Energy Taxes (REB) will make their influence felt. An overview of the current situation is given. 4 refs

  16. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  17. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.

  18. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....

  19. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...

  20. A Stochastic After-Taxes Optimisation Model to Support Distribution Network Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Rui; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Gouveia, Borges

    2012-01-01

    distribution centres located in different countries. The challenge is also to reveal how financial and tax knowledge can help logistic leaders improving the value to their companies under global solutions and sources of business net profitability in a dynamic environment. In particular, based on inventory......The paper proposes a stochastic model to integrate tax issues into strategic distribution network decisions. Specifically, this study will explore the role of distribution models in business profitability, and how to use the network design to deliver additional bottom-line results, using...

  1. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2008 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes key federal income tax provisions for forestland owners, foresters, loggers, forest product businesses, and tax practioners, and is current as of October 1, 2008.  Consult your tax and legal professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  2. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2009 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes federal income tax information useful to woodland owners in preparing their 2009 tax returns. It is current as of October 1, 2009, and supersedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 132. It should not be sonstrued as legal or accounting advice: consult your legal and tax professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  3. Use of accounting for tax search conducted by tax administrator

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is to describe the use of accounting and financial statements for tax search conducted by tax administrator. Besides various methods and ways of using accounting, this paper focuses on principles, criteria and phases of tax search. The final chapter describes possibility of making electronic tax search, which is based on accounting and other data in electronic form.

  4. 76 FR 66181 - Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...)(C) Example (i) and (ii) of this section. If LLCB does not pay the tax on its sale of coal under... Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... regulations relating to disregarded entities and excise taxes. These regulations also make conforming changes...

  5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF CRIMEA AND ITS IMPACT ON THE TAX POTENTIAL OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Zhuravleva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of the main macroeconomic indicators of development of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea from the standpoint of assessment of the tax potential of this area and predict the possible income taxes. Studied industrial structure development of this area as a part of Ukraine, and after joining Russia, analyzed the current situation with profitable and unprofitable enterprises of the Crimea in comparison with the national data.

  6. Multinational Firms' Heterogeneity in Tax Responsiveness: the Role of Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Céline Azémar; Paolo Gregory Corcos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that the ability of multinational firms to manipulate transfer prices affects the tax sensitivity of foreign direct investment (FDI). We offer a model of international capital allocation where firms are heterogeneous in their ability to manipulate transfer prices. Perhaps paradoxically, we show that the ability to shift profits can make parent companies' investment more sensitive to host-country tax rates, as long as investors expect fiscal authorities to use price and p...

  7. Taxation of Non-profit Organizations in the Selected European Countries: the Proposal of the Changes for the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of taxation of income of non-profit organizations, especially to associations (clubs in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United Kingdom. This paper is part of research, where the main emphasis is placed on the comparison of the tax benefits which are provided to non-profit organizations in different countries. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic where despite the changes that have occurred in connection with the new Civil Code, there is still missing clear legislation that would regulate the activities of the monitored organizations. Changes in the taxation of income of non-profit organizations are designed with regard to the elimination of deficiencies in order to prevent the abuse of the benefits and the speculative behavior of tax entities.

  8. New taxes are late

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    A special tax for monopolies is not the only new tax the cabinet of Robert Fico is yet to introduce. As of the beginning of the year, new excise taxes prescribed by Brussels should have entered into force in Slovakia. According to the new arrangements, we should pay for energy consumed and for the coal and natural gas used to produce heat. And so the energy prices for companies should have already increased. Although the deadline set by the European Commission has already passed, the cabinet has still not completed the final version of the relevant legislation. Work stopped after the elections. The Ministry is very careful when it comes to making statements related to the excise tax. 'We do not wish to talk about details. There are still some minor issues that require fine tuning,' said Adrian Belanik, General Director of the Tax and Customs Section. Companies will have to get ready for the new costs related to the new excise taxes. The only thing that is clear is that the new taxes will be paid on the electricity and fuel used for heat production. (authors)

  9. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  10. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  11. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  12. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF TAX LAW ON RUSSIAN TAX LAW ENFORCEMENT IN THE AREA OF CORPORATE TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation is considered in the article.The purpose of the paper is to analyze influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and methods of comparative law.Results, scope of application. The development of Russian tax legislation is influenced by acts of international organizations, primarily the Action Plan aimed at combating base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS.Trends of regulation of corporate taxation in relationships with participation of a foreign element are considered in the article. The main issues of realization of norms in the area of corporate direct taxation are brought into light, and namely, taxation of royalties, intra-group expenses, thin capitalization rules and transfer pricing. Tax agreements concluded by the Russian Federation do not contain special rules aimed at combating abuses (in contrast, for example, from European anti-avoidance rules.In recent years Russian tax law introduced institutions that had been established and applied in the tax law of foreign countries. These processes are moving forward and are characterized by frequent changes of legislation, which indicates that the concept of deoffshorization and implementation of the BEPS plan is not always elaborated at the stage of adoption of bills.Conclusions. The author comes to the conclusion that the most relevant and most controversial issues are taxation of payment of royalties, debt financing and intra-group expenses. The practice of applying the CFC rules is just starts forming. In addition, there is a tendency to increase the quality and quantity of information sources used by tax authorities to collect

  13. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as e...

  14. International capital tax evasion and the foreign tax credit puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley Scharf

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the role of international tax evasion for the choice of an optimal foreign tax credit by a capital exporting region. Since a foreign tax credit raises the opportunity cost of concealing foreign source income, it can be employed to discourage evasion activity. The existence of international tax evasion possibilities could thus help rationalize a choice of tax credit in excess of a deduction-equivalent credit level. Our analysis shows that, in general the optimal credit will...

  15. ACCOUNTING – TAXATION REPORT IN TERMS OF DEFERRED TAXES ON ASSETS REVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has always been and will be a relationship between accounting and taxation, and the ongoing discussions are related to intensity, interrelation and generation of reciprocal effects. Profit is the "wealth" achieved by the economic entity, the share of shareholders after paying the income tax, where applicable, which makes the profit have a major influence on the method of determination and thus of the accounting treatment incurred by the income tax depending on the accounting cultures in dispute for supremacy, namely the European accounting culture and the Anglo-Saxon accounting culture. As the users of information in the financial statements seek to assess the performance and profitability of the company in general and, academically, the income tax is the only element raising debates on the relationship between accounting and taxation, we deemed it useful to conduct a study on the accounting – taxation report in terms of deferred taxes related to assets revaluation. The record of deferred tax amount for each type of temporary difference results in elimination of tax effects from accounting, with the aim of revealing the real earnings of the economic entity and not its fiscal side, all of which is a step in disconnecting the taxation accounting

  16. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability: A Case Study on Dutch Bangla Bank Ltd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraiya Mahbuba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, the banking sector has a glorious history of getting engaged themselves in different kinds of social activities which is formally known as CSR (Corporate Social Responsibilities. The paper examines the relationship between CSR and profitability of Dutch Bangla Bank Ltd (DBBL which is the initiator of CSR activities in the banking sector of Bangladesh. The study used annual reports of DBBL for the year 2002 to 2011. Ordinary least square (OLS model of regression was analyzed using SPSS 16. to assess the impact as well as test the hypothesis of the study whether there is a relationship and the extent of the relationship between the independent variable (corporate social responsibility expenditure and the dependent variable (profit after tax. Above all, the analysis revealed that 90.7% of the variance of profit after tax of DBBL has been explained by the benefit accrued from corporate social responsibility. The hypothesis that was formulated was tested and the result shows that there is significant positive relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability in case of DBBL.

  18. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  19. Real Property Tax - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  20. Real Property Tax - 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  1. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  2. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....

  3. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  4. How to map your industry's profit pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    Many managers chart strategy without a full understanding of the sources and distribution of profits in their industry. Sometimes they focus their sights on revenues instead of profits, mistakenly assuming that revenue growth will eventually translate into profit growth. In other cases, they simply lack the data or the analytical tools required to isolate and measure variations in profitability. In this Manager's Tool Kit, the authors present a way to think clearly about where the money's being made in any industry. They describe a framework for analyzing how profits are distributed among the activities that form an industry's value chain. Such an analysis can provide a company's managers with a rich understanding of their industry's profit structure--what the authors call its profit pool--enabling them to identify which activities are generating disproportionately large or small shares of profits. Even more important, a profit-pool map opens a window onto the underlying structure of the industry, helping managers see the various forces that are determining the distribution of profits. As such, a profit-pool map provides a solid basis for strategic thinking. Mapping a profit pool involves four steps: defining the boundaries of the pool, estimating the pool's overall size, estimating the size of each value-chain activity in the pool, and checking and reconciling the calculations. The authors briefly describe each step and then apply the process by providing a detailed example of a hypothetical retail bank. They conclude by looking at ways of organizing the data in chart form as a first step toward plotting a profit-pool strategy.

  5. Preference in Presentation or Impression Management: A Comparison Study between Chairmen’s Statements of the Most and Least Profitable Australian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilan Cen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent of impression management in corporate annual reports in an Australian context. To contribute to this topic, a research question is investigated: do the most profitable Australian companies, assessed by percentage change in profit before tax, organise the chairmen’s statements of their corporate annual reports and disclose information in a way that is significantly different from those least profitable companies? In terms of the methodology, this research has selected the top 50 most and least profitable companies in ASX 500 as at 30th June 2009 respectively. For reference and comparison purposes, another 50 companies were selected randomly from the rest of the population. Content analysis was applied. The results of this study were indicative that chairmen’s letters from profitable and non-profitable Australian companies do demonstrate significantly different presentational preferences.

  6. Evaluation of state taxes and tax incentives and their impact on the development of geothermal energy in western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, L.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The economic impact of existing and prospective state taxes and tax incentives on direct thermal applications of geothermal energy are evaluated. Study area is twelve western states which have existing and potential geothermal activities. Economic models representing the geothermal producer and business enterprise phases of four industrial/commercial uses of geothermal energy are synthesized and then placed in the existing tax structures of each state for evaluation. The four enterprises are a commercial greenhouse (low temperature process heat), apartment complex (low temperature space heat), food processor (moderate temperature process heat), and small scale energy system (electrical and direct thermal energy for a small industrial park). The effects of the state taxations on net profits and tax revenues are determined. Tax incentives to accelerate geothermal development are also examined. The magnitudes of total state and local tax collections vary considerably from state to state, which implies that geothermal producers and energy-using businesses may be selective in expanding or locating their geothermal operations.

  7. A Tax Evasion - Bribery Game: Experimental Evidence from Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bilotkach

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of tax evasion by enterprises through underreporting activity. We develop a view of this phenomenon as an equilibrium of the game between a businessman and an imperfectly monitored supervising official, in which a businessman can hide part of his profit and offer bribe to official. We determine conditions under which such tax evasion and bribery become wide-spread in the society, resulting in shadow economy. The game is put into an experimental setting in Kiev, Ukraine, with the emphasis of spreading of the tax evasion and bribery activity in the laboratory setting. We find that once it becomes known that substantial share of subjects playing the role of supervising officials agree to accept bribes from subjects playing the role of businessmen, the latter offer bribes more aggressively. Yet, this in turn does not affect the behavior of subjects playing the role of supervising officials.

  8. Socially Improving Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, Jean-Yves; Makdissi, Paul; Wodon, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes graphical methods to determine whether commodity-tax changes are "socially improving", in the sense of improving social welfare or decreasing poverty for large classes of social welfare and poverty indices. It also derives estimators of critical poverty lines and economic efficiency ratios which can be used to characterize socially-improving tax reforms. The statistical properties of the various estimators are derived in order to make the method implementable using survey ...

  9. Timing Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Niepelt

    2004-01-01

    Standard models of tax evasion implicitly assume that evasion is either fully detected, or not detected at all. Empirically, this is not the case, casting into doubt the traditional rationales for interior evasion choices. I propose two alternative, dynamic explanations for interior tax evasion rates: Fines depending on the duration of an evasion spell, and different vintages of income sources subject to aggregate risk and fixed costs when switched between evasion states. The dynamic approach...

  10. Excise Taxes with Multiproduct Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen F. Hamilton

    2009-01-01

    I examine excise taxes levied on multiproduct retailers. Excise taxes reduce equilibrium output and decrease equilibrium product variety in the short run, but taxes can raise output per product in the long run and induce entry. Excise taxes are overshifted into prices in a wide range of cases, including under linear and concave demand conditions, and excise taxes shift less than one-for-one into prices only when demand is highly convex. Multiproduct transactions substantively alter the effici...

  11. Investment Taxes and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates whether investors are compensated for the tax burden of equity securities. Effective tax rates on equity securities vary due to frequent tax reforms and due to persistent differences in propensities to pay dividends. The paper finds an economically and statistically significant relationship between risk-adjusted stock returns and effective personal tax rates using a new data set covering tax burdens on a cross-section of equity securities between 1927 and 2004. Consist...

  12. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO 2 . The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  13. Environmental taxes and subsidies 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1970 - 2002 and statements of environmentally related subsidies for the years 1996 - 2002. Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation, and resource related taxes. The State's revenue from environmental taxes have increased from 4,0 billions DKK in 1970 to 65,7 billions DKK in 2002. The environmental taxes' part of the GNP has increased from 3,2 % in 1970 to 4,8 % in 2002. The part of the environmental taxes of the total taxes and tariffs has increased from 8,2 % in 1970 to 9,8 % in 2002. >From 2001 to 2002 the environmental taxes increased with 5,6 %, primarily because the taxes in the transportation sector increased with 13,5 % due to more new cars. The pollution taxes increased with 6 % while the environmental taxes for energy increased with only 0,8 %. In 2002 the energy related taxes amounted to 54 %, the transport related taxes to 39 %, and pollution and resource related taxes amounted to 7 % of the total environmental taxes. The public environmentally related subsidies to companies and households has been on a stable level of a little more than 10 billions DKK through the latest years. The energy related subsidies have, however, been transferred to transport related subsidies, i.e. primarily subsidies to the public transport. (ln)

  14. TAX OPTIMIZATION, TAX AVOIDANCE OR TAX EVASION? CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OFFSHORE COMPANIES’ LEGAL BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Eva ERDÕS

    2010-01-01

    Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...

  15. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  16. Photovoltaic is always more profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    While indicating 31 recommendations made by the ADEME for the development of photovoltaic production, this article outlines a result published in the same report: the cost of solar photovoltaic production keeps on decreasing, and therefore, profitabilities without subsidy might appear before the 2020's in France. The cost of ground-based photovoltaic plant has indeed been decreasing from 6 to 1.5 euro per Watt in less than 10 years, with some regional variations. The connection cost could also be reduced by nearly 30 per cent for individual installations. New business models could then be implemented for a development without subsidy. The new thermal regulation could also have an influence on the development of solar production. These trends can be noticed in the world as well

  17. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...

  18. The Fiscal Impact of a Corporate & Individual Tax Credit Scholarship Program on the State of Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David

    2009-01-01

    Indiana legislators are currently debating the merits of a proposal to adopt a statewide tuition scholarship tax credit program. The proposed program would make available $5 million in tax credits that businesses and individuals could claim by making donations to non-profit Scholarship Granting Organizations (SGOs). SGO donations would be matched…

  19. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  20. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  1. PROFIT SENSITIVITY IN THE DECISION - MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimi Ofilean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projections on the profitability of an entity is a prerequisite impact assessment of implementing various management strategies. The literature did not include a model sensitivity analysis in terms of profit margin of safety modification and safety coefficient. This article aims to explicit solutions for identifying the factors that influence the sensitivity of profit, the proposed analytical models to change the margin of safety (physical and value and coefficient of safety. The model allows the determination of limits that can increase or decrease sales costs so that the company remains profitable, ie to be able to maintain an adequate level of profit. This analysis allows knowing the influence of each factor in the evolution of the profitability of the entity, allowing managers to adopt the right decisions based on the importance of the influence of the analysis results of the entity. To facilitate understanding of the proposed analytical model is presented a case study.

  2. Public ownership helps boost HMOs' profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, P J

    1992-05-04

    Health maintenance organizations have found that the route to faster growth and better profitability may be turning into a for-profit business and issuing stock. For the past five years, such organizations have generally outperformed their older, not-for-profit counterparts that rely on debt to fuel growth. Since 1988, HMOs have completed 48 stock and debt offerings, raising $3.6 billion.

  3. Tax Potential vs. Tax Effort; A Cross-Country Analysis of Armenia's Stubbornly Low Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Grigorian; Hamid R Davoodi

    2007-01-01

    Despite recording double digit growth since 2000, Armenia's tax-to-GDP ratio has been fairly stable at about 14½ percent. This paper catalogues a range of factors that may account for Armenia's stubbornly for tax collection by benchmarking Armenia's tax-to-GDP against some comparator countries and conducting an extensive econometric study of the main determinants of tax collection. We find empirical support for the hypothesis that the persistence of Armenia's low tax-GDP ratio can be traced t...

  4. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  5. Identification of causes of differences in statutory and effective rates of corporate taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Široký

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the existence of the corporate tax itself is a subject of controversy, it has been currently implemented in all EU countries except of Estonia where only distributed profits are taxed. The statutory (nominal rate of the corporate tax itself does not say very much about the size of the corporate tax burden. This rate currently (on 31/10/2011 differs by 25% in the EU countries (10% in Bulgaria, Cyprus vs. 35% in Malta. For at least approximate determination of the effective (real corporate tax burden, effective rates of corporate taxes are being used. The differences between the statutory and effective rates are affected by many factors. It can be assumed that a significant deviation of the nominal rate from the effective (real one can be caused mainly by the existence of different methods and time of depreciation, possibility of group taxation, investment incentives or losses compensation, amount of property taxes and property transfer taxes, application of VAT on input, possibilities of costs deduction and other various tax exemptions and credits. The paper identifies and quantifies some of these influences by using analysis, synthesis, comparison and deduction.

  6. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  7. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2013 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2013-01-01

    This annual bulletin provides federal income tax reporting tips to assist forest landowners and their advisers in filing their 2013 income tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2013.

  8. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Ćuk Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis, synthesis and discussion, comparative, inductive and historical analysis, together with the usage of relevant national and international sources. This paper describes the basic features of tax havens, as well as specific business models applied in them. A separate chapter deals with overcoming the problem of tax evasion, which is the main adverse effect of doing business through tax havens.

  9. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    VAT), yearly contributions of value .... an optimum tax rate that both encourages savings, investment and labour supply, and at the same time ... (VAT and CED) contribution to total revenue and economic growth glucoses more than direct tax.

  10. Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.

  11. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  12. Education for Profit, Education for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2009-01-01

    Education is often discussed in low-level utilitarian terms: how can educators produce technically trained people who can hold onto "their" share of the global market? With the rush to profitability, values precious for the future of democracy are in danger of getting lost. The profit motive suggests to most concerned politicians that science and…

  13. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  14. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pricing data threshold (see FAR 15.403-4(a)(1)); (ii) For architect-engineer or construction work; (iii... basic rate on all actions under the agreement, provided that conditions affecting profit do not change... applied weights or values for individual profit factors shall not be attempted, the contracting officer...

  15. The Minnesota income tax compliance experiment: State tax results

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Minnesota Income Tax Compliance Experiment conducted by the Minnesota Department of Revenue in 1995. The experiment tested alternative strategies to improve voluntary compliance with the state income tax. These strategies included: increased examination and auditing of tax returns with prior notice to taxpayers, enhanced services to taxpayers, information messages in letters sent to taxpayers, and a new M-1 tax form. About 47,000 taxpayers participated in the experim...

  16. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  17. Cambodian Tax Revenue and Non Tax Revenue : Issues & Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Sinavith

    2006-01-01

    Taxation is an important instrument of economic policy in a country. Tax reform deals with wide range of issues of economic policy as well as specific problems of tax structure, design and administration. In the process of improving and drawing tax policies that encounter the requirements of a fast changing economy, society, and polity, tax revenue in Cambodia increased dramatically after the democratic coalition government formed in 1993. Similar to other developing countries Cambodia began ...

  18. Transaction Taxes, Capital Gains Taxes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Aregger; Martin Brown; Enzo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the search for instruments to contain future housing bubbles, we examine the impact of transaction taxes and capital gains taxes on residential house price growth. We exploit the variation in taxation across Swiss cantons, as well as within-canton changes in taxation over time. We relate these taxes to house price growth observed for 92 regions of the country during the period 1985 - 2009. Our results suggest that higher taxes on capital gains exacerbate house price dynamics whil...

  19. Analysis of The Corporate Effective Tax Rate in Brazil: A study focusing on ETR and Current ETR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Otávio Monteiro Guimarães

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effective tax rate of public companies operating in stock market in Brazil over a period between 2003 and 2013, both to the total effective tax rate (ETRt as the curren (ETRc, seeking to verify evidence of the presence of tax management. This analysis consists of (i to assess whether average tax burden is upper, equal or less than the statutory rate of 34%; (ii verify that the ETR suffered influence of RTT adjustments arising from the introduction of IFRS; (iii identify proxies (size; profitability; inventory; properties, plants and equipment; debt; and deferred tax expenses which may explain the variation in ETR. The results showed that: (i companies have a significantly lower ETR than the statutory tax rate; (ii companies reported a lower ETR on the full adoption of IFRS period; (iii the ETR has relation to size (negative, debt (positive and components of assets (positive; and (iv there are deferral strategies considering the negative sign of deferred taxes in relation to the current ETR. The results confirm the practice of tax management and also demonstrate that the resulting RTT adjustments resulted in a lower tax burden, confirming previous studies that estimated less conservative earnings after the beginning of the convergence process. Finally, we observed that larger companies have a lower tax burden and that in general companies adopt choices that allow the deferral of taxes on income.

  20. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2012 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2012-01-01

    Federal income tax law contains provisions to encourage stewardship and management of private forest land. The primary goal of this bulletin is to assist forest landowners and their advisors with timber tax information they can use to file their 2012 in-come tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2012.

  1. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2006 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes key federal income tax provisions related to owning and managing forest land. It is current as of December 1, 2006, and supercedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 126. But it is only an introduction. Consult the references for more complete information on the topics, and consult your tax and legal advisers for advice on your particular tax situation...

  2. Why Property Tax Limitations Won't Limit Everyone's Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Larry

    Property tax limitation measures passed in 1978 by voters in California and Idaho contain provisions that apparently will reduce the equity of the property tax system in both states. Changes in assessment practices mandated by the new laws will shift the property tax burden away from business and commercial property and toward residential property…

  3. Effects of carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.

    1992-01-01

    At the recent United Nations Conference held in Rio de Janeiro, a proposal was made by Italy to have surcharges be applied by OECD member countries on fossil fuels (carbon tax), primarily to fund pollution abatement technology transfer to developing countries and promote pollution abatement, energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources in industrialized countries. This paper assesses how the application of the proposed carbon tax might be successfully combined with additional fiscal policies favouring coal gasification and reforestation so as to provide energy policy strategists of oil-importing countries with a long term economically and environmentally viable alternative to petroleum imports

  4. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  5. THE EU TAX TREATMENT COMPETITION FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED CAPITAL – THE SPECIAL CASE OF R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozmei Cătălina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization spurs the diffusion of knowledge and encourages firms to incorporate investments in innovation in their portfolios because knowledge based capital (research & development, intellectual property, organisational capital, skills etc. is a key d river for competitiveness on all levels. This article aims to emphasize the differences in the R&D tax policy mix as a proxy for the knowledge based capital and analyse some R&D indicators for a number of 20 EU member states in order to sort and classify those countries in terms of R&D tax policy effectiveness. The results show that a higher corporate tax level even if is offset by a high tax subsidy does not lead to a high level business enterprise expenditure on R&D as a percentage of value added in industry. Moreover this paper highlights the need for designing a tax policy that promotesinnovation and gauges the loopholes of the tax system that activate profit shifting strategies.

  6. Operating Profitability of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Florida Community Hospitals During Medicare Policy Changes, 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T.; Sear, Alan M.; Zhang, Hanze; Zhang, Nanhua

    2015-01-01

    Medicare Advantage was implemented in 2004 and the Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC) program was implemented in Florida during 2005. Both increase surveillance of medical necessity and deny payments for improper admissions. The purpose of the present study was to determine their potential impact on for-profit (FP) and not-for-profit (NFP) hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs. This study analyzed Florida community hospitals from 2000 through 2010, assessing changes in pre-tax operating margin (PTOM). Florida Agency for Health Care Administration data were analyzed for 104 community hospitals (62 FPs and 42 NFPs). Academic, public, and small hospitals were excluded. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the association of RAC implementation, organizational and payer type variables, and ownership interaction effects on PTOM. FP hospitals began the period with a higher average PTOM, but converged with NFPs during the study period. The average Medicare Advantage effect was not significant for either ownership type. The magnitude of the RAC variable was significantly negative for average PTOM at FPs (−4.68) and positive at NFPs (0.08), meaning RAC was associated with decreasing PTOM at FP hospitals only. RAC complements other Medicare surveillance systems that detect medically unnecessary admissions, coding errors, fraud, and abuse. Since its implementation in Florida, average FP and NFP operating margins have been similar, such that the higher margins reported for FP hospitals in the 1990s are no longer evident. PMID:26294267

  7. Operating Profitability of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Florida Community Hospitals During Medicare Policy Changes, 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Langland-Orban PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicare Advantage was implemented in 2004 and the Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC program was implemented in Florida during 2005. Both increase surveillance of medical necessity and deny payments for improper admissions. The purpose of the present study was to determine their potential impact on for-profit (FP and not-for-profit (NFP hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs. This study analyzed Florida community hospitals from 2000 through 2010, assessing changes in pre-tax operating margin (PTOM. Florida Agency for Health Care Administration data were analyzed for 104 community hospitals (62 FPs and 42 NFPs. Academic, public, and small hospitals were excluded. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the association of RAC implementation, organizational and payer type variables, and ownership interaction effects on PTOM. FP hospitals began the period with a higher average PTOM, but converged with NFPs during the study period. The average Medicare Advantage effect was not significant for either ownership type. The magnitude of the RAC variable was significantly negative for average PTOM at FPs (−4.68 and positive at NFPs (0.08, meaning RAC was associated with decreasing PTOM at FP hospitals only. RAC complements other Medicare surveillance systems that detect medically unnecessary admissions, coding errors, fraud, and abuse. Since its implementation in Florida, average FP and NFP operating margins have been similar, such that the higher margins reported for FP hospitals in the 1990s are no longer evident.

  8. Anti-profit beliefs: How people neglect the societal benefits of profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amit; Dana, Jason; Baron, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Profit-seeking firms are stereotypically depicted as immoral and harmful to society. At the same time, profit-driven enterprise has contributed immensely to human prosperity. Though scholars agree that profit can incentivize societally beneficial behaviors, people may neglect this possibility. In 7 studies, we show that people see business profit as necessarily in conflict with social good, a view we call anti-profit beliefs . Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that U.S. participants hold anti-profit views of real U.S. firms and industries. Study 3 shows that hypothetical organizations are seen as doing more harm when they are labeled "for-profit" rather than "non-profit," while Study 4 shows that increasing harm to society is viewed as a strategy for increasing a hypothetical firm's long-run profitability. Studies 5-7 demonstrate that carefully prompting subjects to consider the long run incentives of profit can attenuate anti-profit beliefs, while prompting short run thinking does nothing relative to a control. Together, these results suggest that the default view of profits is zero-sum. While people readily grasp how profit can incentivize firms to engage in practices that harm others, they neglect how it can incentivize firms to engage in practices that benefit others. Accordingly, people's stereotypes of profit-seeking firms are excessively negative. Even in one of the most market-oriented societies in history, people doubt the contributions of profit-seeking industry to societal progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  10. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  11. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies.......Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...

  12. Tax Expenditures: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditures are an instrument frequently used when a government wishes to achieve certain economic and social effects. But because of the increasing number and scope of tax expenditures, their proper use, quality of administration and record-keeping have become a major challenge for the tax authorities and the whole of the government. The article considers and explains very diverse forms of tax expenditure such as reliefs, tax deductions, tax allowances, tax exceptions and special rates of taxation and the ways in which they are defined and calculated. The key problems in the analysis are the absence of a single definition and of methodology for the calculations; these ultimately make it impossible to compare tax expenditures between or among countries.

  13. Economic Effects Real Estate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The real estate tax is usually a fiscal instrument which performs the property tax. When it comes to real property or immovable this term include: apartments, houses, land, cottages, excess housing landscape and more. The real estate tax as a form of the fiscal charges ownership or use of certain forms of real estate, and the revenue from this tax is levied on the area where the property is located regardless of the place of residence of its owner. The tax base for the calculation of this tax usually consists of the market, estimated or annuity value of certain real estate. This form of taxation in the Republic of Serbian applies from 1.1.2012., and its introduction has been replaced by former property taxes. The differences between the two concepts mentioned taxes are numerous and significant. Among the more important are: subject to taxation under the new concept of the real estate rather than law, a taxpayer is any property owner rather than the holder of rights to immovable property tax base is the market value of real estate which is replaced by the payment of taxes per square meter of usable area, the rate of property tax is determined local government, which can not be lower than 0.05% of the estimated value of the real estate nor higher than 0.5% of the appraised value of real estate. The last change, ie. The new law on Property Tax from 5.11.2015. was determined by the tax rate to 20%. The fact that local governments each of them determines the tax rate on real estate which range from high to low rates of multiple, makes this tax is progressive. Progression is particularly expressed in the distinction applied tax rates of developed and undeveloped municipalities, where we have a case that less developed tolerate a higher tax burden, which leads to negative economic effects. However, real estate tax has its own economic and social characteristics which must be aligned with the objectives of tax policy. This means that the real estate tax

  14. Considerations for the Tax Mix

    OpenAIRE

    BOB HAMILTON; CHUN-YAN KUO; SATYA PODDAR

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews changes in the tax mix in Canada and several developed countries over the past two decades and outlines the key factors that influence it. The tax mix in Canada is largely similar to other OECD countries with two major exceptions. The first is a larger percentage share of excise and other taxes in Canada than other OECD countries. The second is Canada social security tax share well below the OECD average.

  15. Revised OECD Transfer pricing Guidelines and the Czech tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In applying the international principles to the taxation of Multinational Enterprises, one of the most difficult issues that have arisen is the establishment for tax purposes of appropriate transfer prices. Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part the income and expenses, and therefore taxable profits, of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. The Committee on Fiscal Affairs, which is the main tax policy body of the OECD, has issued a number of reports relating to the transfer pricing issues. The most important are the Transfer pricing Guidelines for multinational enterprises and tax authorities which was published in 1995. These Guidelines focus on the application of the arm’s length principle to evaluate the transfer pricing of associated enterprises, the analysis of the methods for evaluating whether the conditions of commercial and financial relations within Multinational Enterprises satisfy the arm’s length principle and discussion of the practical application of those methods. Simply, these Guidelines focus on the main issues of principle that arise in the transfer pricing area. The Committee on Fiscal Affairs continues its work in this area, on 22 July 2010 approved and released the proposed revisions to Chaps. I through III of these Guidelines and simultaneously published a new Chap. IX related to business restructuring. The revisions are the result of several years of work on comparability and the use of profit-based methods. The revised text will have a significant impact on the application of transfer pricing analysis and transfer pricing methods. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved Guidelines with aim to evaluate how the Czech Republic began applying the principles set out in the revised text of these Guidelines.

  16. Tax Reform and Environmental Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert E. Metcalf

    2005-01-01

    I measure the industry impacts of an environmental tax reform where a carbon tax is used to finance full or partial corporate tax integration. I find that the industry impacts of such a reform are likely to be modest (in the sense of impacts on returns on equity).

  17. Government Subsidy for Remanufacturing or Carbon Tax Rebate: Which Is Better for Firms and a Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government as a policy maker wishing to promote remanufacturing and proper disposal of hazardous old products which are harmful to environment has taken many actions, ranging from carbon regulation and financial incentives such as trade-in subsidy. However, carbon tax can result in loss of profit for firms to some degree, so the government has to give other subsidy to balance the profits and carbon emission. Thus, this article investigates two subsidy mechanisms: remanufacturing subsidy or tax rebate. The optimal pricing and production decision under these policies are examined. Our results show that carbon tax has a great impact on pricing strategies. Trade-in subsidy can encourage customers to replace their existing products with new and remanufactured products. Both remanufacture subsidy and tax rebate are beneficial to manufacturer and can further promote remanufacturing development.

  18. 27 CFR 19.21 - Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax. 19.21 Section 19.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.21 Tax. (a) A tax is imposed by 26 U.S...

  19. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  20. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Halikova Je.A.; Ginijatullina D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  1. Tax Culture: A Basic Concept for Tax Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Nerré, Birger

    2008-01-01

    I have suggested not to limit tax-cultural considerations to the side of taxpayers, but to widen its understanding by using an embeddedness approach considering the history of taxation and by that means explicating national tax-cultural diversity (e.g. Nerré 2001b, 2002b, 2006a). In the course of continuing globalization two different kinds of disturbances of tax culture have been identified: tax culture shocks and tax culture lags. Both are due to ignorant and/or ethnocentric policy measures...

  2. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  3. Taxing market power

    OpenAIRE

    Jaskold Gabszewicz, Jean; Grazzini, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of tax and transfer policies in correcting market distortions when the economy is imperfectly competitive. We perform this analysis in the context of an exchange model representing a bilateral oligopoly situation, which constitutes a particular example of a Shapley-Shubik strategic market game.

  4. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  5. Economic and tax issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene

    2002-01-01

    Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....

  6. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  7. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax-seeking'). Taxing...

  8. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  9. Tax Reform Act of 1986: implications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R F

    1988-10-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 contains several changes that substantially reduce economic flexibility for not-for-profit hospitals and healthcare systems. These changes, involving limited partnerships, investment tax credit, depreciation, and income deferral plans, among other items, carry several implications. Tax-motivated joint ventures will no longer be attractive to physician investors, donations to hospitals are expected to decline by up to 15 percent, and flexibility in attracting and retaining high-caliber employees is reduced. Efforts to reduce the federal budget deficit and renewed scrutiny of unrelated business income further jeopardize economic flexibility. Another threat is intensified Internal Revenue Service scrutiny of Form 990, which is filed by all not-for-profit organizations with $25,000 or more in annual gross receipts, and Form 990T, which is used to report unrelated business income. Measures to protect facilities' economic flexibility include careful return preparation, alternative recruitment tactics, objective opinions, refusal of high-risk deals, and outside appraisals.

  10. Determinants of Effective Tax Rate of Companies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Freitas Sant’Ana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the determining factors of the effective tax rate (ETR of companies of Latin America in the period 2009 to 2013. Descriptive study was conduct through documentary research, with a quantitative approach of the data. The sample was made up of 500 companies, being 45 of Argentina, 171 of Brazil, 108 of Chile, 38 of Colombia, and Mexico's 71 67 of Peru. Whose data were collected in the database of Thompson Reuters ® and analyzed by means of panel data regression through the software STATA ®, having as dependent variable the Effective tax rate (ETR and independent variables size (TAM capital intensity (INTCAP, the intensity of inventory (INTINV, leverage (ALAV and profitability on assets (ROA. The results show that the size of companies positively influence presents significant about the ETR of Colombian companies. Capital intensity (INTCAP and the intensity of inventory (INTINV were not meaningful to determine the influence of the ETR in the countries analyzed. The leverage of the Argentine companies reveals a positive influence on the ETR, while for the Colombian companies this influence was significant not significant and negatively to the other countries. Profitability resulted in a negative influence to the Mexican and Peruvian companies, and not significant for the other countries to determine the influence on ETR. Denotes that there are differences regarding the determinants of tax burden in Latin American countries, which encourages further studies

  11. The impact of a unilateral carbon tax on carbon-intensive industries: evidence from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golombek, R.

    1996-02-01

    This publication identifies the impact of a unilateral Norwegian carbon tax on the profitability and the exit probability in 12 carbon intensive manufacturing sectors. The study uses Norwegian panel data for manufacturing firms and focuses both on a tax on burning of fossil fuels and a tax on all emissions of carbon. It is demonstrated that for most carbon intensive sectors the impact on both profits and the exit probability of a tax on burning of fossil fuel is negligible or moderate. That is, the increase in the average sectorial exit probability is always less that one percentage point when the tax is 75 USD per tonne carbon dioxide. On the other hand, for sectors where carbon emissions are due to both burning of fossil fuels and the production process, the impact of a general tax on carbon dioxide (at 75 USD) is significant. In particular, in the manufacture of ferro alloys the average exit probability may increase by more than 15 percentage points. 15 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Slovnaft posts unexpectedly high profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, Slovnaft used the movement of the price of Brent crude as an argument to explain the movement of its prices. It assumed the price of Urals crude would follow the Brent crude price after a short period. It was still using this argument in 2002. Urals crude was for a long period about 2 USD per barrel (159 l) cheaper than Brent. But over recent last months, the price difference between Brent crude and Ural crude has been increasing. According to the pricing policy, customers of Hungarian-owned MOL/Slovnaft might expect fuel prices to fall. But this did not happen. Slovnaft no longer uses Brent prices to justify its prices and focuses on the development of the FOB Rotterdam fuel market. When prices increase on the FOB Rotterdam fuel market, refineries in neighbouring regions export oil to this market. And in order to maintain stability on the market, other refineries also increase their prices. Slovnaft benefits not only from cheaper Russian oil but also from the major investments it made in the past. While other refineries use distillation residues to produce cheaper heavy heating oils, Slovnaft is able to convert such residues into fuel. And this also has an economic impact. B. Kelemen admits that it will be mainly shareholders who benefit from these developments.It is not only rising oil prices that have been noticeable recently, but also the lack of investment in the oil industry. The capacity of Russian pipelines, tankers and the processing capacity of refineries has been insufficient for some time. Whereas fuel consumption is growing year after year. Preliminary calculations indicate the oil industry needs to invest about 700 bill. USD and investors expect a return, according to B. Kelemen, of 10 to 17%. The closest competitors of Slovnaft will have to invest in desulphurization and the processing of heavy residues. And so Slovnaft can look forward to very profitable years. The same cannot be said of its customers. Slovnaft is set to publish

  13. The Effects of Tax Avoidance, Accrual Earnings Management, Real Earnings Management, and Capital Intensity on the Cost of Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Amrie Firmansyah; Ahmad Sigid Febriyanto

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of tax avoidance, accrual profit management, real profit management, and capital intensity on equity costs. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange which amounted to 146 companies. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling and resulted in 420 units of analysis. This type of research is quantitative causality by performing hypothesis testing analysis is done by using multiple linear regressio...

  14. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  15. The Tax Base And The Tax Bill. Tax Implications of Development: A Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Deb; Northup, Jim

    The property tax base in Vermont's towns are overburdened as property taxes are usually the only funding method available to finance schools, police departments, highway work, recreation programs, and government in general. Attempting to offer their citizens a balanced program of services without exorbitant taxes, local officials are striving to…

  16. China’s Emerging Tax Regime: Local Tax Farming and Central Tax Bureaucracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChina like other transition economies needs to establish a tax system compatible with a market economy, in particular, an efficient tax administration system with capable tax bureaucrats. The paper singles out the general and China-specific features by which central government attempts

  17. 2017 Tax Competitiveness Report: The Calm Before the Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Canada stands to lose a major competitive edge unless it responds to the challenges of the 2018 U.S. tax reforms by instituting reforms of its own. At 20.9 per cent, Canada’s tax burden on new investment (measured by the marginal effective tax rate or METR, is competitive when compared to countries in the Americas and Asia-Oceania, and it’s the second lowest among the G7 countries. However, the rules of the game are about to change with U.S. tax reform. Among the reforms the U.S. is bringing in are a drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35 per cent to 21 per cent, a ten-year window for full and partial expensing machinery and equipment, and other various rules that will incent companies to push profits into the U.S. and interest and other expenses into foreign jurisdictions. The result of this and other reforms will be a sharp drop in the U.S. METR by almost half – from 34. 6 per cent to 18.8 per cent. This means Canada will have a higher tax burden on capital than the U.S. Put simply, Canada and other countries will face a drop in revenue while the U.S. gains revenue. Alarm bells should be ringing among public policy-makers in Canada and elsewhere, since research shows that taxes are a significant factor in multinationals’ decisions on where to invest globally and how to finance it. The dramatic U.S. reforms will put Canada at a distinct disadvantage, dragged down further by its small market size, energy levies and regulatory burden. This paper examines the corporate tax-rate situation in 92 countries, with many either having reduced their rates recently or are planning to in the next few years. In Canada, the only movement has been in several provinces, entailing a small increase in British Columbia and small decreases in Saskatchewan and Quebec. And while the average METR among OECD countries has dropped in the past few years, Canada’s in 2017 was approximately the same as it was in 2010, climbing upward from a nadir

  18. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ljunge

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis a...

  19. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  20. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  1. Bribes and Business Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulfaian, David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of governance, in particular bribes to tax officials, in shaping business tax compliance behavior in transition economies. The empirical results show that business noncompliance rises with the frequency of tax related bribes. More specifically, the findings from 27 economies suggest that tax evasion thrives when bribes to tax officials are commonplace. These findings are robust to a number of specifications that control for firm and country attributes as well as address the potential endogeneity of bribes.

  2. Product Tax Modelling in INFORGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mönnig, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the application of INFORGE as an analyzing tool for fiscal policy shocks is introduced by using the example of taxes on products. In recent times, variations of tax rates on product taxes have become rather popular because it is a simple method to consolidate state budget. A detailed modelling of taxes on products is important for further two reasons: (i) they are an important component for the transition from demand at purchasers’ prices to demand at basic prices. (ii) Taxes o...

  3. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  4. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(11)-1 - Contributions to pension plan, employees' annuity plans, and stock bonus and profit-sharing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions to pension plan, employees... TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(11)-1 Contributions to pension plan, employees' annuity... funds accumulated under the profit-sharing plan into a pension plan covering the same employees. In such...

  5. Advanced training of tax consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigamova Farida F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to review and analyze the data on the necessity to provide an educational environment for training and advanced training of tax consultants in Russia. The article considers the types of tax consulting, the historical background of training financiers in Russia, as well as identifies conditions determining the significance of tax consulting. The research establishes the connection between the negative attitude to tax payment and tax evasion. The advanced training of tax consultants should be a continuous process as they need to take into account both external and internal taxpayers risks associated with the development of law and law-enforcement practice. Obviously, the training of tax consultants should take into account the experience of developed foreign countries, such as Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European countries as well. In Russia, it is necessary to open educational institutions, which will not only be involved in the certification of tax consultants, but also provide training courses. These courses should contribute to constant increase of tax consultants knowledge, consider the tax treatment of economic activities, as well changes in the legislation, economics, finance, accounting, manufacturing processes, which will improve the quality of services provided by tax consultants.

  6. Responsible Investment: Taxes and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutinen Reijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxes have become an issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, but the role of taxation is to some extent an ambiguous and controversial issue in the CSR framework. Similarly, another unclear question is what role investors who are committed to sustainable and responsible investment (SRI see taxes as having on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG agenda. Corporate taxes have an inverse relationship with the return of the investors: taxes paid directly affect what is left on the bottom line, reducing the return of investors. However, investors are now more aware of tax-related risks, which can include different forms of reputation risk. Corporate tax planning may increase the returns, but those increased returns are riskier. This study focuses particularly on the relationship between SRI and taxation. We find that tax matters are considered to be on the ESG agenda, but their role and significance in the ESG analysis is unclear.

  7. Legal and Illegal Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Suvelea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the economic and social plan, tax evasion is a reality seen in various forms, such as the keeping of not realistic accounting books; willful destruction of documents that might lead to the discovery of real product deliveries, adopted prices, fees received or paid, establishing false customs declarations for the goods import or export, preparing false tax declarations, while knowingly not mentioning but a portion of the incomes. The largest tax evasion - 60% - is generated from VAT, while social contributions generate approximately 24% of the total fiscal evasion, mainly through the phenomenon of “illegal work” (employees in the underground economy. For this purpose it is necessary a deep reform of the taxes administration, mainly in the direction of increasing the degree of tax collection. The phenomenon as a whole is very difficult to control and to quantify and to this contribute also the tax laws’ peculiarities, tax policies, corruption and the standard of living

  8. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show...... that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....

  9. Businessmen´s tax evasions

    OpenAIRE

    Karásková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is categorize businessmen's tax evasions at personal income tax and find out their portion on total tax evasions. In the first chapter I focus on tax avoidance and tax evasion, causes of tax evasion and his measurement. Next parts of this thesis focus on businessmen's tax evasion at personal income tax. In the second part I describe some very frequented cases of tax evasions revealed by revenue authorities. In the last part I analyse these tax evasions, c...

  10. Assisted living captures profitable market niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarito, K

    1995-05-08

    The $15 billion assisted-living industry has captured a profitable market niche and created a star on Wall Street. Sunrise Retirement Home of Falls Church (Va.), right, is a facility of the nation's largest assisted-living provider.

  11. Day Care Centers: Profit Making Businesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Phyllis

    1970-01-01

    Deplores promotion of day care for profit, and urges opposition to this trend. Suggests strong political demand for free centers controlled by parents and financed by public funds and perhaps taxation on large corporations. (CJ)

  12. Causes of different profitability of agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work involves identification of causes of different profitability of agricultural sector done on case study of nearly identical agricultural enterprises. It shows that financial mix even in scope of similar companies can lead to various profit indicators. Through comparative financial analysis in the same industry and activity by applying methods and techniques we have concluded that company PP Ratkovo operates more stable and closer to determined norms and also shows better results in majority of the indicators. Horizontal and vertical analysis indicates that companies in Agribusiness partner group use expensive external sources of financing. We have precisely defined in which cost segment occurs highest distinction. Also we have shown reasons why PP Ratkovo in the last two years manifests great profitability measured by ebit, ebitda and net profit as well as excellent structure of material costs and wages costs in in frame of the operating income, and reasons why enterprises in Agribusiness partner group does not.

  13. relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    KEYWORDS: Customer satisfaction; customer profitability; purchase behaviour; repurchase intensions; attitudes. INTRODUCTION .... and job satisfaction among the supplier's personnel. According to Soderlund (1998:169), as .... Dangote Group is currently the largest industrial conglomerate in West Africa, and one.

  14. Profitability expertise of rural methanization projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to analyze the profitability of projects of methanization, and to identify factors which curb or favour their profitability. It is based on a detailed analysis of the investment and of the profitability of 50 sites of different sizes and at different stages of progress (from the feasibility study to few months of operation), and also of experiences in three neighbour countries (Germany, Switzerland and Belgium). First, the study highlights the importance of investment costs in the biogas production global cost, notably with respect to current German prices. Then, it comments the impact of subsidies on facility profitability. It proposes ways to improve public support to the different energetic vectors produced from biogas: electricity, biomethane, and heat

  15. Social Movement Mobilization and Hydrocarbon Policy in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Reforma Agraria CPSC Pro-Santa Cruz Civic Committee OPIP Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de Pastaza CONFENAIE Confederación de Nacionalidades...election of Rafael Correa in 2006 brought about a further increase in the state’s fiscal take, increasing windfall profit taxes from 50 percent to 99...rich, eastern department of Santa Cruz . The refinery, built in the city of Sucre, resulted in the increase of the cost of the project.81 The

  16. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs

  17. Customer's Profitability Analyses and Customer Service Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Venelin Terziev; Vanya Banabakova; Marin Georgiev

    2017-01-01

    Most organizations do not pay attention to the customer's profitability. It is also appropriate to improve this activity by first applying a model of customer profitability analysis. One of the basic principles of customer return analysis, which the provider must implement, is to disclose and describe all the expenses, specific to each individual customer. A useful way to uncover these costs is to determine which expenses will be dropped if the customer is discontinued. Appropriate use of ABC...

  18. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  19. Does Capital Structure Influence Company Profitability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herciu Mihaela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every company has a different structure of balance sheet. Some of the companies have more liabilities than equity. Considering the industry or debt-to-equity ratio, the balance sheet structure affects the company profitability measured by DuPont system. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the structure of balance sheet and to identify some optimal levels in order to increase company profitability. The DuPont returns like ROA (return on assets and ROE (return on equity will be used to measure the company profitability, while the debt-to-equity ratio will be used as a measure (reflection of capital structure. The samples consist on the most profitable non-financial companies ranked in Fortune Global 500. The companies will be grouped in clusters (based on industry or debt-to-equity ratio in order to identify the signification of the correlation between the profit and the balance sheet structure. The main results of the paper refer to the company profitability that can be increased by using an optimal structure of liabilities and equity.

  20. TURKISH BANKING SECTOR’S PROFITABILITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Kakilli ACARAVCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of banking sector is the most important instrument of financial system for the future of the economy. The objective of this study is to determine by using Johansen and Juselius cointegration test approach of the bank specific and macroeconomic factors that affect the profitability of commercial banks in Turkish banking sector. In study, the data are collected from the three biggest state-owned, privately-owned and foreign banks. The sample period spans from 1998 to 2011. In the study, return of asset, return of equity and net interest margin were used as proxy for profitability of banks. The bank specific determinants, which were thought to have effects on profitability are total credits/total assets, total deposits/total assets, total liquid assets/total assets, total wage and commission incomes/ total assets, total wage and commission expenses/total assets, the logarithm of total assets and total equity/total assets. The macroeconomic determinants of study are real gross domestic product, inflation rate, real exchange rate and real interest rate. Empirical findings suggest that the bank specific determinants have been more effect than macroeconomic factors on profitability of the banks. The reel gross domestic product and real exchange rate have been effective on the profitability. In addition, the 2001 economic crisis has a negative effect on all Turkish Banking sector.

  1. DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS OF BANK PROFITABILITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Rozga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis has been employed in this paper in order to identify and explain key features of bank profitability levels. Bank profitability is set up in the form of two categorical variables: profit or loss recorded and above or below average return on equity. Predictor variables are selected from various groups of financial indicators usually included in the empirical work on microeconomic determinants of bank profitability. The data from the Croatian banking sector is analyzed using the Enter method. General recommendations for a more profitable business of banking found in the bank management literature and existing empirical framework such as rationalization of overhead costs, asset growth, increase of non-interest income by expanding scale and scope of financial products proved to be important for classification of banks in different profitability levels. A higher market share may bring additional advantages. Classification results, canonical correlation and Wilks’ Lambda test confirm statistical significance of research results. Altogether, discriminant analysis turns out to be a suitable statistical method for solving presented research problem and moving forward from the bankruptcy, credit rating or default issues in finance.

  2. Deregulation led to record-breaking profit for SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    The state collected close to 15 bn Sk of SPP's last year profits. The income tax represents about 5,2 bn Sk and the dividends paid to state as owner of 51 percent of the stock of Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) amount up to 9,5 billion Sk. Investors Ruhrgas and Gaz de France will split 9 billion Sk. This was possible thank to a record-breaking net profit of 20.5 billion Sk made by the company due to deregulation of the distorted gas prices for consumers that lead to an average price increase by over 30 percent. A positive impact on the company's economy had also the dissolving of provisions and reserves but on the other hand the sales went down by close to 5 percent due to higher temperatures. Another factor that had a positive impact on the company revenues was the increase of gas volumes transported through the SPP network to Western Europe. Expenditures related to purchase of gas increased last year and not even the decrease USD exchange rates could eliminate the impact of increasing gas prices. The decrease of sales on the domestic market was one of the major factors that allowed the total cost to decrease on year-to-year basis by ten percent. A restructuring of SPP should bring along further savings but the company has not calculated the total effect of a restructuring yet. The strong positive impact the restructuring may have on the company should show in 2004 and later. Last year the company concentrated on savings in area of maintenance and repairs and this year it should be the procurement expenditures that should be decreased. The future economic result of the company would depend on several factors like exchange rates, sale volumes and price of natural gas. Oils prices have reached their new maximums and the gas prices, in general, follow the oil price

  3. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  4. Confidentiality versus transparency in contemporary tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković, Mileva

    2017-01-01

    Dilemma with regard to defining limit between tax confidentiality and tax transparency is particulary expressed in contemporary tax law. International tax relations indicate that countries tend towards fostering tax transparency with the expect of better collection of taxes and fair distribution of tax burden. The right to secrecy and confidentiality of personal data, as one of the basic rights, guarantees taxpayers that data collected about them shall be used only for the purpose of taxation...

  5. COFINS: Um Estudo Empírico dos Efeitos da Alteração de Incidência sobre o Lucro de Empresas com Ações Negociadas na Bovespa e seu Impacto na Arrecadação Tributária FederalBrazil’s COFINS Tax: An Empirical Study of the Change in the Calculation Rules on the Profits of Companies Listed on the BOVESPA and its Impact on Federal Tax RevenueCOFINS: Un Estudio Empírico de los Efectos de la Alteración de la Incidencia sobre el Beneficio de las Empresas con Acciones Negociadas en Bovespa y su Impacto en la Recaudación Tributaria Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDES, Fernando Alberto Dutra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEsta pesquisa tem por objetivo investigar se a alteração da modalidade de incidência da COFINS afetou o lucro de empresas, com ações na BOVESPA, subdivididas em 18 setores econômicos. Também foi objeto da pesquisa o estudo dos efeitos sobre a arrecadação da COFINS e da arrecadação total dos tributos federais. A pesquisa tem natureza explicativa e o instrumental de experimentação é teórico-empírico, utilizando-se análise de regressão por séries temporais e dados em painel, com um intervalo de confiança de 95% para o estudo microeconômico. Para o estudo macroeconômico, foi utilizada a análise de regressão com base em dados de série temporal dessazonalizados. O estudo mostra-se relevante na medida em que as alterações de incidência de tributos indiretos podem afetar as transações entre os setores na economia real e estas se demonstrem ineficientes quanto à alocação dos seus custos adicionais. Os resultados estatísticos demonstram que, para 7 dos 18 setores investigados, o evento alteração de modalidade de incidência da COFINS propiciou efeito sobre o lucro das empresas. Os resultados estatísticos também revelam indícios de que houve aumento real da arrecadação da COFINS e da arrecadação tributária federal total, indicando certa ineficiência econômica desse modelo de tributação, contrariando o que tem sido divulgado por agentes econômicos do governo federal.ABSTRACTThis article investigates whether the alteration in the rules for calculating the COFINS tax has affected the profits of companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA, subdivided into 18 economic sectors. We have also studied the effects of this change on the revenue raised by COFINS and on overall federal tax revenues. The study has an explanatory nature and instrumental experimentation is theoretical and empirical, it makes use of regression analysis of time series and panel data with a confidence interval of 95% in

  6. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  7. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  8. Not-for-profits trek into for-profit accounting: goodwill impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Acquisitions may be integral and strategic drivers for successfully executing the business objectives of an entity or fulfilling its mission. The new guidance creates accounting and valuation challenges for not-for-profit entities that for-profit entities have been dealing with for years. Now that not-for-profit entities apply the same principles, the fair value concepts and accounting complexities are more pervasive. By brining to bear the rights complement of accounting, finance, and valuation resources, not-for-profit entities can successfully navigate these challenges and gain an understanding of the full magnitude of acquisition decisions on financial results.

  9. Profits in reverse? An examination of the decisive factors for reverse supply chain profitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes...... to this challenge by examining the factors decisive for whether a firm will achieve profits from operating a RSC. By combining a literature review and multiple case study, the paper identifies a set of factors that prohibit or advance RSC-profitability and develops a set of propositions that define the relation...

  10. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  11. The user cost of energy resource and its reasonable tax rate-A case of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    The development and use of natural resources bring about the externality of resources depletion, especially for non-renewable resources. This paper takes oil as an example to analyze the user cost of energy resource with EI Serafy User cost method, and discusses the rationality of the resource tax. Meanwhile, this paper determines oil resource tax rate in consideration of resource sustainable development. The results show that, the user cost of oil isn’t compensated fully, it is too low to make compensation to the environment and the profit of future generation, and the resource tax is a little low. At last of the paper, some conclusions and policy suggestions on resource tax reform are given.

  12. 1979 has been just an ordinary year in terms of profitability. [Petroleum Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Institute of Energy Economy of the University of Cologne determined the cost and earnings situation in 1979 of the oil industry in the Federal Republic of Germany on the basis of data made available by the Federal Ministry of Economics. Early in 1979, earning improved dramatically over 1978, but this improvement gradually leveled off and turned negative in the last quarter. On the basis of current earnings, and taking into account stockpiling effects and reserves to cover price increases, balance sheet profits before taxes amount to DM 2.3 billion. The average return on capital invested in the oil business was 7%.

  13. TAX RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE MODEL TAX CONTROL INUNIVERSITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Evloeva M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the features of tax risks in educational institutions. Purpose: To prevent violations of tax laws, reducing the likelihood oftax risks. Methodology: the creation of institutions of higher education in the department of internal fiscal control and the introduction of the method of tax risk management. Results: of the study clarified and systematized the purpose and objectives of fiscal control of higher education institutions have been identified and classified riskoobra...

  14. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  15. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  16. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax...... fishermen or hunters (here named "bureaucratic tax-seeking"). Second, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Taxing citizens or firms is then like harvesting rents from a natural resource and therefore we apply a common-pool resource...

  17. PROFIT: Bayesian profile fitting of galaxy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D. S.; Tobar, R.; Moffett, A.; Driver, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We present PROFIT, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. PROFIT consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (PROFIT) and PYTHON (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit, respectively). R PROFIT is also available pre-built from CRAN; however, this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two-dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sérsic, Core-Sérsic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source, and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Sérsic profile for the most common values of the Sérsic index n (0.5 < n < 8). The high-level fitting code PROFIT is tested on a sample of galaxies with both SDSS and deeper KiDS imaging. We find good agreement in the fit parameters, with larger scatter in best-fitting parameters from fitting images from different sources (SDSS versus KiDS) than from using different codes (PROFIT versus GALFIT). A large suite of Monte Carlo-simulated images are used to assess prospects for automated bulge-disc decomposition with PROFIT on SDSS, KiDS, and future LSST imaging. We find that the biggest increases in fit quality come from moving from SDSS- to KiDS-quality data, with less significant gains moving from KiDS to LSST.

  18. A dedicated pollution tax: The motor for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyke, E.; Stoyke, G.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon taxes coming into effect around the world are predicted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 1-6%. Using the punitive approach alone, such taxes will not be sufficiently effective in fighting global climate change. A dedicated pollution tax is proposed in which moderate fees on greenhouse gases and other polluting emissions are balanced by financial incentives for energy efficient retrofitting or non-polluting substitutions. These incentives will vastly accelerate conversion to energy efficient technologies by reducing payback periods to acceptable levels and will lead to a 50-80% reduction in fossil fuel consumption at a profit. Estimated environmental costs of pollutant emissions from coal and natural gas are presented, and the internalization of external costs into energy prices is discussed. Demand reduction provides more environmental benefits than scrubbing of fossil emissions, at less cost. Examples of potential lighting savings in a classroom are presented, and simple payback and savings for a variety of lighting energy efficiency measures are tabulated. The effects of different pollution tax levels on Alberta's coal fired electricity generation are tabulated. 5 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  20. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  1. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  2. Tax Havens in the Offshore World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Through taxation governments get money to fulfil their role in society. It plays a major role ininvestment decisions and can be also an innoportunity for taxpayers. Tax havens are tax free areasthat have the status of states and function legally. Their main business is to attract money bycreating taxpayers friendly environments and by total secrecy. Panama is the biggest USinfluencedtax haven. Tax evasion through tax havens is illegal and is the evading of declaringand paying taxes. Tax avoidance through tax havens is the legally avoiding of declaring andpaying taxes. Tax havens are not illegal but are immoral because vast amounts of money drainfrom the states around the world to them.

  3. 7 CFR 1925.3 - Servicing taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each borrower to pay taxes promptly in order to avoid any penalties. Normally, this can be accomplished... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing taxes. 1925.3 Section 1925.3 Agriculture... TAXES Real Estate Tax Servicing § 1925.3 Servicing taxes. (a) The County Supervisor will be responsible...

  4. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...... fractions under 'household waste', it has provided an important incentive for separate collection....

  5. Corporate income taxes and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Corporate income taxation influences the quantity and type of entrepreneurship, which in turn affects economic development. Empirical evidence shows that higher corporate income tax rates reduce business density and entrepreneurship entry rates and increase the capital size of new firms. The progressivity of tax rates increases entrepreneurship entry rates, whereas highly complex tax codes reduce them. Policymakers should understand the effects and underlying mechanisms that determine how cor...

  6. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  7. Customer's Profitability Analyses and Customer Service Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most organizations do not pay attention to the customer's profitability. It is also appropriate to improve this activity by first applying a model of customer profitability analysis. One of the basic principles of customer return analysis, which the provider must implement, is to disclose and describe all the expenses, specific to each individual customer. A useful way to uncover these costs is to determine which expenses will be dropped if the customer is discontinued. Appropriate use of ABC is a differentiation analysis to identify which goods and services, which customers are more and which are less profitable for the organization, and depending on how to define the policy for serving different categories of customers and the sale of goods and services with different participation in sales and profits. The present study explores the opportunities of measuring customer profitability, analyzes the connection- service’ expenses, a cost-effective client and presents the application of the ABC method - analysis to distinguish the customer service policy.

  8. Trade Effects of Export Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Solleder

    2013-01-01

    Export taxes usage has recently risen. They are widely presumed to affect trade, but the lack of data has prevented a systematic evaluation of their trade effects. Based on a new dataset of tax rates at the product level, this paper estimates the distortionary trade effects of export taxes. The results, which are based on theory-consistent estimation of a structural gravity model, indicate that the elasticity of trade quantities to tax is -1.8 on average, rising to -5.5 for extractive sectors...

  9. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market. PMID:27274568

  10. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  11. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  12. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hui

    2010-03-01

    The 2000-05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications.

  13. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda's charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market.

  14. THE ROLE OF THE TAX BURDEN IN THE TAXATION OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Melnyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to underline and present the important of the tax burden in the taxation of Ukraine and to show its influence on the profit of the enterprises. The problem of the optimization of the taxes is closely connected with two factors. The first factor is that the aim of the tax system is to fill the state budget. The second factor is to make fovourible conditions for business to prosper. Also, the aim of the research is еру development of scientific and methodological foundations of practical recommendations on the management of the tax burden with an economic entity on the basis of more efficient use of production resources. To achieve this aim the amendments of the Tax Code and the introduction of new rates and taxes were considered, which affects the activities of the company. also the main criteria of the indicators for assessing the tax burden on the company were formed. The object of research is the process of management of the tax burden on the basis of increase of efficiency of use of industrial resources of the enterprise. The subject of the study is the theoretical and methodological and practical aspects of the tax burden, and its calculation methods for reduction and increase, based on the characteristics of business administration. Methodology. The theoretical base of the issue is taken from the economic bases, the works of the native and foreign scientists on the topic of the influence of the taxation on the work of the enterprises, their profit, the analysis of the statistic data during the last few years. To achieve these goals the following methods were used: a method of system analysis and synthesis, methods of statistical groupings, economic and mathematical, logical and comparative analysis. The information base for writing articles constitutes a legal and regulatory acts of Ukraine, the statistical data of the State Committee of Statistics of Ukraine, the reporting enterprises in Ukraine. Results. The

  15. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate

  16. 26 CFR 53.6651-1 - Failure to file tax return or to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to file tax return or to pay tax. 53... Administration § 53.6651-1 Failure to file tax return or to pay tax. (a) General rules. For general rules relating to the failure to file tax return or to pay tax, see the regulations under section 6651 contained...

  17. 26 CFR 1.641(a)-1 - Imposition of tax; application of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of tax; application of tax. 1.641(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(a)-1 Imposition of tax; application of tax. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970, section 641 prescribes...

  18. Economics, mangement and development of non-profit making organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piskoř, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Non-profit making organization. Management analysis of non-profit making organization and its development. Utilization of rational action theory in management of non-profit making organization acting in dance. Example of an autarchic, flourishing and competitive non-profit making organization.

  19. IMPROVEMENTS IN ACCOUNTING OF BREWERIES’ PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sklyaruk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of the profit of breweries, taking into account the specifics of the production process and business peculiarities were identified. There were found out the specificity of calculation of the expenses, considering the norms of the technological process, the duration of the operating cycle and the specifics of the production of beer and non-alcoholic products, which determine the methodology of formation of the prime price of the products and the price of its sale. The expediency of using the method for phases (with semi-ready and not semi- ready option method of calculation of the semi-finished products of own production there was proved. The irrelevance of using Account 44 “Undistributed profit (uncovered loss” according to its purpose under the current Plan of accounts is shown. The model of using the profit based on the proposed sub-accounts was built and the example of their use was shown.

  20. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective of this study is twofold. It aims to provide a synthesis of relevant empirical researches on the determinants of commercial banks’ profitability and to establish empirical verification of profitability determinants of banks in the Republic of Croatia using an econometric method of dynamic panel analysis. The empirical analysis is carried out on a data sample of 28 commercial banks in the period 2003-2008 which continuously refers to more than 95 % of assets of the overall banking intermediation. Return on assets (ROA is profitability indicator used in the analysis. The presented research results and their economic interpretation may serve as a valuable foundation for the general assessment of commercial bank management in Croatia as well as for identifying several sources of potential improvement and impairment of their financial performance in the future. Thus, corrective actions could be planned and implemented in advance.

  1. Slovak Income Tax Legislation in Terms of EU Secondary Law Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčírová Renáta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the integration process of implementation of European Union secondary law into the Slovak tax legislation. In particular, the article analyses whether provisions of (i EU Parent Subsidiary Directive, (ii EU Interest and Royalty Directive and (iii EU Merger Directive are implemented into the Slovak Income Tax Act. Following our research, it should be noted that in general, the Slovak tax legislation has adopted the EU secondary law, in particular, the Parent Subsidiary and Interest and Royalty Directives have been implemented. It should be noted that the profit distributions are not subject to tax in Slovakia. It follows that interest and royalty are not subject to tax and is applicable to EU associated companies. Following the Slovak implementation of EU Merger Directive, merger transactions are generally treated as not giving rise to a capital gain. As a result, according to the Slovak Income Tax Act the income received by shareholders from acquiring new shares and income from exchange of the shares on merger transaction is not subject to income tax.

  2. The economic impact of state cigarette taxes and smoke-free air policies on convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether increasing state cigarette taxes and/or enacting stronger smoke-free air (SFA) policies have negative impact on convenience store density in a state, a proxy that is determined by store openings and closings, which reflects store profits. State-level business count estimates for convenience stores for 50 states and District of Columbia from 1997 to 2009 were analysed using two-way fixed effects regression techniques that control for state-specific and year-specific determinants of convenience store density. The impact of tax and SFA policies was examined using a quasi-experimental research design that exploits changes in cigarette taxes and SFA policies within a state over time. Taxes are found to be uncorrelated with the density of combined convenience stores and gas stations in a state. Taxes are positively correlated with the density of convenience stores; however, the magnitude of this correlation is small, with a 10% increase in state cigarette taxes associated with a 0.19% (phigher cigarette taxes and stronger SFA policies do not negatively affect convenience stores.

  3. Optimal Tax Depreciation under a Progressive Tax System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time,

  4. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax...

  5. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector......, the article discusses conditions for prospective democracy in the Danish non-profit housing sector....

  6. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than...... on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  7. Taxing the Establishment Clause: —Revolutionary Decision of the Arizona Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and implications of a 1999 decision of the Arizona Supreme Court, upholding the constitutionality of a state tax credit statute. The statute offers a $500 tax credit to taxpayers who donate money to non-profit organizations which, in turn, donate the money in grants to students in order to help defray the costs of attending private and parochial schools. The author concludes that the Arizona decision elevates cleverness in devising a statutory scheme above the substance of long-established constitutional doctrine.

  8. CO2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 3: Tax differentiation and environmental tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    Tax differentiation for cars would mean a new structure of the buyer market as the decisive factor in new car price is its fuel efficiency and environmentally friendly low CO 2 emission. Reduction of fuel cost per kilometer can result in increased annual car use. On the other hand growing sales of cars in Denmark would give extra profit to the state as purchase taxation and weight-dependent tax are both extremely high. Environmental tagging can increase consumer awareness of fuel efficiency and emission control. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 13 refs

  9. Typology of taxpayers and tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niesiobedzka Malgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue how to reduce of tax evasion is widely discussed in the literature. A public authority may affect the behavior of taxpayers, not only through economic factors, but also by strengthen fiscal discipline. In this process especially role play such issues as tax morale, tax mentality and perceived tax justice. The purpose of the study was to identify groups of taxpayers with similar attitudes towards taxes and similar tax behaviors. Cluster analysis elicited four types of tax payers: Intrinsic Tax Payer, External Tax Payer, Intrinsic Tax Evader, External Tax Evader. In the study the most common were the first two types of taxpayers. Elicited types correspond with motivational tax postures identified by Braithwaite(2001, 2003 and Torgler (2003. The conclusions sum up the key issues discussed, policy implications and the limitation of the analysis.

  10. Carbon taxes and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India's rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) open-quotes Grandfathered emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) open-quotes Equal per capita emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions

  11. Carbon taxes and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  12. The Effects of Tax Avoidance, Accrual Earnings Management, Real Earnings Management, and Capital Intensity on the Cost of Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrie Firmansyah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effects of tax avoidance, accrual profit management, real profit management, and capital intensity on equity costs. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange which amounted to 146 companies. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling and resulted in 420 units of analysis. This type of research is quantitative causality by performing hypothesis testing analysis is done by using multiple linear regression model. The findings of this research are tax avoidance will add to the risks that must be borne by investors thus increasing uncertainty over their investment. Investors consider that accrual profit management actions are opportunistic as risk-taking actions as well as real profit management actions. While on Capital Intensity, investors assume the information on the company’s fixed assets is not useful in making investment decisions. The conclusions that can be taken are tax avoidance, accrual profit management, and earnings management real positive to the cost of equity. However, capital intensity has a negative effect.

  13. Symmetric tax competition under formula apportionment

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares property taxation to a corporate income tax based on formula apportionment in a model where identical countries compete to attract capital. We find that if countries can pair a residence-based capital tax with a property tax (source tax on capital) the tax equilibrium is efficient. In contrast, the use of a 2-factor FA scheme based on sales and capital combined with a residence-based capital tax leads to an inefficient outcome.

  14. An Analysis of Tax Buoyancy Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Rasheed

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By using econometric techniques for estimating tax elasticities, this paper findssignificant but low tax buoyancy rates for GDP, M0 and volume of trade. Surprisingly,the theoretically important factor of tax evasion (SFTR was found to be ineffective. Thisindicates that SFTR is not an adequate measure of tax evasion. There is no significantassociation between tax revenue growth and investment, credit, public debt and inflation.This illustrates the weakness of the tax regime in Pakistan.

  15. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  16. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic

  17. Local Tax Reform in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    This report reviews local tax reform and describes an approach to simulating the effects of proposed tax reform on local school districts in Pennsylvania. The microcomputer spreadsheet simulation led to the development of a model able to meet the feasibility criteria established for such a simulation model. The model was designed to input…

  18. Fund Raising After Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Major implications for fund raising in higher education due to the Tax Reform Act of 1986 are discussed. A list of fund- raising resolutions includes: going back to basics and working harder; consequences of last year's donation rush; and answering questions on the new alternative minimum tax. (MLW)

  19. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  20. A choice experiment on tax: Are income and consumption taxes equivalent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Mori, Tomoharu; Ohtake, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We test the equivalence of income and consumption taxes through a choice experiment. Under a given set of income and consumption parameters, subjects were asked to choose among an income tax of 20%, a consumption tax of 25% (which is an equivalent tax burden), a consumption tax of 22%, and a consumption tax of 20%. Our results showed that subjects prefer income tax to consumption tax when the nominal consumption tax rate is higher than the nominal income tax rate. However, subjects tend to pr...

  1. Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Simon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.

  2. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes in the p......In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes...... in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  3. Energy taxes in practice. Energy tax - electricity tax - biofuel quota - energy tax compliance. 3. upd. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Roland M.; Thoms, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    You need a quick and easy overview of the legal provisions of the energy tax law? You would like to understand the relationship between the European and national regulations and their impact on the daily practice? This manual prepares the energy tax, electricity tax and biofuel quota law for you clearly on and illustrated by examples, what to look in practice in order to avoid pitfalls. It picks up especially contentious issues and problems, discusses the relevant case law and the relevant regulations and finally gives precise recommendations for daily practice. Based on practice notes, examples and diagrams you can easily identify how to transfer the legal requirements on the own workspaces or optionally can use tax breaks. This includes information on both simplified - and thus less subject to error - methods and to tax exemptions and credits. The manual is complemented by forms, extracts from the Combined Nomenclature and an online material collection with regulatory and legal texts. [de

  4. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes in the p......In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes...... in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  5. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of. Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato.

  6. Macroeconomy and Banks' Profitability in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    be inferred from the impact of adequate capital on risk asset creation. Two possible theoretical explanations ..... where p, is profit, rdep, the market deposit rate, rp and Ds are exogenous variables affecting industry demand for ... investments (that is the money market rate and the government bond rate) and ε is the error term.

  7. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible place...

  8. FARM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND PROFITABILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unique cropping systems have emerged in Nigeria to suit limited farmer resources and production objectives in humid forest inland valley ecosystems. But the basis for farm resource allocation and profitability of different crop enterprises are not properly understood. This study is based on a survey of 48 randomly selected ...

  9. PROFITABILITY AND VIABILITY OF CATFISH ENTERPRISES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish provides 40% of the dietary intake of animal protein of the average Nigerian. Fish and fish products ... degeneration and vision impairment; and it decreases the risk of bowel cancer; and reduces insulin resistance in .... observations were analyzed using net profit analysis, benefit-cost ratio and frequency tables and ...

  10. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  11. 48 CFR 2115.404-70 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2115.404-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-70 Profit. (a) Risk charge. (1) Section 8711(d) of title 5... risk is borne by the contractor; that is, when the balance in the Employees' Life Insurance Fund is no...

  12. 48 CFR 1615.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit. 1615.404-4 Section 1615.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION...

  13. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... profit objective is that part of the estimated contract price objective or value which, in the judgment... of all available knowledge regarding the contractor pursuant to FAR subpart 9.1, including audit data... contract requiring the contractor to use its best efforts to perform a task and a firm fixed-price contract...

  14. The profitability of low-volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitz, David; Vidojevic, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Low-risk stocks exhibit higher returns than predicted by established asset pricing models, but this anomaly seems to be explained by the new Fama-French five-factor model, which includes a profitability factor. We argue that this conclusion is premature given the lack of empirical evidence for a

  15. 48 CFR 49.202 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT.... Profit shall not be allowed the contractor for material or services that, as of the effective date of... inventory; (4) Amount and source of capital and extent of risk assumed; (5) Inventive and developmental...

  16. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows poultry production is profitable. The study recommends the formation of poultry farmers association, so as to source more funds from financial institutions, government agencies at lower interest rate, adequate, reliable, affordable and constant feed, water, stable market and electricity supply to its members.

  17. Competition for FDI and Profit Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage...

  18. Profitability Analysis of Groundnuts Processing in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the profitability of groundnuts processing in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council of Borno State. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of groundnut processors, estimate the costs and returns in groundnut processing and determine the return on investment in ...

  19. 256 253 Profitability Analysis of Groundnut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... GR = Gross revenue (N /kg). TVC = Total variable costs (N /kg). The gross margin analysis was used under the assumption that fixed costs of production are negligible (Olukosi and Erhabor, 1988). Return on investment. The return on investment (ROI) was also used to assess the profitability of the ...

  20. LIQUIDITY RISK AND PROFITABILITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    faced with liquidity risk since loans are advanced from funds deposited by customers. ... Internal determinants are factors that are mainly influenced by a bank's management decisions and policy objectives. Such profitability determinants are the level of liquidity, ... ability of the firm to generate returns on its portfolio of assets.

  1. 48 CFR 915.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...(d) provides contracting officers with an approach that will ensure consistent consideration of the... 915.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4 Profit. (c)(4)(i) Contracting officer...

  2. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using Fisher's least significant difference (F-LSD) at 5% level of probability. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test a correlation between yield parameters and growth assessment at 12. WAP using Genstat Statistical Software. Economic analysis was determined for the most profitable combination of tested factors ...

  3. A Model of Aggressive Tax Optimization with the Use of Royalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kutera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Today, international capital flows play a leading role in shaping global economic relations and directly impact the budgets of many states. What is of major importance in this process are the differences and legal loopholes in tax systems of individual states, which allow profits to be taxed at the minimum percentage rate. Tax avoidance is particularly popular among corporations operating in global markets, which use various mechanisms for this purpose. The main aim of this article is to present a model of aggressive tax optimization based on the flow of royalties in supranational groups. Design/methodology/approach - The description of the model was preceded by a detailed analysis of transactions concluded between companies in connection with the current tax regulations effective in particular countries. The key tool was an analysis of case studies of tax optimization mechanisms used by the largest multinational corporations, mainly Google, Apple, Facebook and Microsoft. The main source of data consisted in the reports of OECD on this topic, the annual 10-K financial statements filed with the SEC by Google Inc. (Alphabet Inc. and detailed legal regulations on taxing international transactions. Findings - The popular mechanisms of tax avoidance include the skillful use of transfer pricing, fees for intangible services, royalty transfers, establishing offshore companies, the flow of loans and dividends. The most important of them are royalty transfers, which have been used by every company analyzed. The most effective model in this regard was established by Google. It is based on a network of subsidiaries registered mainly in Ireland and the Netherlands which apply preferential rules to tax such transactions. Research implications/limitations - The exact identification of tax avoidance mechanisms used in practice allows gaps in tax law to be identified and hence charts the directions of the necessary legislation changes. It also

  4. 26 CFR 20.0-2 - General description of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-2 General description of tax. (a) Nature of tax. The Federal estate tax is neither a property tax nor an inheritance tax... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General description of tax. 20.0-2 Section 20.0...

  5. Profitability primer: a guide to profitability analysis in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Lloyd-Zannetti, D.; Martin, J.; Price, S.

    1996-06-01

    As the electric power industry is opened to forces of competition, increased attention must be focused to develop products and services that deliver good value to customers and to identify customer segments that are profitable to serve. This primer introduces the concept of profitability analysis and its application to the electric power industry. The primer recognizes that some segments of the business will remain monopolistic and subject to regulations, while other segments will become competitive. The primer also recognizes that customer profitability is critically dependent on a host of related issues such as how internal costs are allocated to various functions and how revenues are collected and allocated

  6. Secondary tax and its effect on the cost of capital and shareholder value of South African JSE listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H.v.H De Wet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The introduction of a secondary tax on companies (STC and the lowering of the normal income tax rate in 1993 constituted a dramatic change in the tax structure of South African organisations. The original intention of these changes was to encourage organisations to re-invest profits to make use of capital investment opportunities. It was also anticipated that these tax changes would lower the cost of capital of organisations. Problem investigated: Announcements during the 2007 budget again raised questions about how the proposed changes in STC would affect the value of organisations. The impact of these tax changes has been the topic of some speculation in the absence of concrete research results to date. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of these tax changes and all subsequent changes since 1993 on the cost of capital and shareholder value. Approach: A model of a hypothetical company, representing the 'average' listed South African organisation was used to determine the effect of the introduction of STC and the changes to the STC and company tax rate on the cost of capital and the value of the organisation. Findings: The study found that, contrary to expectations, the tax changes actually caused the cost of capital to go up. Overall, the combined effect of the higher cost of capital and the lower company tax rate caused the theoretical value of organisations to increase, constituting an improvement of shareholder value. Value of research: It is the first local study that endeavoured to analyse and quantify the impact of the introduction of STC and the lowering of the company tax rate on the cost of capital and the value of organisations. Conclusion: The introduction of STC in and the lowering of the company tax rate in 1993, as well as changes to these two forms of taxes since then, seem to have been justified in terms of shareholder value creation.

  7. Financial sector taxation: Financial activities tax or financial transaction tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.

  8. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  9. Audits contribute to pride, productivity and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Q.

    1984-01-01

    The object of this writing is to demonstrate that audits (in general) when used as a ''management tool' can contribute to pride, productivity, and profit. The goal of ''pride'' achievement is demonstrated through the use of techniques developed from behavioral sciences. Discussed is dealing with people and their basic needs. This is intended to point out the fact that satisfying individual needs and concerns is the first step to achieving the goals of pride, productivity, and profit. Also discussed are the basic needs of safety (security), social, ego/esteem, and self-fulfillment as well as providing some basic techniques of auditing which will help assure general satisfaction of these needs. Also noted are reporting methods. The goal of ''productivity'' is approached by demonstrating that objectives must be clear and workable. Objectives must be translated into specific action and that action must be compatible with the overall company objectives. All objectives must be known and understood by those affected. Consideration must be given to men, money, and machines (present technology). All of the objectives must also be weighed against external constraints. The goal of ''profit'' then becomes the product of a combination of ''pride'' and ''productivity''. Audits must be cost conscious. Value engineer the problem, the cause, and the solution. Discussion continues with quality cost programs briefly indicating that ''Q'' costs could be considered a type of audit. Identifying deficiencies and weaknesses, then correcting them, contributes to profit. Increased pride and productivity contributes to profit. Consider the employee's awareness and commitment for doing a good job when auditing

  10. The role of non-operating income in community benefit provision by not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Paula H; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Reiter, Kristin L

    2013-01-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals are under increased public scrutiny for providing what some view as insufficient levels of community benefit compared to their tax-exempt benefits. One potential driver of community benefit is financial surplus, which arises from both patient care (operating) activities and non-patient care (non-operating) activities. This study addresses the effect of hospitals' non-operating income on not-for-profit hospitals' provision of community benefit. The study sample includes 217 unique not-for-profit, non-governmental, general, acute care hospitals in California between 1997 and 2010 that filed annual reports with the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). We model the effect of hospitals' operating and non-operating incomes on hospitals' community benefit, controlling for observable hospital characteristics such as scale and system membership, local competition, time trends, and hospital fixed effects. Our results indicate that non-operating income has no effect on levels of community benefit provided by not-for-profit hospitals. This finding suggests that not-for-profit hospitals budget for uncompensated care at levels that are prioritized over other potential investments if non-operating income falls, but remain fixed if non-operating income rises.

  11. Marketization in Long-Term Care: A Cross-Country Comparison of Large For-Profit Nursing Home Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Harrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents cross-country comparisons of trends in for-profit nursing home chains in Canada, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Using public and private industry reports, the study describes ownership, corporate strategies, costs, and quality of the 5 largest for-profit chains in each country. The findings show that large for-profit nursing home chains are increasingly owned by private equity investors, have had many ownership changes over time, and have complex organizational structures. Large for-profit nursing home chains increasingly dominate the market and their strategies include the separation of property from operations, diversification, the expansion to many locations, and the use of tax havens. Generally, the chains have large revenues with high profit margins with some documented quality problems. The lack of adequate public information about the ownership, costs, and quality of services provided by nursing home chains is problematic in all the countries. The marketization of nursing home care poses new challenges to governments in collecting and reporting information to control costs as well as to ensure quality and public accountability.

  12. Accumulation of Tax-Loss Carryforwards: The Role of Book-Tax Non-Conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlhase, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Using confidential corporate income tax return data, this paper investigates the association between book-tax non-conformity (measured as book-tax differences) and tax-loss carryforwards (TLCFs). I find that TLCFs are positively associated with temporary and permanent book-tax differences. Only firms with positive pre-tax book income and negative taxable income (double-picture firms) drive the positive association between TLCFs and temporary book-tax differences. Conversely, the positive asso...

  13. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  14. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.

  15. The importance and effects of BEPS multilateral convention in international tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting is a result of the BEPS project carried out by the OECD and G20. The object and purpose of the BEPS Multilateral Convention is swift and consistent implementation of the agreed solutions aimed at preventing tax evasion or avoidance via modifications of the existing bilateral tax treaties, while providing for a high level of flexibility in the implementation. Signed on 7 June 2017, the Convention encompasses provisions on hybrid mismatches, treaty abuse, avoidance of permanent establishment status, improving dispute resolution and arbitration. The first four groups of norms have a bilateral impact on the relations between contracting jurisdictions regulated by their covered tax agreements; the effect of the optional provisions on arbitration is multilateral. The Convention contains two minimum standards each party is required to include in its covered tax agreements in an offered manner. The first one refers to the prevention of treaty shopping arrangements, while the second one concerns improvements in the dispute resolution. The flexibility is assured by granting each party the right to specify the tax treaties to which the Convention applies, to opt out of a wide range of provisions (apart from the minimum standards set out in the Convention as eligible for reservations, as well as to select an offered alternative. Serbia's position vis-à-vis the given choices has been elaborated. Serbia specified all its tax treaties as the 'covered tax agreements' but Germany, Switzerland and Sweden did not do the same with their respective treaties with Serbia. Serbia opted out of five articles of the Convention. While not contesting its importance, one may conclude that the Convention does not represent an announcement of a new multilateral tax order but rather a multilateral agreement of a number of states motivated by practical considerations.

  16. Contribution retribution. Health system, CEO must pay excise taxes after pressuring workers to help fund state association's PAC through payroll deductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2004-11-22

    The IRS wants not-for-profit health systems to remember to keep their distance from politics--it's taxing the payroll contributions at one system that went to a state hospital association's PAC. Kenneth Robbins, left, says hospitals should always be conscious of activities that could jeopardize their tax-exempt status. "It's an issue we've been concerned with as long as I can remember," he says.

  17. Faktor-Faktor yang Menyebabkan Wajib Pajak Melakukan Tax Offenses, Tax Fraud, dan Tax Evasion (Studi Empiris di KPP Pratama Medan-Polonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia, Gita

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the influence of tax fairness, tax compliance, tax knowledge, tax system, and discrimination against taxpayer perception about the ethical of tax offenses, tax fraud, and tax evasion. This research was conducted at the tax service office Pratama MedanPolonia, with a sampling technique is convenience sampling and distributing the questionnaires until fifty questionnaires. All of the questionnaires given to the taxpayer who listed on tax service office Pratama Meda...

  18. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  19. Preventing Tax arbitrage via Hybrid Mismatches: BEPS Action 2 and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzniacki, Blazej; Turina, Alessandro; Dubut, Thomas; Mazz, Addy; Quiñones, Natalia; Schoueri, Luís Eduardo; West, Craig; Pistone, Pasquale; Zimmer, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) under Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Action 2 indicated that tax arbitrage via hybrid mismatch arrangements "result in a substantial erosion of the taxable bases of the countries concerned" and "have an overall negative impact on competition, efficiency, transparency and fairness." The relevant action allowing for neutralising the effects of hybrid mismatch arrangements is therefore needed and justified. To ...

  20. Associated petroleum gas utilization in Tomsk Oblast: energy efficiency and tax advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazim, A.; Romanyuk, V.; Ahmadeev, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    This article deals with oil production companies activities in increasing the utilization volume of associated petroleum gas (APG) in Tomsk Oblast. Cost-effectiveness analysis of associated petroleum gas utilization was carried out using the example of gas engine power station AGP-350 implementation at Yuzhno-Cheremshanskoye field, Tomsk Oblast. Authors calculated the effectiveness taking into account the tax advantages of 2012. The implementation of this facility shows high profitability, the payback period being less than 2 years.

  1. Are loyal customers profitable? : customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level

    OpenAIRE

    Helgesen, Øyvind

    2000-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is supposed to be positively related to profitability. This conception may be called “the paradigm of customer satisfaction”. Nevertheless, only a few studies have examined this fundamental relationship. Thus, evidence for this “much talked about relationship” is questioned. In this working paper the focus is on the individual customer with respect to the relationships between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the customer level. The f...

  2. Alternative profit rate shariah-compliant for islamic banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, Nadhirah; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Ghazali, Puspa Liza

    2017-09-01

    Profit is the aims for Islamic banking and conventional banking. Determination of profit in Islamic banking in Malaysia depends on the profit rate, whereas profit rate is essentially from reference rate which is known as the base rate (BR). However, the determination of the components contained in the BR such as benchmark cost of funds and the statutory reserve requirement (SRR) is non-compliance with the Shariah because its directly proportional to the overnight policy rate (OPR). Therefore, an alternative formula for the profit rate are proposed which is known as the base profit rate (BPR). Construction of BPR formula is based on the principle that are more Shariah-compliant.

  3. Financing universal health coverage--effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-07-18

    How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995-2011. Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9.86 (95% CI 3.92-15.8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16.7, 9.16 to 24.3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (-$4.37, -12.9 to 4.11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6.74 percentage points (95% CI 0.87-12.6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11.4 percentage points (5.51-17.2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax policies within a pro-poor framework might accelerate progress toward achieving major

  4. Financing universal health coverage—effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. Methods We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995–2011. Findings Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9·86 (95% CI 3·92–15·8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16·7, 9·16 to 24·3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (−$4·37, −12·9 to 4·11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6·74 percentage points (95% CI 0·87–12·6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11·4 percentage points (5·51–17·2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Interpretation Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax

  5. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  6. Taxing Strategies for Carbon Emissions: A Bilevel Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative and computational method to determine the optimal tax rate among generating units. To strike a balance between the reduction of carbon emission and the profit of energy sectors, the proposed bilevel optimization model can be regarded as a Stackelberg game between the government agency and the generation companies. The upper-level, which represents the government agency, aims to limit total carbon emissions within a certain level by setting optimal tax rates among generators according to their emission performances. The lower-level, which represents decision behaviors of the grid operator, tries to minimize the total production cost under the tax rates set by the government. The bilevel optimization model is finally reformulated into a mixed integer linear program (MILP which can be solved by off-the-shelf MILP solvers. Case studies on a 10-unit system as well as a provincial power grid in China demonstrate the validity of the proposed method and its capability in practical applications.

  7. Competition and Profitability in European Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.

    Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...

  8. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... the amount of tax has been reported and calculated correctly. The likely respondents are owners of... administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential...

  9. Montana fuel tax refunds : draft final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "The primary source of funding for transportation infrastructure is the taxes that are imposed on motor fuels. One aspect of fuel tax collections is the process that requires consumers to apply for refunds of taxes paid on fuels used for tax-exempt p...

  10. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax...

  11. 27 CFR 46.223 - Tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax credit. 46.223 Section... for Sale on April 1, 2009 Tax Liability Calculation § 46.223 Tax credit. The dealer is allowed a credit of up to $500 against the total floor stocks tax. However, controlled groups are eligible for only...

  12. Labor tax reform, unemployment, and search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal

  13. Tax compliance depends on voice of taxpayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casal, Sandro; Kogler, C.; Mittone, Luigi; Kirchler, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the social distance between taxpayers and tax authorities boosts taxpayers' acceptance of tax load and tax compliance. In the present experiment participants had the opportunity to pay their tax due either as one single compliance decision or as separate compliance decisions for each type

  14. TAX EVASION BETWEEN FRAUD AND OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tax optimization, often called legal tax evasion is the use of methods and techniques that are within the law, in order to reduce or even cancel the tax liability. To achieve such an approach, the taxpayer or his advisers must know in depth the tax law - and by extension, the financial and administrative law - and, moreover, must be functional tax jurisdictions which allow the use of appropriate assemblies. The recent leasks, as WikiLeaks, LuxLeaks, SwissLeaks, Panama Papers etc. on financial flows to tax havens highlight the far-reaching unprecedented evasion and tax fraud, both in the amounts involved - trillions of dollars - and sophisticated assemblies used primarily by multinational companies to the detriment of the public finances of Member territory headquarters and branches which are located and, therefore, detrimental economic and social life of those countries. Tax evasion is based on legal mechanisms which, combined together in the montages of increasingly complex, allowing operators, mostly multinational legal entities to circumvent national tax law and not pay the taxes due. The border between tax optimization, tax evasion and fraud is very thin, optimization using various legal methods to reduce the tax owed, whereas tax evasion using illegal means, which covered crime. Tax evasion reveals either optimize or fraud. There is a significant international dimension of tax evasion because it is favored by multinational corporations operating conditions.

  15. 17 CFR 256.409 - Income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income statement to meet the actual liability for such taxes. As the exact amount of taxes become known... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 256.409 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.409 Income taxes. (a) This account shall include the...

  16. Taxation, pollution, unemployment and growth: Could there be a 'triple dividend' from a green tax reform?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.; Haagen Pedersen, L.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth, where sustainable growth is driven by private capital accumulation and productive government spending on education and pollution abatement. The economy is distorted by pollution externalitities in production and consumption; by taxes and transfers, and by union monopoly power creating involuntary unemployment. within this framework we analyse the effects of various 'green' tax policies on pollution, unemployment, growth, and consumer welfare. Among other things, we highlight the differences between pollution taxes which are levied for general revenue purposes and pollution taxes which are 'earmarked' for financing expenditures on pollution abatement. We also investigate the effects of a switch in the policy regime from quantity control of pollution combined with 'grandfathering' of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges. We find that such a regime shift has the potential to raise employment, growth and welfare without damaging the environment, because emission charges improve the efficiency of the tax system by serving as an indirect method of taxing away pure profits. (au) 13 refs

  17. Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osuagwu, Eze

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing scholarly debates on the direction of policy to effectively improve the performance of banks. Some scholars argue that bank performance is enhanced by improvements in the internal organization and managerial efficiency, others argue that industry wide factors are integral to bank performance. In recent times, the direction of literature has shown that macroeconomic factors play a significant role in determining bank profitability. This paper investigates the determinants ...

  18. Creating Societal Benefits and Corporate Profits

    OpenAIRE

    Raisch, Sebastian; Probst, Gilbert; Gomez, Peter; Zimmermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The odds of launching a new business that creates value for both the company and the public can be improved with good planning. An in-depth analysis of how four companies created for-profit initiatives that also have high societal value suggests that each followed a similar step-by-step process to achieve what the researchers call synergistic value creation. Those steps include establishing cross-business incubators and installing multi-perspective monitoring systems.

  19. The Walking Egg non-profit organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhont, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Walking Egg non-profit organisation (npo) was founded in 2010 by scientists and an artist to realise the Arusha Project which strives to implement accessible infertility programmes in resource-poor countries. Right from the start The Walking Egg has opted for a multidisciplinary and global approach towards the problem of infertility and in cooperation with the Special Task Force (STF) on “Developing countries and infertility” of the European Society of Human reproduction and Embryology (E...

  20. Determinants of Commercial Banks' Profitability in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimov, Ivan D.; Md. Aris, Nazaria; Ying Ying, Jovena Kho

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between non-performing loans (NPLs) and commercial banks' performance in Malaysia, alongside other factors. It considers the effect of NPLs, cost efficiency and bank size on commercial banks' profitability by using panel data regression (Pooled OLS model), covering the period of 2010-2015. The findings of the study show that NPLs and cost efficiency have a significant negative relationship with commercial banks' performances in Malaysia. On the othe...