WorldWideScience

Sample records for windfall profit taxation

  1. Windfalls and other profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    'Windfall profits' again is a popular term, but mostly the term is used inappropriately. This short article discusses why, and proposes a more complete taxonomy of profits. There exists little ground and need for policy to act against genuine windfalls, while the contrary holds for other excessive earnings. Very few windfalls, freely fallen down from winds in the sky, occur after observed excessive profits are stripped from deliberate man-made interventions. That is why clear identification and correct language are needed

  2. IRS’ Administration of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-18

    because the windfall profit tax is deductible on both individual and corporate income tax returns and thus reduces the producer’s income tax liability...examinations generally are about 3 years more current than corporate income tax examinations, cross-tax-year coordina- - S . tion is needed to avoid...annual individual or corporate income tax return. In any case, taxpayers summarize the supporting net income limitation calculation on Form 6249

  3. CO2 cost pass-through and windfall profits in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, Jos; Neuhoff, Karsten; Yihsu Chen

    2006-01-01

    In order to cover their CO 2 emissions, power companies receive most of the required EU ETS allowances for free. In line with economic theory, these companies pass on the costs of these allowances in the price of electricity. This article analyses the implications of the EU ETS for the power sector, notably the impact of free allocation of CO 2 emission allowances on the price of electricity and the profitability of power generation. As well as some theoretical reflections, the article presents empirical and model estimates of CO 2 cost pass-through for Germany and The Netherlands, indicating that pass-through rates vary between 60 and 100% of CO 2 costs, depending on the carbon intensity of the marginal production unit and various other market- or technology-specific factors. As a result, power companies realize substantial windfall profits, as indicated by the empirical and model estimates presented in the article. (Author)

  4. Windfall profit in portfolio diversification? An empirical analysis of the potential benefits of renewable energy investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, Frederik

    2013-05-01

    Modern Portfolio Theory is a theory which was introduced by Markowitz, and which suggests the building of a portfolio with assets that have low or, in the best case, negative correlation. In times of financial crises, however, the positive diversification effect of a portfolio can fail when Traditional Assets are highly correlated. Therefore, many investors search for Alternative Asset classes, such as Renewable Energies, that tend to perform independently from capital market performance. 'Windfall Profit in Portfolio Diversification?' discusses the potential role of Renewable Energy investments in an institutional investor's portfolio by applying the main concepts from Modern Portfolio Theory. Thereby, the empirical analysis uses a unique data set from one of the largest institutional investors in the field of Renewable Energies, including several wind and solar parks. The study received the Science Award 2012 of the German Alternative Investments Association ('Bundesverband Alternative Investments e.V.').

  5. «Neutral» Profit Taxation, Risk Taking and Optimal Profit Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. MINTZ

    1982-01-01

    The object of this study is to answer two questions related to the design of profit taxes when taking into account riskiness of firms. The first question is the following: leaving aside general equilibrium effects of taxation on the interest rate and risk premia faced by firms, would a cash flow tax be neutral with respect to the investment decisions made by firms. The second question to be considered is whether profit tax rates should vary across industries because of different degrees of ri...

  6. The taxation of UK oil and gas production. Why the windfalls got away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Hafez

    2010-01-01

    Starting with evidence that United Kingdom Continental Shelf oil and gas companies have benefitted very disproportionately from the recent period of extraordinarily high oil prices, this paper traces the history of this weakness in the UK's petroleum fiscal regime. Evidence is provided that the progressive relaxations in the UK's petroleum fiscal regime in 1983, 1987-1988 and 1993 were: largely unnecessary to stimulate the development of new, smaller, 'marginal' fields; misguided in their assumption that such fields were more costly to develop than earlier counterparts or larger contemporary fields; and impotent compared with the effects of oil price movements. The paper concludes with a conceptualisation which illuminates why these failures of policy were not just random: they emerged from the UK's 'non-proprietorial' stance with respect to the country's oil and gas resources, a stance which assumes responsibility for oil company profitability and vainly tries to counter market forces at the expense of government revenues. (author)

  7. The taxation of UK oil and gas production: Why the windfalls got away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Hafez, E-mail: hafez.abdo@ntu.ac.u [Nottingham Business School, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Starting with evidence that United Kingdom Continental Shelf oil and gas companies have benefitted very disproportionately from the recent period of extraordinarily high oil prices, this paper traces the history of this weakness in the UK's petroleum fiscal regime. Evidence is provided that the progressive relaxations in the UK's petroleum fiscal regime in 1983, 1987-1988 and 1993 were: largely unnecessary to stimulate the development of new, smaller, 'marginal' fields; misguided in their assumption that such fields were more costly to develop than earlier counterparts or larger contemporary fields; and impotent compared with the effects of oil price movements. The paper concludes with a conceptualisation which illuminates why these failures of policy were not just random: they emerged from the UK's 'non-proprietorial' stance with respect to the country's oil and gas resources, a stance which assumes responsibility for oil company profitability and vainly tries to counter market forces at the expense of government revenues.

  8. The taxation of UK oil and gas production. Why the windfalls got away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Hafez [Nottingham Business School, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Starting with evidence that United Kingdom Continental Shelf oil and gas companies have benefitted very disproportionately from the recent period of extraordinarily high oil prices, this paper traces the history of this weakness in the UK's petroleum fiscal regime. Evidence is provided that the progressive relaxations in the UK's petroleum fiscal regime in 1983, 1987-1988 and 1993 were: largely unnecessary to stimulate the development of new, smaller, 'marginal' fields; misguided in their assumption that such fields were more costly to develop than earlier counterparts or larger contemporary fields; and impotent compared with the effects of oil price movements. The paper concludes with a conceptualisation which illuminates why these failures of policy were not just random: they emerged from the UK's 'non-proprietorial' stance with respect to the country's oil and gas resources, a stance which assumes responsibility for oil company profitability and vainly tries to counter market forces at the expense of government revenues. (author)

  9. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its juris...

  10. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumiter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its jurisdiction. Tax treaties do not impose limits on these types of taxing rights, other than those stemming from the obligation to impose profits, since the issue of taxation is “satisfied”. Moreover, the source of tax revenue belongs to the source state. Thus, we can see that it is unlikely that the state of residence of a non-resident taxpayer should want to “share” such tax revenue. It can be observed that the state of residence also has the right to tax the profits, but in general it gives credit in respect of taxes of the source state or deducts them for the purpose of preventing the occurrence of double taxation. If the state of residence provides a credit for taxes paid within the source state, taxes which have not been collected and owed to the source state will constitute a tax transfer to the state of residence, from which the taxpayer will not have any benefit. As regards Romania, in terms of the treatment of enterprises, this article represents a real quid pro quo, as it tackles both the international and national taxation of corporate profits, through the provisions found in the new Fiscal Code and the Code of Fiscal Procedure, as well as the new proposals on the taxation of turnover in companies, all of this extrapolated with the new proposals for turnover tax from IT giants. The article ends with the presentation, comment and analysis of a case of international double taxation, more specifically the taxation of corporate profits, a topic of

  11. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  12. The Coordination of Capital Income and Profit Taxation with Cross-Ownership of Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the scope for international coordination of capital income and profit taxation.The paper considers a world of many symmetric countries where public goods are financed by taxes on capital income and on profits.In the open economy, the authorities have at their disposal a

  13. The Proposal of the Changes in the Taxation of Income of the Non-profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of the taxation of incomes of the non-governmental non-profit organizations, especially the civic associations in the conditions of the Czech Republic and in the selected countries of the European Union (Austria, Slovakia, Germany. The main emphasis is put on the comparison of the corporate income tax of the studied countries. Particularly the tax benefits that are provided to the non-profit organizations in the individual countries are compared here. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic, where there is no clear legislation that would regulate the activities by the studied organizations. Changes in the taxation of the incomes of non-profit organizations are designed to eliminate absences with regard to the simplicity and clarity of the individual provisions, and also to prevent misuse of the benefits and to the speculative behavior of tax entities.

  14. Trade Finance, Bank Bail-outs and Profit Taxation in an Interconnected World

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMIDT-EISENLOHR, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Defense date: 24 May 2010 Examining Board: Prof. Giancarlo Corsetti, EUI, Supervisor; Prof. Andrew Bernard, Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth; Prof. Russell Cooper, EUI; Prof. Jonathan Eaton, New York University Countries are increasingly linked internationally. The three models developed in this thesis shed light on how firms and governments respond to the increasing interconnectedness of the world economy, analyzing profit taxation, trade finance and government intervention in the ...

  15. Taxation of Non-profit Organizations in the Selected European Countries: the Proposal of the Changes for the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of taxation of income of non-profit organizations, especially to associations (clubs in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United Kingdom. This paper is part of research, where the main emphasis is placed on the comparison of the tax benefits which are provided to non-profit organizations in different countries. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic where despite the changes that have occurred in connection with the new Civil Code, there is still missing clear legislation that would regulate the activities of the monitored organizations. Changes in the taxation of income of non-profit organizations are designed with regard to the elimination of deficiencies in order to prevent the abuse of the benefits and the speculative behavior of tax entities.

  16. Resource Windfalls, Political Regimes, and Political Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli; Andrea Tesei

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically and empirically whether natural resource windfalls affect political regimes. We document the following regularities. Natural resource windfalls have no effect on the political system when they occur in democracies. However, windfalls have significant political consequences in autocracies. In particular, when an autocratic country receives a positive shock to its flow of resource rents it responds by becoming even more autocratic. Furthermore, there is heterogeneity in t...

  17. Managing and Harnessing Volatile Oil Windfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, T.S.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2013-01-01

    Three funds are necessary to manage an oil windfall: intergenerational, liquidity, and investment funds. The optimal liquidity fund is bigger if the windfall lasts longer and oil price volatility, prudence, and the GDP share of oil rents are high and productivity growth is low. The paper applies the

  18. Asset Policies during an Oil Windfall: Some Simple Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunning, J.W.; Collier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many developing countries are currently experiencing oil windfalls, whether due to discoveries or to price effects. Such windfalls pose a series of policy dilemmas. The literature has focused on one of these: the choice between using windfall savings for public capital formation and investment in

  19. Firm Entry Dynamics and Taxation of Corporate Profits : Evidence from Europe (Replaced by DP 2009-61)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, M.; Di Giacomo, M.; Sembenelli, A.

    2008-01-01

    Can tax policy foster the creation of new companies? To answer this question, we assemble a novel country-industry level panel database with entry data of European companies between 1997 and 2004. We compute effective tax rates and explore the effect of corporate taxation policy on entry rates at

  20. A comparative study of the taxation of business profits - especially 'online' profits - in Australia and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Antonietta Pui-Kwok

    2017-01-01

    There are two main principles under which jurisdictions tax income – source and residence. The point of these two principles is to establish a ‘nexus’ or link between a taxable transaction, operation or activity and a taxing state. It is this nexus which is used to justify the imposition of taxation by the jurisdiction on a particular taxpayer. Where a taxpayer is a ‘resident’ of a jurisdiction, then that person often becomes liable to pay tax on income derived from all sources. Where a taxpa...

  1. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joi...... in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear......Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  2. Profitability and taxation in the UKCS oil and gas industry: analysing the distribution of rewards between company and country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutledge, Ian; Wright, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Against the background of record levels of UK hydrocarbon production and a government review of the UKCS tax regime, this paper provides evidence that the government's share of UKCS profits is very low by historical and international standards and demonstrates that the current tax regime is extremely weak. The justification for the latter is the challenged by assessing the relative profitability of UKCS companies, using data from UK national accounts and from Form 10-K and Form 20-F company reports and analysing both accounting profits and forecast discounted cash flow. This shows that companies operating on the UKCS enjoy substantially higher profitability relative to both other UK companies and other oil and gas provinces elsewhere in the world. Further evidence of the weakness of the UK regime is provided by a comparison with the Norwegian oil and gas tax regime. The paper therefore makes a strong case for the reform of the UKCS tax regime. (Author)

  3. Resource windfalls: how to use them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannesson, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers how a windfall gain in unextracted mineral wealth should be allocated between immediate consumption and capital accumulation. This is investigated in both a neoclassical growth model with diminishing returns to capital and a model with constant returns, as in the theory of endogenous growth. The highest investment share occurs in the endogenous growth model. The investment share is found to be sensitive to the productivity of capital and the rate of utility discount. The model abstracts from price increases and technological progress in the mineral industry, and also ignores investment costs in extraction. (Author)

  4. Costs and Benefits of Stopping the Clock. How Airlines Profit from Changes in the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelissen, D.; Faber, J.

    2012-12-15

    All flights arriving at or departing from EU airports have been included in the EU ETS from the beginning of 2012. Airlines have to surrender allowances for emissions on flights to and from EU airports. A share of the allowances has been issued to the airlines for free, the remainder needs to be acquired at an auction or from the market. In November 2012, the European Commission proposed to exempt intercontinental flights from the EU ETS for 2012, an initiative branded as 'Stopping the Clock'. As a result of this change, airlines on intercontinental routes are likely to experience additional windfall profit, since they have probably anticipated ETS-related expenditures on these routes, which they will now not incur. In addition, all airlines have a windfall profit since they are likely to pass on the value of the free allowances, as has been demonstrated to happen in all other sectors that have received free allowances. This note estimates the windfall profits. The report distinguishes two types of windfall profits: (1) Profits that occur because the opportunity costs of free allowances received for intercontinental flights have been passed on. These windfall profits would also have occurred without the 'stop the clock' exemption. We call them ETS Windfall. (2) Profits that occur because airlines have raised their revenues on intercontinental flights, but will not need to buy allowances either at the auction or from other actors because of the exemption. We call them Stopping the Clock Windfall. Depending on the cost pass through, the total windfall profits range from euro 679 million to euro 1,358 million. About a third of these windfall profits arise from the exemption of intercontinental flights. EU airlines are expected to reap the largest share of the windfall due to the change in regulation (55%), followed by US airlines (13%).

  5. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  6. Absorbing a windfall of foreign exchange: Dutch disease dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.; Venables, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The permanent income rule is seldom the optimal response to a windfall of foreign exchange, such as that from a resource discovery. Absorptive capacity constraints require domestic investment, and investment in structures requires non-traded inputs the supply of which is constrained by the initial

  7. Capital gains taxation under different tax regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Sureth, Caren; Langeleh, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of different systems of current income and capital gains taxation on investor's decision to either carry out an investment in corporate shares or to invest funds alternatively on the capital market. Three basic tax systems are analyzed, a classical corporate tax system with double taxation of profits on corporate and personal level, a shareholder relief system, that reduces double taxation completely. It can be shown that general analytical solutions for ...

  8. Energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This study presents the energy taxation, as an energy policy tool, applied to the fossil fuels and to the electric power. Taxes, tax revenue and taxation in function of the energy content or the carbon content are discussed. Many tables and statistical data illustrate this analysis and allow the comparison with other countries in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  9. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  10. Informal Taxation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this “informal taxation.” Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts. PMID:22199993

  11. Improving the taxation regime for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjermeros, Morten; Ilstad, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, the present taxation regime for electric power is very complex. The power companies are currently charged with ordinary tax on profits, tax on economic rent, tax on natural resources and land tax. In addition there are the rules about licence fees, yield of power due to concession conditions, and reversion. The Norwegian Electricity Industry Association (EBL), assisted by a firm of lawyers, has proposed an improvement over the current taxation regime

  12. Capital Taxation Tendencies in Ukraine and in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov Оleksandr D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the world and domestic tendencies of capital taxation and justification of directions of improvement of capital taxation in Ukraine. The study was carried out with division of taxation of human and material capital. Taxation of human capital in Ukraine is moderate, compared to OECD countries, however, its main load lies on employers, unlike in OECD countries, where it is distributed proportionally between employers and employees. Taking into account a high level of shadow income of the citizens, it is too early to perform this re-distribution in Ukraine, that is why it is expedient to reduce rates of the single social contribution by employers, at the same time increasing the level of natural resources taxation, which, in Ukraine, is one of the lowest in the world. Ukraine, compared to OECD countries, is characterised with a higher level of profit taxation, which has a negative impact on increasing own capital and restoration of fixed assets. Taking into account tendencies to reduction of both standard and implicit rates of profit tax abroad, we offer to develop a mechanism of reduction of the implicit profit tax rate through improvement of the mechanism of charging depreciation and strengthening regulating effects of the profit tax on profit in the context of restoration of the fixed assets. The prospect of further studies is justification of proposals regarding changing the mechanisms of charging depreciation and profit taxation preferences.

  13. Natural resource windfalls and efficiency of local government expenditures: evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanaz, Martin; Maldonado, Stanislao

    2013-01-01

    We study the role of natural resource windfalls in explaining the efficiency of public expenditures. Using a rich dataset of expenditures and public good provision for 1,836 municipalities in Peru for period 2001-2010, we estimate a non-monotonic relationship between the efficiency of public good provision and the level of natural resource transfers. Local governments that were extremely favored by the boom of mineral prices were more efficient in using fiscal windfalls whereas those benefite...

  14. 26 CFR 1.405-3 - Taxation of retirement bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of retirement bonds. 1.405-3 Section 1.405-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.405-3 Taxation of retirement...

  15. 26 CFR 1.995-1 - Taxation of DISC income to shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of DISC income to shareholders. 1.995...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.995-1 Taxation of DISC... to taxation on the earnings and profits of the DISC in accordance with the provisions of chapter 1 of...

  16. On the effect of taxation in the online sports betting market

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the effect of taxation in the online sport betting market. This market is characterized by its negligible marginal costs. Taxation can be on volume (General Betting Duty) or on gross profit (Gross Profit Tax). We model the two most popular online sport betting bets: fixed-odds and spread, as compared with another traditional sport betting: parimutuel.

  17. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Körbl, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  18. SEVERAL COORDINATES REGARDING CIVISM TAXATION

    OpenAIRE

    COMANICIU Carmen; BUNESCU Liliana

    2012-01-01

    A real partnership between the state and taxpayers determine civism taxation development. What is civism taxation? Which are the bases of civism taxation? What is evolution of civism taxation? Are just some of the questions this article may provide answers. Thus, from the definition of civism taxation, we try to offer shares by the tax administration to increase civism taxation, strengthening the role of taxation in the life of any nation.

  19. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDUCED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WINDFALLS IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF MOLDOVA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINEA V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Windfalls are caused by the interaction of several factors and occur in a meteorological context characterized mainly by high wind speeds. In the present study we tried to develop a method for predicting windfalls in a test region, determining areas of high susceptibility of this climatic risk. For this purpose we evaluated parameters regarding the morphometric (slope, exposition, altitude and morphological (mountain side concavity/convexity, slope break properties of the relief, the types of forest and the soil on which these grow. We gave susceptibility scores for each parameter considered, resulting in a series of classified layers. These were subsequently added up to form the final cartographic material which highlights the vulnerable areas. For validating the results we utilised LandSat images from different time periods. The existence of a major windfalls event in the studied region (March 2002 allowed us to compare the situation before and after the event, and to check if there is a correlation with the model developed in this analysis. On the basis of this study it may be possible to predict the future evolution of trees susceptibility to windfall which could be helpful in establishing silvic measures to be implemented in order to minimize the damage caused by these phenomena.

  20. Reasons for energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, T.

    1991-01-01

    The role of energy taxation as an instrument for a realistic pricing of energy, taking optimal consumption of resources and other external influences into consideration, must also be thought of in relation to the role these taxes have as part of the state's income. The paper discusses the connection between energy taxes, the public revenue they give and the eventual allocation losses that will arise as a result of taxation or lack of taxation. (AB)

  1. Modelling the impact of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy taxation in Sweden is complicated and strongly guides and governs district energy production. Consequently, there is a need for methods for accurate calculation and analysis of effects that different energy tax schemes may have on district energy utilities. Here, a practicable method to analyse influence of such governmental policy measures is demonstrated. The Swedish Government has for some years now been working on a reform of energy taxation, and during this process, several interest groups have expressed their own proposals for improving and developing the system of energy taxation. Together with the present system of taxation, four new alternatives, including the proposed directive of the European Commission, are outlined in the paper. In a case study, an analysis is made of how the different tax alternatives may influence the choice of profitable investments and use of energy carriers in a medium-sized district-heating utility. The calculations are made with a linear-programming model framework. By calculating suitable types and sizes of new investments, if any, and the operation of existing and potential plants, total energy costs are minimized. Results of the analysis include the most profitable investments, which fuel should be used, roughly when during a year plants should be in operation, and at what output. In most scenarios, the most profitable measure is to invest in a waste incineration plant. However, a crucial assumption is, with reference to the new Swedish waste disposal act, a significant income from incinerating refuse. Without this income, different tax schemes result in different technical solutions being most profitable. An investment in cogeneration seems possible in only one scenario. It is also found that particular features of some alternatives seem to oppose both main governmental policy goals, and intentions of the district heating company. (Author)

  2. Taxation of credit unions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Георгіївна Волкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of income taxation of credit unions in Ukraine by the tax on profits of enterprises and tax of revenues of their members accrued on the interest of contributions (deposits on deposit accounts and mutual funds the tax to incomes of physical persons. The consequences of the influence of tax rules on capitalization of unions and the level of their financial support is defined

  3. Taxation of Outbound Direct Investment: Economic Principles and Tax Policy Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P Devereux

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews economic principles for optimality of the taxation of international profit, from both a global and national perspective. It argues that for traditional systems based on the residence of the investor or the source of the income, nothing less than full harmonization across countries can achieve global optimality. The conditions for national optimality are more difficult to identify, but are most likely to imply source-based taxation. However, source-based taxation requires an...

  4. Energy taxation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy taxation in Finland is described in addition to plans for reforms in this respect. It is stated that taxation on energy has primarily a fiscal motive, and it can also be used as a means of steering of energy and environmental policy. Numerical data illustrate the text. (AB)

  5. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...

  6. Taxation and forms of organizing business activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes sample tax regimes and tendencies from the developed countries in the EU-15 and the USA, and uses them to analyse the influence of taxation on the choice of organizational form of profit-oriented entities in Serbia. In order to understand how the procedure of taxation affects the sphere of business decision-making it is necessary to focus on the tax status of business losses and valorization and the effects of the double taxation of dividends. The rule of successive deduction of losses ensures the fiscally transparent entity receives a tax saving in the form of a reduction of the present value of the total paid tax. Meanwhile the corporation is handicapped because it postpones loss deductions, that is, it postpones tax saving, which directly influences the level of the present value of saved tax. The global trend of gradually moving from the classical system towards shareholder relief provision, above all in the form of a reduced withholding tax rate on dividends, has two opposing features: it simplifies the tax procedure while neglecting the distributional aims (consequences of taxation. The analysis of a particular practical example from the Serbian tax context enables us to draw a conclusion in relation to the relative taxes paid by entrepreneurs versus enterprises. The developed countries favour fiscally transparent entities, whereas Serbia allocates tax privileges to enterprises.

  7. Environmental taxation. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Vincent; Duboucher, Peggy; Ben Maid, Atika; Devaux, Jeremy; Nicklaus, Doris; Calvet, Melanie; Poupard, Christophe; Pourquier, Francois-Xavier; Vicard, Augustin; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    This official publication proposes a detailed overview of the situation of environmental taxation in France. It first gives a general overview by discussing some key figures, by recalling the chronology of the main environmental taxation arrangements, and by discussing lessons learned from French and foreign experiments for an efficient, acceptable and consistent taxation. The second part proposes a detailed presentation of environmental taxation by distinguishing its main themes and objectives: struggle against climate change, reduction of air pollution and water pollution, and wastes, preservations and development of resources from biodiversity (soil artificialization, sustainable management of fauna and flora), efficient use of non renewable resources and of water (water resources, energetic and mineral raw materials). For each of these themes, the report presents the environmental problematic, and the existing arrangements, and proposes some elements of international comparison. The last part proposes a list of all environmental taxes

  8. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  9. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  10. Taxation, innovation, and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Schetter, Ulrich; Schneider, Maik T.

    2014-01-01

    We explore optimal and politically feasible growth policies in the form of basic research investments and taxation. Basic research is a public good that benefits innovating entrepreneurs, but its provision and financing also affect the entire economy -- in particular, occupational choices of potential entrepreneurs, wages, dividends, and aggregate output. We show that the impact of basic research on the general economy rationalizes a taxation pecking order to finance basic research. More spec...

  11. Taxation and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Common, Mick S.

    1992-01-01

    Clearly, the question which is the workshop title permits of no single simple answer. This paper addresses it in the particular context of taxation. The argument is that in this context the sustainability debate seems to have had rather little effect on economists' thinking and policy advice. While it is true that taxation is looked upon more favourably than some alternative instruments for environmental policy implementation, there does not appear to have been much in the way of thinking abo...

  12. International Taxation of Philanthropy : Removing tax obstacles for international charities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koele, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-profit organizations are increasingly subjected to the forces of globalization. Although this should not come as a surprise, it is curious to note that the taxation of international philanthropy is an area where discrimination as to residence is still very obvious. Whereas domestic philanthropic

  13. Capital taxation : principles , properties and optimal taxation issues

    OpenAIRE

    Antonin, Céline; Touze, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capital taxation relying on three levels of analysis. The first level deals with the multiple ways to tax capital (income or value, proportional or progressive taxation, and the temporality of the taxation) and presents some of France's particular features within a heterogeneous European context. The second area of investigation focuses on the main dynamic properties generated by capital taxation: the principle of equivalence with a tax on consu...

  14. Taxation of Controlled Foreign Companies in Context of the OECD/G20 Project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting as well as the EU Proposal for the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter Koerver

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the controlled foreign company (CFC) rules have gained increased attention; as such, rules play an important role in the ongoing efforts of the OECD/G20 and the European Commission with respect to addressing base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). In this context, the article revisits...... the CFC regimes of the Nordic countries in order to assess whether these regimes are in line with the recommendations from the OECD/G20 and to determine whether Sweden, Finland, and Denmark, as EU member states, will have to make amendments if the commission’s proposal for an Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive...

  15. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the 2007 income tax declaration forms sent out by the cantonal tax administrations. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Re...

  16. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  17. Development of taxation system for oil production companies in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmina, S. V.; Sboeva, I. M.; Selivanovskaya, J. I.; Khafizova, A. R.; Fomin, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the taxation system for oil production companies in Russia. The role of oil production companies in the realization of the fiscal function of the state is shown. Tax and due receipts at the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation from major economic sectors in the years 2013-2015 are presented and analysed. An investigation of oil production taxation peculiarities is carried out. In particular, mineral extraction tax analysis is made, the said tax being one of the basic taxes paid by oil production companies. The authors come to a conclusion that mineral extraction tax in Russia needs reforming. Based on the investigation realized possible ways of taxation system development in respect of oil production companies in Russia are proposed. Thus, taking into account the fact that oil industry is very important for budget revenue formation, initially it is planned to test the new taxation system principles in a limited number of deposits, so called ‘pilot projects’. For highly profitable minefield deposits it is planned to introduce progressive and regressive index, varying depending on oil prices. Within the framework of the investigation the authors come to a conclusion that it is necessary to introduce gradually the taxation system based on the definition of surplus profit depending on the cost effectiveness and taking into account oil prices.

  18. Green throughput taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvoll, A.; Ibenholt, K.

    1998-01-01

    According to optimal taxation theory, raw materials should be taxed to capture the embedded scarcity rent in their value. To reduce both natural resource use and the corresponding emissions, or the throughput in the economic system, the best policy may be a tax on material inputs. As a first approach to throughput taxation, this paper considers a tax on intermediates in the framework of a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with environmental feedbacks. To balance the budget, payroll taxes are reduced. As a result, welfare indicators as material consumption and leisure time consumption are reduced, while on the other hand all the environmental indicators improve. 27 refs

  19. Energy taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg, E.

    1991-01-01

    A rough survey is given of the most important areas of Norwegian taxation and tariff policy within the energy sector. Planning is still in progress for regulations on taxing and duties on electric power and fossil fuels. This comprises part of the work on improving the economy and resource consumption, partly through giving higher priority to environmental issues. It is suggested that it could take some time before national goals for the development of an energy taxation system can be reached. There must be a balance between short and long-time issues. Norway will look to experiences gained in other countries. (AB)

  20. Taxation of Controlled Foreign Companies in Context of the OECD/G20 Project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting as well as the EU Proposal for the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive – An Interim Nordic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Peter Koerver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the controlled foreign company (CFC rules have gained increased attention; as such, rules play an important role in the ongoing efforts of the OECD/G20 and the European Commission with respect to addressing base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS. In this context, the article revisits the CFC regimes of the Nordic countries in order to assess whether these regimes are in line with the recommendations from the OECD/G20 and to determine whether Sweden, Finland, and Denmark, as EU member states, will have to make amendments if the commission’s proposal for an Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive is adopted in its current form. It is concluded that the Nordic CFC regimes in many ways already are in line with the recommendations as well as the directive, but also that certain amendments have to be made.

  1. The Current G20 Taxation Agenda: Compliance, Accountability and Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dries Lesage

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the recent G20 initiatives on taxation, more precisely on “base erosion and profit shifting” (BEPS) in the area of corporate taxation and the new G20 norm of automatic exchange of information (AEoI) with regard to foreign accounts. After having reflected on the special relationship between the G20 and the OECD, the discussion proceeds through the lens of compliance, accountability and legitimacy. In terms of compliance, the G20 is still in the phase of delivering as a gr...

  2. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  3. The theory of optimal taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  4. Taxation of Multinational Enterprises in a Global Market: Moving to Corporate Tax 2.0?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow countries tax the profits of multinational enterprises has become hopelessly outdated. The recent OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project has left the existing international corporate taxation framework essentially intact. Perhaps it is time to consider a truly fundamental reform of corporate tax systems, i.e. Corporate Tax 2.0.

  5. Taxation of Multinational Enterprises in a Global Market: Moving to Corporate Tax 2.0?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow countries tax the profits of multinational enterprises has become hopelessly outdated. The recent OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project has left the existing international corporate taxation framework essentially intact. Perhaps it is time to consider a truly fundamental

  6. Taxation of the energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.

    1995-01-01

    Taxation of the energy industries is an issue of major importance for each energy sector. This has always been the situation for the primary fossil fuel sectors but, with corporatization and privatization, is now also an issue for the electricity supply industry. This article examines the most significant forms of taxation affecting the major industry sectors, namely secondary taxation, corporate taxation and, as a consequence of the corporatization and privatization of the electricity supply industry, surrogate taxation as it affects that industry. While essentially considering secondary taxation, the paper also reviews corporate and surrogate taxes. Tax exemptions for various energy sector activities such as mining operations, exploration and rehabilitation related activities are outlined. It is considered that there is insufficient evidence of the influence of taxation and other factors on electricity pricing. 2 tabs

  7. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2009 internal taxation certificate and the 2009 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2009 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2009, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, will be available from 1st March 2010. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. You can also access your annual certificate via http://hrt.cern.ch (open “Pay info” in the menu &...

  8. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2014 internal taxation certificate and the 2014 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits that it pays to the members of its personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to acce...

  9. TAXATION IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2011 internal taxation certificate and the 2011 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available as of 1 March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access ...

  10. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2010 internal taxation certificate and the 2010 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2010 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2010, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, will be available from 1st March 2011. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above,...

  11. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2013 internal taxation certificate and the 2013 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of its personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access yo...

  12. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2015 internal taxation certificate and the 2015 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administrative Processes department, will be available on 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual cer...

  13. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2012 internal taxation certificate and the 2012 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 25 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access y...

  14. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2008 internal taxation certificate and the 2008 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations and CERN Bulletin Nos. 17 and 24 of 24 March 2008) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, has been available since 1st March 2009. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out ...

  15. Taxation in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2010 You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2010 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2010, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, has been available since 1st March 2011. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the follo...

  16. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  17. The greening of taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barde, J.P.; Owens, J.

    1993-01-01

    How do tax measures affect the environment. And what tax regime can best promote environmental protection without damaging production. The OECD has just published a report on taxation and the environment, prepared by a special task force which united both tax and environment experts. 4 refs., 4 photos

  18. Income and employment effects of shale gas extraction windfalls: Evidence from the Marcellus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Dusan; Komarek, Timothy; Loveridge, Scott

    2015-01-01

    New technologies combining hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling in oil and gas extraction are creating a sudden expansion of production. Residents of places where deep underground oil and gas deposits are found want to know about the broader economic, social, and environmental impacts of these activities that generate windfall income for some residents. We first review the literature on windfall spending patterns. Then, using the Marcellus region, the earliest area to be tapped using the new techniques, we estimate county-level employment and income effects. For robustness, we employ two methods. Using a propensity score matching approach we find no effect of fracking on income or employment. A panel-fixed effect regression approach suggests statistically significant employment effects in six out of seven alternative specifications, but significant income effects in only one out of seven specifications. In short, the income spillover effects in the Marcellus region appear to be minimal, meaning there's little incentive at the county level to incur current or potential future costs that may be associated with this activity. We conclude with some ideas on how localities might employ policies that would allow natural gas extraction to move forward, benefitting landowners, while establishing some financial safeguards for the broader community. - Highlights: • We examine the effect of fracking on local employment and income. • The differing policies in the Marcellus region provide a natural policy experiment. • Propensity score matching shows no income or employment growth from fracking. • Panel data estimates show weak impacts on employment and income. • We suggest ways to address possible future environmental consequences

  19. STUDYING TAXATION - NECESSITY AND OPPORTUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen, COMANICIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taxation - a set of laws, regulations and methods of establishing taxes - is, was and will always be present in the life of every individual and every company because of the existence of the State with the tasks and functions, through its influence on the economic and social. Most persons understand the necessity of taxation, but how many people can provide relevant answer to questions such as: What is taxation and which are its characteristics? What is the significance of taxation? What are the tax effects at the micro level? How important is the ratio between direct taxation and indirect taxation? What are the principles of taxation? How are taxes determined? What are the rights and obligations of taxpayers? How taxation can become a stimulating factor? Through this article we will try to emphasize the necessity of studying taxation, in order to be a real partnership between the taxpayer and the state, with appropriate action. Without claiming an exhaustive approach we believe that the aspects presented can be points of reflection for each individual, so that it to be open at any time to study taxation, realizing the importance of skills and abilities that can be acquired.

  20. Taxation of library publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Razboršek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to stimulate the unified practice of the settlement of value added tax. This article draws from international and domestic law sources, which are fundamental for the taxation in Slovenia. As a rule, library publications are taxed with a 20% rate of value added tax, for imports into the European Union as well as within the European Union. The exception are printed publications which are, in the European Union, taxed with the lower, 8,5% rate and are tax exempt for imports from non-member countries of the European Union. The interlibrary loan is still entirely tax exempt,regulated as in the rest of Europe and abroad. If the purchases are made from other European Union countries or from countries outside the EU, from the perspective of the nacional economy, the so called self-taxation in the country receiving library publications is strongly supported.

  1. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  2. Taxation and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Besley; Torsten Persson

    2013-01-01

    The central question in taxation and development is: "how does a government go from raising around 10% of GDP in taxes to raising around 40%"? This paper looks at the economic and political forces that shape the way that fiscal capacity is created and sustained. As well as reviewing the literature and evidence, it builds an overarching framework to help structure thinking on the topic.

  3. Corporate Taxation and Multinational Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Simon Loretz; Michael Pfaffermayr; Hannes Winner

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of corporate taxation on multinational activity. A numerically solvable general equilibrium model of trade and multinational firms is used to incorporate the following components of corporate taxation: parent and host country statutory corporate tax rates, withholding tax rates, and parent and host country depreciation allowances. We account for their differential impact under alternative methods of double taxation relief (i.e., credit, exemption, and deduction)...

  4. Taxation of uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the nature of the taxation schemes facing uranium mine operators in Australia's Northern Territory and in Canada's Province of Saskatchewan. The findings demonstrate that, although the Canadian system appropriates up to 85% of incremental sales revenue, it is extremely sensitive to industry profitability. Its Australian counterpart is, in contrast, a regressive scheme which, at the current selling price of yellowcake, captures a significantly larger proportion of available economic rent. (author)

  5. Energy taxation difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses what may be the underlying reasons for the Clinton administration's recent failure to pass the Btu Tax on energy sources and the current difficulties that this Administration is experiencing in acquiring nation wide consensus on a gasoline tax proposal. Two difficulties stand out - regional differences in climate and thus winter heating requirements, and the differences from state to state in transportation system preferences. The paper cites the positive aspects of energy taxation by noting the petroleum industry's efforts to develop a new less polluting reformulated gasoline

  6. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  7. Options to address concerns regarding EU ETS induced increases in power prices and generators' profits. The case of carbon cost pass-through in Germany and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Hers, J.S.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2008-02-01

    Power prices in EU countries have increased significantly since the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) became effective on 1 January 2005. This suggests that these increases in power prices are due to this scheme, in particular the pass-through of the costs of EU allowances (EUAs) to cover the CO2 emissions of eligible installations. In all sectors, however - including the power sector - eligible installations have usually received almost all of their needed allowances for free during the first phase of the EU ETS (2005-07). In several EU countries, the coincidence of the increases in power prices and the implementation of the EU ETS has raised questions, and sometimes fierce political debate, on whether power producers have indeed passed through the costs of freely allocated CO2 allowances to electricity prices, and to what extent the increase in these prices can be attributed to this pass-through or to other factors. In addition, it has raised discussions on whether - and to what extent - the supposed passing through of these costs has led to additional profits for power producers, that is, the so-called 'windfall profits' induced by the EU ETS. Finally, the supposed ETSinduced increases in power prices and generators' profits has raised concerns affecting the legitimacy of the present EU ETS, including concerns regarding its impact on the international competitiveness of some powerintensive industries, the purchasing power of electricity end-users such as small households or, more generally, the distribution of social welfare among power producers and consumers. As a result, in several countries policy makers and stakeholders have suggested a variety of options to address these concerns, including changing the emissions trading allocation system, taxing windfall profits or controlling market prices of EU carbon allowances, electricity or both. Against this background, the objectives of this chapter include: (a) To analyse empirically the trends in power

  8. From Windfall Sharing to Property Ownership: Prosocial Personality Traits in Giving and Taking Dictator Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dictator game is a well-known task measuring prosocial preferences, in which one person divides a fixed amount of windfall money with a recipient. A key factor in real-world transfers of wealth is the concept of property ownership and consequently the related acts of giving and taking. Using a variation of the traditional dictator game (N = 256, we examined whether individual differences under different game frames corresponded with prosocial personality traits from the Big Five (politeness, compassion and HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience (honesty-humility, agreeableness models. In the Big Five model, the effects of prosocial personality traits were generally stronger and more consistent for taking than for giving, in line with a “do-no-harm” explanation, whereby prosocial individuals felt less entitled to and less willing to infringe on the endowments of others. In contrast, HEXACO honesty-humility predicted allocations across both frames, consistent with its broad association with fair-mindedness, and providing further evidence of its role in allocations of wealth more generally. These findings highlight the utility of integrating personality psychology with behavioral economics, in which the discriminant validity across prosocial traits can shed light on the distinct motivations underpinning social decisions.

  9. Refinery profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)

  10. Profit U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…

  11. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.

  12. Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation captures the state of the art of research on environmental taxation. Written by 36 specialists in environmental taxation from 16 countries, it takes an interdisciplinary and international approach, focusing on issues that are universal to using taxation to achieve environmental goals.The Handbook explores the conceptual foundations of environmental taxation, essential elements for designing environmental tax measures, factors that influence t...

  13. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The theory of optimal taxation has often been criticized for being of little practical policy relevance, due to a lack of robust theoretical results. This paper argues that recent advances in optimal tax theory has made that theory easier to apply and may help to explain some current trends...... in international tax policy. Covering the taxation of labour income and capital income as well as indirect taxation, the paper also illustrates how some of the key results in optimal tax theory may be derived in a simple, heuristic manner....

  14. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  15. Carbon taxation and corporate behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Association of Chartered Certified Accountants

    2012-01-01

    This report summarises the breakfast briefing held by ACCA on 23 February 2012. The session looked at the role of carbon taxation in mitigating climate change and its value when compared with other market mechanisms. Publisher PDF

  16. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  17. Methods of Mitigating Double Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of existing methods of mitigating double taxation of corporate income within a standard cost of capital model. Two of the most well-known and most utilized methods, the imputation and the split rate systems, do not mitigate double taxation in corporations where the marginal investment is financed with retained earnings. However, all methods are effective when the marginal investment is financed with new share issues. The corporate tax rate, fiscal ...

  18. Optimal Taxation under Income Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Xianhua Dai

    2011-01-01

    Optimal taxation under income uncertainty has been extensively developed in expected utility theory, but it is still open for inseparable utility function between income and effort. As an alternative of decision-making under uncertainty, prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky (1979), Tversky and Kahneman (1992)) has been obtained empirical support, for example, Kahneman and Tversky (1979), and Camerer and Lowenstein (2003). It is beginning to explore optimal taxation in the context of prospect...

  19. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of taxation is a phenomenon long past barriers fiscal regulations and procedures, as in the contemporary period is a phenomenon with multiple implications of economic, social and political. Tax procedures also were upgraded and complicated that not only specialists but also taxpayers need the jurisdictional knowledge, informatics and especially in the economic field. Dealing over the jurisdictional and procedural measure, it seems that the other side of the relationship between tax authorities and taxpayers, the economic and psycho-behavioral was neglected. Tax authorities as part of the administrative system, whose main objective attracting tax revenues to the Exchequer in terms of data legislation, legislation that reflects the vision of the governments policy in operation. One must ask if the official fiscal policies, take into account the coordinates of the report psychobehavioral tax? The answer to this question and some comments to address this issue, this paper covered together. The tax will not ever paid with pleasure, but it is known that fiscal equity confers a degree of acceptance by payers of the tax burden. Modern fiscal policies are marked by complicated structure of tax systems, more sophisticated procedures and rush image of politicians that do not retain as little detriment to promote populism reality. Another problem is the invasion of of social security, namely the objective is also looking to be promoted on account of fiscal policy without taking into account the fact that the two policies, the fiscal and social security are still their primary objective. The combination of the two types of , the purely fiscal and social, administrative approach is undoubtedly affected, and the effectiveness of the two policies may be affected taxpayers reactions is recognized in the literature are controversial. Taxpayers are vexed not only the size of the tax burden but also its structure, especially the way the official division

  20. THE COST OF DIRECT TAXATION ON INVESTMENT IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Leitão Paes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper analyzed the impact of taxation on the investment in Brazil, focusing on the taxation of corporate income. Following the literature, it was used an economic model to calculate two indicators of effective tax rates - Effective Marginal Tax Rate (EMTR and Effective Average Tax Rate (EATR. The EMTR measures the increase of the cost of capital due to corporate income tax. The EATR represents a measure of the average tax rate levied on an investment that has a pre-defined economic profit. The results suggest Brazil may face some difficulties to attract foreign investment. The country presents high rates for EATR and EMTR, higher than the average of the rich countries and well above the figures of development countries like Chile, Mexico, South Africa, Russia and China, potential competitors in attracting investments.

  1. Mining agreements in developing countries: issues of finance and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, M; Stockmayer, A

    1978-04-01

    This article continues a Forum series on recent trends in mining contracts between host countries and foreign investors begun in the April 1977 issue. Based on intensive research carried out for the preparation of a book on Mining Ventures in Developing Countries, published recently in the Federal Republic of Germany, the authors discuss sources of finance, institutions, exchange controls and special accounts, royalties, income taxation, and equity participation. They conclude that taxation is most likely to remain the principal source of income; equity participation should be evaluated carefully as it does not automatically guarantee maximum benefits. The combination of taxes and royalties provide a steady flow of income. An increase of the total tax burden beyond a certain percentage may be counterproductive for the host country, as it encourages the investor to look for less controllable means of shifting profits or discourages investment for exploration and development. 21 notes and refs.

  2. Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...

  3. International and domestic aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Murgáčová, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    International and local aspects of double taxation Abstract The purpose of my thesis is to analyze international double taxation taking into account both local legislation and international aspects. Double taxation is the situation, where the same income (or capital) is subject to the same tax more than once. Mostly, the international double taxation appears when the state of the source of income implies taxes on the income of the non-residents and the state of residence of the income receive...

  4. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermore, such taxation is almost fully passed on into higher interest margins charged abroad. These results imply that international double taxation distorts the activities of international ban...

  5. Differentiated taxation - a requirement of fiscal equity

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut-Catalin CROITORU; Coralia Emilia POPA

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal policy is a central concern of each State and one of the direct ways to influence economic and social development by using taxes. This paper aims to make an analysis on the two currently used methods of taxation: differentiated progressive taxation, according to the size of income, and the proportional taxation by using a single tax rate. The basic idea of this paper is that progressive taxation can reduce inequality and increase social benefits. There are also considered the tax syste...

  6. Administrative court control in taxation matters

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Zunić Kovačević

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the current organisation of administrative court control in taxation matters, this paper, after a brief overview of the normative legal framework of control in such matters, provides an analysis of certain indicators of administrative and administrative court control implementation in taxation matters. The experience of the application of administrative control in taxation matters and an analysis of accessible indicators of recent administrative court control in taxation matters...

  7. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...

  8. Taxation in Romania during transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, as fundamental element of budgetary revenue, represents the subject of newest utilization. Budget revenues through importance they hold, exercises a direct influence on the behavior of people being used by natural and legal persons as modeling tools in the economic and social life. Using the generic concept of taxation we can obtain a plurality of components, it’s defining elements, such as expression level of tax levies by various reports, the legal framework on tax revenue, financial institutions with responsibility for budgetary and fiscal powers, mandatory sampling methods, techniques and procedures used in the settlement and settlement revenue collection and budget. Performance of the economy at a time, effective use of public spending financed by taxes, public needs set by government policy and approved by Parliament, taxpayers, understanding of the budgetary needs, state of democracy in that country reached the level of taxation this one being determined by mentioned factors.

  9. 31 CFR 342.6 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 342.6 Section 342.6 Money... OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.6 Taxation..., whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all other taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal...

  10. 31 CFR 346.13 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 346.13 Section 346.13 Money... BONDS § 346.13 Taxation. The tax treatment provided under section 409 of the Internal Revenue Code of..., inheritance, or other excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or...

  11. 31 CFR 340.3 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 340.3 Section 340.3 Money... COMPETITIVE BIDDING § 340.3 Taxation. The income derived from the bonds will be subject to all taxes imposed... excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but will be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on...

  12. 12 CFR 810.5 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxation. 810.5 Section 810.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BILLS § 810.5 Taxation. All FFB bills shall be subject to Federal taxation to the same extent as obligations of private corporations are taxed. ...

  13. 31 CFR 341.13 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 341.13 Section 341.13 Money... § 341.13 Taxation. The tax treatment provided under section 405 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954... taxes whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the...

  14. 31 CFR 352.10 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 352.10 Section 352.10 Money... Taxation. The interest paid on Series HH bonds is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue..., whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal or...

  15. 31 CFR 316.9 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 316.9 Section 316.9 Money... Taxation. (a) General. For the purpose of determining taxes and tax exemptions, the increment in value..., whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all other taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal...

  16. 31 CFR 345.5 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 345.5 Section 345.5 Money... INDEBTEDNESS-R.E.A. SERIES § 345.5 Taxation. The income derived from the certificates is subject to all taxes... or other excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter...

  17. 31 CFR 343.5 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 343.5 Section 343.5 Money... MORTGAGE GUARANTY INSURANCE COMPANY TAX AND LOSS BONDS Tax and Loss Bonds § 343.5 Taxation. Tax and loss bonds will be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal by any state or any...

  18. 31 CFR 309.4 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 309.4 Section 309.4 Money... OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.4 Taxation. The... taxes, whether Federal or State, but shall be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the...

  19. 31 CFR 332.9 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 332.9 Section 332.9 Money... Taxation. The income derived from Series H bonds is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue..., whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all other taxation now or hereafter imposed on the principal...

  20. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  1. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively......This paper suggests that the optimal tax system should favour market-produced services which are close substitutes for home-produced services. First, we modify the classical Corlett-Hague rule for optimal commodity taxation by showing that it may be optimal to impose a relatively low tax rate...... low tax rate on consumer services...

  2. ACCOUNTING – TAXATION REPORT IN TERMS OF DEFERRED TAXES ON ASSETS REVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has always been and will be a relationship between accounting and taxation, and the ongoing discussions are related to intensity, interrelation and generation of reciprocal effects. Profit is the "wealth" achieved by the economic entity, the share of shareholders after paying the income tax, where applicable, which makes the profit have a major influence on the method of determination and thus of the accounting treatment incurred by the income tax depending on the accounting cultures in dispute for supremacy, namely the European accounting culture and the Anglo-Saxon accounting culture. As the users of information in the financial statements seek to assess the performance and profitability of the company in general and, academically, the income tax is the only element raising debates on the relationship between accounting and taxation, we deemed it useful to conduct a study on the accounting – taxation report in terms of deferred taxes related to assets revaluation. The record of deferred tax amount for each type of temporary difference results in elimination of tax effects from accounting, with the aim of revealing the real earnings of the economic entity and not its fiscal side, all of which is a step in disconnecting the taxation accounting

  3. Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , their environmental and economic impact and, finally, the larger question of the role of taxation among other policy approaches to environmental protection. Intermixing theory with case studies, the Handbook offers readers lessons that can be applied around the world. It identifies key bodies of research for people......The Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation captures the state of the art of research on environmental taxation. Written by 36 specialists in environmental taxation from 16 countries, it takes an interdisciplinary and international approach, focusing on issues that are universal to using...... taxation to achieve environmental goals. The Handbook explores the conceptual foundations of environmental taxation, essential elements for designing environmental tax measures, factors that influence the acceptance of environmental taxation, the variety of ways to implement environmental taxes...

  4. Exploring agricultural taxation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der H.B.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.; Bommel, van K.H.M.; Doorneweert, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the tax systems in ten European countries, focusing on agriculture. It not only deals with income tax, it also describes other taxes such as gift and inheritance tax and Value Added Tax. This information leads to an analysis of the impact of taxation on the competitive position

  5. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence...

  6. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  7. Information Sharing and International Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The sharing between national tax authorities of taxpayer-specific information has emerged over the last few years as a-probably "the"-central issue in the formation of international tax policy.Yet this refocusing of the debate on international taxation-away from parametric tax coordination and

  8. The feasibility of ecological taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, A.T.G.

    1995-01-01

    From an analysis of the possibilities and complexities of ecological taxation, conducted within the context of the first NRP (research project 851051E), it follows that the feasibility of ecological taxes is determined by their design, the level at which they are implemented, the taxing authority by which they are imposed and by the constitutional, institutional and fiscal framework in which they are embedded

  9. Issues of the economic risks theory under direct taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich Slavin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to calculate and justify the probabilistic characteristics of the economic risks of the company selling goods with profit and suffering from the burden of direct taxation. The economic nature and mechanisms of tax risks are described. Methods probabilisticdynamic method based on a few mathematically formulated principles ndash probability principle the principle of measurement etc. The method allows to find the optimal distributions of the phase variables components of the decisions vector of the production system numerical characteristics of which mathematical expectation variance covariance etc. bear the necessary information about the optimal properties of the economic actorsrsquobehavior. Results the basic equation of probabilisticdynamic method ndash the SchrodingerBellman equation ndash was integratedthe function of state was found the normal distribution was obtained of the vector of economic decisions in the phase space of the firm. The phase trajectories and the effective areas of the variables dispersion phase were researched. It is shown that at the intersection of the variation areas of normal distributions corresponding to two different production conditions there is a possibility of spontaneous transitions between these states accompanied by losses of capital assets of the company. The transition probabilities and the expression for average losses of working capital were calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of weak field tax perturbation leads to the modulation of the probability curves and average losses obtained earlier in the work by V.A. Slavin and I.N. Urusova quotMarket dynamics of productioneconomic system. 2. Transitions between production conditions. Elements of risks theoryquot for the company in the absence of taxation. The author outlines the nature of modulation of the main characteristics of tax risks related to the fact that the tax field influences the production system by phase trajectories

  10. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  11. Reforming Capital Taxation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Eyraud

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.

  12. MODERN TAXATION SYSTEM FORMATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Aleksandrovna Tsokova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Russian taxation system was formed in the beginning of 90-s and experienced the evolution and sometimes revolution transformations. The state taxation system was created on the basis of the foreign countries’ experience nowever the research testifies the trends of the progressive development of the Russian taxation system elements including the national peculiarities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-63

  13. International taxation and multinational firm location decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Cobos, Salvador; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, Luc; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...

  14. Tourism: a Soft Touch for Increased Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Frank

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the changes which are taking place internationally in the taxation of the tourism industry and the reasons why tourism is especially susceptible to increased taxation. It compares VAT rates in European countries and assesses the relationship between those rates and increases in international tourism receipts, concluding that there is not the direct, negative relationship which hotel associations frequently cited in their submissions to government. The canons of taxation, fi...

  15. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.

  16. Taxation of capital gains of companies from the alienation of shares

    OpenAIRE

    Popović Dejan; Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the tax treatment of capital gains on shares of companies both in national and tax treaty law. The authors indicate that the authentic interpretation of the Art. 27 of Serbia's Tax on Profits of Legal Entities Law opens the door to taxing not only realised but also potential capital gains thus triggering certain harmful consequences. Relying on the comparative legal analysis they suggest measures how to eliminate the existing economic double taxation and plead for grantin...

  17. Taxation of International Performing Artistes: the problems with Article 17 OECD and how to correct them

    OpenAIRE

    Molenaar, Dick

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about the taxation of international performing artistes. Their performance income is often generated in many countries other than their country of residence, and this performance income is subject to special tax treatment. Most countries have followed the OECD recommendation to tax the performance income of non-resident artistes. Article 17 of the OECD Model Tax Convention sets aside the normal allocation rules of Article 7 (Business Profits) and Article 15 (Income ...

  18. International taxation and multinational firm decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrios, S.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we examine the separate effects of host and additional parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. The impact of

  19. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital

  20. Property Taxation. National Education Association Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    The first of a series on school finance and the role of the state/local community, this document examines recent trends and developments in property taxation. The setting for property taxation and the state and local share of tax revenues for financing education are discussed. Two charts illustrate: (1) school district property tax collections…

  1. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  2. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  3. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  4. The global prospects of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the process of establishing international economic and financial relations between national economies is on the rise, many states encounter substantial difficulties in the process of collecting their tax claims. The most powerful countries in the world try to overcome this controversy by changing the international tax rules. The turning point was the financial-economic crisis of2008-2009, when the international community more vigorously embarked on resolving international tax issues. The OECD, the G20, the UN, the EU and a number of other powerful international organizations continued their activities on establishing a stronger framework of the international tax system. Global tax initiatives embodied in the soft law regulations have changed (to a varied extent the structure of national tax systems as well as the direction of national policies, and ultimately undermined the financial foundations of the social welfare state. The world's 'taxation landscape' is indisputably dominated by two major processes embodied in the concepts of tax harmonization and tax competition. The global crisis in financing contemporary states has weakened their resistance towards more extensive international tax cooperation. As a result, they increasingly accept global tax standards and are more vigorously involved in the international exchange of tax information for the purpose of counteracting international tax fraud. Changes in national tax systems are necessarily accompanied by changing relations between tax administrations and multinational companies as large taxpayers. The traditional public law relations are gradually changed by introducing some elements of 'negotiations and mutual agreement', which are aimed at strengthening mutual trust and avoiding unnecessary disputes and costs. Although they are currently no more than theoretical assumptions and political considerations, there are proposals for introducing global taxes and establishing the world tax

  5. Profitability of wood harvesting enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, M. email: markku.penttinen@metla.fi; Mikkola, J. email: jarmo.mikkola@metla.fi; Rummukainen, A. email: arto.rummukainen@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    The forest machine business is about 50 years old. The rapid technical development of machinery increased productivity up to the end of last century. In 2007, the total value of round and energy wood harvesting and silvicultural work operated by forest machine enterprises exceeded 570 mill. euro. According to the materials of the Vehicle Administration Finland and Statistics Finland there are about 1 600 active harvesting enterprises in the personal and business taxation system. Beside this, there are according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry about 1 300 farmers who do harvesting as side business. About 1 000 enterprises working in June 2007 were studied with their retrospective economic analyses from 2001. The data includes all enterprises that had supplied closing of the accounts data. One-machine entrepreneurs represent more than a third of the number of enterprises, but only 13 percent of the turnover. Enterprises with seven or more machines represent less than ten percent of the number, but over twenty percent of the turnover. Enterprises are largest in eastern and northern Finland, where the average number of machines per enterprise exceeds three. Small enterprises are mostly singleowner business enterprises with a median turnover of 125 000 euros per annum. Partnerships and limited enterprises have double the median turnover of single-owner businesss. Limited companies turn over a median of 450 000 euro/y, representing 67 percent of total turnover. Median net profit varied between 6 and 10 percent of turnover in 2001-2007, but only between 2 and 4 percent where the wage adjustment is deducted from the profit. The wage adjustment is estimated as if the owners of single-owner businesses earn an operator's salary. Profit was highest in 2002 and lowest 2006. In the smallest enterprise class with a turnover of less than 75 000 euro/y, profit was lowest and negative in 2006 and 2007. The variation in profits between enterprises was also biggest in

  6. TAXATION OF FINANCIAL SECTOR AFTER THE CRISIS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Eugenia-Ramona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation of financial sector is an important issue of the actual fiscal policy, especially after the economic crisis impact. By taxing the financial sector, it is intended taxation of financial transactions, and financial activities. European Union supports the taxation of the financial system and makes proposals in this regard. This paper tries to reveal the major aspects concerning the taxation of financial sector, both theoretical and empirical aspects. It will analyze the reasons which justify the application of such taxes, but also difficulties involved in practice. Another major objective of this paper is to examine the role of taxation in the financial sector as important regulatory instrument. This subject is debated in European Commission papers and by many economists. There are underlined the necessity of such tax, the impact and the economic efficiency. Our purpose is to identify if this kind of tax is good for our economy and what can be the impact from budgetary point of view. For finding this answers the paper realize a complex analysis of the types of taxes applied on financial sector in countries which already adopted this kind of taxes, like United Kingdom, Austria, Hungary, Cyprus. We believe that the financial sector should be charged, because was responsible in great measure the economic crisis impact. A potential tax applied to financial sector is considered as an important source of budget revenues. This article tries to explore the possible tax measures for financial sector according to the major principle of public finance –equity and efficiency. Special attention will be given to the need to implement financial sector taxation in Romania. In the years before the crisis banks and entire financial sector in Romania recorded significant profits. For this reason such tax is justified given that this sector is exempt from VAT. Applying such a tax would reduce the budget deficit and on the long term will

  7. The Current G20 Taxation Agenda: Compliance, Accountability and Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Lesage

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the recent G20 initiatives on taxation, more precisely on “base erosion and profit shifting” (BEPS in the area of corporate taxation and the new G20 norm of automatic exchange of information (AEoI with regard to foreign accounts. After having reflected on the special relationship between the G20 and the OECD, the discussion proceeds through the lens of compliance, accountability and legitimacy. In terms of compliance, the G20 is still in the phase of delivering as a group on recent promises with regard to global standard setting. Compliance to these standards by G20 member states (and third countries is expected to start in the coming years. As to accountability, the G20 and OECD already have ample experience with the peer-review process and public reporting on the G20/OECD standard of information exchange upon request. For AEoI and BEPS the OECD will be designated as the prime mechanism to monitor compliance as well. Both initiatives, which are attempts at universal governance, suffer from legitimacy issues, more precisely because the G20 and OECD exclude most developing countries. Moreover, the policy outputs are not necessarily adjusted to developing countries’ needs and interests. Since a few years, both G20 and OECD attempt to address this issue through institutional fixes, extensive consultations with developing countries and modifications at the level of content.

  8. Factorial Analysis of Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.

  9. Progressive taxation, income inequality, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kushlev, Kostadin; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Income inequality has become one of the more widely debated social issues today. The current article explores the role of progressive taxation in income inequality and happiness. Using historical data in the United States from 1962 to 2014, we found that income inequality was substantially smaller in years when the income tax was more progressive (i.e., a higher tax rate for higher income brackets), even when controlling for variables like stock market performance and unemployment rate. Time lag analyses further showed that higher progressive taxation predicted increasingly lower income inequality up to 5 years later. Data from the General Social Survey (1972-2014; N = 59,599) with U.S. residents (hereafter referred to as "Americans") showed that during years with higher progressive taxation rates, less wealthy Americans-those in the lowest 40% of the income distribution-tended to be happier, whereas the richest 20% were not significantly less happy. Mediational analyses confirmed that the association of progressive taxation with the happiness of less wealthy Americans can be explained by lower income inequality in years with higher progressive taxation. A separate sample of Americans polled online (N = 373) correctly predicted the positive association between progressive taxation and the happiness of poorer Americans but incorrectly expected a strong negative association between progressive taxation and the happiness of richer Americans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  11. Optimal Taxation, Inequality and Top Incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrienko, Yuri; Apps, Patricia; Rees, Ray

    2014-01-01

    In a number of high-income countries over the past few decades there has been a large growth in income inequality and at the same time a shift in the burden of taxation from the top to the middle of the income distribution. This paper applies the theory of optimal piecewise linear taxation to the issue of the taxation of top incomes. Our results suggest that an appropriate response to rising inequality is a shift towards a more progressive multi-bracket income tax system, with a more differen...

  12. International and national aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Doležalová, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    Veronika Doležalová Mezinárodní a vnitrostátní aspekty dvojího zdan ní 160 International and national aspects of double taxation - Resumé This thesis pays attention to the area of double taxation and its related national as well as international aspects. The reason for discussing this subject was its importance for removing the obstacles that double taxation presents to the development of economic relations between countries. The thesis is divided into five chapters. There are six annexes att...

  13. Dividends Provisions in Croatian Double Taxation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Tomulić Vehovec

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly explains the methods for eliminating double taxation on income from dividends. Finally, it addresses the changes necessary for accession to the European Union.

  14. Agency costs and income taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmidt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes agency costs and the moral hazard problem in the presence of income taxation. As basic framework, income taxes are integrated in the hidden action model of agency theory. In the case of symmetric information no agency costs occur, i.e. optimal risk-sharing can be achieved, if and only if the tax is proportional. It is well-known that asymmetric information causes a welfare loss, termed agency costs, even if no taxes are imposed. Introducing a proportional income tax now increases (decreases these agency costs if the agent exhibits decreasing (increasing absolute risk aversion. Additionally, we show that non-proportional taxes cause higher (lower agency costs than a proportional tax if the agent’s marginal tax rate exceeds (is smaller than the marginal tax rate of the principal.

  15. Taxation and Welfare: A Revision Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Offers a revision exercise intended to remind students of some economic terminology associated with taxation and welfare. Provides a set of definitions for which students are to supply matching terms. Includes an answer list and suggests related exercises. (SG)

  16. Risk-taking under progressive taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Bamberg, Günter

    1988-01-01

    Risk-taking under progressive taxation : 3 partial effects / Günter Bamberg ; Wolfram R. Richter. - In: Measurement in economics / ed. by Wolfgang Eichhorn. - Heidelberg : Physica-Verl., 1988. - S. 479-497

  17. Optimal Commodity Taxation and Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Benassi, Corrado; Randon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    We consider the interplay between income distribution and optimal commodity taxation, linking equity issues to optimal taxes through the effect of income distribution on market demand and its price elasticity. We find conditions to conciliate the equity and efficiency tradeoff and to assess the impact of inequality changes on the optimal taxation of necessity and luxury goods. We show that the regressivity or progressivity of the tax system is determined by the distribution of luxuries and ne...

  18. Swedish Taxation Since 1862: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Stenkula, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2013. The examination covers six key aspects of the Swedish tax system: the taxation of labor income, capital income, consumption, inheritance and gift, wealth and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes) and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security...

  19. Mitigating Double Taxation in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of various methods of mitigating economic and international double taxation of corporate source income is studied within a standard neoclassical model of firm behavior. The main purpose is to determine to what extent methods effective in mitigating economic double taxation in a closed economy remain useful in an open economy where the firm's marginal investor is a foreigner. While a cut in the statutory corporate tax rate invariably reduces the cost of capital, the impact of t...

  20. GOVERNING THE TAXATION OF DIGITIZED TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    RAHUL MUKHERJI

    2002-01-01

    The paper highlights the challenges for international taxation due to digitized trade. Digitization makes it easy to penetrate foreign markets without the need for physical presence in the buyer’s country. This phenomenon has generated debates on the salience of source versus residence-based taxation, the definition of permanent establishment, and, the administration of consumption taxes. The WTO has not been able to engage effectively in this area. The paper notes both the inadequacy of unil...

  1. Citizens and taxation : Sweden in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Jonas

    1999-01-01

    In the contemporary critique of the welfare state a common target is taxation. The consequences of the high levels of taxes collected by the modern state, the critics argue, are slowdown in economic growth, high unemployment, and declining public legitimacy for taxes and state provided welfare. This thesis explores the political support for taxation in Sweden, the epitome of high-tax-society. The thesis consists of one introductory chapter and five journal articles. The first objective of the...

  2. Optimal Energy Taxation for Environment and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Main purpose of this research is to investigate about how to use energy tax system to reconcile environmental protection and economic growth, and promote sustainable development with the emphasis of double dividend hypothesis. As preliminary work to attain this target, in this limited study I will investigate the specific conditions under which double dividend hypothesis can be valid, and set up the model for optimal energy taxation. The model will be used in the simulation process in the next project. As the beginning part in this research, I provide a brief review about energy taxation policies in Sweden, Netherlands, and the United States. From this review it can be asserted that European countries are more aggressive in the application of environmental taxes like energy taxes for a cleaner environment than the United States. In next part I examined the rationale for optimal environmental taxation in the first-best and the second-best setting. Then I investigated energy taxation how it can provoke various distortions in markets and be connected to the marginal environmental damages and environmental taxation. In the next chapter, I examined the environmentally motivated taxation in the point of optimal commodity taxation view. Also I identified the impacts of environmental taxation in various circumstances intensively to find out when the environment tax can yield double dividend after taking into account of even tax-interaction effects. Then it can be found that even though in general the environmental tax exacerbates the distortion in the market rather than alleviates, it can also improve the welfare and the employment under several specific circumstances which are classified as various inefficiencies in the existing tax system. (author). 30 refs.

  3. The taxation of foreign exchange differences

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Taxation) One of the canons of context requires that a liability will be in 1986:para 4.47). taxation is certainty. "Certainty taxpayer be reasonably certain of what any given set of circumstances" (Margo in this his tax Report, It is submitted that, at present, there is not the desired certainty regarding the treatment of unrealised foreign exchange differences. This is proven by the internal memorandum circularised by the Commissioner of Inland Revenue, advising local Receivers o...

  4. APPLICATION OF SIMPLIFIED TAXATION SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Golubova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity concerning cost formation of construction work executed by  entities of small business enterprises that use a simplified taxation system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of organization activity. Dozens of business entities applying various taxation systems are involved in the execution of the construction process. For this reason an inclusion of taxes in work cost may have a decisive influence on the selection of a contractor for an object construction.  

  5. Profitability of timber harvesting and timber transportation enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamaeki, J.

    1996-01-01

    In co-operation with the major companies contracting out forestry work and Statistics Finland, Metsaeteho carried out a project with the objective of analysing the economic profitability of timber harvesting and transportation enterprises in 1994. The calculation of profitability was based on utilisation of last livelihoods taxation data (EVR) that Statistics Finland was in possession of. The basic material comprised data that the companies contracting out forestry work had full-time entrepreneurs. There were 255 forestry machine contractor enterprises and 270 trucking enterprises. Statistics Finland was responsible for computations of the results of the project. The calculation of the indicators of profitability was based on the recommendations of Yritystutkimusneuvottelukunta, a committee looking into the functioning of enterprises. The year 1994 was a good year from the viewpoint of profitability of both forestry machine contractors as well as trucking enterprises. With full depreciations and salary adjustments attended to, both enterprise groups still showed a mean profitability of ca. 8 %. The yield of invested capital was ca. 25 %. The differences in profitability among enterprises were great in both groups and in different parts of the country

  6. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballet, Jerome [C3ED Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development, UVSQ, University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Bazin, Damien [EMAFI Macroeconomics and International Finance Research Centre at University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, BP 2135, 06103 Nice (France); Lioui, Abraham [Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Touahri, David [LEST Institute of Labor Econmics and Industrial Sociology and Mediterranean University Aix-Marseille II, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  7. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  8. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, Jerome; Bazin, Damien; Lioui, Abraham; Touahri, David

    2007-01-01

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  9. The feasibility of ecological taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, A.T.G.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of ecological taxation in general and for the Netherlands in specific was analyzed within the context of one of the NRP research projects. The analysis shows that the feasibility of ecological taxes is generally determined by the tax design, the taxing authority by which these taxes are imposed and by the constitutional, institutional and fiscal structures into which they are embedded. In order to be feasible, the analysis shows that ecologically relevant taxes have to be imposed by a taxing authority which is clearly related to relevant ecological circumstances. Since normal taxing authorities tend to be political units which most of the times do not fit this description, institutional and constitutional changes are necessary to introduce and impose (additional) feasible types of ecological taxes in practice. Within the context of the Netherlands, the analysis shows that the currently changing intergovernmental and financial relationships in this country provide important starting points for municipalities, water authorities and provinces to introduce feasible types of such taxes. 225 refs

  10. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling.......DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling....

  11. Profit vs. Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls.......Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls....

  12. Combining purpose with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkinshaw, J.; Foss, N.J.; Lindenberg, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible for a company to strive for a higher purpose while also delivering solid profits? Some have argued that pursuing goals other than making money means, by definition, spending on things that aren't profit-maximizing. Others have countered that by investing in worthwhile causes the

  13. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...

  14. THE IMPACT OF TAXATION ON FIRM’S PERFORMANCE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE CASE OF CEE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Diana Rusu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the firms is affected by many factors, according to the studies realized in this area. But, of all this factors of influence in this paper we want to focus on a major problem mentioned by all the firms: taxation, and to test its impact on business performance. To see if taxation affects the performance of the firms, we used the data collected for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania for estimating three regression models, according to the size of the firms analyzed. For measuring the performance of the firms we consider the growth of their value added. And for measuring taxation we use a series of indicators: total tax rate, tax payments, time needed to prepare and pay taxes, profit tax, other taxes paid by firms, labor tax, taxes on income, profits, and capital gains and taxes on goods and services. We also consider as a control variable the real economic growth rate. After applying multiple linear regressions on panel data, our results show that real economic growth rate, profit tax and taxes on goods and services are the main determinants of value added growth of the firm from CEE countries, and implicitly of the firm’s performance. When we extend the analysis according to the size of the firm, we obtain almost similar results; the only difference came from the fact that profit tax does not significantly influence the performance of the large firms. The combined effect of the variables considered statistically significant had a medium impact on the performance of the firms for all the firms and large firms, as shown by R-squared value. These results show that are also other factors which have a higher impact on the performance of the firms, so in future research we intent to analyse also other variables that define taxation and also to extent the sample, by including more countries.

  15. Tax-Response Heterogeneity and the Effects of Double Taxation Treaties on the Location Choices of Multinational Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Simon; Wamser, Georg

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines location choices of multinational enterprises (MNEs). We particularly focus on the consequences of double taxation treaties (DTTs) and corporate profit taxes on the probability to choose a location. DTTs have become a key policy instrument used by countries to regulate international tax issues related to the cross-border activities of MNEs. Based on three alternative location choice models, which all allow parameter estimates to vary randomly across firms, we show that fir...

  16. TAXATION SYSTEM AT INTRA PRODUCTION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis concerning taxation in the country at the level of an enteфrise and its structural sub-divisions in the period of transforming economy.Recommendations are given on the following aspects: modernization of income taxation system for natural persons; tax payment in case of wage computation; exclusion of tax payments and assignments fi-om production cost value which are not connected with the production process; tax computation for real property; evaluation of enterprise taxation level.The paper shows the possible cases concerning formation of tax payments and assignments of an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.Taxation system is shown at the level of enterprise structural sub-divisions (shop, department, at the level of shop structural sub-divisions (section, team, for works to be executed by an individual person of the production process (operation, product, works, services. This system promotes to efficient functioning of intra-production economical relations.The paper provides possible variants of formation of taxation payments and assignments for an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.

  17. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries ... This highly original book is essential reading for everyone concerned with equality in taxation.

  18. Dividend taxation in an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Ngoc-Sang

    2017-01-01

    We consider an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents and financial market imperfections. We investigate the role of dividend taxation on economic growth and asset price. The optimal dividend taxation is also studied.

  19. Taxation, Risk-Taking, and Household Portfolio Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Poterba

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of research on how taxation affects household decisions with respect to portfolio structure and asset trading. It discusses long-standing issues, such as the impact of differential taxation of income flows from stocks and bonds on the incentives for households to invest in these assets, and the effect of capital gains taxation on asset sales. It also addresses a range of emerging issues, such as the impact of taxation on the behavior of mutual funds and...

  20. The Theory of Optimal Taxation: What is the Policy Relevance?

    OpenAIRE

    Birch Sørensen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity b...

  1. DOUBLE TAXATION CONVENTIONS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail ANTONESCU; Ligia ANTONESCU

    2011-01-01

    The need to conclude bilateral agreements on avoidance of double taxation is determined by the fact that national tax regulations differ from state to state. In the same time unilateral tax measures adopted by national law to avoid double taxation don’t correspond to tax legislation of all countries with which Romania has economic relations. To avoid double taxation, our country uses both the national rules and conventions for the avoidance of double taxation concluded with partner countrie...

  2. Capital Taxation Tendencies in Ukraine and in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Danilov Оleksandr D.; Denysenko Denys Ye.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article is analysis of the world and domestic tendencies of capital taxation and justification of directions of improvement of capital taxation in Ukraine. The study was carried out with division of taxation of human and material capital. Taxation of human capital in Ukraine is moderate, compared to OECD countries, however, its main load lies on employers, unlike in OECD countries, where it is distributed proportionally between employers and employees. Taking into account a hi...

  3. Profitables Food & Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...

  4. How should green taxation be designed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes...... directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous....... This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation...

  5. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borren, P; Sutton, M

    1992-12-01

    Using the latest published data from Tobacco Advisory Council surveys, this paper re-evaluates the question of whether or not increases in cigarette taxation are regressive in the United Kingdom. The extended data set shows no evidence of increasing price-elasticity by social class as found in a major previous study. To the contrary, there appears to be no clear pattern in the price responsiveness of smoking behaviour across different social classes. Increases in cigarette taxation, while reducing smoking levels in all groups, fall most heavily on men and women in the lowest social class. Men and women in social class five can expect to pay eight and eleven times more of a tax increase respectively, than their social class one counterparts. Taken as a proportion of relative incomes, the regressive nature of increases in cigarette taxation is even more pronounced.

  6. Considerations Regarding the Environmental Responsibility and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian-Marcel Nuta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The public policy tool of taxation may generate discouraging effects upon the economicagents – consumers or producers – but also could beused as incentives. High environmental taxationcould generate crowding effect in terms of responsibility. Sometimes a very sophisticated system ofenvironmental taxation is the basis for a highly regulated business environment and conformity butwith a lack of real responsible citizenship. We aretrying to see if the impact of taxation uponresponsibility is real and can affect the motivation for environmental responsible citizenship. Themain findings are related to the impact of regulating power of environmental taxes. Also there isevident the interest of entrepreneurs in environmentally responsible behavior and the less informationabout the benefits of responsible citizenship.

  7. Taxation in Public Education. Analysis and Bibliography Series, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Larry L.

    Intended for both researchers and practitioners, this analysis and bibliography cites approximately 100 publications on educational taxation, including general texts and reports, statistical reports, taxation guidelines, and alternative proposals for taxation. Topics covered in the analysis section include State and Federal aid, urban and suburban…

  8. 7 CFR 400.710 - Preemption and premium taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption and premium taxation. 400.710 Section 400... of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.710 Preemption and premium taxation. A policy or plan of insurance that is approved by the Board for FCIC reinsurance is preempted from state and local taxation. ...

  9. 26 CFR 509.120 - Double taxation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Double taxation claims. 509.120 Section 509.120... CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.120 Double taxation claims. (a) General. Under Article XVII... United States or Switzerland has resulted, or will result, in double taxation contrary to the provisions...

  10. 26 CFR 1.61-21 - Taxation of fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of fringe benefits. 1.61-21 Section 1... § 1.61-21 Taxation of fringe benefits. (a) Fringe benefits—(1) In general. Section 61(a)(1) provides... vehicle. The fact that another section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code addresses the taxation...

  11. Consumption Taxation in a Digital World : A Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the economic and administrative issues that arise in the taxation of electronic commerce; addresses how best to meet the criteria of an ideal tax system; and examines recent policy developments.It is argued that destination-based taxation-is presently the norm for goods taxation is

  12. Critique of the Saskatchewan Uranium Royalty in the light of neutral taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Uranium Royalty System, in operation since 1976, is the provincial government's prime policy vehicle towards the uranium industry. The enunciated objectives of the royalty system are (Sask., 1977): (a) to ensure a minimum return to the province from the extraction of uranium; (b) to capture a fair share of the ''excess'' profits; (c) to provide the producers with an adequate rate of return on investment; and (d) to leave marginal production decisions unaffected. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the royalty system in light of these objectives. This article evaluates neutral taxation and how it effects the Saskatchwan Royalty System

  13. Taxation indices of forest stand as the basis for cadastral valuation of forestlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovyazin, V; Belyaev, V; Romanchikov, A; Pasko, O

    2014-01-01

    Cadastral valuation of forestlands is one of the problems of the modern economy. Valuation procedures depend either on the profitability of timbering or forest areas are not differentiated according to value. The authors propose the procedure based on taxation indices of strata. The most important factors influencing the valuation are determined. The dependence that allows establishing the relative cost of a certain forest area is defined. Knowing the cadastral value of a model area, it is possible to determine the values of all other sites. The evaluation results correlate with the Faustman procedure with slight difference in the absolute value

  14. Taxation indices of forest stand as the basis for cadastral valuation of forestlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovyazin, V.; Belyaev, V.; Pasko, O.; Romanchikov, A.

    2014-08-01

    Cadastral valuation of forestlands is one of the problems of the modern economy. Valuation procedures depend either on the profitability of timbering or forest areas are not differentiated according to value. The authors propose the procedure based on taxation indices of strata. The most important factors influencing the valuation are determined. The dependence that allows establishing the relative cost of a certain forest area is defined. Knowing the cadastral value of a model area, it is possible to determine the values of all other sites. The evaluation results correlate with the Faustman procedure with slight difference in the absolute value.

  15. THE ENTERPRISE SELF-FINANCING – THE TAXATION IMPACT UPON SELF-FINANCING DECISION

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2009-01-01

    This work study the self-financing problematic, with particular emphasis on their benefits for the enterprise, but also for shareholders, on domestic or external factors that influence the self-financing decision and its level, on the relationship between self-financing and depreciation, degree of debt and profitability and not in the last line on the self-financing cost. In the factors that acting on the self-financing decision was granted a special attention to taxation, whose impact has be...

  16. Adam Smith on public expenditure and taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C. Coutinho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Adam Smith’s view on taxation and public expenditure, by means of an almost literal reading of the Wealth of Nations famous passages on the "duties of the sovereign" and on the "maxims of taxation". Contrarily to the commonest usage of these passages, we will show that their core is the preoccupation with the public expenditure soaring and the defence of decentralisation. Furthermore and also contrarily to the existing interpretations we defend the non-existence of any contradiction between Smith’s income and price theory (and the incidence hypothesis, provided due attention is paid to the guiding role of the "maxims".

  17. The Public Choice Problem of Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Hjøllund, Lene

    1998-01-01

    -best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy...... on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit...

  18. Regulatory taxation of large energy users reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannaerts, H.

    2002-01-01

    Energy policy in the Netherlands with respect to the basic industries has been restrained. National energy taxation is considered to be unsuitable for large energy users because of its international reallocation effects. However, alternative measures such as energy restrictions and marginal taxation induce low average and high marginal energy costs and consequently generate small displacement effects, together with large energy savings. A system of tradable permits not only has the advantage of low average and high marginal costs, but also keeps one firm from investing in relatively expensive energy-saving options while other firms refrain from exploiting their relatively cheap saving options

  19. A commentary on the taxation aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A commentary is given on taxation aspects of the expenditure incurred in the abandonment and reclamation of oil and gas fields. Reference is made to the taxation regime in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom and the USA. The issues addressed include: specific provisions existing within the tax code covering abandonment; the definition of abandonment costs; the year in which deduction, if available, falls; the setting of deductions against any form of income; the allowance of deductions for costs which, under general principles, are capital costs; 'claw back' from reimbursements; the precision of a deduction for abandonment costs where a country has a secondary petroleum regime. (UK)

  20. Oil and gas taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oien, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Norwegian petroleum tax system builds on the general business tax system. A reform of the petroleum tax system was therefore prompted by the reform of the ordinary company tax system in Norway. The reform of the general company taxation system made a reform of the petroleum taxation system necessary. As the petroleum tax system had to be changed, it was natural to review the incentive structure of the system to see if it could be improved. These two elements formed the foundation of the work on petroleum tax reform. (Author)

  1. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  2. Gigantic environmental profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on possible profits and advantages by converting vehicles such as buses and taxis from diesel to gas fuel engines for the environment and human beings in Norway. Some applications for automobiles are mentioned

  3. Optimal taxation of married couples with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    of commodity taxes, efficient taxation requires joint taxation of the family. In the presence of restricted commodity taxation, the income tax should compensate for the erroneous commodity taxes. In this case, individual taxation is typically optimal, but not necessarily with a higher rate on primary earners......The literature suggests that the concern for economic efficiency calls for individual-based taxation of married couples with a higher rate on the primary earner. This paper reconsiders the choice of tax unit in the Becker model of household production. In the absence of restrictions on the use...

  4. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF TAX LAW ON RUSSIAN TAX LAW ENFORCEMENT IN THE AREA OF CORPORATE TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation is considered in the article.The purpose of the paper is to analyze influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and methods of comparative law.Results, scope of application. The development of Russian tax legislation is influenced by acts of international organizations, primarily the Action Plan aimed at combating base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS.Trends of regulation of corporate taxation in relationships with participation of a foreign element are considered in the article. The main issues of realization of norms in the area of corporate direct taxation are brought into light, and namely, taxation of royalties, intra-group expenses, thin capitalization rules and transfer pricing. Tax agreements concluded by the Russian Federation do not contain special rules aimed at combating abuses (in contrast, for example, from European anti-avoidance rules.In recent years Russian tax law introduced institutions that had been established and applied in the tax law of foreign countries. These processes are moving forward and are characterized by frequent changes of legislation, which indicates that the concept of deoffshorization and implementation of the BEPS plan is not always elaborated at the stage of adoption of bills.Conclusions. The author comes to the conclusion that the most relevant and most controversial issues are taxation of payment of royalties, debt financing and intra-group expenses. The practice of applying the CFC rules is just starts forming. In addition, there is a tendency to increase the quality and quantity of information sources used by tax authorities to collect

  5. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occursfrequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferationoutside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is anobstacle to the development of economic relations between states, reducing the revenue of the international operators and their interests in makinginvestment abroad. This paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economic double taxation and theinternational legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation and avoidance methods.

  6. THE DETERMINANTS OF PROFITABILITY IN COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORANA VĂTAVU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish the determinants of financial performance in 126 Romanian companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, over a period of ten-years (2003-2012. The analysis is based on cross sectional regressions. Return on assets is the performance proxy, while the variables expected to have a significant impact on profitability are debt, asset tangibility, size, liquidity, taxation, risk, inflation and crisis. Regression results indicate that profitable companies operate with limited borrowings. Tangibility, business risk and the level of taxation have a negative impact on return on assets. Although earnings are sustained by significant sales turnover, performance is affected by high levels of liquidity. Periods of unstable economic conditions, reflected by high inflation rates and the current financial crisis, have a strong negative impact on corporate performance.

  7. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansier, D.; Krumm, R.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  8. Multinational Taxation and R&D Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waegenaere, A.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and

  9. Multinational taxation and R&D investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Sansing, R.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and

  10. Coal economics and taxation discussed at symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Some of the highlights from the Symposium on Coal Economics and Taxation Symposium, Regina Saskatchewan May 7-9, 1978, sponsored by the Coal Association of Canada are presented. Investment, provincial policy, sources of funds, uncertainty, tax policies, and operating costs are discussed.

  11. Command-And-Control or Taxation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    an ineffective command-and-control (CAC) tool, whereas Denmark has chosen the effective tool of taxation. One main explanation for this variation in policy choice is the variation in institutional setups, namely the corporatist route in Denmark versus the pluralistic route in California....

  12. Non-linear Capital Taxation Without Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Farhi; Christopher Sleet; Iván Werning; Sevin Yeltekin

    2012-01-01

    We study efficient non-linear taxation of labour and capital in a dynamic Mirrleesian model incorporating political economy constraints. Policies are chosen sequentially over time, without commitment. Our main result is that the marginal tax on capital income is progressive, in the sense that richer agents face higher marginal tax rates. Copyright , Oxford University Press.

  13. Financialization and financial profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.

  14. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  15. Taxation on environmental pollution and energy consumption 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The document gives statistics on taxation of pollution caused to the environment and on energy consumption in Denmark. These forms of taxation are rapidly increasing in Denmark as a consequence of the country's environmental policy. In 1995 the total state revenue from these sources was 23.5 billion Danish kroner which comprises 7.1% (compared to 6.5% for 1994) of the total revenue from all forms of taxation. Revenues in 1995 are 8.2 billion Danish kroner higher than in 1986. The State's revenue from taxation of energy consumption was 18.4 billion Danish kroner, which is 78% of revenues from taxation on both environmental pollution and on energy consumption. Revenues from taxation on pollution of the environment was 5.2 billion Danish kroner. The contribution of the taxation of environmental pollution has increased from 2% in 1986 to 22% in 1995 of the total revenue from taxation of both environmental pollution and energy consumption. Statistics include revenues from taxation on petrol, electric power, the use of gas and diesel oil and fuel oils, on kerosone and tar fuels for heating, on autogas and bottled gas, and on pit coal and lignite. Details are given on taxation revenues from the taxation of the different forms of environmental pollution such as carbon dioxide and rubbish etc. and on the taxation on carbon dioxide emission from the use of energy products such as electricity and various fuels. Information is given on grants given to projects for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide from 1993-1996 and on the phasing of taxation on environmental pollution in accordance with the Danish tax reforms. (AB)

  16. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] The same could be said of E-learning in medical education.[4,5] Thirdly allowing profits within medical education should attract more investment. Investors could sink funds into medical education, and learners would benefit as a result; inevitably investors would like to see a return on investment – however, successful.

  17. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...

  18. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  19. From People to Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.

    An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…

  20. Taxation of petroleum companies possessing private information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    For countries having petroleum resources, a common objective of the Ministry of Energy is to maximise the net total government take from the petroleum industry. Most models of petroleum taxation, assuming symmetric information, recommended neutral taxation. A royalty is not optimal in this case as it gives disincentives for extraction, causing too much of the reservoir to remain unexploited. Through the operating activities, however, the companies obtain private information about the costs. A low cost company may conceal its information by imitating a high cost company, and must therefore be given an economic compensation (information rent) to be induced to reveal its true costs. An optimal regulatory response to asymmetric information may involve royalties, as these enable the government to capture a larger fraction of the economic rent. 17 refs., 2 figs

  1. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  2. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  3. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2009-01-01

    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard in disab...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings.......We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...

  4. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  5. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  6. A behavioral economics perspective on tobacco taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2010-04-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally.

  7. Europe's experience with carbon-energy taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    The COMETR project is a comprehensive attempt to account ex-post for the implications of carbon-energy taxation, taking into account differences in sectoral tax burdens and within a suitable macro-economic framework capable of providing an overall assessment, the E3ME model of Cambridge...... Econometrics. The results indicate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for six member states as a result of carbon-energy taxation under revenue-neutral environmental tax reform (ETR). These effects are mirrored by reductions in total fuel consumption, with the largest reductions occurring in countries...... with the highest tax rates. Accordingly, the European environmental tax reforms had by 2004 caused reductions in greenhouse gas emissions of 3.1% on average for the six member countries examined, with the largest fall recorded for Finland (5.9%). E3ME-results also suggest that ETR-countries did not experience...

  8. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Satz, Emmanuel

    This paper analyzes the optimal income tax treatment of couples. Each couple is modelled as a single rational economic agent supplying labor along two dimensions: primary and secondary earnings. We consider fully general joint income tax systems. Separate taxation is never optimal if social welfare...... that many actual redistribution systems, featuring family-based transfers combined with individually-based taxes, generate schedules with negative jointness...

  9. The Efficient Side of Progressive Income Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the allocative implications of progressive income taxation when individuals care about their relative income. It shows that tax progressivity might improve efficiency, and the more so in egalitarian economies. Introducing a progressive income tax can yield a Pareto improvement if pre-tax income is evenly distributed. Implementing undistorted choices of working hours requires a progressive tax schedule, and the optimal degree of progressivity decreases with pre-tax income i...

  10. Water Taxation and the Double Dividend Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Kilimani

    2014-01-01

    The double dividend hypothesis contends that environmental taxes have the potential to yield multiple benefits for the economy. However, empirical evidence of the potential impacts of environmental taxation in developing countries is still limited. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature by exploring the impact of a water tax in a developing country context, with Uganda as a case study. Policy makers in Uganda are exploring ways of raising revenue by taxing environmental goods such a...

  11. Indirect taxation in an integrated Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genser, Bernd; Haufler, Andreas; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the main arguments for destination- versus origin-based commodity taxation in the European Community's Internal Market. Destination-based solutions distort commodity trade in the Community because cross-border purchases by final consumers can only be taxed in the origin country......-based consumption tax. Finally, the paper addresses the administrative and political implications of a switch to the origin principle in the European Community...

  12. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of...

  13. Revealed preference for taxation and spending

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, Moore

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses some of the results of a survey of public opinion carried out in Ireland in the early Autumn of 1989. The survey itself was an innovation in the political economy of taxation and public spending in Ireland in that it was the first time a fully articulated exercise was mounted to establish the actual preferences of the population over specified areas of the economics of the public sector.[extract

  14. Optimal Taxation in a Limited Commitment Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yena Park

    2012-01-01

    This article studies optimal Ramsey taxation when risk sharing in private insurance markets is imperfect due to limited enforcement. In a limited commitment economy, there are externalities associated with capital and labour because individuals do not take into account that their labour and saving decisions affect aggregate labour and capital supply and wages, and thus the value of autarky. Therefore, a Ramsey government has an additional goal, which is to internalize these externalities of l...

  15. Analysis of indirect taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodyakova Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the structure and dynamics of indirect taxes for the previous five years and also the influence of indirect taxation upon formation of income of the State Budget of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of indirect taxation in Ukraine. Specific weight of the value added tax, excise tax and customs duty are considered in the structure of tax receipts of the consolidated budget of Ukraine as indirect taxes. The article shows that receipts of the State Budget of Ukraine are mostly provided by indirect taxes. The Ukrainian taxation system is mostly a factor of reduction of the level of economic growth and investment activity in the country and the existing system of administering is not completely capable of excluding the possibility of tax evasion. The prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of organisation of tax control in Ukraine and differentiation of the value added tax rates depending on the level of consumption of goods and level of income of consumers.

  16. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu; Florin Tudor

    2009-01-01

    The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occurs frequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferation outside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is an obstacle to the development of economic relations between states, ...

  17. Application of international double taxation conventions in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2016-01-01

    In this article we sought to address the international double taxation phenomenon from two different standpoints. To begin with, in the first part we analysed the framework of international double taxation, and how this topic was tackled in both Romanian and international literature.International double taxation has been analyzed, mutatis mutandis, from an economic perspective, more precisely in terms of the implications that it generates on economies, on added value, on capital flows, on the...

  18. The Optimal Taxation of Dividends in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Fuest, Clemens; Huber, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal taxation of dividends and other types of income from portfolio investment. We show that, in an open economy, it is not desirable to offer double taxation relief for dividends paid by domestic firms to domestic households. This result holds for fairly general utility functions. The reason is that the marginal shareholder in domestic firms is a foreign investor. This implies that the level of real investment is not affected by the taxation of domestic dividend in...

  19. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej; Chrystian Firlej

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Uni...

  20. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve...... to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax...

  1. Dynamic income taxation without commitment: Comparing alternative tax systems

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, J-T; Krause, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question as to whether it is optimal to use separating or pooling nonlinear income taxation, or to use linear income taxation, when the government cannot commit to its future tax policy. We consider both two- period and inÖnite-horizon settings. Under empirically plausible parameter values, separating income taxation is optimal in the two-period model, whereas linear income taxation is optimal when the time horizon is inÖnite. The welfare e§ects of varying the di...

  2. Profit and place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.

  3. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN; LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2011-01-01

    The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow), and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow). Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an ...

  4. ICT and international corporate taxation: tax attributes and scope of taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Anne; Spengel, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an outline of the consequences of the increased use of ICT on international corporate taxation, namely on the tax attributes and the scope of taxation, is given. It is argued that the concept of capital export neutrality shall prevail, as it is deemed to be the most appropriate to the changed economic structure. With regard to the tax attributes in the source state, an enlargement of the notion of a permanent establishment in order to shift tax revenues to the source state is n...

  5. Review of the sanitary state of coniferous forests in windfall places in the Ile-Alatau National park (Kazakhstan in 2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Kazenas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study on the species composition of stem pests- insects and limitation of their number, carried out in the Ile-Alatau State National Park (Kazakhstan in 2011–2015. The reason for this study was a windfall, which occurred in 2011 in the National Park and followed a few years later by forest fires. These emergencies created a favourable environment for the reproduction of stem pests. The management of the Ile-Alatau National Park, together with the Institute of Zoology of the MES, has taken the necessary measures to investigate the species composition of the pests, their natural regulators and to conduct protective measures in the hotbeds of xylophages mass production. At the same time consultations and joint research with scientists from Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and the Czech Republic were held. The monitoring of the state of forests started in 2011. The composition of species and number of xylophagous pests has been carried out. In the 2011–2015-surveys 48 species of stem pests, belonging to three orders of the class of insects, were found: Hemiptera, or Bugs (1 species, 1 family, Coleoptera, or Beetles (42 species, 5 families, Hymenoptera (5 species, 1 family. During all the years of research the Hauzer bark beetle Ips hauseri and the longhorn beetle ribbed ragy Rhagium inquisitor dominated numerically. Slightly less Orthotomicus suturalis and the kyrgyzstan micrograph Pityophthorus kirgisicus were found. Besides, the study of diseases of stem pests and their entomophages (predators and parasites was carried out, which is a prerequisite for carrying out forest-pathological examinations. In total 53 species, from five classes, eleven orders and 27 families of invertebrates have been revealed. Most of them belong to the class of insects, others to spiders and centipedes. On several species of bark beetles and longhorn beetles an entomopathogenic fungus – white muscardine Beauveria bassiana was

  6. IMPLICATIONS OF THE APPLICATION OF IFRS FOR SMES IN ROMANIA ON TAXABLE AND DISTRIBUTABLE PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girbina Madalina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 9 July 2009, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB issued the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium Sized Entities (IFRS for SMEs which aims to provide a financial reporting framework for SMEs falling within its scope. It is a matter for authorities in each jurisdiction to decide which entities are permitted or required to apply IFRS for SMEs. Because of the connection between accounting and taxation certain european countries had a reluctant position related to the application of IFRS for SMEs. Opponents focused on the incompatibility between IFRS for SMEs framework and the principles commonly accepted for tax purposes. As the individual financial statements drown up in compliance with IFRS for SMEs will serve for profit distribution under the 2nd European Directive the question arises weather the profits determined under these accounting rules can be considered as realized for distribution purposes. In order to mitigate the mismatch between accounting and distributable profits, Member States will need to reconsider the circumstances in which gains and losses arising from re-measurement at fair value through profit and loss should be considered as realized. In this scenario, two important questions arise: What are the potential tax effects of the application of IFRS for SMEs? Is the profit determined under IFRS for SMEs available for distribution or some adjustments are necessary? The paper addresses these issues in the context of the Romanian accounting and taxation systems. Romania represents a relevant case study, as it is one of the European countries with a close linkage between financial and tax, where the fiscal profit is dependent on the accounting profit (currently determined under domestic regulations. The methodology consists in a comparative analysis of the recognition and measurement rules between national accounting regulations and IFRS for SMEs in order to identify the differences with

  7. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  8. Does corporate income taxation affect securitization? : Evidence from OECD banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Di; Hu, Shiwei; Ligthart, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank’s incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999–2006, we find that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding markets,

  9. Urban Property Taxation: II. Land and Location. Exchange Bibliography 480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anthony G.

    This is one of three related bibliographies listing publications dealing with the broad topic of property taxation. This particular volume concerns some specialized fields of study, including locational theory, land use and taxation, property markets and valuation, housing, and urban renewal and redevelopment. Citations are listed alphabetically…

  10. Does Corporate Income Taxation Affect Securitization? Evidence from OECD Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank's incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999-2006, we fi nd that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding

  11. Socially Optimal Taxation of Alcohol: The Case of Czech Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Mikolasek, Jakub; Netuka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The proposed paper belongs to the literature on food demand and optimal taxation and to the literature dealing with economics of alcohol production and consumption. We investigate the question of optimal taxation for the commodity whose consumption has positive and negative features both for individual consumer and for the society. The commodity we analyze is the Czech beer.

  12. 38 CFR 6.7 - Claims of creditors, taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims of creditors, taxation. 6.7 Section 6.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED... creditors, taxation. (a) Effective January 1, 1958, payments of insurance to a beneficiary under a United...

  13. 26 CFR 1.501(a)-1 - Exemption from taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption from taxation. 1.501(a)-1 Section 1.501(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(a)-1 Exemption from taxation. (a) In...

  14. 32 CFR 643.56 - Taxation of lessee's interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Taxation of lessee's interest. 643.56 Section 643.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.56 Taxation of lessee's interest. The lessee's interest in leased...

  15. 26 CFR 26.2653-1 - Taxation of multiple skips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of multiple skips. 26.2653-1 Section 26.2653-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE...-1 Taxation of multiple skips. (a) General rule. If property is held in trust immediately after a GST...

  16. 20 CFR 243.4 - Taxation of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of benefits. 243.4 Section 243.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT TRANSFER, ASSIGNMENT, OR WAIVER OF PAYMENTS § 243.4 Taxation of benefits. (a) Annuities paid by the Board are subject...

  17. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  18. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  19. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong......This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...... positive effects....

  20. LABOUR TAXATION: FORMAL AND INFORMAL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Maria Costea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to create a panorama of doctrinal, legal and jurisprudential solutions, which determine the heterogeneity of labour market’s fiscal hypotheses’. The study identifies a progressive series of interactions between economic and social factors, which generate at the juridical level a specific series of fiscal solutions, both traditional and innovating for the qualification and taxation of labour revenues. Heterogeneity of working forms is presently a complex, main direction in business with effects both at economic and legal level. This study provides an overview of statutory and case-law solutions for the legal classification and therefore tax classification of personal income.

  1. Taxation of entrepreneurship on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bicanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis looks into the way of the taxation of people earning money on the internet via YouTube. Taking videos and subsequent publishing on YouTube channel is becoming increasingly popular not only among the huge number of spectators and youtubers but also among companies that see how influential and powerful youtubers are and cooperate with them. Many Czech youtubers have above-average income which is usually from three sources: directly from YouTube (more precisely from Google) fr...

  2. Carbon-energy taxation: lessons from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book examines carbon-energy taxation in detail and looks at tax shifting programmes for lowering other taxes. It offers extensive analysis on the basis of historical data and seeks to answer important questions for policy-making, such as: What was the impact of tax shifting for economic...... without CO2-abatement policy? The use of unique and original data, including sector-specific energy prices and taxes, as well as the use of advanced statistical techniques, such as co-integration analysis and panel-regression techniques along with the time-series estimated macro-economic model E3ME, make...

  3. Cost Benefit Analysis of Presumptive Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Shlomo Yitzhaki

    2007-01-01

    The general idea is the following: any tax authority that respects basic human rights has to impose taxes on a base to avoid random and arbitrary taxation. The tax base should be announced prior to the imposition of the tax and therefore, taxpayers are given an advanced warning concerning the tax base. The advanced warning enables the taxpayers to adjust the tax base to the new circumstances so that they can adjust their behavior to the existence of the tax. This adjustment of the tax base by...

  4. Decentralisation, Local Taxation and Citizenship in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    What makes people willing or unwilling to pay taxes and to whom are they willing to pay?This article examines the politics of revenue collection in a Senegalese village within a framework of decentralisation, democratisation and multi-party politics. The tranfer of tax-collection from state agent...... to local councillors has been met with neither demand for increased public services, nor for political representation. Tax compliance has plummeted, whilst non-state institutions are able to mobilise large amounts of revenue outside of normal taxation channels for service provision....

  5. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  6. THE ROLE OF THE TAX BURDEN IN THE TAXATION OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Melnyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to underline and present the important of the tax burden in the taxation of Ukraine and to show its influence on the profit of the enterprises. The problem of the optimization of the taxes is closely connected with two factors. The first factor is that the aim of the tax system is to fill the state budget. The second factor is to make fovourible conditions for business to prosper. Also, the aim of the research is еру development of scientific and methodological foundations of practical recommendations on the management of the tax burden with an economic entity on the basis of more efficient use of production resources. To achieve this aim the amendments of the Tax Code and the introduction of new rates and taxes were considered, which affects the activities of the company. also the main criteria of the indicators for assessing the tax burden on the company were formed. The object of research is the process of management of the tax burden on the basis of increase of efficiency of use of industrial resources of the enterprise. The subject of the study is the theoretical and methodological and practical aspects of the tax burden, and its calculation methods for reduction and increase, based on the characteristics of business administration. Methodology. The theoretical base of the issue is taken from the economic bases, the works of the native and foreign scientists on the topic of the influence of the taxation on the work of the enterprises, their profit, the analysis of the statistic data during the last few years. To achieve these goals the following methods were used: a method of system analysis and synthesis, methods of statistical groupings, economic and mathematical, logical and comparative analysis. The information base for writing articles constitutes a legal and regulatory acts of Ukraine, the statistical data of the State Committee of Statistics of Ukraine, the reporting enterprises in Ukraine. Results. The

  7. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  8. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  9. Essentials for profitable coalbed methane production in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, J.C.; Rollins, J.B. [Cawley, Gillespie & Associates, Inc. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The UK coalbed methane industry is now poised for a continuation of its growth. For this potential growth to be realized, coalbed methane production must be profitable for producers. Commercial viability of coalbed methane production in the UK depends on th fulfilment of essential technical, regulatory, and economic conditions. Technically, coalbed methane reservoirs must have an adequate thickness of permeable gas saturated coal. The regulatory environment must offer favorable treatment regarding taxation, royalties, and policies on well spacing, wellsite locations, and market accessibility. Economically, gas prices and initial capital costs must be sufficiently favorable to yield an acceptable rate of return. If these essential conditions can be fulfilled, UK coalbed methane production can be expected to be a commercially viable industry. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Redistributive taxation, multinational enterprises, and economic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Haufler, Andreas; Klemm, Alexander; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2008-01-01

    Increased activity of multinational firms exposes national corporate tax bases to cross-country profit shifting, but also leads to rising profitability of the corporate sector. We incorporate these two effects of economic integration into a simple political economy model where the median voter decides on a redistributive income tax rate. In this setting economic integration may raise or lower the equilibrium tax rate, and it is more likely to raise the tax rate of a low-tax country. The impli...

  11. Essays on taxation, efficiency, and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakonsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis comprises five chapters: (1) On the second order conditions for optimal taxation. Some experience from numerical models, (2) An investigation into alternative representations of the marginal cost of public funds, (3) On green tax reforms and double dividends, (4) Negative externalities, dead weight losses, and the cost of public funds, and (5) CO{sub 2} stabilisation may be a no-regrets policy. A general equilibrium analysis of the Norwegian economy. The chapters emphasises the effects of alternative tax policies on environmental quality and economic efficiency. The analysis in the CO{sub 2} chapter is based not on a stylised theoretical model, but on a detailed computable general equilibrium model of the Norwegian economy. The discussion in the CO{sub 2} chapter was in part motivated by the fact that several earlier articles on the economic consequences of CO{sub 2} reductions adopted a framework without distortionary tax rates in the benchmark equilibrium. In such a setting, a tax on CO{sub 2} emissions violates the conditions for Pareto optimality. This is not the case with the model here described. Rather, increased taxation of CO{sub 2} becomes a tax reform, where one tax is increased while one of several other taxes can be reduced accordingly in order to maintain tax revenue neutrality. The model also includes emissions of CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. All give rise to negative externalities. 86 refs., 37 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  13. STUDY CONCERNING THE IMPACT OF PROFIT TAX ON THE COMPANIES’ ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the fiscal reform in Romania, the harmonization of the law regarding the profit tax with the community one prompted deep alterations aimed namely at: the scope (the taxation of the foreign legal people and of the incomes from external sources, the non-deductible and fiscally deductible amounts, the facilities granted to the taxpayers, the way of covering the fiscal losses etc. This harmonization was intended to avoid the double taxation of the incomes made from activities carried out by economical agents in several states of the European Union space. This means finding encouraging solutions to the cross border activities by renouncing the discriminatory fiscal rules by which the incomes are taxed twice, with the later return of the taxes in one of the states.

  14. Atomic profits, no thanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, W.; Dietrich, K.; Moeller, H.; Speier, C.

    1980-01-01

    The authors deal with the following topics: The secret of nuclear energy; the atom programmes of Bonn; on some arguments of the present nuclear energy discussion; how socialist countries solve the problems of nuclear energy. From the socialist point of view they discuss sociological, ideological and moral reasons for a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. Nevertheless they refuse Bonn's atom programme because the high finance's interests concerning profit and power make it a danger. The biggest danger is said to lie in the creation of a plutonium-industry and the militaristic abuse which would be connected with it. The socialist way of utilizing atomic energy is seen by them as a way with a high feeling of responsibility towards all people and towards a guaranteed energy supply. (HSCH) [de

  15. THE IMPACT OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS ON TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic crisis that began in 2007 and deeply felt in Romania from 2008 affected the real economy and had a profound impact on the whole society. This study seeks the impact of the crisis on the evolution of taxes in Romania and in the European Union. The main fiscal evolutions are analyzed from the point of view of the personal and corporate taxes, social contributions, taxes on property, related with the development of national and European macroeconomic indicators. Based on official data for 2008-2012, I processed and interpreted the data, reaching conclusions on taxation in our country and in Europe. Thus I concluded that Romania has a low rate on incomes, profit or dividend tax. At European level the progressive taxation is used by most states, to the detriment of the flat one. The taxes and fees quotas vary from state to state, but are subject to Community and national legal regulations. In terms of revenue structure, Romania follows the European trend in that indirect revenues is the primarily budgetary resource.

  16. Tamgha and the Struggle against It: On the History of Medieval Turkic-mongol Taxation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Yu. Pochekaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Turkic-Mongol taxation institute of tamgha widely used in the Mongol Empire since the first half of the 13th century. Author characterizes the etymology of this term, its meanings, legal regulation of levy and rates, evolution of the tax in different states – successors of the Mongol Empire (the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, etc. as well as in these states even after fall of Chinggisid dynasties (such as Iran under Safavids, Central Asia under Timurids. As the author supposes, the long-term use of tamgha allows us to talk about the vitality and effectiveness of Chinggisid legal tradition, which survived after the end of “Chinggisid age”. Even the rulers and dynasties, which positioned themselves as rivals of Chinggisids, used tamgha in their taxation system. This tax was also borrowed by the Russians and was used for a long time becoming a base for custom system in Russia. Other subjects of the research are the struggle of Islamic theologians and jurists against tamgha in different countries of Inner Asia and reasons for this struggle. The author attempts to clarify reasons of this struggle, strict position of clergy against tamgha and measures of rulers who did not want to be in trouble with clergy, but at the same time tried to save tamgha as effective and profitable tax.

  17. The global context for public health nutrition taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Heywood, Peter; Leeder, Stephen; Burns, Lee

    2011-01-01

    To assess critically the scope for public health nutrition taxation within the framework of the global tax reform agenda. Review of the tax policy literature for global policy priorities relevant to public health nutrition taxation; critical analysis of proposals for public health nutrition taxation judged against the global agenda for tax reform. The global tax reform agenda shapes decisions of tax policy makers in all countries. By understanding this agenda, public health nutritionists can make feasible taxation proposals and thus improve the development, uptake and implementation of recommendations for nutrition-related taxation. The priorities of the global tax reform agenda relevant to public health nutrition taxation are streamlining of taxes, adoption of value-added tax (VAT), minimisation of excise taxes (except to correct for externalities) and removal of import taxes in line with trade liberalisation policies. Proposals consistent with the global tax reform agenda have included excise taxes, extension of VAT to currently exempted (unhealthy) foods and tariff reductions for healthy foods. Proposals for public health nutrition taxation should (i) use existing types and rates of taxes where possible, (ii) use excise taxes that specifically address externalities, (iii) avoid differential VAT on foods and (iv) use import taxes in ways that comply with trade liberalisation priorities.

  18. MODERN FEATURES OF TAXATION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkovskaya A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Permanent changes in tax legislation and a significant share of the cost structure of agricultural enterprises for taxes on payment of taxes determine the special importance of the correct decision while choosing a system of taxation. Today, for Ukraine, the issue of developing a mechanism that would define new and more effective principles of taxation of agricultural producers is particularly relevant. Purpose. The purpose of the article is to study changes in taxation of agricultural producers over the last few years, to identify the peculiarities and problems of taxation of agricultural enterprises in Ukraine, and to determine how the state supports agriculture. Results. In this article, the system of tax burden on agricultural enterprises of Ukraine is considered: tax rates, mechanisms and types of taxes to be paid by agrarian enterprises. The methods and instruments of tax regulation in the agrarian sector and their gradual change over the last few years have been analyzed. A schematic diagram of the changes of the special regime in taxation in 2016-2017 years has been constructed. The alternative ways of supporting agricultural commodity producers by means of subsidy programs are presented. The flaws of tax innovations in agriculture are substantiated. The importance of state regulation of the agrarian sector of the economy through the tax mechanisms has been confirmed. Conclusion. Conclusions are made regarding to the modern state of the system of taxation of agrarian enterprises and the consequences of increasing the tax burden for taxpayers of the IV group of the single tax. Taking into account changes in the agrarian sector and the economy as a whole, the agricultural taxation system requires serious reforms, including in terms of eliminating tax problems for different categories of agricultural producers. However, taxation in agriculture, where there are specific economic conditions, should stimulate producers, which

  19. Consumers, Industrialists and the Political Economy of Green Taxation: CO2 taxation in OECD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Daugbjerg, Carsten; Hjøllund, Lene

    2001-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a detailed analysis of the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first......-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that an important reason this is so is that industry as a group, in contrast to households, is capable of lobbying against green taxation. The paper presents empirical findings on CO2 taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical......) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. Udgivelsesdato: MAY...

  20. Impact on Sensex of Scrapping Double Taxation of Dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Ragunathan V; Varma, Jayanth R.

    1997-01-01

    The taxation of dividends has generated an active debate in recent months in the media. While the industry representatives have been critical of the double taxation of dividends, the Government seems to be questioning the very premise that dividends are double taxed in India. The argument that scrapping the double taxation of dividends will give the Sensex a much needed boost seems to have tilted the scales. What will be the impact of scrapping of dividend tax on Sensex? One finds that the st...

  1. Beyond taxation: Discourse around energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Takahiro; Tsuboyama, Yuki; Hara, Yoritoshi

    2016-01-01

    Energy policy literature tends to emphasise the impact of taxation on energy preference. However, the present case concerning extremely low acceptance of diesel cars in Japan could not be explained by taxation. As a possible factor, the paper sheds light upon discourse around the energy policy. The policy aimed to characterise diesel technology as emitting particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The paper contributes to extending the existing understanding of the role of public policy by embracing the linguistic interactions complemented by visualisation. - Highlights: • Taxation cannot explain extremely low acceptance of diesel fuelled cars in Japan. • Explore meaning attachment process. • Complementarity between cost-benefit evaluation and meaning attachment.

  2. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  3. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO2 taxation in OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms' ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO 2 taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO 2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs

  4. Adam Smith on public expenditure and taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C. Coutinho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Adam Smith’s view on taxation and public expenditure, by means of an almost literal reading of the Wealth of Nations famous passages on the “duties of the sovereign” and on the “maxims of taxation”. Contrarily to the commonest usage of these passages, we will show that their core is the preoccupation with the public expenditure soaring and the defence of decentralisation. Furthermore – and also contrarily to the existing interpretations – we defend the non-existence of any contradiction between Smith’s income and price theory (and the incidence hypothesis, provided due attention is paid to the guiding role of the “maxims”.

  5. Effects of heritage taxation in Danish forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of heritage taxation rules on the economic performance of forestry and, more importantly, on decision making at the forest property level. In Denmark, when a property is handed over from one generation to the next, a heritage tax has to be paid. Apart from...... this, there is also a tax on the revenue caused by increase in property value during the ownership period. We analyse how the rotation age in model forest properties with given species composition and initial age structure is affected by these two taxes for a planned generational change every 30 years......, compared to an unplanned change and a reference model with no tax on heritage or property value increase (or no change of ownership). As the point of departure we apply model properties including 1000 ha of forest and with species compositions representative for different regions in Denmark. This allows us...

  6. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow, and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow. Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an immediate effect on the outcome or effect on the result equivalent to that spread on the treasury. Financial equilibrium in a general manner evokes the idea of harmony between different elements of a system, which in finance is harmonization of resources with the needs. Financial equilibrium can be defined by the company's ability to secure payment of its proceeds without interruption to current liabilities incurred in implementing its object of activity or tax laws, so it can avoid the risk of bankruptcy. Maintaining financial stability is the essential condition of survival of the enterprise, financial and balanced assessment must take into account the concrete conditions of the occurrence of default.

  7. Gender and Taxation : Improving Revenue Generation and Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As countries pursue the twin objectives of economic growth and poverty reduction, ... research project will investigate gender biases in taxation in six countries (Argentina, ... L'appel des bourses de recherche du CRDI pour 2018 est lancé.

  8. The petroleum taxation in France; La fiscalite petroliere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  9. Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will study trends in alcohol taxation and pricing policies across 10 ... Sample Survey Office of India and the 10 state excise tax departments. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  10. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve......-transfer system does not provide full disability insurance. By offering imperfect insurance and structuring disability benefits so as to enable workers to insure against disability by working harder, social insurance is designed to offset the distortionary impact of the redistributive labor income tax on labor...... to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax...

  11. Taxation in Cesee Countries – Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comaniciu Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fiscal revenues are the ones that demonstrate their importance for the formation of public financial resources, being considered as a product of historical development of the state. Numerous studies and researches on the taxes action in financial, economic and social level emphasized the link between fiscal policy, growth and level of development of a country. In this context, through this article, by presenting some general coordinates of taxation in countries of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE countries we will identify the similarities and differences concerning the taxation system and the impact of taxation on the socio-economic development. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, we consider that issues outlined highlight in which country taxation is a stimulating factor for economic growth and development, so that good practice be elements worthy of consideration.

  12. Taxation, business environment and FDI location in OECD countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dana; Nicoletti, G.; Vartia, L.; Yoo, K.-Y.

    Č. 502 (2006), s. 1-33 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : taxation * business environment * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/eco/working_papers

  13. SOME COORDINATES CONCERNING TAXATION IN THE EU CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COMANICIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For accession to European Union, tax area is of particular importance, because it recognizes the impact of taxation on economic growth and development, and indirect taxation significantly contributes to the formation of the EU budget resources. Without prejudice to the fiscal sovereignty of Member States, EU tax policy strategy aims establishing a framework that eliminate the tax obstacles that may affect cross-border economic activity, identify the actions on preventing and combating tax evasion, improve collaboration between tax administrations. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, through issues highlighted in this article, we will identify both the similarities and the particularities of taxation from Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey, and also manner in which taxation of the 5 EU candidate countries meets the requirements on the fiscal coordination and fiscal harmonization from EU tax policy perspective.

  14. Synthesis of Evidence for Tobacco Taxation Policy Reform in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing evidence shows that tobacco taxation policies, when they make tobacco ... annual conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... In this ROSSA bulletin: Meet Kathryn Toure, the new regional director of ...

  15. Privacy, Time Consistent Optimal Labour Income Taxation and Education Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad, Kai A.

    1999-01-01

    Incomplete information is a commitment device for time consistency problems. In the context of time consistent labour income taxation privacy reduces welfare losses and increases the effectiveness of public education as a second best policy.

  16. Redistributive income taxation under outsourcing and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal income taxation under labor outsourcing and FDI. We show how the optimal income tax response to the joint effect of outsourcing and FDI depends on whether FDI is complementary with, or substitutable for, domestic labor.

  17. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  18. On the equivalence between progressive taxation and inequality reduction

    OpenAIRE

    JU, Biung-Ghi; MORENO-TERNERO, Juan D.

    2007-01-01

    We establish the precise connections between progressive taxation and inequality reduction, in a setting where the level of tax revenue to be raised is endogenously fixed and tax schemes are balanced. We show that, in contrast with the traditional literature on taxation, the equivalence between inequality reduction and the combination of progressivity and income order preservation does not always hold in this setting. However, we show that, among rules satisfying consistency and, either reven...

  19. Lifetime income inequality with taxation and public benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kemptner, Daniel; Haan, Peter; Prowse, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how taxation, unemployment insurance, welfare, disability benefits and public pensions affect the inequality of lifetime income. Using results from a dynamic life-cycle model estimated using German panel data, we show that taxation and public benefits combined reduce the inequality of lifetime income, measured by the Gini coefficient, by 22\\%. Pensions only slightly reduce inequality in lifetime income. Welfare benefits, meanwhile, make persistent transfers to individua...

  20. Do international tax relations impede a shift towards expenditure taxation?

    OpenAIRE

    Genser, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    The paper questions the view that international tax relations had a decisive impact on the dismissal of expenditure tax scenarios as guidelines for recent national tax reforms in industrialized countries. It is argued that the introduction of consumption-type value-added tax systems must be regarded a step towards expenditure taxation favoured by international agreements and that double taxation treaties should not be regarded as a specific obstacle against a reform of national enterprise tax...

  1. Energy taxation policy in the European Union: the hydrogen case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, L.; Gulli, F.; Lanfranconi, C.

    2006-01-01

    The paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 describes the state of art of the taxation policy on hydrogen in EU Countries. Section 3 describes the methodology used in this paper. Section 4 compares the external costs of the different motor fuel cycles. Section 5 deals with the problem of energy taxation describing a proposal for European energy tax harmonisation based on the internalisation of external costs. Finally, section 6 resumes the main results of the analysis

  2. A Theory of Top Income Taxation and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Gonzalez; Jean-Francois Wen

    2014-01-01

    The development of the welfare state in the Western economies between 1930 and 1990 coincided with a puzzling pattern in the taxation of top incomes. Effective tax rates at the top increased sharply but then gradually decreased, even as social transfers continued rising. We propose a new theory of the development of the welfare state to explain these facts. Our main insight is that social insurance and top income taxation are substitutes for averting social confl?ict. We emphasize the role of...

  3. Digital Economy: The Future of International Taxation of Business Income

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is to make an assessment on the situation of the international taxation of business income in a digitalized economy. It has long been obvious that existing international tax rules, especially the Permanent Establishment, is outdated and unfit to allocate taxation right between states in the digital economic era. As economic development has continued, tax development has stagnated. The question of the thesis becomes: what are the possible solutions to this issue? The ...

  4. European Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Florin TUDOR

    2012-01-01

    The operation of different taxation systems in EU member states appears to promote more increasingly the appearance of double taxation entailing fraud and tax evasion. The phenomenon is amplified by the remaining control competences at the national level, and the lack of administrative cooperation in tax matters at EU level is being a decisive factor in delaying the causes with the consequence of prescription of the facts which brings serious damage enhanced EU budget. This study aims to exam...

  5. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  6. Efficiency of Decoupled Farm Programs under Distortionary Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    GianCarlo Moschini; Paolo Sckokai

    1994-01-01

    When lump-sum taxation is not feasible, decoupled transfers to farmers (which require raising government revenue) will entail welfare loss somewhere in the economy. Assuming the government's objective is to assure a given welfare level for farmers, we show that when decoupling is possible, free trade is always superior to some tariff protection for a small country, even under Distortionary taxation. As expected, for a large country there is scope for an optimal tariff policy that improves the...

  7. European Union Harmonized Excise Taxation : Occasional Importation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhua, Taina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written with the intent to compile the information related to occasional importation process and European Union harmonized taxation into a single package. The process is based on European Union legislation and the aim of it is to unify the taxation within the internal market area. The national excise duties are not part of the occasional importation process but are partly linked to it. The first part of the thesis discusses the occasional importation of goods subject to ha...

  8. Taxation, Corporate Financial Policy and the Cost of Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Alan J. Auerbach

    1982-01-01

    The cost of capital plays an important role in the allocation of resources among competing uses in a decentralized market system. The purpose of this paper is to organize and present what is known and what is hypothesized about the effects of taxation on the incentive to invest, via the cost of capital,taking full account of important issues that arise independently from the question of taxation. Included in the analysis is a discussion of empirical findings about the interaction of inflation...

  9. Taxation and regulation of uranium mining in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Government taxation and regulation have a profound influence on mineral operations. In Canada, taxation occurs both on the federal and provincial levels. In addition, both federal and provincial regulations also affect mine operations, sometimes with overlapping, or conflicting, legislation and jurisdiction. Three broad areas of regulation affect the mine production of uranium in Canada: (1) mining law or mineral rights; (2) the licensing procedures; and (3) regulation of occupational health and safety

  10. Financial system and taxation: the role in the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Roshaiza

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the financial system (specifically stock market development) and economic growth has been an important issue of debate. A well-functioning financial system can affect economic growth through the improvement of capital productivity and the efficient allocation of resources. The role of taxation as a major determinant of an active financial system and strong economic growth also becomes of interest to the researcher. Taxation through policy and revenue collection seems ...

  11. The Relation between Accounting Result and Tax Result in the Case of the Profit Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Băcanu Mihaela-Nicoleta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting and taxation are two connected domains in Romania. The proof that these areconnected is the computation of the profit tax, for which the tax result is computed based on theaccounting result. The scope of the paper is to present what is the relation between accountingresult and tax result. There is a direct relation but also an indirect relation between the two results,taking into consideration the way of computing the tax result, but also the professional judgment,when the revenues and the expenses are recorded in the accounting register. The paper alsoanalyzes which one of the two results influences the other result.

  12. Financial sector taxation: Financial activities tax or financial transaction tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.

  13. Health Considerations in Regulation and Taxation of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Mainous, Ryan W; Talbert, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is experiencing unprecedented growth. This can be contrasted to the use of conventional cigarettes which showed a decrease among adults with the current smoker prevalence dropping from 20.9% in 2005 to 17.8% in 2013. There is some data that e-cigarettes are attracting both former smokers and never smokers, and in particular, young people as users. Currently most states do not tax e-cigarettes. Taxation and regulation may have a similar overall goal of decreasing smoking but regulation tends to focus reduced availability of products. In terms of tobacco control, taxation focuses on the demand side of the equation. Taxation is a distinct strategy from regulation and has been shown to decrease new adopters of conventional cigarettes. A variety of potential taxation strategies can be considered by policymakers based on different assumptions about e-cigarettes and their utility, ranging from untaxed to taxation at moderate levels compared to conventional cigarettes to taxation equal to conventional cigarettes. Until more evidence for the benefits of e-cigarettes is presented, it seems prudent to view them as a potentially harmful and addictive product that ought to be regulated and taxed in an equivalent manner to conventional cigarettes. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Casino taxation in macao: an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xinhua; Tam, Pui Sun

    2011-12-01

    Macao's gaming industry has experienced dramatic growth for 8 years, yet with certain social costs due to compulsive gambling. The government has come under pressure for tax cuts even though its gaming receipts are falling relatively to the casino retained revenue. The request for tax relief is triggered by a recent decline in net profit despite fast growing gross gaming revenue under favorable market conditions. This is very likely caused by a substantial hike in casino operating costs due to increased competition and might also signal the presence of the principal-agent problem. Given the regressivity of gaming tax with respect to net profit, it is no surprise that casinos with lower profitability are more prone to seek tax cuts. The source of Macao gaming profit hinges on three distinct factors: rising demand from China, monopoly location for casinos, and market structure of oligopoly. These factors provide economic justifications for the current tax regime of Macao with a strong ability to pass tax burdens on to massive visitors. The government relies on casino tax revenue to deal with gambling related problems and promote local diversified development. Pushing for tax variability may create policy instability, business uncertainty, and unpredictable prosperity in the long term.

  15. CHOOSING BETWEEN DIRECT TAXATION OR INDIRECT TAXATION AS PRIME FISCAL TOOL WITHIN ROMANIA’S ECONOMY OF TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniu PREDESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a central issue of fiscal policy applied anywhere in the world of market economies: the problem to determine which type of taxation, direct taxation or indirect taxation, is better suited to assure maximum efficiency for fiscal policy applied in Romania. Mathematics proves to be a very useful tool in this case too, given it is applied through a sound economic and logical reasoning, with important results. In other words, it is applied in order for this paper not only to state which type of taxation must be used preponderantly in Romania, especially today, in times of continuous economic and financial crisis, but, especially, to compute how to use it, in long term, not in the least to alleviate effects of economic crisis, and, why not, curb economic crisis itself.

  16. Profit-driven drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Random drug testing of people being treated for chronic pain has become more common. Physicians may drug test patients on opioid therapy as a result of concerns over prosecution, drug misuse, addiction, and overdose. However, profit motive has remained unexplored. This article suggests profits also drive physician drug-testing behavior and evidence is offered, including an exploration of Medicare reimbursement incentives and kickbacks for drug testing.

  17. Application of international double taxation conventions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumiter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we sought to address the international double taxation phenomenon from two different standpoints. To begin with, in the first part we analysed the framework of international double taxation, and how this topic was tackled in both Romanian and international literature.International double taxation has been analyzed, mutatis mutandis, from an economic perspective, more precisely in terms of the implications that it generates on economies, on added value, on capital flows, on the internationalisation of business. Second, I believed it was important to analyse international double taxation from a legal perspective, through the jurisdictional effects of obtaining income or holding property at the European or international level. Romania's case is carefully approached in this paper, aiming to highlight the issues Romania is facing concerning cooperation in tax matters with authorities from other countries, how the more than 80 double taxation conventions are applied and interpreted, but also other aspects that should be considered by the Romanian tax authorities, based on the provisions of the Fiscal Code and the Fiscal Procedure Code. The article ends by presenting, commenting on and analysing two test cases in international double taxation, of remarkable importance and actuality for Romanian jurisprudence to observe how complex double taxation mechanisms operate in practice. The conclusion of this article emphasises the importance ofsignificant “steps” achieved by Romania on the path to creating a true “fiscal area” in the European Union, as well as the “corridors” that should be inserted to correct economi c – legal and economic deficiencies and gaps, in order to strengthen the fiscal area.

  18. ECO PROFIT - A NEW DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crecană Cornel Dumitru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a review of theoretical concepts including a conceptual delimitation of the term "sustainable development" from the first definition given in 1987 to concrete implementation of EU law and develop a strategy in this regard. Aim of the work is to emphasize the importance of the transition from an economy focused on obtaining maximum profits in a responsible economy, which does not exclude profit, but prioritizes basic maintenance of ecological balance. The innovative character of such a theoretical-methodological approach is limited only by the practicality of implementing the macroeconomic and microeconomic level. It is noteworthy, however, increasing research activities in this field of sustainable development literature study clearly reflects a new direction in the economy, the paradigm shift is expected by all professionals, but was seriously hampered by the financial crisis. Serious impetus was given to research done by the German company Puma, launched in 2010 through the development and publication of a profit and loss "green", taking into account the impact of the natural environment over activities, impact measured clear and published in financial statements of the company. Starting from these considerations, I propose in this paper, introducing the term ECOPROFIT or profit obtained under maintaining fundamental ecological balances, justifying the need for, and practical possibilities to implement this concept in economic and financial analysis, accounting and fiscal management economic entities by developing a model of differential taxation of profits, depending on the impact the entity's economic activities on the ecological balance.

  19. Taxation of carbon intensive imported products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Fuente Sanchez, C.; Dubilly, A.L.; Lescal, N.

    2010-01-01

    It is one of the greatest challenges of our time to make the link between development issues and climate change actions. The EU has committed itself, throughout the Kyoto Protocol and the current negotiation mechanisms, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gas, but the question is still pending on the possible ways to have those efforts harmonized globally, and in particular with developing countries. Why not set taxation on carbon intensive products imported, ted, in the European Union, from countries that do not provide 'green' guarantees in their fabrication process? We begin this study with a thorough analysis of the ins and outs of the carbon tax. On the one hand, it is a good way of adjusting prices and rectifying a competition distortion between those paying or their emissions and those exempted of constraints. On the other hand, one can ask oneself if it is fair to discriminate developing countries when they need growth and better living standards. After going through the legal issues in which this debate is imbricated, the third and last part of this study investigates the possible implementation issues in terms of tax level and of benefits' generation and use. This study illustrates the complexity of reuniting particular interests and global interests on global warming, as well as the complexity of sharing responsibilities on a fair way between industrialized and developing countries on climate change issues. The challenge is big and complex yet it is worth the effort. (authors)

  20. The important role of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    This is a discussion of the importance of energy taxation in EU countries. Although natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, its use may be taxed far harder in the future. The price effects of such a development are discussed. The increasing taxes on oil products which has taken place in the OECD area may come to slow down if competing economies elsewhere do not follow the same policy. The challenge is particularly coming from the new economies in Asia, included the giants China and India, which now have far larger economic growth than the OECD area with a corresponding increased energy consumption. Strong competition may develop both in the markets for products and in the market for factor inputs (energy), so that taxes within the OECD area no longer can be increased but must be lowered. This may also happen if the oil price is high over some time. As far as taxes on natural gas in the European gas market is concerned, the large industrial users will face a regional competitive situation for natural gas as an input factor, while they are globally in a competitive situation for oil as an input factor. In product markets, this industry competes globally in the same way, as does industry that uses oil. This may lead to European countries wishing to tax the use of natural gas in the consumer sector harder than gas for industry and the production of electricity

  1. The impact of taxation on Aboriginal ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranson, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper covers several key objectives including: sheltering income and assets owned by Bands from taxation; structuring businesses so that taxes are minimized at the outset; maintaining and managing business operations so as to ensure taxes continue to be minimized; and shifting permissible deductions to non-Aboriginal business partners (whenever possible) without infringing upon the rights Indians are entitled to under Section 87 of the Indian Act. The paper does not consider exploiting the rights or assets of Indians, rather it is about willing and cooperative business partners who are able to take advantage of a unique situation so that various levels of government do not get a bigger slice of the pie. It is important to remember that if one partner needs more cash to pay taxes, all partners suffer, because there is less cash available to reinvest in the business. Most First Nations and Aboriginal people maintain that taxes do not apply to them because various levels of government have no jurisdiction over them. The paper does not dispute this claim, rather while the issue of self-government and related jurisdictions issues are being resolved, it is still important to focus on using the status quo in minimizing taxes for Aboriginal businesses. The paper considers: the various taxes requiring consideration; the impact of other legislation and agreements; the various business structures and their treatment; and how to find the best structure for each business

  2. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty - contingent claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1990-01-01

    A workable method for the analysis of incentive effects of petroleum taxes under uncertainty is presented. The main advantage of the method is that it concludes with a single number for the after-tax value of any development plan, and thus allows for a quantification of incentive effects for any given description of production possibilities. It is, however, not possible to describe tax effects under uncertainty by simple magnitudes independent of production possibilities, such as wedges in rates of return. The theoretical basis is the contingent claims analysis from finance theory, which is applicable in particular to companies that are owned by well-diversified shareholders. It is not obvious that the tax authorities of poorly diversified countries should value uncertain income streams by the same method. The Norwegian petroleum taxation is shown to have strongly distortionary effects compared to a no-tax situation or a cash flow tax. These distortions were reduced by the tax changes that followed the 1986 decreases in crude oil prices. A weakness of the model of the Norwegian system is that an exactly optimal financial policy for the company has not been found. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Obtaining your annual internal taxation certificate

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    (cf. Article R IV 2.04 of the Staff Regulations) Your annual internal taxation certificate will state the taxable amount of your CERN remuneration, payments and other financial benefits and the amount of tax levied by the Organization during the previous financial year. In France, your tax return must be accompanied by this certificate. Current Members of the Personnel (including Members of the Personnel participating in a pre-retirement programme): - You will receive an e-mail containing a link to your printable annual certificate, which will be stored together with your pay and leave statements (e-Payslips). - You can also access your annual certificate via https://hrt.cern.ch (open 'My Payslips' at the bottom of the main menu.) - If you experience any technical difficulties in accessing your annual certificate (e.g. invalid AIS login or password), please contact CERN's AIS support team at ais.support@cern.ch. Former Members of the Personnel:- If you remember your AIS login and password, you can acc...

  4. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  5. The law and practice of electronic taxation in Nigeria: The gains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The law and practice of electronic taxation in Nigeria: The gains and challenges. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... With e-taxation, taxpayers can conveniently pay their taxes electronically from ...

  6. International double (non-)taxation : comparative guidelines from European legal principles

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Van de, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The principle of fairness advocates against international double taxation and international double non-taxation. Countries and international organizations (OECD, G20 and EU) have taken several initiatives against such taxation. However, these initiatives are not always effective. Also, certain legal authors question the legitimacy of the OECD and its action plan on BEPS. The essential goal of this research is to find guidelines to address international double (non-) taxation. We fir...

  7. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  8. Taxation of smokeless tobacco in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, S K; Arora, M

    2014-12-01

    The role of fiscal policy, especially taxation, though has been proved to be an effective instrument of tobacco control, its application is limited in India due to several reasons. This paper examines the tax structure, price and affordability of SLT products in order to provide evidence on how to strengthen the role of fiscal policy in tobacco control. Secondary data on tax structure and revenue from tobacco products were collected from the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. In order to measure the rise of prices corresponding to the increase in tax rate, the retail price index (RPI) and Whole Price Index (WPI) of SLT products were compared with the price index for all commodities for the period 2006-2012. The affordability of tobacco products is calculated by dividing prices of tobacco products by per capita income. During the last 6 years, the tax rate on SLT has gone up leading to a rise in the prices of SLT products more than the general price rise. However, the price rise is less than the per capita income growth indicating increasing affordability. The study observed a decline in the consumption of zarda and kahini due to the price increase during 2008-2013. However, the decline in the consumption of zarda is less compared with khaini due to a very low rise in its price. The prices should be raised more than the growth in income to influence consumption. Tax administration is a major challenge for SLT products and strengthening it could enhance revenue collection from SLT products.

  9. THE REFORM OF PERSONAL INCOME TAXATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes that were made to the taxation of income of individuals are considered; impact of changes in taxation on the salary to be paid is calculated; has been demonstrated that the personal income taxation in Ukraine has progressive-regressive character; It revealed that the burden on a single hryvnia to pay was dropped; the validity of the application of the tax social benefits is examined; has been revealed that the application of a tax social benefits leads to discrimination against individuals whose income slightly exceeds the cutoff amount for the use of tax incentives; the tax burden on wages and its dynamics are analyzed; enterprise savings by reducing the rate of the single social contribution are defined; the possible increase in wages while maintaining enterprise-level costs is calculated.

  10. Influence in the car taxation system. Henkiloeautojen vermuutosten vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alppivuori, K; Kallberg, H; Pekki, M

    1986-06-01

    In Finland the car prices are exeptionally high due to car taxes included in the new car prices. The gasoline price, which is at international leve, includes also taxes. The aim of this study was to calculate the effects of reducing the car taxes and correspondingly rising fuel taxes so that the state income car taxation does not change. The study was performed in two stages: an interview and a simulation study. The interview was aimed at the general public (postal poll) and at experts in car trade (personal interview). The aim was to reveal the parameters in the economic models explaining the behaviour of the public in car purchasing and car use. The simulation study was performed to calculate quantitative changes in, e.g. car park, traffic volumes and energy consumption caused by supposed changes in the taxation. One of the main results was that unchanged taxation is leading to rapidly increasing traffic volumes and total taxes for car use.

  11. Who bears the burden of international taxation? Evidence from cross-border M&As

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-border M&As can trigger additional taxation of the target's income in the form of non-resident dividend withholding taxes and acquirer-country corporate income taxation. This paper finds that this additional international taxation is fully capitalized into lower takeover premiums. In contrast,

  12. 26 CFR 1.852-2 - Method of taxation of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of regulated investment... Trusts § 1.852-2 Method of taxation of regulated investment companies. (a) Imposition of normal tax and... for partially tax-exempt interest provided by section 242. (b) Taxation of capital gains—(1) In...

  13. 22 CFR 40.105 - Former citizens who renounced citizenship to avoid taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... avoid taxation. 40.105 Section 40.105 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING... Miscellaneous § 40.105 Former citizens who renounced citizenship to avoid taxation. An alien who is a former... avoid United States taxation, is ineligible for a visa under INA 212(a)(10)(E). [62 FR 67568, Dec. 29...

  14. 26 CFR 1.468B-2 - Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of qualified settlement funds and... Taken § 1.468B-2 Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements. (a) In...) of this section is in lieu of any other taxation of the income of a qualified settlement fund under...

  15. 26 CFR 25.2701-5 - Adjustments to mitigate double taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments to mitigate double taxation. 25....2701-5 Adjustments to mitigate double taxation. (a) Reduction of transfer tax base—(1) In general. This... − $187,500). (g) Double taxation otherwise avoided. No reduction is available under this section if— (1...

  16. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section provides rules for the taxation of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement for...

  17. 26 CFR 521.117 - Claims in cases of double taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims in cases of double taxation. 521.117...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.117 Claims in cases of double taxation. Under Article XX...

  18. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-7 - Taxation of distributions and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of distributions and benefits. 1.403(b... Taxation of distributions and benefits. (a) General rules for when amounts are included in gross income... arrangements and other eligible retirement plans—(1) Timing of taxation of rollovers. In accordance with...

  19. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  20. Meet the New For-Profit: The Low-Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    "Doing well by doing good" is the business mantra of the for-profit-college industry. But one does not have to look far to find people who question the slogan's sincerity or the very legitimacy of that model. And that was even before reports of some companies' abusive student-recruiting practices and questionable educational standards fed a public…

  1. Hydro-Quebec is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The pros and cons of the potential privatisation of Hydro-Quebec were discussed. A brief review of charges of less than competent management, low profitability and the corporation's recent administrative restructuring was presented. The general thrust of the argument was that Hydro-Quebec plays a crucial role in the economic development of Quebec, it can be made to be more profitable and that for the good of Quebec it should continue as a public corporation under the control of the provincial government

  2. Quasi-experimental taxation elasticities of US gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Taxation elasticities provide inputs in public policy aimed at raising revenues. Using the quasi-experimental method, this paper calculates gasoline taxation elasticities for the USA over 1952-86. The medium (mean) elasticity over this period is found to be -0.075 (-0.122). However, the elasticity following the oil shock of 1973 is found to be statistically different from the pre-shock elasticity. Reasons for this change in elasticity are discussed. The implication of this analysis is that tax policies based on price elasticities, rather than on tax elasticities, might be using an inappropriate elasticity estimate and consequently misinterpreting the government's ability to raise tax revenues. (author)

  3. INDIRECT TAXATION TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS CRISTIAN MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to outline the recent dynamics of the indirect taxation in the European Union member states, with a special focus on the Romanian case. We could notice that indirect taxation continues to play an important role for all the member states, in their attempt to recover from the global economic crisis. Morover, we have presented some of the recent changes in the legislative frameworks, which happened with a rather rapid pace, and contributed to a rather challenging business climate.

  4. Carbon taxation reform in the European Union. The options involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' may be out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place in the EU. In this paper, we detail and discuss the different options available for such European carbon taxation. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 116

  5. Notes on Ricardo’s theory of value and taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoulfidis, Lefteris

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: on the one hand is to discuss Ricardo’s version of the labour theory of value; and on the other hand, is to analyse some crucial aspects of Ricardo’s theory of taxation as an extension and further elaboration of his theory of value. This discussion is illustrated with the use of a formal model based on a generalisation of Ricardo’s numerical examples. The claim that the paper raises is that Ricardo’s analysis of taxation is a kind of a comparative statics...

  6. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-01-01

    It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions) of transnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two dispute settlement procedures-the OECD First Model T...

  7. Taxation of income of natural persons resulting from emloyment

    OpenAIRE

    Lísková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    in English Taxation of individual income tax My diploma thesis contents three major parts, which is divided into smaller articles. In the first part I am trying to present individual income tax in general. Place of income tax in system of taxation and concept of income tax , its function and definition. In another article I described historical evolution of individual income tax and distribution of taxes. To tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer (an individual or l...

  8. North Sea oil taxation in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A G; Crichton, D

    1979-01-01

    The Norwegian government has developed a complex fiscal regime since 1963 to cover the activities of oil companies in the North Sea. The purpose of this article is to identify and quantify the financial effects of the fiscal system on operating companies involved in the Norwegian sector. The emphasis is on the effect of the tax package introduced by the government in the Odelsting Proposition No. 26 of February 1975. The impact of the tax is not found to be well related to the profitability of fields and the sensitivity of the tax burden to key variables such as reserves, oil price, capital and operating costs and inflation is examined. The most promising change appears to be a discriminatory refund or remission of royalty payments to marginal fields. The Act's main innovation, Special Tax, fails to discriminate between fields of profitability and could influence development decisions in marginal fields. The special allowance provision, by reducing the real cost of capital expenditure and favoring capital-intensive operations, could influence the techniques of exploitation. The effect of quasi-fiscal measures, particularly of government participation via Statoil, is also examined. 10 references.

  9. NEW APPROACH IN THE ATTRIBUTION OF PROFITS TO PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENTS – THE AUTHORISED OECD APPROACH AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CROATIAN TAX LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Čičin-Šain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, hereinafter: OECD, is the leading organization in the field of taxation. It is the successor to the League of Nations’ work in the field of taxation. This organization, in its long history of work has been trying to solve the problem of attribution of profits of companies that do business across borders, without founding an individual company to carry out such work. This topic has been preoccupying the international tax community for many years. Recently, an entirely different approach in attributing the profits to the so-called permanent establishment has been adopted. Since this topic has never been discussed in the national academic literature, the author considered it important to handle this issue and see in which way the domestic law determines the profits of a permanent establishment and what are the implications of the work of the OECD on national legislation. This article consists of several chapters. The first one discusses the concept of a permanent establishment. The second part is devoted to a historical review of the methods for determining the profits of a permanent establishment. In the third part different theoretical models for determining the profits of a permanent establishment are being discussed. The fourth part is devoted to the new approach called the Authorised OECD Approach (AOA. The fifth part is devoted to domestic law and the implications of the work of the OECD on it. Finally, the author presents certain conclusions.

  10. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  11. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  12. Introduction of the Profit Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Peter N

    2010-01-01

    The profit surface is a visualization technique for data computed from trading rules. I simulate price paths and operate the trading rules to compute cumulative returns for the rule under different specifications. The specifications are pairs of integers, filter lag lengths, so a contour plot is useful to display cumulative returns for more specifications than can be shown otherwise.

  13. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, P

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs

  15. The role of private non-profit healthcare organizations in NHS systems: Implications for the Portuguese hospital devolution program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Álvaro S

    2017-06-01

    The national health services (NHS) of England, Portugal, Finland and other single-payer universalist systems financed by general taxation, are based on the theoretical principle of an integrated public sector payer-provider. However, in practice one can find different forms of participation of non-public healthcare providers in those NHS, including private for profit providers, but also third sector non-profit organizations (NPO). This paper reviews the role of non-public non-profit healthcare organizations in NHS systems. By crossing a literature review on privatization of national health services with a literature review on the comparative performance of non-profit and for-profit healthcare organizations, this paper assesses the impact of contracting private non-profit healthcare organizations on the efficiency, quality and responsiveness of services, in public universal health care systems. The results of the review were then compared to the existing evidence on the Portuguese hospital devolution to NPO program. The evidence in this paper suggests that NHS health system reforms that transfer some public-sector hospitals to NPO should deliver improvements to the health system with minimal downside risks. The very limited existing evidence on the Portuguese hospital devolution program suggests it improved efficiency and access, without sacrificing quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Taxation and Revenues for Education. Education Partners Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Faith; Whitney, Terry

    Funding education with property taxes has always been controversial. This paper examines taxation and the sources of revenue for education. The historical context in which tax and revenue sources have supported education in the United States is described. Also discussed are state tax-policy goals and education funding, and the embattled role of…

  17. Capital income taxation and the Atkinson-Stiglitz theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Gahvari, F.; Micheletto, L.

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for the role of financial system and money holdings in an optimal nonlinear income tax model, we argue that capital income taxation is a non-redundant policy tool even if individual preferences are separable between leisure and other goods.

  18. Taxation and the Preservation of Tribal Political and Geographical Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Richmond L.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the complexities of the taxation issue in Indian affairs, both for American Indian reservations and adjacent local governments. Demonstrates the role of statutes and case law in the recurring struggle to balance tribal immunities guaranteed by the federal government with the expectations of non-Indian taxpayers. (SV)

  19. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  20. OFFSHORIZATION AS MAIN PROBLEM OF HOLDING GROUPS TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Petlenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At this article, we have analyzed and systematized the conditions of holdings' activity to reduce the taxation level in countries and on the territory of special, so-called offshore, jurisdiction. In addition, we have made a suggestionhow to regulatean offshore capital flows inorder to prevent from tax frauds.

  1. Taxation of petroleum products: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Mahler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120countries. (author)

  2. About the petroleum taxation, evaluation at October 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This analysis provides information and data on the petroleum taxation in France at October 2004, on the excises and the additional value tax, the part of the taxes in the selling price. It presents also a comparison with the Europe and the tax revenue in the state budget. (A.L.B.)

  3. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  4. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  5. Danish Taxation of Pensions in the Perspective of EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønfeldt, Thomas; Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses Danish law on pension taxation, as implemented after the ECJ convicted Denmark in the case C-150/04, Commission v. Denmark, and the article concludes that Danish legislation still is in conflict with EU law, as it favours Danish pension and insurance companies to the detrimen...

  6. Self-Selection, Optimal Income Taxation, and Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2009-01-01

    The author makes a pedagogical contribution to optimal income taxation. Using a very simple model adapted from George A. Akerlof (1978), he demonstrates a key result in the approach to public economics and welfare economics pioneered by Nobel laureate James Mirrlees. He shows how incomplete information, in addition to the need to preserve…

  7. First Nations Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely used strategy that promotes smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. First Nations (FN) populations' tobacco use is estimated to be 2-3 times that of other Canadians and, in part, a reflection that tobacco products purchased on reserve by FN people are tax exempt.…

  8. Taxation and Skills. OECD Tax Policy Studies. No. 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This Tax Policy Study on Taxation and Skills examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries. This study also assesses the returns to tertiary and adult education and examines how these returns are shared between governments and students. The study builds indicators that examine incentives for individuals and governments…

  9. The incorporation of double taxation agreements into South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are different opinions as to the process whereby double taxation agreements (DTAs) are incorporated into South African law. This contribution aims to discuss some of the existing opinions and to offer a further perspective on the matter. At the heart of the debate lies the interpretation of two provisions, namely section ...

  10. Taxation of Tobacco Products in West Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 déc. 2011 ... Taxation of Tobacco Products in West Africa. In December 2007, Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) undertook an ... Dans ce bulletin du BRAS: Faites connaissance avec Kathryn Touré, la nouvelle directrice ...

  11. Federal income taxation of the U. S. petroleum industry and the depletion of domestic reserves. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, S. J.; Mount, T. D.

    1978-10-01

    This paper models in a dynamic framework the production activities of the United States petroleum industry in an attempt to measure the effects of the federal income tax on reserve depletion. This model incorporates general corporate taxes, including the capital subsidies, excess depreciation and the investment tax credit, and taxes unique to the industry: drilling subsidies and percentage depletion. Because corporate response to tax incentives depends on market power and behavior, three behavioral assumptions are tested for consistency with the 1960 to 1974 data period before the tax policies are simulated. These assumptions are perfect competition, profit monopoly, and sales monopoly. The tax policies simulated at the end of this paper present six possible alternatives for future petroleum industry taxation. Sales monopoly is selected as the behavioral assumption that best describes petroleum industry behavior. Tax simulations under sales monopoly reveal that historical income tax policies have kept oil prices artificially low, stimulating (subsidizing) reserve depletion.

  12. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of

  13. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO

  14. Profitability analysis of KINGLONG nearly 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua

    2017-08-01

    Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)

  15. Taxation of Capital Gains in Spanish Tax Treaties: The Belgium-Spain Double Taxation Convention on Income and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyse the treatment of capital gains in Spanish tax treaties. In particular, the author focuses on the new provision on the taxation of capital gains as a consequence of the alienation of shares in the Belgium-Spain double tax treaty.

  16. Converting MEMS technology into profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzek, Janusz

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses issues related to transitioning a company from the advanced technology development phase (with a particular focus on MEMS) to a profitable business, with emphasis on start-up companies. It includes several case studies from (primarily) NovaSensor MEMS development history. These case studies illustrate strategic problems with which advanced MEMS technology developers have to be concerned. Conclusions from these case studies could be used as checkpoints for future MEMS developers to increase probability of profitable operations. The objective for this paper is to share the author's experience from multiple MEMS start-ups to accelerate development of the MEMS market by focusing state- of-the-art technologists on marketing issues.

  17. Is merging and acquisition profitable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjeret, Frode; Soergard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector in Norway. The background is the fact that the profitability of these activities proves to be low. In buying, it is typically the selling shareholder who profits from the transaction, while the buying company does not really earn much. This result appears to be a robust result both in different countries, between sectors and independent of methodology. The report provides theoretical justification for merging and buying up and empirical evaluations of the effects of company integration. It is asserted that what can be learned in general from the literature may also occur in the European power sector. Furthermore, the report discusses the challenges faced by the companies if they want to expand through mergers and acquisitions

  18. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  19. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  20. Energy efficiency: potentials and profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaud, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)

  1. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  2. The renovated Almaraz is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehkanen, S.; Vaelisuo, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Almaraz power plant is situated in the Province of Extremadura in southwestern Spain. In the plant there are two pressurised water reactors that are delivered by Westinghouse and commissioned in the beginning of 1980's. In mid 1990's major renovations were made by Siemens. The plant is very profitable, says plant manager Araluce. The richness of the living nature in the area surrounding the power plant was emphasized in the oral and written presentations. (author)

  3. Towards higher transparency and efficiency in energy taxation. Energy taxation and environmental policy in a small open economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, Goeran

    2002-01-01

    The accrual of energy taxation has led to a complex structure of taxes and charges that are characterized by instability and low efficiency. Other reasons for analyzing the system is the pressure from our contractual responsibilities within the European Union and the raised ambitions in the environmental policy. The report leads to the conclusion that it would be motivated to separate fiscal energy taxation from measures to internalize environmental costs that the market does not register. This separation would make it possible to create a more transparent and rational energy taxation. The fiscal energy taxation ought to be a broad, value-based tax, equal for all energy sources. Value-based means, besides the energy content in kWh, also properties such as conversion and distribution costs. Two alternatives are suggested for the fiscal energy taxation: A separate consumption tax on energy. Such a tax would amount to 48% to produce the same income as the fiscal elements of today's energy taxes. Another alternative would be to include the fiscal energy tax in the value added tax. This would raise the standard VAT level to 30%, if the lower VAT levels are kept unchanged. With this model, consumption of energy would be treated as any other consumption. The environmental policy measures against greenhouse gases should be delt with through a system with international trade with emission quotas for such gases. Measures against other external effects from energy use are not suggested in this report, except for the opinion that economic incentives are preferable to regulations. The initial allocation of quotas ought to be done through an auction, since this method would give lower national costs than the alternatives. The system should cover all greenhouse gases and (almost) all sources which indicates that an upstream solution would be best with low administrative costs. A safety vent should be considered, so that extreme costs for CO 2 -emissions are avoided, if e.g. the

  4. Corporate Taxation and the International Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Peter Koerver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is argued th**at the higher degree of economic integration across borders and the international trend towards a reduction of corporate income tax rates have had a significant impact on the Danish corporate tax regime in recent years. Accordingly, during the last ten years the Danish statutory corporate tax rate has been lowered further, while several government actions at the same time have been taken in order to combat international tax avoidance and evasion. As a result, new anti-avoidance provisions have been introduced and some of the older anti-avoidance provisions have been tightened in order to prevent base erosion and profit shifting. Thus, to some extent Denmark has already tried to address a number of the key pressure areas mentioned in the recently published OECD BEPS report, such as international mismatches in entity and instrument characterization, the tax treatment of related party debt financing, transfer pricing and the effectiveness of anti-avoidance measures. However, the article concludes that these anti-avoidance provisions often suffer from being quite complex, very broad in scope and open to criticism from an EU law perspective.

  5. TAXATION OF PERFORMERS’ RIGHTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana SAVU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the Law no. 8/1996 („the Law”, the performers are required to exercise their rights through collective management for a range of economic rights provided for in article 1231 of the Law. A number of non-profit associations of various intellectual property right holders were established in this sense. Among them, CREDIDAM is the Performers’ Association, apart from that of authors (UCMR-ADA or of that of phonogram producers (UPFR. Thorough a series of ORDA’s Decisions, these Associations have each of them received a certain role in the collection of the rights which must be collectively managed. CREDIDAM activity is strictly regulated by Law; the duties and activities that it can carry on are performed under the provisions of the special law, the Law 8/1996 on copyright and related rights, and under their own Articles of Association. As a trustee, CREDIDAM activity consists in collecting the remuneration due to performers by the companies that use their artistic performances, and distribution of the appropriate remuneration to the artists, depending on the actual use of the Repertoire based on which they empowered CREDIDAM.”

  6. La maximisation du taux de profit

    OpenAIRE

    De Mesnard, Louis

    1991-01-01

    On the traditional micro-economic theory, firms are supposed to maximise pure profit. We study what happened when we take into consideration shareholders and the financial profit remunerating the financial capital. We show that it is necessary to surrender the financial profit maximisation to use the rate of financial profit maximisation. The cases of concurrence with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with variable coefficient of capital are studie...

  7. Management of Enterprise Profit: Theory and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Piontkevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of financial activity of commercial organization promotes achievement of the main objective of its activity – receiving profit. Both external and internal factors causing specifics of financial management of organization in the field of management of profit have impact on this process. In modern conditions of economic development this problem gains the greatest relevance, and new approaches for its decision are required. In the present article the author’s theoretical and methodological approach to profit management of organization is offered: its application is connected with revision of acting control system of enterprise profit on the basis of assessing the initial condition of profit, planning the demanded profit level, periodical monitoring condition of planned values on profit, and also adoption of flexible administrative decisions on reduction of deviations and increasing the efficiency of organization activity. The system of profit formation including corresponding income and expenses of organization is presented. Methods of revenue planning are characterized. The characteristics of income and expenses connected with non-operating operations and transactions is given. The essence of the main directions of using enterprise profit is revealed. Need of application of author’s technique of management of profit of organization taking into account influence of external and internal factors is proved. The universal purpose of management of profit of organization and a task providing achievement of the goal are formulated . Tools of assessment efficiency of the system of formation and use of profit which is actually created in organization are offered. The methodical approach to planning of profit allowing to increase efficiency of activity of organization is presented. The mechanism of an assessment deviations of planned indicators of effective management of profit from actual and adoptions of correcting decisions on

  8. Impact of the income based taxation on an individual farm’s economic standing (test simulation for a farm established of the opolski district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pieczonka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Individual farmers are exempt from personal income tax which provides a major departure from the principle of the duty’s common nature. Undoubtedly, introducing farmers’ liability for income tax will result in their obligation to maintain accounting records necessary to assess taxable income. The article is aimed to present particular bookkeeping modes for tax purposes and to discuss, which forms of taxation, i.e. lump-sum tax, flat tax, progressive tax, would turn out more beneficial for a selected farm. The simulation shows clearly that substituting the agricultural tax with the income tax assessed in compliance with the regulations applicable to sole traders will result in the decrease in the income from agricultural activities in the analysed farm. It is worth noticing, however, that taxation on general terms may prove profitable for some selected farms. That would apply to the farms making loss or to the farms with such a low profit that after all the due deductions and allowances they are likely not to pay the tax at all or their liability would be lower when compared to the agricultural tax obligations.

  9. Taxation of capital gains of companies from the alienation of shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the tax treatment of capital gains on shares of companies both in national and tax treaty law. The authors indicate that the authentic interpretation of the Art. 27 of Serbia's Tax on Profits of Legal Entities Law opens the door to taxing not only realised but also potential capital gains thus triggering certain harmful consequences. Relying on the comparative legal analysis they suggest measures how to eliminate the existing economic double taxation and plead for granting a credit for the tax on capital gains paid abroad. In order to hamper tax evasion the introduction of a security for the resident company whose shares are alienated by a non-resident company at a gain is suggested whenever the tax return has not been filed. By analysing Serbia's 58 tax treaties the authors conclude that 28 of them contain a single demarcation rule exclusively granting jurisdiction to tax the capital gains on shares to the state of residence of the alienator, while in remaining 30 treaties an additional anti-avoidance rule is prescribed.

  10. Analysis of the impacts of combining carbon taxation and emission trading on different industry sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheng F.; Lin, Sue J.; Lewis, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Application of price mechanisms has been the important instrument for carbon reduction, among which the carbon tax has been frequently advocated as a cost-effective economic tool. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful. It should therefore be implemented together with other economic tools, such as emission trading, for CO 2 reduction. This study aims to analyze the impacts of combining a carbon tax and emission trading on different industry sectors. Results indicate that the 'grandfathering rule (RCE2000)' is the more feasible approach in allocating the emission permit to each industry sector. Results also find that the accumulated GDP loss of the petrochemical industry by the carbon tax during the period 2011-2020 is 5.7%. However, the accumulated value of GDP will drop by only 4.7% if carbon taxation is implemented together with emission trading. Besides, among petrochemical-related industry sectors, up-stream sectors earn profit from emission trading, while down-stream sectors have to purchase additional emission permits due to failure to achieve their emission targets

  11. The strategic value of customer profitability analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the paper is to show how intelligence emanating from customer profitability analysis (CPA) can help improve strategic marketing planning. Insights into the profitability of individual customers, as well as the distribution of profitability across the customer base, can lead to

  12. 78 FR 11164 - Policy on Contractor Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Policy on Contractor Profits AGENCY... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013. Section 804, Department of Defense Policy on Contractor Profits... modifications to such guidelines that are necessary to ensure an appropriate link between contractor profit and...

  13. The Commission's proposal for a Directive on Double Taxation Dispute Resolution Mechanisms:Overcoming the final hurdle of juridical double taxation within the European Union?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerioni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the Commission’s proposal for a Directive on Double Taxation Dispute Resolution Mechanisms, by highlighting interpretative issues that its wording may arise and by discussing the conditions under which it could manage to lead to the elimination of (juridical) double taxation within the EU.

  14. Base Erosion and Profit Shifting: A Roadmap for Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    In this Editorial, the authors explain the context of this special issue of the Bulletin for International Taxation. The fundamental premise of the BEPS project is that a coordination of national responses to BEPS can both eliminate double non-taxation and protect against material unrelieved double taxation. The articles in this issue further a dialogue among tax policymakers, taxpayers, advisors and academics that is critical to achieve this objective.

  15. Relação entre a tributação do lucro e a estrutura de capital das grandes empresas no Brasil The relationship between the income taxation and the capital structure of large companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coletto Pohlmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é uma pesquisa teórico-empírica que utiliza a análise de regressão linear múltipla com o objetivo de testar a validade de hipóteses relacionadas à influência da tributação do lucro na estrutura de capital das grandes empresas no Brasil. Segundo a teoria do tradeoff, a empresa, incentivada pela vantagem fiscal do endividamento, recorre a capitais de terceiros até o nível em que os custos associados aos riscos de falência superam essa vantagem. A teoria do pecking order, por sua vez, preconiza uma hierarquização das fontes de financiamento e não atribui à tributação do lucro papel relevante na explicação do endividamento. Duas hipóteses foram postas à prova: a primeira testou a validade da teoria do tradeoff quanto à existência de impacto da tributação do lucro no endividamento. A testou a presença dessa relação nas firmas com alto endividamento e baixo nível de tributação, para as quais não haveria a vantagem fiscal do endividamento. A pesquisa tomou por base valores médios dos dados de 2001 a 2003 das 500 maiores empresas estabelecidas no Brasil, segundo a Revista Exame. A hipótese central da pesquisa restou confirmada: existe uma relação positiva entre o nível de tributação do lucro e o grau de endividamento. Essa relação foi verificada, também, para as empresas com alto endividamento e baixo nível de tributação do lucro. Esses achados confirmaram o maior poder preditivo da teoria do tradeoff em detrimento da teoria do pecking order quanto ao impacto da tributação do lucro sobre a decisão de endividamento.This paper is an empirical research that uses analysis of multiple linear regression to test validity of hypotheses related to influence of profit taxation in capital structure of large companies in Brazil. According to the tradeoff theory, encouraged by tax advantage of debt, company appeals to third parties capitals up to the level in which costs related to bankruptcy

  16. Energy versus economic effectiveness in CHP (combined heat and power) applications: Investigation on the critical role of commodities price, taxation and power grid mix efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Rossi, Mosè

    2016-01-01

    Starting from PES (primary energy saving) and CSR (cost saving ratio) definitions the work pinpoints a “grey area” in which CHP (combined heat and power – cogeneration) units can operate with profit and negative PES. In this case, CHP can be profitably operated with lower efficiency with respect to separate production of electrical and thermal energy. The work defines the R-index as the ratio between the cost of fuel and electricity. The optimal value of R-index for which CHP units operate with both environmental benefit (PES > 0) and economic profitability (CSR > 0) is the reference value of electrical efficiency, η_e_l_-_r_e_f, of separate production (national power grid mix). As a consequence, optimal R-index varies from Country to Country. The work demonstrates that the value of R corresponds to the minimum value of electrical efficiency for which any power generator operates with profit. The paper demonstrates that, with regard to the profitability of cogeneration, the ratio between the cost of commodities is more important than their absolute value so that different taxation of each commodity can be a good leverage for energy policy makers to promote high efficiency cogeneration, even in the absence of an incentive mechanism. The final part of the study presents an analysis on micro-CHP technologies payback times for different European Countries. - Highlights: • Investigation of the grey area where CHP profitably operates also with negative PES. • Study starts from definition of primary energy saving PES and cost saving ratio CSR. • Definition of the R-index as the ratio between the cost of fuel and electricity. • The optimal value of R for which the “grey area” disappears is R = η_e_l_-_r_e_f. • R is also the value of η_e_l for which any electric generator profitably operates.

  17. Mapping the Profit Motive: The Distinct Geography and Demography of For-Profit Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W. Brett

    2015-01-01

    For-profit charter schools represent a controversial new market-based education reform (Garcia, Barber, & Molnar, 2009; Conn, 2002). This essay explores how schools operated by for-profit corporations differ from those operated by non-profit organizations. Specifically, do for-profit charter schools locate in demographically distinct areas and…

  18. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....... that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research...

  19. How to make microenterprise profitable

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimenko, Pavel; Hokkanen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    The idea of the thesis is to give a good insight on how to make a microenterprise profitable from marketing and networking points of view and explain the basic steps that are needed to be taken when establishing a company. We took the company Maks Investment & Consulting Group Oy (MIC Group), which is approximately one year old consulting firm, as a case study. The company was studied very carefully from the very beginning of its operations. Business plan of MIC Group was also studied in orde...

  20. Energy taxation in Southern Europe: The case of Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modesto, L.

    1993-01-01

    It is investigated whether or not the imposition of a common EC energy tax will penalize more the poorer Southern European economies and if this will harm convergence at the EC level. The existing studies and empirical evidence are briefly surveyed. Then the results obtained when using the macroeconometric HERMES models to stimulate the introduction of an energy tax are exploited. The conclusions, however, have limited value, since the authors only have HERMES results for one Southern European economy: Portugal. Finally, the convergence in Europe and the effects of energy taxation on convergence are investigated. It is concluded that energy taxation will harm growth all over the EC, penalizing more one of the less developed countries (in this case Portugal), and having most probably adverse effects on convergence. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 22 refs

  1. Taxation of the economical activities developed in the sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcio Branco de

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the power of taxation is straightly connected to the idea of territory. It is important to establish the limits of tax jurisdiction not only for taxes in view of which territoriality is part of the taxable event as defined in legislation - import tax (I.I.) and excise tax (IPI) -, but also for those the location of a possession - property tax (IPTU) - or the place in which services are rendered - service occupation tax (ISS) and sales tax (ICMS) - appear as the main component of the taxable event. According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, and the Brazilian internal legislation as well, Federal Government has full sovereignty over its territorial sea -12 mile zone. In other areas (contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and brazilian continental shelf), sovereignty is restricted to the supervision of some activities, not involving power of taxation. (author)

  2. Development of Ad Valorem Real Property Taxation System in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Buzu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes key aspects of the new ad valorem property taxation (AVT system which is currently implemented in the Republic of Moldova and outlines ways of its further potential development. The author uses both systemic and synergistic approaches to develop a methodology for the assessment of the AVT system efficiency based on the multipurpose cadastre data. The study identifies key characteristics of the AVT system, as well as main problems associated with the implementation of the new property taxation system and with the compatibility of the fiscal and the real property cadastre data, and makes suggestions for further development of the AVT system in the country. The study allows to identify and maximize the benefits of the AVT system.

  3. Registered indians and tobacco taxation: a culturally-appropriate strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, A E Dennis; Khan, Nadia A

    2005-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely-used strategy that prompts smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. Registered Indian tobacco use prevalence is at least double that of the rest of Canadians and is in part due to the lower cost of tobacco products purchased on reserve by Registered Indians (RIs) as they are tax exempt. Although registered Indian communities have the ability to collect tax on tobacco products and direct the use of these revenues, this strategy is rarely utilized. Tobacco taxation could have substantial health and economic benefits to RI communities, but perhaps is not culturally-appropriate. In order to better support RI communities, governments and other organizations need to examine this policy instrument in the context of RI populations.

  4. European Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin TUDOR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The operation of different taxation systems in EU member states appears to promote more increasingly the appearance of double taxation entailing fraud and tax evasion. The phenomenon is amplified by the remaining control competences at the national level, and the lack of administrative cooperation in tax matters at EU level is being a decisive factor in delaying the causes with the consequence of prescription of the facts which brings serious damage enhanced EU budget. This study aims to examine the legal ways and means to ensure that the information, reports, statements and other documents mandatory to the administrative or judicial proceedings to be legal required from the counterparts existing in other members states invoked as evidence by their competent bodies.

  5. An equilibrium-conserving taxation scheme for income from capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempere, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Under conditions of market equilibrium, the distribution of capital income follows a Pareto power law, with an exponent that characterizes the given equilibrium. Here, a simple taxation scheme is proposed such that the post-tax capital income distribution remains an equilibrium distribution, albeit with a different exponent. This taxation scheme is shown to be progressive, and its parameters can be simply derived from (i) the total amount of tax that will be levied, (ii) the threshold selected above which capital income will be taxed and (iii) the total amount of capital income. The latter can be obtained either by using Piketty's estimates of the capital/labor income ratio or by fitting the initial Pareto exponent. Both ways moreover provide a check on the amount of declared income from capital.

  6. Corporate Income Taxation: Selected Problems and Decisions. The Case of Ukraine 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Proskura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine and finding ways to resolve them in the context of European integration. The aim of this paper is demonstrate ways to improve corpo- rate income taxation on the basis of balancing the interests of taxpayers against those of the government. The paper will highlight the key issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine with its large share of unprofitable enterprises, unequal regulations for different corporate taxpayers and the requirement to pay tax advances even where there is an absence of taxable income. Based on our analysis, the causes of the origin and deepening problems of corporate income taxation in Ukraine will be demonstrated. A compar- ative analysis of income taxation in Poland and Ukraine was performed. It is believed that some elements of the Polish experience in the taxation of income can be applied to Ukraine.

  7. Responsibility and Redistribution: The Case of First Best Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertil Tungodden

    2001-01-01

    It is not straightforward to define the ethics of responsibility in cases where the consequences of changes in factors within our control are partly determined by factors beyond our control. In this paper, we suggest that one plausible view is to keep us responsible for the parts of the consequences that are independent of the factors beyond our control. Within the framework of a first best taxation problem, we present and characterise a redistributive mechanism that both satisfies this inter...

  8. Teach a man to fish? Education vs. optimal taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Stephens

    2012-01-01

    In models of redistribution, diff erences in human capital are often the relevant source of heterogeneity amongst individuals. Presumably, the distribution of human capital can be manipulated through education spending. This paper examines the use of education as a redistributive tool when there is a nonlinear tax system in place. The results show that taxation, whether under full or asymmetric information, substantially reduces the redistributive role of education spending in maximizing soci...

  9. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz, Jens Oliver

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  10. Driving the getaway car? Ireland, taxation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Killian, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Taxation is about far more than revenue-raising: it concerns power and impacts taxpayer behaviour. It is pivotal in enhancing accountability and participation in young states through the bargaining process between a government and its citizens. Very significantly, it often has unexpected consequences, and the tax system of one country can easily have an impact on economic or social behaviour in another. Since business is now international, it is important that taxes are d...

  11. Macroeconomic and sectoral effects of energy taxation in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppl, A.; Kratena, K.; Pichl, C.; Schebeck, F.; Wueger, M.; Schleicher, S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of energy taxation on the Austrian economy are analyzed. Simulations are carried out with a linked input output macromodel. The macroeconomic effects of an energy tax on economic growth, employment, the rate of inflation (change in the consumer price index), the budget deficit and the current account will be explained, as well as the sectoral impact on differenT industries. 7 tabs., 7 refs

  12. Corporate income taxation uncertainty and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zagler, Martin; Zanzottera, Cristiana

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of legal uncertainty around corporate income taxation on foreign direct investment (FDI). Legal uncertainty can take many forms: double tax agreements, different types of legal systems and corruption. We test the effect of legal uncertainty on foreign direct investment with an international panel. We find that an increase in the ratio of the statutory corporate income tax rate of the destination relative to the source country exhibits a negati...

  13. Taxation – Charges to stamp duty as consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Shardlow, Janice B.

    1998-01-01

    The author examines issues, illustrated by relevant case law, relating to the imposition of a charge to taxation at a fixed point in time by reference to consideration. Article by Janice B. Shardlow (Lecturer, University of Wolverhampton) published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  14. On Noncooperative Capital Income Taxation in Open Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Kletzer

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic use of capital income taxation and lump-sum fiscal policies for gaining national advantage in an integrated world capital market. Each fiscal authority seeks to maximize a social welfare function defined over the utilities of home country residents incorporating national redistributing objectives. A national optimum policy is to impose a non-discriminatory source-based capital income tax or subsidy along with an optimal lump-sum tax and transfer plan. Reside...

  15. Top tax system: a common taxation system for all nations

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2009-01-01

    I am suggesting new methods, and innovative and alternative policies in the areas of optimal taxation, tax collection, money supply and banking financial system to help remove corruption, tax evasion, economic recession, black money, fake currency and societal inequalities. In my opinion, the proposed TOP Tax system may usher in good governance, 100% tax compliance and corruption free environment. It suggests a single tax called “TOP Tax” (Transfer Or Purchase Tax) for both Centre and States ...

  16. Petroleum taxation: a comparison between Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Salata, D. V.; Drebot, V. V.; Vorozheykina, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper compares mineral resource recovery taxes for oil to be paid in Kazakhstan and the RF. It provides a case study on an average Kazakh oil and gas company and presents tax calculations as an example. To compare the taxation systems in Kazakhstan and the RF, the situation is modelled as if the field was located in the RF and the relevant calculations are carried out in compliance with national laws and regulations.

  17. Marginal versus Average Beta of Equity under Corporate Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Diderik

    2009-01-01

    Even for fully equity-financed firms there may be substantial effects of taxation on the after-tax cost of capital. Among the few studies of these effects, even fewer identify all effects correctly. When marginal investment is taxed together with inframarginal, marginal beta differs from average if there are investment-related deductions like depreciation. To calculate asset betas, one should not only 'unlever observed equity betas, but 'untax' and 'unaverage' them. Risky tax claims are value...

  18. Optimal income taxation with endogenous participation and search unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Etienne; Parmentier, Alexis; van der Linden, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterizes the optimal redistributive taxation when individuals are hetero- geneous in two exogenous dimensions: their skills and their values of non-market activities. Search-matching frictions on the labor markets create unemployment. Wages, labor demand and participation are endogenous. The government only observes wage levels. Under a Max- imin objective, if the elasticity of participation decreases along the distribution of skills, at the optimum, the average tax rate is in...

  19. Optimal taxation and public provision for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbur, Ravi; Paukkeri, Tuuli; Pirttilä, Jukka; Tuomala, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The existing literature on optimal taxation typically assumes there exists a capacity to implement complex tax schemes, which is not necessarily the case for many developing countries. We examine the determinants of optimal redistributive policies in the context of a developing country that can only implement linear tax policies due to administrative reasons. Further, the reduction of poverty is typically the expressed goal of such countries, and this feature is also taken into account in our...

  20. Reforming Family Taxation in Germany - Labor Supply vs. Insurance Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Fehr; Manuel Kallweit; Fabian Kindermann

    2013-01-01

    The present paper quantifies the economic consequences of eliminating the system of income splitting in Germany. We apply a dynamic simulation model with overlapping generations where single and married agents have to decide on labor supply and homework facing income and lifespan risk. The numerical exercise computes the resulting welfare changes across households and isolates aggregate efficiency effects of a move towards either individual taxation or family splitting. Our results indicate s...

  1. The future of personal wealth and inheritance taxation in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Pekala, Maciek

    2013-01-01

    Many countries have recently abandoned or experienced significant reduction in tax rates and revenues from personal wealth and inheritance taxation. Today, Norway remains one of the few countries that still tax annual wealth and intergenerational wealth transfers. Both taxes however face a substantial opposition and their future remains uncertain. In this paper, a dynamic microsimulation model MOSART developed by Statistics Norway is used to project and discuss future revenues and distributio...

  2. TAXATION OF PERSONAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA: PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The personal income tax is not only as an important revenue instrument but also as an instrument of national policy. Taxation of personal income in European Union countries is regulated usually by a progressive rate structure. This article aims to highlight the differences between Romania and other EU member states in the field of personal income tax and to raise the issue of reforming the tax system by introducing the tax household.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of volumetric alcohol taxation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Doran, Christopher M; Vos, Theo; Shakeshaft, Anthony P

    2010-04-19

    To estimate the potential health benefits and cost savings of an alcohol tax rate that applies equally to all alcoholic beverages based on their alcohol content (volumetric tax) and to compare the cost savings with the cost of implementation. Mathematical modelling of three scenarios of volumetric alcohol taxation for the population of Australia: (i) no change in deadweight loss, (ii) no change in tax revenue, and (iii) all alcoholic beverages taxed at the same rate as spirits. Estimated change in alcohol consumption, tax revenue and health benefit. The estimated cost of changing to a volumetric tax rate is $18 million. A volumetric tax that is deadweight loss-neutral would increase the cost of beer and wine and reduce the cost of spirits, resulting in an estimated annual increase in taxation revenue of $492 million and a 2.77% reduction in annual consumption of pure alcohol. The estimated net health gain would be 21 000 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), with potential cost offsets of $110 million per annum. A tax revenue-neutral scenario would result in an 0.05% decrease in consumption, and a tax on all alcohol at a spirits rate would reduce consumption by 23.85% and increase revenue by $3094 million [corrected]. All volumetric tax scenarios would provide greater health benefits and cost savings to the health sector than the existing taxation system, based on current understandings of alcohol-related health effects. An equalized volumetric tax that would reduce beer and wine consumption while increasing the consumption of spirits would need to be approached with caution. Further research is required to examine whether alcohol-related health effects vary by type of alcoholic beverage independent of the amount of alcohol consumed to provide a strong evidence platform for alcohol taxation policies.

  4. Centralized versus decentralized taxation of mobile polluting firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguay, Georges A.; Marceau, Nicolas

    2001-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation

  5. Employee benefits in terms of accounting and taxation system

    OpenAIRE

    ŠÍMA, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The theme of this bachelor thesis is Employee benefits in terms of accounting and taxation system. Some companies also include non-monetary bonuses as a way of rewarding their employees. Employee benefits substantially affect satisfaction, loyalty and motivation of all employees. The popularity of employee benefits is also supported by the effort of the companies to optimise taxes, which is the outcome of employee benefits. The main goal was to characterise employee benefits and to explain it...

  6. The Swedish Inheritance and Gift Taxation, 1885–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Du Rietz, Gunnar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the modern Swedish inheritance taxation from its introduction in 1885 to its abolishment in 2004. A thorough description is offered of the basic principles of the tax, including underlying ideas and ambitions, tax schedules, and rules concerning valuation of assets, liability matters and deduction opportunities. Using these rules, we calculate inheritance tax rates for the whole period for a number of differently endowed family firms and individuals. The ov...

  7. Swedish Inheritance and Gift Taxation (1885–2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Du Rietz, Gunnar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the modern Swedish inheritance taxation from its introduction in 1885 to its abolishment in 2004. A thorough description is offered of the basic principles of the tax, including underlying ideas and ambitions, tax schedules, and rules concerning valuation of assets, liability matters and deduction opportunities. Using these rules, we calculate inheritance tax rates for the whole period for a number of differently endowed family firms and individuals. The ov...

  8. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Union with a distinction between value systems and surface systems. At the practical level characteristics have been established of property taxation volvasystems in the European Union considering the range of subjective and objective methods for determining and updating the tax base, as well as the amount of tax burden. Subsequently, an analysis has been done of the fiscal functions of property tax within the European Union. It has been noted that the role of the property tax in individual Member States of the European Union is different. Results indicate that the key cause of a significant variation in effects of a fiscal nature is the adopted method of determining the so-called tax value of the property (market value or rental value of the property, as determined for the purposes of establishing the tax base as well as accepted rates. It was found that tax revenues in countries where cadastral systems exist are much greater than in the case of surface systems. It should also be noted that, in countries where the dimension of property taxes is made conditional on the data collected in cadastral records, the tax potential varies, and the reasons for this state of affairs are the specific solutions adopted in particular European countries.

  9. MODERN APPROACHES TO ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Murovana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Actual issues of accounting and taxation at enterprises of green business under the terms of realization of state environmental policy of Ukraine are investigated. Ways of improving methodology of accounting in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, legal regulation of calculation taxes and charges and control over its payment to the budget are defined and proved for the purpose of simplifying business activities and increasing investment prospects of green businesses enterprises in Ukraine.

  10. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions oftransnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two disputesettlement procedures-the OECD First Model Tax Convention and a similar EU Convention-with the exclusive focus on disputes relatingto the imposition of double taxation. It will look at the ways in which state roles may vary under these procedures from assisting inthe negotiation process to taking a part similar to, but with important differences from, diplomatic protection on behalf of an affected enterprise. The article will examine the situations under which the settlement procedure is required and/or available, how the procedures are triggered, the obligations and parts played bythe parties, the means by which the disputes are resolved (from negotiations to tribunals and the limitations of the procedures. Are they “taxpayer friendly”? As a result the reader may draw comparisons between the two procedures. Finally, the article will look at the proposed OECD Arbitration Clause which is intended to be incorporated into Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention as well as how thesemechanisms relate and/or conflict with bilateral tax treaties and theGATS.

  11. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO x emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO x emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects

  12. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.dubois@kuleuven.be

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  13. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-01

    Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO(x) emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.

  15. Taxation of Insolvent Companies: Empirical Evidence in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Santos Arromba Dinis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of taxation of insolvent companies in Portugal, particularly regarding the Portuguese tax on revenue of legal entities (IRC. For this purpose, first, some considerations on the legal framework of insolvent companies are woven and, second, their tax regime is analyzed. Then, a brief review of the main studies that, in the international context, analyze and debate major issues derived from the tax regime of insolvent companies is conducted, particularly in Brazil, Spain, United States, and Italy. Finally, there are the results of an empirical study conducted in Portugal, in 2013, which evaluates and compares the opinions of insolvency administrators (IA, the tax and customs authority (TA, and court magistrates (CM, in order to contribute to a better solution concerning business taxation under this regime. Respondents (IA, TA, CM demonstrate objective thinking about the fact they believe it is very important that the Portuguese Code of Insolvency and Business Recovery (CIRE and the Portuguese Code of Tax on Revenue of Legal Entities (CIRC are modified, now to make clear whether the settlement of property ownership of an insolvent estate is liable to the IRC, then to assign a chapter specifically devoted to the subject of taxation on insolvency in Portugal.

  16. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Zlatić

    Full Text Available We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.

  17. International Taxation and FDI Strategies: Evidence From US Cross-Border Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Herger; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston

    2011-01-01

    While there is a well-established body of empirical research documenting the negative effect of taxation on foreign direct investment (FDI), there is scant evidence on the extent to which international tax considerations (double taxation, international tax relief stipulated in bilateral tax treaties and the effect of withholding taxes) affect the role of taxation for FDI, and how tax issues differ according to the investment strategies—‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’—pursued by %multinational fir...

  18. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER; Adnan GERÇEK

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added tax...

  19. Taxing Pensions of an Internationally Mobile Labor Force: Portability Issues and Taxation Options

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising share of individuals spending at least some part of their working life abroad and acquiring pension rights. While the portability of pensions and other social benefits has received some analytical attention over the recent decade there is currently limited analytical guidance on the taxation of retirement provisions within a country, and there is virtually none for the taxation of internationally portable pensions. For both national and international taxation of pensions, th...

  20. Basic principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Khodyreva Viktoriia Andreevna

    2015-01-01

    This research is devoted to general principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises. Development of small-scale enterprises is one of the most important lines of tax policy in Russian Federation. The development of principles of taxation is important while forming a strong state system of taxation. In this work basic principles and some specific are provided. This work is of great scientific interest to law students, graduates, teachers and other persons interested in law and particularly i...

  1. Tax systems of EU countries and agreements to avoid double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Zbytovská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Tax systems of the states in the European Union and double taxation avoidance agreements The purpose of this Master thesis on the theme "Tax systems of the states in the European Union and double taxation avoidance agreements" is to provide a complete description and an analysis of the actual situation of tax harmonization in the European Union and of the progress made in this field. Simultaneously the Master thesis presents the reasons for concluding the double taxation avoidance agreements ...

  2. International Taxation and the Direction and Volume of Cross-Border M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Harry; Voget, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In an international merger or acquisition, the national residences of the acquirer and the target determine to what extent the newly created multinational firm is subject to international double taxation. This paper presents evidence that the parent-subsidiary structure of newly created multinational firms reflects the prospect of international double taxation. The number of acquiring firms at the national level similarly reflects international double taxation. The evidence suggests that tax ...

  3. The taxation installment in Romania . Between mass - media’'s ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Mihail Papuc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay brings out into relief the situation of Romanian taxation in contrast with taxation level from European Union. To this end there are used a series of statistical data in relation to major category of tax, in the way how Eurostat presences. At the same time the research brings into relief a certain option as regards of pressure taxation assignment on some categories of tax payer.

  4. Double Dividend Taxation Relief: A New View From The Corporate Income Tax Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Lazar

    2010-01-01

    Double taxation of dividends is a matter of great interest in the actual context of globalization and free movement of capital and persons. As the classical system is more and more abandoned, new solutions for the relief of double taxation are put into practice as a mean to reduce the fiscal burden on shareholders. With few exceptions, all these solutions are based on dividend tax relief. The paper aims at providing alternative solutions for double dividend taxation relief by taking some acti...

  5. Causes and effects of the international double taxation. Solutions of the conventions, model for avoiding the international double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Marius HERBEI; Sorin DUDAS; Aura COSTEA

    2010-01-01

    There are more frequent the situations when the same person has a political, economic or social relationship with two or more states , carrying on activities from which they obtain income or owning assets in many states. The double taxation may constitute a real barrier in the way of the economic technical-scientific cooperation, of setting-up of subsidiaries or branches abroad, of the foreign investments of capital and of the external loans, of the development of economic and financial affai...

  6. Taxes, bankruptcy costs, and capital structure in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean S; Yang, Jie; Carroll, Nathan

    2018-02-01

    About 60% of the US hospitals are not-for-profit and it is not clear how traditional theories of capital structure should be adapted to understand the borrowing behavior of not-for-profit hospitals. This paper identifies important determinants of capital structure taken from theories describing for-profit firms as well as prior literature on not-for-profit hospitals. We examine the differential effects these factors have on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, we use a difference-in-differences regression framework to study how differences in leverage between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals change in response to key explanatory variables (i.e. tax rates and bankruptcy costs). The sample in this study includes most US short-term general acute hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We find that personal and corporate income taxes and bankruptcy costs have significant and distinct effects on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, relative to not-for-profit hospitals: (1) higher corporate income tax encourages for-profit hospitals to increase their debt usage; (2) higher personal income tax discourages for-profit hospitals to use debt; and (3) higher expected bankruptcy costs lead for-profit hospitals to use less debt. Over the past decade, the capital structure of for-profit hospitals has been more flexible as compared to that of not-for-profit hospitals. This may suggest that not-for-profit hospitals are more constrained by external financing resources. Particularly, our analysis suggests that not-for-profit hospitals operating in states with high corporate taxes but low personal income taxes may face particular challenges of borrowing funds relative to their for-profit competitors.

  7. Taxation in France - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administration Processes Department, is available since 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your an...

  8. TAXATION IN FRANCE - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 1st March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the following link: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/Impots/proc_impot_attestation_interne.asp. ...

  9. Taxation in France | Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 15 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at this link. In case of difficulty in obtaining your annual certificate, send an e-mail ex...

  10. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2014

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, has been available since 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel, you will have received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN pers...

  11. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules).   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are ...

  12. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G

    1998-07-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms' ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  13. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1998-12-31

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms` ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  14. Charity care: do not-for-profits influence for-profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jan P; White, Kenneth R; Valdmanis, Vivian

    2002-03-01

    This study further examines whether not-for-profit hospitals exert pressure on for-profit hospitals to provide charity care and whether for-profit hospitals react differently than not-for-profit hospitals to managed care pressures and hospital competition in providing charity care. A two equation model is estimated using 1996 data from California hospitals. The results indicate that in mixed ownership markets, for-profit hospitals provide significantly less charity care as not-for-profit hospitals in the market provide more. Unexpectedly, study for-profit hospitals were not more influenced by price competition than other hospitals with respect to charity care. Having a unique role in providing charity care may justify continuing tax exemption for not-for-profit hospitals and enhance interest in payment and other policies with regard to conversions to ensure that not-for-profit hospitals continue to be represented in market areas.

  15. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  16. Introduction: Translating Potential into Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    potential into profits.’ The history of multinational enterprises (MNEs) knows many examples of economies with these characteristics similar to modern understandings of ‘emerging markets.’ This special issue analyzes foreign multinationals in emerging markets from a historical perspective. It seeks...... to understand changes and continuities in the opportunities and challenges less developed markets presented for MNEs, and in the various ways in which their managers responded to these. Rather than relying on the ‘emerging market’ label, we ask (1) why managers perceived certain markets as ‘emerging’ and which...... expectations they had when investing in these markets, (2) which challenges they faced there, and (3) how they subsequently addressed them. By tracing and comparing these investments and their consequences over time (and space), we hope to shed more light on managerial decisions and understand to what extent...

  17. Photovoltaic is always more profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    While indicating 31 recommendations made by the ADEME for the development of photovoltaic production, this article outlines a result published in the same report: the cost of solar photovoltaic production keeps on decreasing, and therefore, profitabilities without subsidy might appear before the 2020's in France. The cost of ground-based photovoltaic plant has indeed been decreasing from 6 to 1.5 euro per Watt in less than 10 years, with some regional variations. The connection cost could also be reduced by nearly 30 per cent for individual installations. New business models could then be implemented for a development without subsidy. The new thermal regulation could also have an influence on the development of solar production. These trends can be noticed in the world as well

  18. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  19. PROFIT SENSITIVITY IN THE DECISION - MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimi Ofilean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projections on the profitability of an entity is a prerequisite impact assessment of implementing various management strategies. The literature did not include a model sensitivity analysis in terms of profit margin of safety modification and safety coefficient. This article aims to explicit solutions for identifying the factors that influence the sensitivity of profit, the proposed analytical models to change the margin of safety (physical and value and coefficient of safety. The model allows the determination of limits that can increase or decrease sales costs so that the company remains profitable, ie to be able to maintain an adequate level of profit. This analysis allows knowing the influence of each factor in the evolution of the profitability of the entity, allowing managers to adopt the right decisions based on the importance of the influence of the analysis results of the entity. To facilitate understanding of the proposed analytical model is presented a case study.

  20. Impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    We sought to determine the impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability and assess the impact of secondary variables. Financial data were collected for all robotic cases performed for fiscal years 2010 (FY10) and 2011 (FY11) at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and included 9 surgical subspecialties. Profitability was defined as a positive operating income. From July 2009 through June 2011, 1295 robotic cases were performed. Robotic surgery was profitable in both fiscal years, with an operating income of $386,735 in FY10 and $822,996 in FY11. In FY10, urogynecology and pediatric surgery were the only nonprofitable subspecialties. In FY11, all subspecialties were profitable. Profitability was associated with case time, payor mix, and procedure type (all P profitability regardless of surgical specialty. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Profitability analysis in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O

    1978-01-01

    Measures of marginal profit are derived for the two payment classes--cost payers and charge payers--that the hospital industry must consider in profitability analysis, i.e., prediction of the excess of revenue over expenses. Two indexes of profitability, use when payment mix is constant and when it is nonconstant, respectively, are derived from the two marginal profit measures, and one of them is shown to be a modification of the contribution margin, the conventional measure of profitability used in general industry. All three measures--the contribution margin and the two new indexes of profitability--are used to estimate changes in net income resulting from changes in patient volume with and without accompanying changes in payment mix. The conventional measure yields large overestimates of expected excess revenue. PMID:632101

  2. Improving profitability in a grassroots refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T. [Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kennedy, P.; Bhargava, S. [KBC Process Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    Actions taken to maximise profit at the Star Refinery in Thailand are described. The company made good use of the Profit Improvement Programme (PIP) (which specialises in refinery economics) and the way in which PIP addressed the problem and the benefits derived therefrom is the nub of this paper. The efforts appear to have been more than satisfactory from the aspect of increasing profit margins. (UK)

  3. Public ownership helps boost HMOs' profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, P J

    1992-05-04

    Health maintenance organizations have found that the route to faster growth and better profitability may be turning into a for-profit business and issuing stock. For the past five years, such organizations have generally outperformed their older, not-for-profit counterparts that rely on debt to fuel growth. Since 1988, HMOs have completed 48 stock and debt offerings, raising $3.6 billion.

  4. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM US

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yinglin; Huang, Yating

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that affect bank profitability. We construct a sample of US banks from 2003 to 2015, and use return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) to measure bank profitability. We find that banks with higher profitability are the banks that have: (1) a higher deposits to total asset ratio, (2) a higher diversification ratio, and (3) higher operational efficiency. We also find that better-capitalized banks tend to be more profitable only when we use ROA as the me...

  5. Double taxation conventions in Romania Case: DSSs Râşnov vs. ANAf braşov

    OpenAIRE

    Dumiter Florin; Jimon Ștefania; Boiță Marius

    2017-01-01

    Conventions to avoid double taxation are the panacea of tax law, lato sensu, and direct taxation, stricto sensu. Although the current network of double taxation conventions has over 2500 tax treaties concluded by the world’s states, there are still issues that need to be addressed in their application: the anti-abuse provisions to be found in conventions, the practices of the type treaty shopping, LOB clauses, use of arbitration in the application of double taxation avoidance conventions. The...

  6. Cross Border Inheritances and European Community Law : Juridical double taxation of inheritances and the free movement of capital

    OpenAIRE

    Wiberg, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Double taxation is known as restricting the free flow of capital and accordingly results in a limited access of the internal market. Although, not many Member States have entered into double taxation conventions in order to avoid juridical double taxation of inheritances. The question then arises whether this failure to eliminate juridical double taxation is restricting the free movement of capital. The ECJ‟s case law regarding inheritance taxes are very varying. In its initial case law, the ...

  7. Assessment of Consequences of Replacement of System of the Uniform Tax on Imputed Income Patent System of the Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Manokhina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main questions concerning possible consequences of replacement of nowadays operating system in the form of a single tax in reference to imputed income with patent system of the taxation. The main advantages and drawbacks of new system of the taxation are shown, including the opinion that not the replacement of one special mode of the taxation with another is more effective, but the introduction of patent a taxation system as an auxilary system.

  8. U.S. Taxation of Business: Relevance of the European Experience. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, Charles E., Jr.

    American and European business taxation policies are compared in this booklet. Topics discussed in the paper include effects of the corporation income tax, integration of income taxation, and the value added tax. Two major differences between the American and European systems are noted. First, European countries derive substantial portions of…

  9. Taxation of Public Owned Land for Real Estate Reconstruction in Kiev, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.А. Malashevskyy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Researched of plots and fences used during the reconstruction of real estate in the city Kiev and proposed taxation on public owned land for a period of reconstruction of the real estate. On the base of these calculations, demonstrate the feasibility of such a land taxation.

  10. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    these policy recommendations are second best in strict economic terms, they are the best economic designs given that they must be politically feasible. Understanding the politics of green taxation is the prerequisite for the development of effective green taxation models which have a chance of being...

  11. 26 CFR 1.61-2T - Taxation of fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.61-2T Section 1.61-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-2T Taxation of fringe benefits—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) Fringe...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1293-1 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. 1.1293-1 Section 1.1293-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Losses § 1.1293-1 Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. (a) In general. [Reserved] (1...

  13. 20 CFR 638.812 - State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers. 638.812 Section 638.812 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 638.812 State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers. The Act provides that transactions conducted...

  14. 26 CFR 1.852-4 - Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. 1.852-4 Section 1.852-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Investment Trusts § 1.852-4 Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. (a...

  15. 26 CFR 1.991-1 - Taxation of a domestic international sales corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of a domestic international sales corporation. 1.991-1 Section 1.991-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.991-1 Taxation...

  16. 48 CFR 229.170 - Reporting of foreign taxation on U.S. assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of foreign taxation on U.S. assistance programs. 229.170 Section 229.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... General 229.170 Reporting of foreign taxation on U.S. assistance programs. ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.522-2 - Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. 1.522-2 Section 1.522-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-2 Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. (a) In general. Farmers...

  18. 26 CFR 1.857-6 - Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. 1.857-6 Section 1.857-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...-6 Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. (a) Ordinary income. Except...

  19. 20 CFR 209.14 - Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. 209.14 Section 209.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. For any employee who is paid a separation payment, the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.852-1 - Taxation of regulated investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of regulated investment companies. 1.852-1 Section 1.852-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....852-1 Taxation of regulated investment companies. (a) Requirements applicable thereto—(1) In general...

  1. 26 CFR 1.857-1 - Taxation of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of real estate investment trusts. 1.857-1 Section 1.857-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-1 Taxation of real estate...

  2. 26 CFR 1.457-7 - Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans. 1.457-7 Section 1.457-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...-7 Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans. (a) General rules for when amounts are included in...

  3. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of holders...

  4. 26 CFR 1.83-7 - Taxation of nonqualified stock options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of nonqualified stock options. 1.83-7 Section 1.83-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.83-7 Taxation...

  5. 26 CFR 1.597-2 - Taxation of Federal financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Taxation of Federal financial assistance. 1.597-2 Section 1.597-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.597-2 Taxation of Federal...

  6. The Optimal Taxation of UnskilIed Labor with Job Search and Social Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    In order to explore the optimal taxation of low-skilled labor, we extend the standard model of optimal non-linear income taxation in the presence of quasi-linear preferences in leisure by allowing for involuntary unemployment, job search, an exogenous welfare benefit, and a non-utilitarian social

  7. The decline and revival of environmentally-related taxation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    The EU Energy Taxation Directive's low minimum tax rate for diesel along with a general dieselisation of Europe's vehicle fleet explains why revenues from environmentally-related taxes gradually declined from 1999-2008. After the financial crisis environmentally-related taxation is resuming its...

  8. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions of transnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two dispute settlement procedures-the OECD First Model Tax Convention and a similar EU Convention-with the exclusive focus on disputes relating to the imposition of double taxation. It will look at the ways in which state roles may vary under these procedures from assisting in the negotiation process to taking a part similar to, but with important differences from, diplomatic protection on behalf of an affected enterprise. The article will examine the situations under which the settlement procedure is required and/or available, how the procedures are triggered, the obligations and parts played by the parties, the means by which the disputes are resolved (from negotiations to tribunals and the limitations of the procedures. Are they “taxpayer friendly”? As a result the reader may draw comparisons between the two procedures. Finally, the article will look at the proposed OECD Arbitration Clause which is intended to be incorporated into Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention as well as how these mechanisms relate and/or conflict with bilateral tax treaties and the GATS.

  9. Political effects of different types of CO2 taxation: A comparison of different taxation patterns in the field of public utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, H.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel-specific and performance-dependent CO 2 taxation of the power plant sector is compared with a standardized taxation under the aspects of directive effect and efficiency. In addition, the author compares the tax level required in both cases for a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions by power plants by 2005. This does not imply that the Federal Government intends only a sectoral reduction of emissions; the power plant sector is to serve as an example for assessing the cost and the necessary taxation level. For reasons of data availability, the investigation is limited to the field of public utilities. After an outline of the methodology applied, the directive effect of the two taxation models is analyzed verbally. The simulation model used is then described, and the quantitative results achieved are presented. The article closes on an interpretation of the results in comparison with the available literature in this field. (orig.) [de

  10. 24 CFR 1000.242 - When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.242 When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? The requirement for exemption from taxation applies only to rental...

  11. 26 CFR 1.897-1 - Taxation of foreign investment in United States real property interests, definition of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of foreign investment in United States... Provisions § 1.897-1 Taxation of foreign investment in United States real property interests, definition of... respect to the taxation of foreign investments in U.S. real property interests and related matters. This...

  12. Income- and energy-taxation for redistribution in general equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzRoy, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a 3-factor General Equilibrium (GE)-model with a continuum of ability, the employed choose optimal labour supply, and equilibrium unemployment is determined by benefits funded by wage- and energy-taxes. Aggregate labour and the net wage may increase or decrease with taxation (and unemployment), and conditions for a reduction in redistributive wage-taxes to be Pareto-improving are derived. A small energy tax always raises the net wage, providing the wage tax is reduced to maintain constant employment and a balanced budget. High ability households prefer higher energy taxes when externalities are uniformly distributed and non-distorting. (author)

  13. Mass Taxation and State-Society Relations in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Therkildsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Poll (‘head'''') tax has been the most common form of direct mass taxation in many sub-Saharan African countries since colonial times. Until very recently it was a dominant source of revenue for local governments. It has been a source of tension and conflict between state authorities and rural people from the colonial period until today, and a major catalyst for many rural rebellions. By tracing the history of poll taxes in Tanzania and Uganda, the chapter examines how these taxes have impact...

  14. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    ) pointed to, is weakened and might even be reversed in this context. Also, the median voter may choose a negative tax rate, even if he is poorer than the mean, in order to stimulate public goods production. The relevance of the model is illustrated with an application to the finance of higher education.......The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965...

  15. Latin American income tax systems and current double taxation agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espinosa Sepúlveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax systems in Latin America have played a very important role as the main, and in some cases the only, means of obtaining revenue to finance the major public expenditure that is necessary for the work of the states through time. Below is a short review of the main aspects of tax systems in the región, with emphasis on the impact of taxes on income in force in the majorLatin American countries, as well as a brief explanation of the network of agreements to avoid double taxation that are in force in each of them.

  16. Petroleum marketing in Africa. Issues in pricing, taxation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This four part book examines and compares the liberalised petroleum marketing in Kenya with petroleum marketing in Ethiopia which has just begun the transition from state control to liberalisation. The petroleum sub-sector in both countries is put into context, and petroleum pricing and taxation issues, financing, marketing issues and policy are reviewed, and policy recommendations for both countries are given. The comparative analysis of the Ethiopian and Kenyan situations presented highlights some lessons for sub-Saharan Africa. Information and statistics on petroleum, marketing, and investment in sub-Saharan Africa are given in the appendix. (UK)

  17. Centralized versus Decentralized Taxation of Mobile Polluting Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Georges A. Tanguay; Nicolas Marceau

    2000-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation. Nous é...

  18. TAXATION INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC STABILITY IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol IBADULA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the taxation system in Romania and European Union. The first part is concentrated on the theoretical and general aspects regarding the European fiscal policies with a focus on the conditions that member states should respect. Our research continues with the comparison between the share of indirect taxes and direct taxes at the EU level. We discovered that there are some fiscal connections between countries with similar economies. At the end, we emphasized the conclusions obtained with our article.

  19. Dividend Taxation and the Cost of New Share Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias; Södersten, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how the effects of dividend taxation on the cost of new equity funds depend on whether or not shareholders can recover their original equity injections without being subject to the dividend tax. We point out the alternative assumptions in the literature on this, and we compare two different tax regimes, one where it is impossible for the firm to pay cash to its shareholders that is not taxed as dividends, the other where the shareholders are allowed a tax-free return of th...

  20. Dividend taxation, share repurchases and the equity trap

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias; Södersten, Jan

    2009-01-01

      This paper reconsiders the effects of dividend taxation. Particular attention is paid to the form of the “equity trap”, that is, the extent to which cash paid to the shareholders must be taxed as dividends. Our analysis shows that Sinn’s (1991) criticism of the well-known King and Fullerton (1984) methodology for underestimating the cost of new share issues amounts to a misleading comparison across two different regimes for the equity trap. Contrary to Sinn, we find that when dividends are ...